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Volume - 11 - January-February 2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 01-09
Sadiya Samar* and Ashok Kumar
Department of Botany, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut - 250 004, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried at Botany Department, C.C.S University, Meerut through 2018-19 to observe the potential of Rhizobium and PSB on soil properties, growth, yield and nitrogen fixation efficiency of Lens culinaris L. (Pusa Ageti). These microbial inoculants were used individually and in dual inoculation. Physiological and biochemical analysis was observed. The results of this field experiment exhibit that the dual inoculated plant significantly increase (30-52%) the biomass, plant height, grain yield, plant nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, plant and seed protein content of the test crop and also improve the nutrient content of the soil. It can be concluded from the present findings that the dual inoculated (Rhizobium + PSB) show high yield and growth of crop whereas the single inoculants show better results in comparison to the control.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 10-14
P R Somashekharappa*1, T Sheshadri2 and H M Jayadeva2
1Agricultural Research Station (UAS GKVK), Arsikere, District Hassan - 573 103, Karnataka, India 2Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted to know the performance of maize in maize based cropping system as influenced by cropping systems and nutrient management practices at the Agricultural Research Station, Kathalagere, Channagiri Taluk, Davanagere district, Karnataka during both kharif and rabi season. Higher grain and stover yields of maize were recorded with maize + cowpea – groundnut system (57.61 and 84.70 kg ha-1, respectively) as compared to maize + Frenchbean – groundnut system. Application of 100% recommended NPK + poultry manure (Recommended FYM equivalent on N basis) recorded significantly higher grain and stover yields (64.52 and 91.94 q ha-1, respectively) followed by 100% recommended NPK + pressmud @ recommended FYM equivalent on N basis (62.00 and 88.53 q ha-1, respectively). Uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by maize (148.8, 37.58 and 134.66 kg ha-1, respectively) was significantly higher with the application of 100% recommended NPK + poultry manure (recommended FYM equivalent on N basis) as compared to other treatments except with the application of 100% recommended NPK + pressmud (recommended FYM equivalent on N basis).

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 15-24
B F Chakalabbi*, Sanmati Neregal and Sagar Matur
Department of Statistics, Karnatak University’s Karnatak Arts College, Dharwad - 580 001, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The government of India declared the demonetization of the currencies like ₹ 500 and ₹ 1000 notes having Mahatma Gandhi Series on 8 November 2016 instantly. This article has made an attempt to assess the impact of demonetization on payment system in India through an empirical study using card transaction data from July-2012 to November-2018. Time series intervention analysis has done through transfer function-noise models and Box-Jenkins methodology. The empirical study shows that demonetization has affected the payment system significantly.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 25-28
S Harish Kumar, Daya Ram*, M Deepa Devi and Kamlesh Kumar Goutam1
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India 1Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in the College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University Imphal Manipur during the year 2018-19. In College of Agriculture, Imphal a total number of 265 undergraduate students were enrolled which includes 85 students from 1st Year, 78 students from 2nd Year, 52 students from 3rd Year and 53 students from 4th Year. All of these enrolled undergraduate students from Imphal campus were selected purposively for the study. Out of 265 Undergraduate students, 120 students were selected based on proportionate random sampling for the present study. It was found out of twelve independent variables, only three variables, i.e. computer knowledge, family income and father's education were positive and has a significant relationship with the effect of internet utilization among undergraduate students. Among twelve variables, two variables, i.e. computer knowledge and family income were important variables predicting the effect of internet utilization among undergraduate students.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 29-31
Ajay Verma*, Ravish Chatrath and G P Singh
ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
Best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of wheat production had been studied to find out any genetic gain in wheat genotypes over the years in major wheat producing zone of the country. Multi environment trials under irrigated conditions of NWPZ from 2014-15 to 2017-18 had been utilized to produce BLUP’s of grain yield by factor analytic approach. Analysis of variance showed significant wheat production over the period and linear model observed to be best fit as explained by very high value of R2. The production figures elevated to the level of 69.9 q/ha. However, in 2014-15, average production was 59.9 q/ha. By the end of period, 3.4 quintal yield could be added in subsequent trial over the time period.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 32-34
Sevak Das* and S A Patel
Department of Agricultural Meteorology, C. P. College of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The weekly probability analysis of rainfall is an important statistical method for predicting the minimum assured rainfall which helps in crop planning and management. Weekly rainfall data from 1981-2018 (38 years) of S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar was analyzed using incomplete gamma probability model. The results revealed that, the dependable amount of rainfall at 50 percent probability would be received more than 15.0 mm from 26th to 39th SMW (25th June to 30th September). It indicates the length of growing period considering at 50 percent probability of rainfall. The coefficient of variation of weekly rainfall also indicated that dependable rainfall during the period irrespective of quantity of rainfall to be received. The amount of rainfall and duration would be sufficient to carryout crop planning and agricultural operations for short and medium duration kharif crops with support of irrigation.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 35-39
Nitin Babanrao Mehetre* and Narpat Singh
Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Om Prakash Jogender Singh University, Churu - 331 303, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The historical backdrop of mutations with early outcomes in soybean has been very much reported in the writing accessible. Change reproducing has been utilized as of late as a significant enhancement to different techniques for plant rearing in producing new fluctuation and improvement of crop assortments with new design, predominant biochemical constitution and appropriate development and formative rhythms. The utility of this technique is clear from the way that in a few crops prompted freaks have been discharged as new assortments. In this paper, endeavors have been made to survey the writing on actuated mutations in soybean. The distinctive mutagenic agents utilized for actuating mutations, impacts of various mutagenic agents on yield, quality contributing characters and protection from various sicknesses have been portrayed.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 40-46
Anjuly Sharma* and P S Tanwar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (GADVASU-Ludhiana), Handiaya, Barnala - 148 107, Punjab, India
Abstract
The importance of vegetables in providing balanced diet and nutritional security has been realized world over. Vegetables are now recognized as health food globally and play important role in overcoming micronutrient deficiencies and providing opportunities of higher farm income. The worldwide production of vegetables has tremendously gone up during the last two decades and the value of global trade in vegetables now exceeds that of cereals. Hence, more emphasis is being given in the developing countries like India to promote cultivation of vegetables. Punjab is a leading state in terms of production of vegetables. As transplanting operation is one of most labour intensive in vegetable production, so transplanting of vegetables was selected to assess the drudgery of farm women involved in vegetable sapling transplanting operation.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 47-52
K Ezhilarasan, G Sathiya Narayanan* and S Ranjith Rajaram
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigations were carried out at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University. The seeds of jack cv. Panruti local were given with various chemical seed enhancement treatments for 24 hours i.e. soaking in water, soaking in Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) @ 25 and 50 ppm, soaking in Gibberellic acid (GA3) @ 50 ppm and 100 ppm, soaking in Indole 3 butyric acid (IBA) @ 150 ppm and 300 ppm, soaking in Thiourea @ 100 ppm and 200 ppm, soaking in Potassium nitrate @ 1% and 2%, along with control. All the chemically enhanced seeds were evaluated for their various seedling quality characters. The GA3 @ 100 ppm soaked seeds registered significantly higher values for initial seedling qualities i.e. initiation of germination, germination percentage, days to 50% germination, number of internodes, length of internodes, plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf area, obsolute growth rate, shoot length, primary root length, secondary root length, root-shoot ratio, fresh and dry weight of shoot, fresh and dry weight of root, seedling vigour I and II.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 53-56
Arup Kumar Mishra* and Ranjana Bajpai
Department of Applied Geography, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack - 753 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
Kitchen gardens are an important feature of subsistence agricultural economies of the world, both in rural and urban settings. Tribal groups located in remote hilly tracts of India largely depend upon subsistence farming for their livelihoods. However, their mode of subsistence farming is gradually getting commercialized, leading to the marginalization of existing livelihoods. Against this backdrop, the concept of kitchen garden emerges as a measure of food security to these tribes. This study focuses on the importance of kitchen gardens among the Gadaba tribes of Odisha to obtain nutritional diversity and improve their livelihoods. It tries to explore the livelihood support system of the Gadabas like the nature of crops produced, nutritional diversity and challenges in respect of kitchen gardening faced by the Gadabas. Three Gram Panchayats were selected for the study on the basis of population concentration index. Random sampling method was applied to assess and understand the farming characteristics of the Gadabas. It was found that the crops produced in kitchen garden were consumed as well as sold in weekly markets for additional source of income. It was observed that the Gadabas gave priority to kitchen gardens for their livelihood in spite of some ecological and economic challenges like water scarcity, presence of hilly terrain, destruction by wild animals and low production.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 57-61
K A Archana, Mukesh Kumar* and P S Badal
Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was undertaken in Chintamanitaluk of Chikkaballapur district, Simple random sampling technique has been applied to select the farmers in Chintamanitaluk. Linear programming has been used to make an analysis and to develop an optimum crop plan. The farmers were categorized into marginal and small based on the operational holdings they possess. The study was conducted to know the existing cropping pattern and the bottle necks in the existing cropping pattern. The results revealed that in the existing cropping pattern farmers were growing paddy, ragi, redgram, groundnut, field bean , tomato, maize, and cotton. Farmers’ were following the diversified cropping pattern to avoid the risk loss and crop failures. But the optimum plan eliminated many of the crops in the existing plan and proposed to cultivate only the high value fetching crops in largest area and few crops in lesser area in order to meet consumption purposes. In this study an effort is made to cut down the cost of cultivation of crops by planning the resource use carefully and efficiently so that the net returns of the farmers gets maximized.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 62-67
Shivkumar*, N Bharath Kumar, Mir Nisar Ahmad and S Roy Chowdhury
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The present study was conducted to understand the potentiality and productivity of twenty silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) breeding lines and their three shortlisted hybrids to identify breeds and their hybrids suitable for autumn season under temperate climatic conditions of Jammu & Kashmir state. Based on the results obtained through multi-traits evaluation index (EI) in F7 generation, five breeding lines i.e. line-5, line-7, line-9, line-17 and line-18 with high potential and productivity were selected and by crossing the lines, i.e. line-5 × line-7, line-18 × line-9 and line-17 × line-9, three Autumn Specific Hybrids (ASH) namely ASH-1, ASH-2 and ASH-3 were developed. These three hybrids were incubated and reared as per the standard rearing procedure to understand their suitability during the autumn season. The rearing data was recorded for the targeted economic traits namely, Fecundity (No. of eggs per laying), hatchability (%), larval duration (days), cocoon yield by number and weight (kg) per 10,000 larvae brushed, single cocoon weight (g), single shell weight (g), shell ratio (%) and pupation (%). Results obtained revealed that all the three hybrids have shown higher potentiality by recording productivity of cocoon yield kg per 100 DFLs with 73.35 kg in ASH-2, 70.75 kg in ASH-1 and 70.10 kg in ASH-3 and shell ratio with 21.62%, 21.77% and 22.54% respectively. Moreover, traits differences were observed among the twenty breeding lines and their three hybrids in respect of potentiality and productivity during the autumn season. The results obtained through multiple trait EI clearly showed that out of three ASH hybrids, two hybrids have shown higher index values (more than 50) and influenced significantly on the expression of quantitative traits with high potential, greater productivity and have economically importance. Hence, the lines identified from the study can conveniently be utilized for developing higher potential and productive hybrids and also the hybrids developed i.e. ASH-2 and ASH-1 can be used for commercial exploitation at farmers level during the autumn season in temperate climatic condition of Jammu & Kashmir state.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 68-71
Sumita Pradhan*1 and Madhumita Mitra2
1Department of Floriculture, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Regional Research Station (Hill Zone), UBKV, Kalimpong - 734 301, West Bengal, India 2Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Faculty of Horticulture (BCKV), Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal
Abstract
The different levels of straight and soluble fertilizer significantly influenced the vegetative, flowering and yield parameters of Tagetes erecta cv. Siracole. Plants receiving 75% RDF + 4 sprays of soluble fertilizer exhibited supremacy in recording maximum plant height, branch count per plant, canopy spread, individual leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of the plant, crop growth rate and biomass duration. Colour development of the buds and days to full bloom after the buds showed flower colour was hastened in plants sprayed with 25% RDF + 2 sprays of soluble fertilizer. Maximum flower diameter and heavier flowers was recorded in plants receiving 75% RDF + 3 sprays of soluble fertilizer. The highest keeping quality of marigold flowers was recorded in treatment T4 (75% RDF along with 4 soluble fertilizer sprays) 75% RDF + 4 sprays of soluble fertilizer produced highest yield, maximum leaf chlorophyll and carotene content of flowers.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 72-75
Athira Prasad* and K P Shivaji
Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Tavanur - 679 573, Kerala, India
Abstract
Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most major fruit crop in the horticultural sector with excellent flavour and remarkable health benefits. Mechanization in the field of pineapple cultivation is in an emerging stage. Cutting energy requirement for harvesting pineapple is one of the vital information, which is essential for the design and development of its machinery. Hence, it is regarded to conduct a study to determine the cutting requirement of pineapple stem with the help of an impact test apparatus. The field experiments were conducted with respect to the period of ratoon of the crop and moisture content of the stem. The results shows that the maximum cutting energy of 18.10 J was observed (at node) during the first harvest and the minimum cutting energy of 2.83 J was observed (at internode) for the second ratoon crop. The cutting energy was linearly varying with moisture content. The cutting energy increased as the moisture content increased from 89 to 91%. Thereafter, increase in moisture content lead to a reduction in energy requirement of pineapple stem.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 76-82
Sri Krishna Sudheer Patoju, Challuri Babu* and Reshma Varghese
School of Rural Development, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Tuljapur - 413 601, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The study examines the challenges facing organic produce cultivation and marketing in India. The study aims to study the problems of organic produce marketing, challenges of organic vegetable farming and to develop appropriate strategies to promote organic farming in Mananthavady block, Wayanad (district), Kerala in India. The study has employed a mixed research method, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for the study. 60 organic farmers were chosen for understating the challenges which they were facing in the Mananthavady Block in Wayanad district of Kerala state in India. For collecting data, a well-designed schedule was used, focusing on organic farming challenges from production to marketing. The study found that the farmers are facing problems with the variety of suitable seeds, lack of agricultural extension services, increasing labour cost, the low intervention of mechanization, climatic condition, the absence of certification and lack of branding due to the expensive certification process and no support for organic produce. After understanding all the challenges, the study proposed EVM Model (Extension, Value Addition, and Marketing Model).

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 83-86
Nitin Babanrao Mehetre* and Narpat Singh
Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Om Prakash Jogender Singh University, Churu - 331 303, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The diversity of indigenous bradyrhizobia from soils gathered at 11 areas in the Philippines was explored utilizing PSB-SY2 neighbor hood soybean cultivar as the host plant. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) treatment for 16S rRNA, 16S-23S rRNA inside deciphered spacer (ITS) locale and rpoB housekeeping quality was performed principally to recognize the genetic variety among the 424 secludes gathered. At that point, arrangement investigation of 16S rRNA, ITS area and rpoB quality was performed for the delegate disengages. Lion's share of the disengages were characterized under Bradyrhizobium elkanii, B. diazoefficiens, B. japonicum, Bradyrhizobium sp., and few secludes were identified with B. yuanmingense. Genetic varieties saw through PCR-RFLP and grouping investigations of the ITS district and rpoB quality for the most part happened in B. elkanii, recommending an event of quality exchange. Shannon's diversity list demonstrated changed outcomes with a most minimal score of 0.00 and most noteworthy at 0.98 showing an exceptionally various populace of bradyrhizobia the nation over. Among every one of the factors considered in this work, soil the board, for example, time of flooding and some dirt properties gave significant effect on the dissemination and diversity of soybean bradyrhizobia in the nation. In this manner, it is recommended that the major small scale symbiont of soybean in the Philippines are B. elkanii for non-overflowed soils, at that point B. diazoefficiens and B. japonicum for overflowed soils.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 87-91
Shivkumar*, N Bharath Kumar1, Ravindra M A2, Mir Nisar Ahmad and S Roy Chowdhury
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu & Kashmir 1Silkworm Breeding and Genetics Laboratory, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu & Kashmir 2Soil Science and Chemistry, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Srirampura, Mysuru - 570 008, Karnataka
Abstract
Fortification is a recent technique in advanced sericulture research and development industry to enhance the cocoon yield and silk content through supplement of amino acids on mulberry leaf. The amino acid plays an important role in the growth, development and production of silk by the silkworm Bombyx mori. As per reports, the mulberry leaf during autumn season under Kashmir climatic condition is nutritionally poor. Silkworm rearers in Kashmir Valley mostly do rearing during favourable spring season (May-June) only and lesser number of rearers goes for second rearing during autumn season (August-September). The lesser number of rearers go for autumn rearing in the region is mainly due to less productivity and poor quality cocoon crops. To overcome the problem, the present study was undertaken to study the efficacy of fortification of some amino acids (Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic acid and Glutamic acid) on mulberry leaf and feeding the late instars (4th & 5th) of CSR double hybrid silkworm (CSR2 × CSR27) × (CS62 × CSR26) were used in the study. The results showed, the amino acids treated mulberry leaf fed silkworm larvae shows significantly higher in terms of body weight, cocoon weight, shell weight and yield/100 DFLs (kg) when compared with control. It is also found that silk filament length (m) significantly increased in amino acid treated when compared with control. The result indicates that fortification of mulberry leaf with amino acids influence the cocoon yield and silk productivity under field conditions of temperate climate of Jammu and Kashmir.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 92-95
Anjuly Sharma, Prahlad Singh Tanwar and Suryendra Singh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (GADVASU-Ludhiana), Handiaya, Barnala - 148 107, Punjab, India
Abstract
The women business owner may also differ according to location; culture, ethnic, background, economic policies and other such influential factors but the challenges for them remain essentially the same. Entrepreneurship does not emerge and grow spontaneously; rather it is dependent on several combinations of personal social and economic factors that vary from individual to individual, place to place, time to time. These factors may have positive or negative influences on the growth of entrepreneurship, where in positive factor influences will promote the growth, the negative factors will work as inhibitors.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 96-98
V A Jesma*1 and S Vivek2
1Department of Agricultural Statistics, 2Department of Agricultural Extension, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out using split plot technique in secondary data obtained from All India Coordinated Research Project on Long-Term Fertilizer Experiments (AICRP-LTFE) in rice from 1998-2017. The minute changes due to time variable were studied by splitting the whole period of study into three sub periods. It was found that in kharif season the treatments, years and their interaction effects were significant in all the three periods. During rabi season, the treatments and year interaction was absent for the first period.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 99-104
K Ezhilarasan and G Sathiya Narayanan*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Jackfruit is one of the important fruits belonging to the family Moraceae and to the genus Artocarpus. It’s contributed significantly to the nutrition as a source of carbohydrates, minerals and β-carotene. Jackfruit seeds are consider being recalcitrant, and cannot survive more than few days or weeks in storage at ambient temperature. Realizing the importance of raising jackfruit seedling, for quick germination of seeds and subsequent growth of seedling the pre-soaking treatment of seeds with organic treatments have been taken under the present experiment. The present investigations were carried out at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University. The seeds of jack cv. Panruti local were given with various organic seed enhancement treatments for 12 hours i.e. soaking in Adathoda leaf extract @ 5%, soaking in Prosophis leaf extract @ 5%, soaking in Pungam leaf extract @ 5%, soaking in Vermiwash @ 5%, soaking in Papaya leaf extract @ 5%, soaking in Tulsi leaf extract @ 5%, soaking in Cow urine @ 10%, soaking in Goat urine @ 10%, soaking in Azospirillum @ 10% and soaking in Phosphobacteria @ 10%, alongwith control. All the organic enhanced seeds were evaluated for their seedling quality characters. The Prosophis leaf extract @ 5% for 12 hours soaked jack seeds registered significantly higher values for their seedling qualities i.e. initiation of germination, germination percentage, days to 50% germination, number of internodes, length of internodes, plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, leaf length, leaf breadth, leaf area, absolute growth rate, shoot length, primary root length, secondary root length, root-shoot ratio, fresh and dry weight of shoot, fresh and dry weight of root, seedling vigour I and II.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 105-109
P Saravanan*1, A Karthikeyan1, B Padmanaban2 and A Nagasathiya3
1Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, Government Arts College (Autonomous) (Bharathidasan University), Karur - 639 005, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Plant Protection, ICAR- National Research Centre for Banana, Tiruchirappalli - 620 102, Tamil Nadu, India 3Department of Zoology, Government Arts College for Women (Bharathidasan University), Pudukottai - 622 001, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The research study was carried out to screen the Bt cotton hybrids against mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense Distant and to estimate the yield losses due to the same pest in Perambalur district of TamilNadu during the year 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. Totally 10 BG II Bt cotton hybrids comprising Cry 1Ac and Cry 2Ab duel genes were selected for the study. The data on the population of mirid bugs and seed cotton yield (kg/ha) were recorded in protected and unprotected plots separately in both the seasons. Among the different Bt hybrids evaluated, KCH-15 K 39 BG II Bt cotton hybrid recorded significantly lowest mirid bug population (8.53 and 8.84 bugs/plant), highest seed cotton yield (2495 and 2386 kg/ha), lowest per cent yield loss (9.74% and 8.13%) in protected plots during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 respectively. While in the meantime, the maximum mirid bug population (11.63 and 12.58 bugs/plant), moderate seed cotton yield (2118 and 2088 kg/ha) were recorded in protected plots of MRC 7918 BG II Bt cotton hybrid during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 respectively when compared to other BG II Bt hybrids. Similar to the population and seed cotton yield, highest yield loss of 510 & 582 kg/ha and highest per cent yield loss of 24.08% and 27.87% were noticed in MRC 7918 BG II Bt cotton during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 season respectively. This study concluded that seed cotton yield of Bt cotton hybrids was not only depending upon the particular sucking pest, it was also depending upon the climatic factors, characters of the hybrid etc.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 110-114
K Nagaraju and M Raghu Ram*
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur - 522 510, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
L-glutaminase, is gaining importance on account of its potential anti-cancer activity. L-glutaminase producing Bacillus subtilis was isolated from Pulichinthala forest soil. An incubation period of 3 days with pH 7.0, at temperature 400C and maltose, yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources were found to be best for maximum enzyme production by B.subtilis. Enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, membrane dialysis, SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of L-glutaminase was estimated around 28kDa and 65kDa.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 115-119
R Silpa*1, Sarah T George1, P Anitha1, T Pradeepkumar1, Sujatha V S2, Dijee Bastian3, Berin Pathrose4 and Laly John C5
1Department of Vegetable Science, 2Department of Plantation Crops and Spices, 3Department of Seed Science and Technology, 4Department of Agricultural Entomology, 5Department of Agricultural Statistics, Kerala Agriculture University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Fifty three oriental pickling melon accessions (Cucumis melo var. conomon) were evaluated for variability, heritability and genetic divergence. GCV and PCV were highest for yield per plant (61.92, 64.59) followed by node of first female flower (26.32,36.10), vine length (129.29, 135.44), number of seeds per fruit (136.93, 162.66) and number of fruits per plant (64.05, 65.67), days to last harvest (129.01, 131.88) and percentage of fruit fly infestation (119.10, 126.71). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was noted for vine length (91.14, 247.53), days to first harvest (92.52, 16.09), marketable yield per plant (90.41, 7.08), days to fruit fly infestation after anthesis (82.28, 57.07), percentage of fruit fly infestation (88.35, 58..63) and yield per plant (91.87, 24.60). Cluster analysis indicated that the accessions from cluster VI and V had the highest inter cluster distance (649.02) and were expected to provide high heterosis in progeny and to show wide variability in genetic architecture.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 120-123
K Elango* and S Jeyarajan Nelson
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Rugose spiralling whitefly (RSW) is a new invasive pest and also polyphagous in nature. It mainly infests coconut palms and other broad-leaved hosts in its native range. The Field survey was undertaken from August 2017 to February 2019 in major coconut growing districts of Tamil Nadu viz. Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Erode, Theni, Pudukottai and Kanyakumari to study about the alternative host ranges and how the effect of host plants in the behaviour of rugose spiralling whitefly. The observation showed that A. rugioperculatus was found in twenty host plants in Tamil Nadu. Among the host plants eight hosts including coconut and banana could support all the life stages of whitefly and another twelve host plants only the egg stage of rugose spiralling whitefly was observed. Among the host plants. Number of eggs per spiral showed greater variations in different host plants. C. nucifera (28.5 eggs per spiral) recorded the maximum number of eggs laid per female followed by P. guajava (27.8 eggs per spiral) and A. squamosa (26.9 eggs per spiral). The adult emergence of A. rugioperculatus ranged from 88.4 to 98.2 per cent in different host plants. Guava recorded the maximum emergence of females (78.69%) followed by Coconut (68.18%). The sex ratio (female: male) was 1: 086 on custard apple followed by tapioca (1:0.75). Totally 9 species of predators viz. coccinellid, chrysopid, Cybocephalid, formicid and one aphelinid parasitoid were recorded during the survey from different host plants.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 124-127
A S Sonavane*
Department of Botany, Shardabai Pawar Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Shardanagar, Baramati, Pune - 413 115, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In the present experiment the seeds of two cultivars/varieties of winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.] namely II- EC-178313 and 2I-EC-38825 were used to study mutagenic sensitivity. The seeds of both the cultivars were treated with different concentrations of chemical mutagenic agents such as Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS) and Sodium Azide (SA) separately. In the present investigation, attempts were made to find out mutagenic sensitivity in winged bean through important biological parameters such as percent germination, pollen sterility and survival of plant at maturity in M1 generation. The two parameters i.e. percent germination and survival of plants at maturity gradually decreases from lower concentration to higher concentrations of EMS and SA in both the cultivars, while pollen sterility is increased with increasing concentration of both the mutagen.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 128-132
Shri Rakesh*, R C Bairwa and S P Singh
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner - 334 006, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Farm, College of Agriculture, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner during Kharif 2017 on loamy sand soil. Study was carried out to determine the Response of different sowing dates on growth, yield attributes and yields of different Sesame varieties. The experiment comprising total 16 treatment combinations; four date of sowing (10 July, 20 July 30 July and 09 August) and four varieties (RT-125, RT- 46, RT- 127 and RT- 346) in split plot design with three replications. The results revealed that crop sown on 10 July recorded significantly higher growth attributing characters viz. plant height (15.38 and 138 cm at 25 DAS and harvest), dry matter accumulation (0.41, 3.73, 14.57 g/plant at 25, 75 DAS and harvest), crop growth rate (0.540, 4.438, 7.326 g/m2/day at 0 - 25, 25 - 50 DAS and 50 DAS -harvest), relative growth rate (0.581&1.143 mg/g/day at 25 - 50 DAS and 50 DAS –harvest), number of branches/plant (3.82), days to flowering (44.50), days to maturity (84) and yield attributing characters viz. number of capsules/plant (41.23), number of seeds/capsule (33.04), test weight (2.83g), seed yield (810 kg/ha), straw yield (2444 kg/ha), biological yield (3242 kg/ha) and harvest index (25.12%) as compared to 20 July 30 July and 09 August. In case of varieties, variety RT- 127 recorded higher RGR (0.484 and 0.892 mg/g/day at 25 - 50 DAS and 50 DAS –harvest) and seed yield (616 kg/ha) and harvest index (23.96%) by RT- 125.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 133-136
S Thangeswari*1, A Karthikeyan2 and H P Maheswarappa3
1Oilseeds Research Station (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University), Tindivanam - 604 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2Coconut Research Station (AICRP on Palms), TNAU, Veppankulam - 614 906, Tamil Nadu, India 3ICAR-Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod - 671 124, Kerala, India
Abstract
Basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma lucidum (Leys.) Karst is a lethal disease affecting coconut production in major growing states of India. The inhibitory effect of eight fungicides at 100, 250 and 500 ppm concentrations on the growth of Ganoderma lucidum, causing basal stem rot disease on coconut under in vitro condition was evaluated by poisoned food technique. Among the 8 fungicides tested, Mancozeb 50% + Carbendazim 25% WS, Zineb 68% + Hexaconazole 4% WP and Pyraclostrobin + Fluxapyroxad 250 SC were found superior recording 100 per cent inhibition of Ganoderma lucidum at all the concentrations tested and showed superior over the other fungicides tested under in vitro. Antagonistic potential of twelve biocontrol agents tested by dual culture technique revealed that the PGPR isolates FPC1 of fluorescent pseudomonads and BsC2 of Bacillus spp. exerted maximum mycelial inhibition of growth with 56.18 and 75.68 per cent inhibition over control respectively. Isolate TV1 of Trichoderma spp. had completely inhibit the mycelial growth of Ganoderma lucidum by recording maximum inhibition of 100%.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 137-143
K C Gummagolmath*, R S Bhawar, S B Ramya Lakshmi and Priyanka Patra
National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The present study on impact of crop diversification was conducted in the state of Himachal Pradesh considering various parameters like socio-economic conditions of farmers, change in cost cultivation, change in income and self-sufficiency of the farmers. Both, primary data and secondary data were used for the study. The study revealed that after the implementation of the project, area under vegetables cultivation increased by 232 per cent and 328 per cent in rabi and kharif season, respectively. Whereas area under paddy, wheat, maize and barley declined by 16.28 per cent, 23.05 per cent, 22.70 per cent and 76.89 per cent, respectively. After the intervention of the project, the crop diversification index increased from 0.48 to 0.62 on the scale. Yield performances of vegetable crops has been impressive with 100 to 150 per cent increase in both rabi and kharif seasons before and after implementation project. Of the total respondents, 73.62 per cent, 74.08 per cent and 63.76 per cent of have attained self-sufficiency in production of vegetables, milk and food grain production. About 77.06 per cent of the respondents opined that their annual income has increased due to diversification. Crop diversification has great potential in improving yield, reducing the cost of cultivation and finally increase the net income realized by the farmers.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 144-149
Pritty S Babu*, M C Sarathjith and K P Sudheer
Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Malappuram - 679 573, Kerala, India ICAR-National Fellow, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Rapid and reliable assessment quality of fresh tender jackfruit is inevitable for food industries involved in its value addition. It is difficult to achieve with conventional methods as they are time consuming, laborious and expensive. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been identified as a promising solution to this problem. The NIRS operates in visible (VIS; 401-700 nm), near-infrared (NIR; 701-1000 nm), shortwave-infrared (SWIR; 1001-2450 nm) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Conventionally in NIRS, quality attribute and spectral information in the entire wavelength range (VIS-NIR-SWIR) after necessary pre-processing are related (calibration function). However, it is logical to discard irrelevant wavelength regions to develop more accurate and parsimonious calibration functions. This study examined partial least square regression based calibration functions developed using different combinations of spectral pre-processing and wavelength regions. Accuracy of calibration functions was judged in terms of residual prediction deviation (RPD). Akaike’s Information Criteria was used to select the best wavelength range and pre-processing combination. The calibration function based on NIR-SWIR wavelength range and R-SDpre-processing yielded better results for all the attributes examined namely, pH (RPD=1.90), titrable acidity (RPD=3.68), firmness (RPD=1.91) and toughness (RPD=2.01). Hence, this combination may be advocated for improved NIRS based quality assessment of fresh tender jackfruit.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 150-152
G B Dave*1 and M C Limbachiya2
1P/G Centre in Chemistry, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Pilvai - 382 855, District Mehsana, Gujarat, India 2R. R. Mehta College of Science and C. L. Parikh College of Commerce, Palanpur, India
Abstract
Irrigation of crops is an essential input for attaining high yields, but the quality of the irrigation water is also equally critical for long term achievable production goals. Poor quality water, if used for a long time will make the soil less productive or even barren depending on the amount and type texture of soil. Low or marginally saline water sometimes appears to stimulate crop growth because of the nutrient ions present. However, the excess of soluble salts in water leads to their accumulation in the surface particularly in heavy textured or in poorly drained soils. Many areas of country are facing a serious problem of not only scarcity of water but also critical poor quality of irrigation water. Tube-well and on well generally pose such problems more than surface water.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 153-156
Amardeep Sharma, R R Mishra and Nasim Ahmad*
Department of Agricultural Economics, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa - 848 125, Bihar, India
Abstract
Makhana is one of the prominent economic herbs grown in north Bihar. It is grown in stagnant perennial water bodies like ponds, land depressions and ditches etc. Darbhanga and Madhubani districts are well known for Makhana cultivation. Total area under Makhana cultivation in India is about 15000 hectares. It yields 120000 MT of Makhana seeds which after processing yields 40,000 MT of Makhana pop. The estimated value of the production at farmers end is ₹ 250 crore and it generates revenue of ₹ 550 crore at trader’s level. Recognizing its economic importance ICAR set up a regional Centre to conduct research on various aspects of Makhana in Darbangha districts of Bihar under the administrative control of ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region. The present study was conducted to identify the constraints faced by Makhana growers in production, processing and marketing of Makhana. Garrett ranking technique was applied to prioritize the constraints as perceived by the Makhana growers in the study area. Findings revealed that no ownership of land, inadequate number of skilled worker and lack of improved package of practices were the important constraints in the opinion of sample Makhana growers of the study area. Similarly, lack of skilled labour and unavailability of popping machine were some important constraints in processing of Makhana. It was further revealed that lack of storage facilities, high price fluctuation and non- fixation of minimum support price (MSP) in case of Makhana were some important problems in marketing for sample farmers in the study area.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 157-162
Impact of Scientist Farmers Participatory Seed Production Programme (SFPP) on Socio-economic Status of Farmers in Cauvery Command Area
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The socio-economic status of farmers in Cauvery command area involved in scientist farmer’s participatory seed production programme of paddy (SFPP) is assessed by comparing participatory paddy seed cultivators with paddy cultivators in the Cauvery command area. The factors influencing farmers to involve in participatory seed production programme are analyzed. Average income of SFPP farmers were 32 per cent higher over the paddy farmers. The paddy farmers are exposed to the vagaries of output and input prices. However, despite these factors, SFPP farmers achieved better incomes as the scientists played a crucial role in augmenting the farm profitability from paddy seed production accounting for all costs of production realizing better prices. These enabled the SFPP farmers to cover their total costs resulting in better socio-economic status.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 163-166
R B Karnawar1, G B Zore*1, S R Kunkalikar2 and B R Char2
1Research Laboratory 1, DST-FIST and UGC-SAP DRS1 Sponsored School of Life Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded - 431 606, Maharashtra, India 2Mahyco Research Centre, Aurangabad-Jalna Road, Dawalwadi, Jalna - 431 203, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), belonging to family Solanaceae is an important vegetable crop grown and consumed in India. Various varieties and hybrids of eggplant differing in their color, shape, sizes and taste have been widely cultivated in India. The current study was aimed to evaluate the alteration in phytochemical components in response to Carlavirus infection. For this the methanolic extract of virus infected and non infected eggplant leaf samples were analyzed using single quadrapole GCMS system. Generated target component library (TCL) file was used for phytochemical analysis of eggplant. Results demonstrated noticeable major phytocomponents Neophytadiene, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- and Allyl-2-[(tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl) oxy] benzene, in healthy eggplant. However in virus infected eggplant the major phytocomponents (3R,4R,5S)-4-Ethynyl-2-methyl-5-[N-(2,4,6-tri-methylphenylsulfonyl) amono]-6-phenylhexan-3-ol, N,N-Di-benzyl-2-amino-ethanal, 6-Octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, propanoate, Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, Bicyclo[4.3.1]dec-1(9)-ene and 1-(4-(4-Bromophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)2-cyclohexylidenehydrazine were observed. Hexadecanoic acid peak area was decreased in virus infected leaf as compare to healthy sample.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 167-170
S Thangeswari*1, A Karthikeyan2 and H P Maheswarappa3
1Oilseeds Research Station (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University), Tindivanam - 604 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2Coconut Research Station (AICRP on Palms), TNAU, Veppankulam - 614 906, Tamil Nadu, India 3ICAR-Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod - 671 124, Kerala, India
Abstract
Among the various factors causing considerable loss in production of coconut in the southern parts of India, basal stem rot (BSR) caused by the species of Ganoderma is one of the most devastating disease of numerous perennial and palmaceous hosts. The present investigation was taken up to develop an integrated management practices to reduce and spread of the BSR disease. The field trial on the integrated management of BSR disease in coconut was initiated during August, 2014 at two different villages viz. sanakkarai and Coconut Research Station (CRS), Veppankulam of Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu to standardize the dosage, frequency and method of application of effective biocontrol agents along with neem cake and fungicide (Hexaconazole). The results revealed that the soil application of talc based formulation of 125g each of Trichoderma reesei and Pseudomonas fluorescens + 5 kg of neem cake per palm at yearly interval was the most effective in containing the disease by registering only 5.90 and 7.08 per cent increase in disease incidence as against 26.79 and 27.05 per cent in control at sanakkarai and CRS, Veppankulam respectively and also increased nut yield of coconut.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 171-175
Ashima Muyal*1 and Gyanendra Sharma2
1Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agriculture Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Department of Agricultural Communication, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145 (U. S. Nagar), Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The concept of participatory video is based on the concept of participation in development. The attribute ‘participatory’ with video refers to the idea that people should not only be receivers but also the active producers of the messages. This has to be seen in contrast to mass media like television or newspapers where people are normally only receivers of messages. According to Shaw and Robertson (1997) participatory video can be a powerful aid in the cultivation and realization of people’s abilities and potential. Research work on ‘Designing participatory video based messages with mushroom growers of Chhattarpur village of Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand’ to find out various steps involved in designing participatory video. Through a pilot study, the researcher found that many trainees who adopted mushroom production as a venture after the completion of training program revealed lack of information on various aspect of mushroom cultivation practice. The reason that we have decided to work on this research problem is that, participatory video methodology has been utilized for empowering communities through several cases. Thus, keeping this in view, the present study was taken up with the main objective of designing a participatory video through the participation of mushroom growers of Chhattarpur village of Udham Singh Nagar.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 176-182
S Suganthi and M Prakash*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Genetic and Graphical analysis was performed in 6sesame genotypes crossed in a full diallel manner. The analysis revealed over-dominance for most of the traits under study. The correlation between parental mean (Yr) and parental order of dominance (Vr+Wr) was positive for days to 50 percent flowering, plant height at maturity and number of branches per plant indicating the involvement of recessive genes for increased performance of these traits. Dominant genes were involved in maximizing number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight, seed yield per plant and oil content. CO1 had maximum concentration of dominant alleles for days to 50 percent flowering, number of branches per plant, number of seeds per capsules, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. For plant height at maturity and oil content parent TMV 6 had maximum concentration of dominant alleles. Use of such superior cultivars with greater proportions of dominant alleles can be focused focus for development of hybrids in sesame breeding programme. Thus hybridizing parent CO1 and TMV 6 with other lines are suggested to yield superior crosses. Hayman’s genetic ratios also confirmed the major contribution of non-additive component in governing traits.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 183-186
P Arunachalam*, R Lalitha, S Banumathy and R P Gnanamalar
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU) Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The development of very-early maturing rice of 90 days maturity helps the farmers to raise first season rice crop during late onset of monsoon or/and delayed release of water from reservoir. The recombination and selection approach was followed by crossing very-early maturing rice genotypes with eight improved rice varieties of different duration. The maturity of F1 crosses were mostly falls mid-value of parents. The crosses involving Jaldi Dhan 6 and Dhala Heera as one of the parents were recorded very early maturity ranged from 87 to 90 days. Among 32 crosses, nine crosses recorded less than 100 days maturity were forwarded to F2 generation. In F2, five segregating population thrown out individuals of 90 to 98 days maturity were mostly from MDU 6 x Jaldi Dhan 6, TKM 6 x Jaldi Dhan 6 and CO 51 x Jaldi Dhan 6 crosses. On further advancement 21 early maturing families were isolated in F4 generation with the maturity of 97 to 103 days duration and single plant yield of 16.0 to 20.8 g. However, six promising genotypes were isolated with the maturity range of 95 to 100 days and advanced to further evaluation. The very early maturity realized in F1 crosses could not able to fixed in advanced generations, which might be due to involvement of non-additive gene action.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 187-192
Noor-E-Mujjassim*1, S D Nehru2, S Ramesh1 and M Mallik3
1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 2AICRP on Sunflower, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India 3Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out during Rabi-Summer 2014-15 at the experimental plots of Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru. Correlation and path analysis of yield and yield component traits were studied. Phenotypic correlation coefficient depicted seed yield per plant had significant positive correlation with plant height and number of pods per plant in crosses A-1 × JG 315, A-1 × HC 5, JG 11 × JG 24, JAKI 9218 × HC 5 and for number of primary branches in crosses A-1 × JG 315, A-1 × HC 5, JG 11 × JG 24. Seed yield per plant had significant positive correlation with 100 seed weight in crosses A-1 × HC 5 and JG 11 × JG 24. Path coefficient analysis for seed yield per plant revealed maximum direct effect for number of pods per plant, number of primary branches, and 100 seed weight in the respected crosses. The traits number of pods per plant and plant height manifested maximum indirect effect towards seed yield per plant. Hence main emphasis should be given on these traits viz. number of pods per plant, number of primary branches, and 100 seed weight and plant height while selecting for high seed yield.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 193-196
Naresh Kumar*, R C Bairwa, S P Singh and Shri Rakesh
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner - 334 006, Rajasthan
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2015 to evaluate nutrient uptake, indices and economics on Pearl millet + Mungbean intercropping systems in arid region of Rajasthan. The experiment comprises twelve treatments viz. Sole HHB-67, Sole RHB-177, Sole RMG-62, Sole SML-668, HHB-67 + RMG-62 (1:1), HHB-67 + RMG-62 (1:2), HHB-67 + SML-668 (1:1), HHB-67 + SML-668 (1:2), RHB-177 + RMG-62 (1:1), RHB-177 + RMG-62 (1:2), RHB-177 + SML-668 (1:1), RHB-177 + SML-668 (1:2) were laid out in randomized block design with four replications. The results showed that Sole pearl millet RHB-177 and sole mungbean SML-668 recorded higher total nitrogen and phosphorus uptake. Among intercropping treatments RHB-177 + SML-668 in row ratio 1:1 of pearl millet and RHB-177 + SML-668 row ratio 1:2 of mungbean recorded significantly higher total nitrogen and phosphorus uptake. Among intercropping treatments, significantly higher PMEY was recorded in RHB-177 + SML-668 in row ratio 1:2 and LER was recorded in HHB-67 + RMG-62 in row ratio 1:2. While economic point of view sole SML-668 had significantly higher net return and B:C among all treatments while in intercropping RHB-177 + SML-668 in row ratio 1:2 had maximum net return and B:C ratio.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 197-202
Minakshi Kumari*, Vijay Bahadur and V M Prasad
Department of Horticulture, Sam Hingginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The investigation entitled effect of osmotic dehydration on quality and shelf-life of dehydrated guava slices was conducted in Post Harvest Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, SHIATS, Allahabad during the month of January to April in 2013. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design with 16 treatments and 3 replications. The variety of guava was Allahabad Safeda. The samples were subjected to pre-treatments i.e. blanching with 0.5% KMS/0.5%, ascorbic acid/1% citric acid for 3 minutes followed by dipping in 60°/70°Brix sucrose/30°/40° honey for 12 hours. The experimental result was found significant and it may be concluded that T6 (Blanching in 0.5% KMS followed by dipping in 70°Brix sucrose) gave the best result in total soluble solids (23.53°Brix), acidity (0.34%), non-reducing sugar (5.82%) and also excellent in organoleptic quality while T3 (Dipping in 30°Brix honey without blanching) emerged as best treatment in terms of highest benefit cost ratio (1.85).

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 203-208
E Gayathri*, K Sita Devi, C Prabakar and T Ponnarasi
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agricultural labourers constitute the vital input in the agricultural production and they are migrating to different parts of the country for earning their livelihood. Migration can have a direct impact on the livelihoods of the rural poor households. Migration is one of the actions taken by the rural household to fight against poverty. Rural-urban migration is the leading migration stream among the people in India. The rural dwellers move from rural areas to the cities in search of social and economic opportunities to make a better life and improve on their living standard. With this background, this study has been carried out to analyze the impact of migration on the socio-economic conditions of rural households; to study the pattern of migration in rural areas and to empirically determine the key correlates of rural migration in the study area and to examine the factors responsible for migration of households. Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu was purposively selected for the present study and a multistage stratified random sampling procedure was adopted. This study utilized a logistic regression model to empirically quantify the relative influence of various factors on the decision of the respondent to migrate and factor analysis was done using the varimax rotation to determine the number and nature of factors underlying the dependent variable, migration. The study revealed that the migration had an impact on the livelihood diversification pattern and in turn on the socio-economic conditions of the rural poor. They could diversify their activities mainly due to migration.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 209-214
C Vara Prasad* and K Pradhan
Department of Agricultural Extension, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Cooch Behar - 736 165, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present study was conceptualized and conducted to assess the attitude of farmers towards ICT usage for sustainable agriculture in two northern districts of West Bengal viz. Cooch Behar and Alipurduar districts. One hundred and twenty farmers were interviewed through a pre-tested structured interview schedule developed to measure the attitude with the help of a self-developed scale for this study. The behavioural component namely attitude towards ICT usage of the farmers was considered as the predicted variable and nineteen other attributes were considered as the independent variables for the study. The data collected was processed with the help of statistical tools like frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient. The overall attitude of farmers towards ICT tools has shown that the majority of the farmers (45.8%) were belonging to the category of less favourable, followed by 36.7 per cent of the farmers shown most favourable attitude towards ICT tools and 17.5 per cent were found to be in favourable category. The results showed that the variables age, experience, family size, annual expenditure, innovativeness and scientific orientation were negatively and significantly associated with the attitude towards ICTs. Education, occupation, smart gadgets possession, sources of agricultural information, achievement motivation, economic motivation, information management orientation and orientation towards ICTs were found to be positively and significantly associated with attitude of farmers towards ICT tools.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 209-214
C Vara Prasad* and K Pradhan
Department of Agricultural Extension, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Cooch Behar - 736 165, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present study was conceptualized and conducted to assess the attitude of farmers towards ICT usage for sustainable agriculture in two northern districts of West Bengal viz. Cooch Behar and Alipurduar districts. One hundred and twenty farmers were interviewed through a pre-tested structured interview schedule developed to measure the attitude with the help of a self-developed scale for this study. The behavioural component namely attitude towards ICT usage of the farmers was considered as the predicted variable and nineteen other attributes were considered as the independent variables for the study. The data collected was processed with the help of statistical tools like frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient. The overall attitude of farmers towards ICT tools has shown that the majority of the farmers (45.8%) were belonging to the category of less favourable, followed by 36.7 per cent of the farmers shown most favourable attitude towards ICT tools and 17.5 per cent were found to be in favourable category. The results showed that the variables age, experience, family size, annual expenditure, innovativeness and scientific orientation were negatively and significantly associated with the attitude towards ICTs. Education, occupation, smart gadgets possession, sources of agricultural information, achievement motivation, economic motivation, information management orientation and orientation towards ICTs were found to be positively and significantly associated with attitude of farmers towards ICT tools.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 215-218
M Kavaskar* and S Sharmila
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agriculture is an important sector with the majority of the rural population in developing countries depending on it. Agriculture sector faces major challenges in enhancing production in a situation of dwindling natural resources necessary for production. Further, quick dissemination of technological information from agricultural research systems to the farmers and reporting of farmers’ feedback to the research system has always been one of the critical inputs in transfer of agricultural technologies leading to increased production. At present the ratio of farmers to extension workers is very less. These issues have created the urgency to help and transfer the agricultural technologies to the poor farmers properly. The cost factor in face to face information dissemination at the right time and the difficulties in reaching the target audience have also created the urgency to introduce Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 219-223
Rajib Das*1 and Dipak Nath2
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Khowai, Chebri - 799 207, Tripura, India Department of Extension Education, 2College of Agriculture, Central Agriculture University, Iroisemba, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India
Abstract
This study seeks to examine the impact of participation in Self Help Groups on the empowerment of women. While conceptualizing any programme for rural women in the context of the great importance being given to the group approach and also understanding the impact of SHG on socio-economic development of rural women. The study was carried out in Khowai district of Tripura, a north-eastern state of India. The various dimensions like Socio personal characteristics of the respondents, SHG bank linkage, Economic and Social empowerment, Savings and financial decision and Access to credit and employment are studied. Access to credit can help women by enabling them to start and expand small businesses, often accompanied by market access. Besides, involvement in SHGs has enabled women to have a voice in the community affairs and they have been able to tackle problems and have gained power over decision making in the households. Though women hardly involve themselves in politics, their participation in SHGs has altered them to learn actively. Some of the recommendations for a way forward include providing a convergence of inputs, ensuring a proactive involvement of women in the program, changing social norms. Women empowerment is a process in which women challenge the existing norms and cultural, to effectively promote their well-being. The participation of women in self-help group (SHGs) made a significant impact on their empowerment both in social and economic aspects this study addresses women empowerment through self-help groups in Tripura.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 224-228
H B Mallikarjuna*, Anupriya Paul and M Sudheendra
Department of Agricultural Statistics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Navile, Shivamogga - 577 204, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted to analyze the structural changes of black pepper export from India. The yearly export data on black pepper from 2004-05 to 2017-18 was analyzed with Lingo software. The Markov chain analysis indicated that, the countries USA, UK and ‘other countries’ are the stable importers of the Indian black pepper, where the remaining countries were pooled under the category of ‘other countries’. Germany is the least stable importers. The Sweden, Japan and Canada are the unstable importers of Indian black pepper. The high dependency on the developed countries such as USA and UK for pepper export would increase risk of the trade in the future days. Hence, it is essential to explore the other markets for exporting of black pepper other than the existing countries.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 229-231
K Vasudeva Naik* and R A Yeledhalli
Department of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
It was found that growth performance of agro-processing industries in Karnataka was unsatisfactory when compared with its neighboring states. Agro processing could be defined as set of techno-economic activities carried out for conservation and handling of agricultural produce and to make it usable as food, feed, fibre, fuel or industrial raw material. Compound annual growth rate was employed to arrive with the meaningful results. When compared to other industries in the third phase of 2011 to 2018, agro processing industries has got a considerable growth which signified the importance of agro processing industries. Existing. Agro-processing sector brings immense benefits to the people, to the economy and speed up industrialization process. However it has an insignificant place in Karnataka in relation to agricultural production. Therefore it has great scope for development in the state. Hence, it must be promoted extensively. Existing units in this sector are found facing many problems which affect their operation. In this context the recommendations made by the researcher can be of much help to the policy makers of the state who are engaged in framing agro-processing industrial policies and also to the ago-processing entrepreneurs who are confronting many problems.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 232-233
M V Tiwari*, V K Poshia, H R Jadav and A D Raj
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Navsari Agricultural University), Narmada, Dediapada, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out at Gujarat Village under KVK, Dediapada, Narmada among 300 beneficiary farmers. The findings showed that majority of trained farmers had high level of knowledge with respect to making different organic manures like FYM, Vermicompost, Vermiwash, Green Manures, Jivamrit, Biogas Slury, but there were no knowledge about NADEP compost. It was concluded that there is significant role of KVK in promotion of innovative NADEP compost production technology and demonstration to ensure the adoption process and entrepreneur development as a source of income for promotion of organic farming and cleanliness in Narmada district. This approach minimizes the possibility that farmers have opportunity of less income generating activities. This is due to the technology of NADEP compost is very low cost and easily adoptable among the farmers even though the illiteracy is not the hurdle for them. They can use good quality of compost on their fields to enhance the productivity as well as provoke the availability of chemical fertilizer.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 234-235
Goutam Mahata*
Sugarcane Research Station, Bethuadahari, Nadia, Department of Agriculture, Govt. of West Bengal, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at the research farm of Sugarcane Research Station, Bethuadahari, Nadia, West Bengal, during 2017-18. Eleven sugarcane varieties (Co 0232, CoSe 95422, BO 130, CoB 99161, CoLk 94184, CoP 9301, BO 91, CoB 94164, Co 0233, CoSe 92423 and Gandary-Local) were planted in east-west direction(rows) during autumn in the plots (6m × 8 rows × 90cm) in completely randomized block design with 2 replications with conventional inorganic and complete organic system. In organic plots application of FYM @ 10 t ha-1 and vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 were applied as basal and vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1 as top dressing twice at 90 and 120 DAP. Sucrose concentration of all the sugarcane varieties recorded higher percentage and it ranges from 1.82% (CoB 99161) to 6.70% (CoLk 94184) under organic cultivation system as compared to conventional inorganic system. Commercial cane sugar yield (t ha-1) was higher for all the varieties and it ranges from 3.07% (CoB 99161) to 46.7% (Gandari-Local variety) despite yield gap. To protect biodiversity, sustaining and enhancing the health of soil, animals, individuals, communities and ecosystems, the important option may be organic cultivation. Sugarcane is not only used as a raw material in sugar industry, but also used as chewing and juice purpose.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 236-238
A S Charak*, Narinder Paul and G N Jha
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST- Jammu), Doda - 182 221, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The study was carried out during Kharif season of 2014 and 2015 in 10 villages across 2 blocks (Marmat and Bhaderwah) of Doda district. In all 100 frontline demonstrations on maize crop were carried out in an area of 20.0 ha with the active participations of farmers with the objective to demonstrate the latest technology of maize production potential, technological gap, extension gap, technology index and economic benefit of improved technologies. Frontline demonstration is one of the important tools for transfer of technology and this programme is being implemented through Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s of country. FLD’s are organized on improved production technology at farmers field. This process not only helps in demonstrating the ways and means of increasing productivity but helps in obtaining feedback for further refinement of the production technology. The results revealed that FLD recorded higher yield as compared to farmer’s practices over the two years of study. The improved technologies recorded average yield of 27.62 q/ha which was 32.99 percent higher than the obtained with farmer’s practices of 20.73 q/ha. In spite of increase in yield of maize, technological gap, extension gap and technology index existed which was 19.87 q/ha, 6.89 q/ha and 41.94 percent, respectively. Thus the cultivation of maize with improved technology has been found more productive and grain yield might be increased upto 40.99 percent. Technology and extension gap extended which can be bridges by popularizing package of practices with emphasis of improved high yielding hybrid variety, use of proper seed rate, balanced nutrient application and proper use of plant protection measures. Replacement of existing local variety with newly released hybrid variety will increase the production and net income. Hybrid maize variety was found to be suitable since it fit well to the existing farming situation and also it had been appreciated by the farmers.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 239-241
M Yasodha1*, P Devasenapathy2 and A Ramalakshmi3
1Department of Agronomy, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Pollachi - 642 103, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Agronomy, 3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University during Kharif, to study the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizae and zinc fertilizer on soil microbial activity in lowland rice environment. Treatment comprises of recommended dose of fertilizer 150:50:50 kg NPK ha-1, soil application of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 and foliar spray of the same @ 0.5%. Arbuscular Mycorrhizae applied both in nursery and in main field @ 5 g m-2, 30 per cent of previous crop residue was incorporated as paddy straw @ 3.8 t/ha, in main field before transplanting. Nutrient supply and availability during crop growth influences various microbial mediated biochemical reactions and nutrient transformations. Microbial population such as bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria found to be more in early stages of crop growth and decreased towards harvesting stages. Rhizosphere microbial populations of mycorrhizal plants were higher than non-mycorrhizal plants. The population density was found to be higher in mycorhizosphere of combined use of organics and inorganics. Dehydrogenase activity, a key biochemical indicator, was higher under Arbuscular Mycorrhizae applied treatments with 6.15 µg of TPF g-1 day-1. RDF treatment alone had negative impact on dehydrogenase activity with 2.80 µg of TPF g-1 day-1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and microbial population can interact synergistically to stimulate plant growth through a range of mechanisms that include improved nutrient acquisition and inhibition of fungal plant pathogens. These interactions may be of crucial importance within sustainable, low-input agricultural cropping systems that rely on biological processes rather than agrochemicals to maintain soil fertility and plant health. From this experiment we can conclude that inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae in lowland rice environment profoundly increases the microbial activity which leads to enhancement of soil fertility and results in higher crop productivity.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 242-254
Pandey Neha, Chauhan Ankita and Lohani Pushpa
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, College of Basic Science and Humanities, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Micronutrients are the essential component of food as they play a crucial role in the growth and development of both plants and humans. The deficiencies of micronutrients especially iron and zinc may be sometimes lethal in plants as well as animals. In plants, the deficiency of these micronutrients leads to chlorosis of leaves and growth retardation. The consumption of the plant-derived food deficient in micronutrients like iron and zinc may fill our stomach but will not fulfill our nutrition requirements. It represents hidden hunger which is very prevalent in today’s scenario. Almost half of the world’s population is suffering from hidden hunger. Therefore it is important to enrich the cereals which constitute the staple diet of humans with micronutrients like zinc and iron. A proper understanding of the inbuilt mechanisms of transport of iron and zinc, the factors affecting their uptake and the mechanisms that are involved in their accumulation are important for biofortification. This paper discusses various mechanisms in transport and accumulation of iron and zinc in cereals along with the recent biofortification approaches involved in the improvement in iron and zinc content in the plant itself.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 255-258
Sheshrao Kautkar, C S Sahay, Bholuram Gurjar, Amit Kumar Patil and P K Pathak
Farm Machinery and Post Harvest Technology Division, ICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute (IGFRI), Jhansi 284 003, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Moringa is a multi-beneficial plant which is popularly known as ‘the miracle tree’ because of its healthy nutritional value. Converting such wonderful commodity in the form of powder becomes important to avail all its nutritional benefits. Moringa leaf powder is an excellent source of protein supplement for the peoples suffering from malnutrition issues and in animal feed as well. The powder prepared from moringa leaves can be easy to store, package and use at any time in different ways. It can be a source of income generation to the farmers if they are willing to set a small scale moringa leaf processing plant and can also be helpful to add healthy nutrition to their diet.

| Published on : 12-Mar-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 1 ; 259-262
V Sakthivel*1 and M Manoharan2
1Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Tapioca is an important stable food cum industrial crop of tropics. In South India, tapioca is widely grown in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Though it is an industrial oriented crop, tapioca growers do not get appreciable remunerative income. Value added products of tapioca can significantly increase the income of tapioca growers. Hence a study was conducted with a sample of 120 tapioca growers at Salem district of Tamil Nadu State to analyze the factors influencing the attitude level of tapioca growers towards value added products of tapioca. Out of fifteen socio - economic and psychological variables, nine variables viz., annual income, information sources utilization, mass media exposure, economic motivation, scientific orientation, risk orientation, innovativeness, progressiveness, achievement motivation had shown a positive and significant association with attitude at one per cent level of probability. The variables namely educational status and extension agency contact also showed a positive and significant association with attitude but at five per cent level of probability. All the three analysis namely correlation, regression and path analysis revealed that age, annual income, information sources utilization and progressiveness were the much contributing and crucial variables for attitude level of tapioca growers towards value added products.

| Published on : 04-Apr-2020