Volume - 10 - Sept-Dec. 2019
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 721-725
Madinat Ul Nisa*1, I T Nazki1, K M Malik1, F A Khan2, S A Mir3, Imtiyaz Murtaza2, M A Sofi4, Divya Slathia1 and Rahat Ashraf Wani1
1Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, 2Division of Basic Sciences, 3Division of Agricultural Statistics, 4Division of Entomology, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Present investigation entitled “Impact of differential methods and time of pinching on vegetative characteristics of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) under Kashmir conditions” was conducted in a polyhouse located at Experimental Farm of the Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, during 2017 and 2018. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments replicated thrice. Two cultivars (Red King and Dark Dona) were subjected to first pinch at 20, 25 and 30 days after planting (DAP) followed by a pinch and a half thus amounting to 12 treatments in three replications. The results revealed that carnation cv. Red King with first pinch at 20 DAP resulted highest (4.42mm) diameter of side shoots, internodal length (3.80cm) of side shoots, length (21.00cm) of side shoots before second pinching and number of leaf pairs (9.600) of side shoots before second pinching. Results of the present investigation had led to the conclusion that treatment V1F1P1 (cv. Red King with first pinch at 20 DAP) recorded optimum vegetative characteristics.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 726-732
S Yazhini, G Sathiya Narayanan* and S Ranjith Rajaram
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The present investigation ‘effect of various seed enhancement treatments on seed yield and quality in ragi cv. TRY 1’ was carried out at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University Tamil Nadu. The seeds of ragi cv. TRY 1 were given with various pre sowing botanical seed enhancement treatments i.e. Pungam leaf extract @ 10%, Arappu leaf extract @ 10%, Vasambu rhizome extract @ 10%, Prosopis leaf extract @ 10%, Adathoda leaf extract @ 10%, Papaya leaf extract @ 10%, Moringa leaf extract @ 10%, Thulasi leaf extract @ 10%, Neem leaf extract @ 10% along with control. All the pre sowing treatment seeds were evaluated for the initial quality characteristics. The Moringa leaf extract @ 10% pre sowing treatment registered significantly higher values for initial seed qualities and lower EC. In field evaluation, Moringa leaf extract @ 10% pre sowing treatment seeds recorded higher growth, physiological and growth parameters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 733-740
Sarang Monga* and Baljinder Kaur Sidana
Department of Economics and Sociology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 027, Punjab, India
Abstract
Measurement of productivity growth is very essential to take appropriate policy decisions for the development of the agriculture sector. The present study measures total factor productivity growth of paddy and wheat in major producing states of India by using Malmquist Index approach of post reform Period-I & II using output and input data of paddy and wheat crops. The compound growth rate as well as trend analysis indicated that the area, production and productivity of rice and wheat crop had continuously increased over the time but at a very steady rate. The productivity analysis revealed that the TFP change had been positive for both paddy and wheat in the overall study period for major producing states of India. From period 1994 to 2016, the mean TFP change has been to the tune of 2.3 per cent for paddy and 4.2 per cent for wheat. The analysis has clearly indicated that it was technical change which contributed to TFP rather than efficiency change. The recent yield stagnation in paddy and wheat are not due to technology fatigue, but could be due to the improper use of inputs or due to less investment in research and extension on varietal improvement in these crops to enhance productivity in less productive states of India. The study calls for policy initiatives for strengthening investments on research and extension for promoting the TFP growth and steps for sustainable input intensification.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 741-746
S Yazhini, G Sathiya Narayanan* and M Prakash
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The present investigations were carried out at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to study on the effect of various seed enhancement treatments on seed yield and quality in ragi cv. TRY 1. The seeds of ragi cv. TRY 1 were given with various pre sowing organic seed treatments i.e. Cow urine @ 5%, Vermiwash extract @ 5%, Panchagavya extract @ 5%, Azospirillum extract @ 5%, Goat urine @ 5%, Phosphobacteria extract @ 5% along with control. All the pre sowing treatment seeds were evaluated for the initial quality characteristics. The Vermiwash extract @ 5% pre sowing treatment registered significantly higher values for initial seed qualities and lower electrical conductivity. In field evaluation, Vermiwash extract @ 5% pre sowing treatment seeds recorded higher growth, physiological and yield parameters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 747-750
P Venkatesh* and N Revathy
Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted to study the yield performance different strains of milky mushroom at the Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College and Research Institute Madurai. The strains of Calocybe indica viz. CI-1, CI-2, CI-3 and CI-4 were isolated from the dead woods of Cocos nucifera, Borassus flabellifer and Tamarindus indicus from different places of Tamil Nadu and Calocybe indica (var. APK-2) were obtained from TNAU, Madurai. Five strains viz. CI-1, CI-2, CI-3, CI-4 and (var. APK-2) were tested for the yield performance under Madurai conditions. Among these strain CI-3 recorded the minimum days for completion of spawn run 13 days, maximum diameter (13.6 cm) of pileus, highest stipe length (16.25 cm) and the maximum yield of 675.15 g/bed followed by APK-2. The lowest yield related parameter was observed in the strain CI-4.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 751-754
M Areef*1, V Srinivasa Rao1 and Y Radha2
1Department of Agricultural Economics, 2Department of Statistics and Computer Applications, College of Agriculture (ANGRAU), Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study is under taken to understand the growth, stability and direction of Indian onions exports to worldwide. Compound growth rate, Cuddy- Della Valle index and Markov chain analysis was worked out to find the growth rate, instability and growth transition of onion exports from India to all over the world for the period of 1991-92 to 2013-14. The results concluded that quantity of onion exported to Bangladesh growing at the rate of 16.58 per cent per annum but for Singapore onion exports decreases with 2.83 per cent per annum. Singapore was more instable onion importer with 17.87 per cent instability index value followed by Nepal with 16.17 per cent instability index value. Malaysia show more stability compare with Sri Lanka and Bangladesh to imports onions from India, the instability index value are 4.64 per cent, 6.68 per cent and 7.42 per cent respectively. Sri Lanka retained highest its original share extent of 68.27 per cent after Bangladesh and Singapore with share of 83.71 per cent and 74.55 per cent respectively. The future market shares of Indian onion to the major importing countries were projected up to 2019-20 using the transitional probability matrix, Bangladesh and Nepal show slightly decreasing trends same as for Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and other countries predicted values show increasing trend.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 755-764
Gousiya Begum and Srinivas Munjam*
Department of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, Warangal - 506 009, Telangana, India
Abstract
The aim of the investigation was to isolate, identify and screen pectinase producing fungi from vegetable waste dump yards of different regions of Warangal district of Telangana state. Fungal cultures were isolated from vegetable waste dumped soil using potato dextrose agar and sabourauds agar media. Purified fungal isolates were identified based on morphological, microscopic and molecular characteristics. Identified fungal isolates were screened for pectinase production. Fungal isolates showed pectinolytic activity as they produced zone of hydrolysis on pectin agar media. Production of pectinases was studied under submerged fermentation, pectin broth supplemented with 1% pectin at an optimal conditions of temperature 28°C, pH 5 and 16 days of incubation under shake culture conditions. Exopectinase and endopectinase activities were assayed using DNS method and viscometrical methods respectively. Enzyme activity was measured at an interval of 4 days. Quantitative estimation of proteins was also done by using Lowry’s method at 660 nm. Out of 30 fungal isolates isolated only two strains were found to be efficient in pectinolytic activity. These two strains were identified as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 765-767
J Swapna*, Seema and P Radhika
School of Agri Business Management, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashanker Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
In order to offset the growing demand for food grains either the area under the production should be increased or productivity of the existing land should be improved. The present study was conducted to find out the extent of adoption of agri input technologies and services in Nagarkurnool district of Telangana. The results indicated that majority of the sampled farmers (47%) of the farmers were in the age group of 31-40 years, more than half percentage (63%) of sampled farmers were small families (<5 members), the education status of sampled farmers majority were illiterates (40%) followed by (31.25%) were studied up to seventh class, more than half (56.25%) of the sample belongs to the category whose annual income ranged between 1-3 lakhs, distribution of land holding across different farm-size among the sample household 42 per cent had small farm size of 1-2 ha, for irrigation bore wells are major source (50%) for the sampled farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 768-771
G Chaitra*, K Amaresh Kumar and Sagar S Pujar
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga - 577 225, Karnataka
Abstract
Communication may be any form which should be evaluated in terms of effectiveness. For evaluating usefulness and effectiveness of printed material ‘Readability analysis’ and ‘readership survey’ are widely used methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the Readability and Readership of selected Kannada farm publications. To analyze readability of farm publications, in all the three Kannada farm publications viz. Kannada daily newspapers, Farm Magazines and Leaflets/folders published “Feature article” category was selected. Five samples were drawn from each of the three farm publications. The number of samples together selected from three farm publications were 15. Readership survey was undertaken from the reader farmers using pre structured interview schedule and analyzed using the suitable statistical tools. The study revealed that the articles published in newspaper could be read by the farmers who had an education level up to middle school. Whereas, the articles published in case of farm magazine could be read by the farmers who studied 8th standard of education. But in case of leaflets/folders the articles published could be read by farmers who had an education level up to 11th standard and above. The study also revealed that majority 59.17 per cent of the respondents read two newspapers and 38.33 per cent of the respondents were read single farm magazine. About 77.50 per cent of the farmers read and owned the information in the category of fruit crops.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 772-776
Kantheti Vysali*, P Rambabu1 and B Mukunda Rao2
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India 1Director of Extension, 2Professor (Polytechnics), O/o Dean of Agriculture, ANGRAU, Administrative Office, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh state during 2017-18. A total of 120 Bt cotton tenant farmers were selected randomly for the study. An ex-post facto research design was followed. Data was collected with interview schedule followed by personal interview method by selecting the independent variables. The detailed analysis of profile of the Bt cotton tenant farmers indicated that majority of the them were middle aged (55.00%), Functionally literate (27.50%), Land taken for lease of about 1.1 to 2.0 hectares (35.00%), 7 to 9 years of farming in Bt cotton (40.84%), 1 to 2 trainings received (50.00%), medium extension contact (52.50%), low social participation (40.00%), low annual income of ₹ 12,307 - 71,691 (60.83%), medium innovativeness (70.83%), medium economic motivation (64.17%), medium mass media exposure (47.50%), medium risk orientation (53.33%), medium market orientation (56.67%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 777-781
Dipankar Saikia*1, Pabitra K Das2 and Debashis Dash3
1Department of Extension Education, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa - 848 125, Samastipur, Bihar, India 2,3Department of Extension Education, Biswanath College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath Chariali - 784 176, Assam
Abstract
The study was carried out to find out the gap between the existing and desired motivational climate as perceived by the Subject Matter Specialists(SMSs) of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) under Assam Agricultural University (AAU). The study was conducted at the KVKs functioning under the administrative control of the Directorate of Extension Education, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam. The study revealed that a decrease in the climate motives of dependency and control was desired by the respondents over the existing. An augmentation in the climate strengths with respect to extension, affiliation and expert power climates was perceived by the SMSs as their existing strengths were lower than what was desired by them. In fact, extension climate was the one which had the maximum gap of 35.90 percent among all the climate motives. The extent of gaps in relation to affiliation and expert influence climates were almost similar, to the tune of 21.85 per cent and 17.39 per cent respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 782-788
R A Durgude*, V S Supe, U D Chavan1 and R S Wagh2
Department of Horticulture, 1Department of Food Science and Technology, 2Department of Botany, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted during the year 2014-15 at two locations in factorial randomized block design. The first experiment was carried out at village Durgapur for Ambiabahar and second experiment was carried out at village Rahuri factory for Mrigbahar. There were eight treatments in foliar application of chemicals (F) and six treatments in soil application of chemicals (T). Thus, total forty eight treatment combinations were replicated in two times. In Ambiabahar experiment, the maximum number of fruits per plant (81.50) were recorded in F¬4T3 which was statistically at par with F3T3 (81.00). In Mrigbahar experiment, the maximum number of fruits per plant (146.00) were recorded in F3T3 which was statistically at par with F4T3 (143.25). Significantly maximum yield per plant (22.13 kg) and (49.59 kg) was recorded in F3T3 in ambia and Mrigbahar experiment respectively. In both experiment, significantly maximum average weight of fruit was recorded in F3T6. The maximum T.S.S. (15.45°Brix) and (16.65°Brix) was recorded in F4T6 in ambia and Mrigbahar experiment, respectively. In Ambiabahar experiment, the minimum acidity (0.397%) was recorded in F3T3 which was statistically at par with F3T2, F3T4 and F2T3 (0.41%), while in Mrigbahar experiment significantly minimum acidity (0.346%) was recorded in F4T3.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 789-791
Sandeep Singh* and Bhagwant Singh Chahil1
Department of Fruit Science, Guru Kashi University, Talwandi Sabo - 151 302, Punjab, India
Abstract
Present investigations on the “Studies on stenting techniques in Plum (Prunus Salicina Lindl.)" were carried out on in the Fruit Research Farm of Agriculture college of Guru Kashi University, Talwandi Sabo during the year 2017-18. Long hardwood cuttings (15-20 cm) of plum rootstock Kala Amritsari were taken from 6 year old trees on December, 2017. These cuttings were tongue grafted with scions of Satluj Purple having 3-4 buds. After grafting, the 3/4 cm basal portion of the grafts were treated with different concentrations of IBA @ 100, 200 (24 hr soaking), 1000,1500, and 2000 ppm (2 minutes dip) and were planted in the field. The best date of planting for Sprouting was 22nd January, 2018 with the highest sprouting success (56.12%) and the highest success of unsuccessful stents after T-Budding (56.14%) during August,2018. Among the treatments grafts planted after 2000 ppm IBA had exhibited significantly higher sprouting success (75.75%) and the highest success of unsuccessful stents after T-Budding (75.41%) during August, 2018. The vegetative growth (plant height and number of leaves) of the grafts were also found to be higher in 2000 ppm and 1500 ppm IBA than other treatments. From the above facts in the plum stents of Kala Amritsari rootstock after treating with higher doses of IBA (2000, 1500 ppm) and can be inferred that planted during 3rd week of January, can be exploited commercially.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 792-796
Advait Bhagade
Department of Zoology, St. Francis De Sales College, Nagpur - 440 006, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The effects of bioaccumulation of the PAH (Polcyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon) Naphthalene and the PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) 126, both of which are constituents of pollutant substances, in four different tissues of freshwater fish Rasbora daniconius, were compared by bioassay techniques of analysis using GC-MS. PCB 126 was found to have a much higher degree of bioaccumulation in all tissues studied, as compared to Naphthalene.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 797-799
G Chaitra*, K Amaresh Kumar and Sagar S Pujar
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga - 577 225, Karnataka
Abstract
The present study was focused on the objective to know the problems of reader farmers of farm publications and their suggestions. The study was conducted in Dakshina Kannada and Dharwad districts of Karnataka. In these districts, the three farm publications namely newspapers, farm magazine and leaflet/folders were selected to know the problems of reader farmers and their suggestions. Primary data for the study were collected through a sample of 120 reader farmers in 8 villages in the study area. Simple random sampling procedure was used in collecting data. The study indicated that majority 80.83 per cent of the respondents expressed that “Sometimes information published was neither timely nor practical” as first highest problem followed by “articles are not related to average land holding farmers” (70.00%), “no information about cost-benefit ratio for new enterprises / technology / crops” (65.83%) and others. The probable reason for this was may be that the articles published in these different Kannada farm publications are not based on opinion of the farmers before it was published. The suggestions offered by the readers to improve standards of farm publications in Kannada, majority 94.16 per cent of them suggested Writing should be based on farmers experience which would help them in understand the information very easily as they feel it was real and close to their feelings.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 800-802
Kantheti Vysali*, P Rambabu1 and B Mukunda Rao2
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India 1Director of Extension, 2Professor (Polytechnics), O/o Dean of Agriculture, ANGRAU, Administrative Office, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in Andhra Pradesh state during 2017-18. A total of 120 Bt cotton tenant farmers were selected randomly for the study. Data was collected with interview schedule. 16.67 per cent of the Bt cotton tenant farmers had not borrowed credit from any source. The majority of the Bt cotton tenant farmers borrowed credit from Money Lenders, followed by neighbours/relatives/friends, Regional Rural Banks/Commercial Banks. It could be observed from that 45.00 per cent of the Bt cotton tenant farmers used their credit for Bt cotton cultivation purpose and more than half of the Bt cotton tenant farmers (55.00%) used their credit for non-agricultural purposes. It could be inferred that 62.50 per cent of the farmers have possessed soil health card, whereas, 37.50 per cent had not possessed soil health card. Constraints perceived by the Bt cotton tenant farmers in adopting soil health card recommendations were complex to understand the soil health card recommendations, followed by Less benefit by adoption, peers do not follow, inadequate follow-up by extension personnel, late distribution of soil health cards. Suggestions given by the Bt cotton tenant farmers in using soil health card recommendations were creating awareness among farmers, regular follow-up by extension personnel, organization of trainings, demonstrations, quick distribution of soil health cards.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 803-808
Abhijit Das
Department of Agricultural Economics, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa - 848 125, Bihar
Abstract
The study was carried out to study the socio-economic profile of small tea growers in Sonitpur district of Assam. The primary data were collected from 100 small tea growers (STG) drawn from 15 randomly selected villages of two randomly selected blocks of Sonitpur district of Assam. It was observed that the majority STG (65.00%) were in middle age group (30-40 years). 58.00 per cent of the sample STG had medium size of households (5-7 members). Huge proportion of sample STG were educated up to graduation level. Larger proportion of sample STG (35.00%) belonged to forward castes followed by OBC (28.00%), SC (19.00%) and ST (18.00%). Out of the total operational land holding 95.57 per cent of land was used for cultivation of tea, and only 4.43 per cent of land was used to produce other crops or kept fallow. Larger proportion of STG were dependent on tea cultivation for earning their livelihood. Major portion (61.38%) of annual income was obtained from tea cultivation. 57.00 per cent of the sample households had their annual income exceeding ₹ 10.00 lakh. Larger proportion of the sample respondents owned pucca houses.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 809-814
Kiran Rudramuni*, Bharath Kumar Neelaboina, Shivkumar, Mir Nisar Ahmad and Sukhen Roy Chowdhury
Silkworm Breeding and Genetics Section, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The silkworm, Bombyx mori is an important economic insect for its production of silk, aptly named as the queen of natural fibres. Silkworms are classified into Japanese, Chinese, European, Korean and tropical races based on their geographical origin. The difference in the adaptability of silkworms for different regions and seasons has been studied and documented in several studies. China and Japan have achieved remarkable breakthroughs in silk production by evolving highly productive silkworm races suited to the local conditions and agronomical practices. This review is an attempt to introduce the reader to mulberry sericulture in temperate and tropical regions, role of environment, performance of some popular silkworm breeds upon relocation, followed by details of authorized region and season specific silkworm breeds of China, Japan and India and special emphasis on scope for region and season specific silkworm breeds in temperate regions of Jammu and Kashmir.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 5 ; 815-824
S Angles* and K Mani1
Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Eachangkottai, Thanjavur - 614 902, Tamil Nadu, India 1Department of Agricultural Economics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
In spite of different hurdles, the agricultural marketing sector still plays dominant role in the Indian economy. There is need for integrated effort and regulations oriented towards the marginal and small holding farmers rather than general policies. In the present context of market oriented agriculture there is need of vibrant market information systems, new approaches in marketing such as, Group marketing, E-marketing, direct marketing, etc. The forward and futures market has the potential for national level market integration but it needs reforms to suit the Indian farmers. There is need of demand driven market for which a strong value chain approach is needed for the agricultural commodities. It is essential for a planned cropping pattern and timely market advisory for a stable market and less price volatility. For a sustainable farming there should be equitable income distribution for the farmers. Similar to Public Distribution System for safeguarding the consumers, there is need of an integrated system for safe guarding the interest of the farmers in marketing their produce for a faster and stable growth in agricultural sector.


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