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Volume - 5 - May-June 2014
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; 135-146
Syandan Sinha Roy, M Nasim Ali, Saikat Gantait*, Somsubhra Chakraborty and Maitreyi Banerjee**
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty Centre for Integrated Rural Development and Management, School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, Narendrapur - 700 103, Kolkata, India *Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia-43400 Serdang Selangor Malaysia **West Bengal State Council of Science and Technology, Bikash Bhavan, North Block (4th Floor), Salt Lake City - 700 091, Kolkata, India
Abstract
Bamboo, the sovereign of grass family, is considered to be the fastest growing and one of the most versatile woody plants in earth in terms of productivity. Nevertheless, its wide usage in paper industry as a raw material leads to depletion of natural resource of bamboo. In countries like India, 99% of the economically important bamboos are supplied from the natural forests. These economically important bamboo species are needed to be characterized and restored in natural environment or replaced with new plantation. Majority of bamboo species are generally propagated via vegetative means whereas sexual propagation of bamboo is limited to a few species. Considering several drawbacks of both vegetative and sexual method of propagation the micropropagation technique is inevitable in the present era of biotechnology. During recent years, multiple endeavors have been undertaken for establishment of in vitro propagation independently or in combination with characterization of bamboo species with the aid of biochemical markers for sustainable utilization of genetic diversity; its conservation and future studies are documented in the present review.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 373-379
P. Adiyaman, S. Kanchana and G. Hemalatha
Depertment of Food Science and Nutrition, Home Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
India is known for its diverse tropical and sub-tropical agro-climatic conditions, which are favorable to grow and producing almost all-tropical and exotic fruits and vegetables. The underutilized fruit (UUF) crops are the plant species that are traditionally used as medicine. People of all ages in both developing and developed countries use plants to cure various diseases and to obtain relief from physical sufferings. Underutilized fruits are rich in bioactive compounds, mainly polyphenols (gallic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids, flavonols (quercetin, (+)catechin, (-)epicatechin, (+)catechingallate, (-)epicatechingallate, (+)gallocatechin, (-) epigallocatechin, (+)gallocatechingallate and (-)epigallocatechingallate), L-ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, proanthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and petunidin) and beta-carotene etc which known health benefits, due to its high antioxidant capacity. These fruit have potential for developing some novel therapeutic agents. Underutilized fruits have various medicinal properties such as antipruritic, antipyretic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, antimicrobial etc. The present review summarizes the information concerning the antioxidant activity and phytochemical properties ofstar fruit, egg fruit and fig.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 380-384
Madhulika Singh, G. K. Shrivastava and P. R. Paikra
Depertment of Adronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
To evaluate the performance of post emergence herbicides on transplanted rice and experiment was conducted at the Instructional cum Research Farm, IGKV, Raipur during kharif season of 2011. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of ten different weed management treatments. Rice cv. MTU-1010 was transplanted on July 14, 2011 with a spacing of 20 cm × 10 cm and harvesting was done on November 1st, 2011. The results of experiments indicated that the two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAT (T9) registered maximum growth characters of rice like plant height, dry matter, number of tillers hill-1, grain and straw yield. It was followed by treatments Bispyribac Na 10% SC @ 20 g a.i. ha-1 (T7) and Chlorimuron ethyl + Metsulfuron methyl 20% WP @ 4 g a.i. ha-1 (T8).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 385-389
B. A. Lone, Sameera Qayoom, Lal Singh, Purshotam Singh, Latief Ahmad Sofi, Saba Shafai,
Division of Agronomy, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology, Kashmir, during rabi, 2011-12 and 2012-13 to investigate the energy evaluation of brown sarson (Brassica rapa L. Oliefera) under different environment and thinning management. The experimental site with silty clay-loam texture had medium available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The soil was neutral in reaction with medium organic carbon and neutral electrical conductivity. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with four replications. The treatments included three sowing dates (Ist October, 15th October and 30th October) and six thinning managements (10 days after emergence, last week of November, last week of February, 50% at 10 days after emergence and 50% at last week of November, 50% at 10 days after emergence and 50% at last week of February, and 50% at last week of November and 50% at last week of February) assigned to main and sub plots, respectively. Yield attributing characters like siliquae plant-1, seeds plant-1, 1000 seed weight, and number of primary and secondary branches also showed remarkable improvement as a result of early sowing. Among the different thinning management treatments, 50% thinning at 10 days after emergence and remaining 50% at last week of February improved growth characters and thereby recorded highest yield attributes which resulted in increase in the biological yield as well as economic yield. As far as energy management in brown sarson is considered, efficient utilization of energy i e maximum output of energy obtained with least input was when sowing was done on 1st October and thinning treatment T4 i e 50% thinning at 10 days after emergence and remaining 50% at last week of February was maintained. The maximum net profit ha-1 also showed the same trend. For achieving higher seed and oil yield along with improved quality characters and better utilization of energy, sowing of brown sarson under temperate Kashmir conditions should be done on 1st October and that thinning should be done 50% after 10 days of emergence and remaining 50% thinning in last week of February
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 390-394
Abdul Razaq, Sobia Ilyas* and Abdul Nasir Khalid*
Sustainable Development Study Centre, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan *Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Lahore - 54590, Pakistan
Abstract
Present investigation deals with the molecular systematics of Pakistani collection of Coprinus comatus and its distribution in Pakistani forests. This edible mushroom has been described first time from Pakistan using Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of ribosomal DNA, a molecular marker. The ITS-rDNA region of Pakistani collection was analyzed using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing techniques. The target DNA was amplified using fungal specific primers (ITS1F and ITS4) which generated 700bp fragments. Consensus sequence was submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website for initial Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis which revealed and confirmed the identification of Pakistani species by comparing the sequences of respective species present in GenBank. Sequence of Pakistani collection of C. comatus matched 99% with sequences of same species (AF345803.1). In phylogenetic analysis, it clustered with European species providing evidence for its cosmopolitan distribution. Morphological characters like shape, size and color of basidiomata, basidiospore size, basidial lengths, shape and size of cheilocystidia were also measured and compared.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 395-398
Vandana, Jyotsana, Sanjay Kumar, Rajneesh K Agnihotri and Rajendra Sharma
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Khandari Campus, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra - 282 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Present investigation was conducted during June-September 2013, in the Experimental Field of Botanical Garden, Khandari Campus, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University Agra, to study the physiological changes resulting from exposure to various intensities of osmotic stress and subsequent relief of the same by exogenous nitrogen application. Osmotic stress is almost the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect the crop growth and yield. In the present study, the seeds of Vigna radiata L. were evaluated at germination stage for tolerance to salt (NaCl) and drought conditions (induced by polyethylene glycol PEG). This study was conducted to see the effect of NaCl and PEG on seed germination, root and shoot development, leaf area and biomass production in Vigna radiata seedlings. Drought and osmotic stress induced changes are mainly related to the altered metabolic functions, such as reduced germination percentage, root and shoot length and changes in physiological parameters including plant height, leaf area etc. The growth of Vigna radiata were compared at three levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl and -0.40, -0.50 and -0.75 MPa PEG which were added to garden soil) pot experiments. Nearly all the physiological parameter mentioned above have shown decrease level with increasing salinity or osmotic stress.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 399-405
H. U. Rehman, M. I. S. Gill, W. S. Dhillon and N. K. Arora
H. U. Rehman, M. I. S. Gill, W. S. Dhillon and N. K. Arora
Abstract
In vitro propagation of Patharnakh (Pyrus pyrifolia Burn F. Nakai) pear was carried out in Tissue Culture Laboratory in Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab) during 2011-13. Nodal explants from Patharnakh were used for their in vitro propagation protocol development. The effect of various media {½ MS (M1), MS (M2) and WPM (M3)} and growth regulators (BAP, IBA and NAA) on establishment, proliferation and rooting was studied. Lowest necrotic culture percentage was observed by using M2 medium fortified with BAP (1.0 mgl-1) and IBA (0.01 mgl-1). Maximum establishment (96.10%) was obtained on M3 medium supplemented with BAP (1.5 mgl-1) and IBA (0.01 mgl-1). Maximum proliferated cultures (79.47%) were obtained using M3 medium fortified with BAP (5.0 mgl-1). However, maximum shoots per explant (3.08) were produced in M2 medium supplemented with BAP (2.5 mgl-1). Shoots of maximum length (53.75 mm) were obtained using M3 medium containing BAP (0.5 mgl-1). Rooting was maximum (9.16%) using M1 medium fortified with IBA (1.0 mgl-1) while as no rooting was obtained irrespective of media using NAA. Roots per explant were 2.60 using M1 medium supplemented with IBA (1.0 mgl-1). However, roots of maximum length were obtained using M3 medium supplemented with IBA (1.0 mgl-1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 406-409
Akhilesh Mishra, Geeta Rai, Arvind Srivastava and Nalini Tiwari
Depertment of Agronomy, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur - 208 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive rabi seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 to study the economics of different bio-fertilizer’s inoculations in field pea (cv. Jai) at Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (India). Results indicated that the seed inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR improved all the growth; yield attributes and yields of field pea. Fresh and dry weight plant-1, nodules number and dry weight plant-1 were found significantly maximum. Number of grains pod-1, number and weight of pods plant-1 at maturity attributed significantly in increasing the grain yield as well as net return. On pooled basis, maximum net income (Rs. 22169 ha-1) was obtained with the use of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR which was improved by a margin of ` 1502 (6.77%), 2972 (13.40%), 2672 (12.05%), 5212 (23.51%), 6176 (27.85%), 4666 (21.04%) and 8842/ha (39.88%) over the inoculation of PSB + PGPR, Rhizobium + PGPR, Rhizobium + PSB, PGPR, PSB, Rhizobium and control, respectively. Thus, it can be recommended that to earn the maximum net profit from dwarf field pea, seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 410-415
M. A. Dar, J. A. Wani, S. A. Bangroo*, Monisa Aslam, Mushtaq A. Dar** and M. Y. Bhat***
Division of Soil Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
*Krishi Vigyam Kendra (SKUAST- Kashmir), Kulgam, Jammu and Kashmir, India
**Division of Agricultural Extension, ***Division of Fruit Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Extreme nature of climate and topographical conditions may affect soil properties and as such a study was conducted to determine the status of secondary nutrients in pear orchard soils of Kashmir at different altitudes. The exchangeable calcium was found maximum in mid altitude soils than in low altitude and high altitude soils which may be due to calcareous nature of parent material mainly limestone with substantial quantity of dolomite and shale. The exchangeable magnesium was also observed maximum in mid altitude soils, which may be due to presence of illite and chlorite minerals. The available sulphur content was maximum in high altitude soils as compared to mid and low altitude soils. This could be attributed to presence of high organic matter in high altitude soils than in mid and low altitude soils. The secondary nutrients differed significantly between high, mid and low altitude soils owing to parent material type, climate, soil and geomorphic factors, vegetation, slope, aspect, flow accumulation etc
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 416-419
V. K. Deshpande and M. I. Jamadar
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A laboratory experiment was carried out at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during 2009-10 and 2010-11, to study the effect of botanical seed treatment on storability of chick pea seeds. The investigation consists of nine treatments (T1-control without insect, T2-control with insect, T3-lakke leaf powder, T4-caster seed powder, T5-custard apple seed powder, T6-sweet flag rhizome powder, T7-Sindhuvara leaf powder, T8¬-Malathion dust and T9-Neem leaf powder) and three replications. Pooled data over two years indicated that Malathion dust @2% significantly reduced the adult emergence, egg laying capacity, maintained the proper germination percentage, seed moisture, improved seedling length and seedling vigour index. However, the botanicals like sweet flag rhizome, custard apple seed and Sindhuvara leaf powder have on par effect with Malathion, followed by Neem leaf powder, caster seed powder and lakke leaf powder but they were superior over the control with insect and without insects.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 420-424
P. R. Paikra, Madhulika Singh and Ransing D. Maruti
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out at Instructional cum Research Farm, IGKV, Raipur during kharif season of 2010. Initially the results revealed that urdbean variety TU 94-2 recorded significantly higher plant height and number of branches plant-1. Thereafter, Azad-1 recorded significantly higher plant height, number of branches, dry matter accumulation, root length, seed and stover yield, productivity rating index and production efficiency. However, root dry biomass, leaf area index and harvest index was found non-significance difference. As regards to different agro-input management practices, application of 100% RDF + FYM 5 t ha-1 + NAA 40 ppm + PSB + DAP 2% (A7) recorded significantly highest plant height, number of branches, dry matter accumulation, root length and dry biomass, LAI, seed and stover yield, harvest index, productivity rating index and production efficiency.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 425-427
TH S. A. Raja Rajeshwaran and S Mani
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A detailed study was conducted to assess the status of DTPA-extractable micronutrients and their relationship with some important soil physico-chemical properties under banana, paddy and sugarcane based cropping systems of Madurai district in Tamil Nadu. Higher amount of micronutrients were noticed under paddy based cropping system as compared to banana and sugarcane based cropping systems. The DTPA-extractable micronutrients were positively correlated with soil organic carbon and negatively correlated with soil pH. Under banana cropping system, the DTPA-Mn exhibit a negative correlation with pH (r = -0.363**) and with free CaCO3 content (r = -0.196*). The DTPA-Mn content exhibited a negative correlation with free CaCO3 content (r = -0.170**), in paddy cropping system. The DTPA-Cu content of the soils under sugarcane cropping system exhibited a positive correlation with EC (r = 0.248**) and negative correlation with free CaCO3 content (r = -0.194*).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 428-431
Prem Kumar Sundaram, Bikash Sarkar and Surajit Mondal
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, ICAR Parisar, P.O: Bihar Veterinary College, Patna - 800 014, Bihar, India
Abstract
A pedal operated makhana grader was designed and developed at ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna for small makhana growing farmers. It consists of three major components, namely main frame, sieve unit and operator unit. The grading unit was found to be very efficient in the separation process of makhana seeds. Seeds were graded by the machine, into four categories, obtained at four separate outlets. The maximum seed graded for grade one, two, three and four were 99.15, 98.74, 95.68 and 83.65 percent, respectively and obtained at crank speed of 45 rpm and sieve angle of 15 degrees. The capacity is about 700-750 kg/hour. Two persons are required for the smooth operation of the grader, one for pedaling and one for filling makhana seeds from the sieve mouth.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 432-434
P. K. Sajeesh, M. S. L. Rao and Shamarao Jahagirdar*
Depertment of Plant Pathology, *All India Cordinated Research Project on Soybean, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An attempt was made to investigate the effect of different priming agents viz vermiculite, sphagnum moss, coir pith, jelly and peatmoss along with bio-agents in the management of soybean seed-born fungal infection during kharif season under All India Coordinated project on Soybean in University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad. Among all the treatments, bio-priming of soybean seed under glass house condition with coir pith + Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 0.8% and Jelly + Trichoderma harzianum @ 0.8% exhibited higher percent germination and least percent infection which is found to be on par with Jelly + P. fluorescens @ 0.8% and coir pith + T. harzianum @ 0.8% with percent germination and percent seed infection, respectively. The highest vigour index was recorded in case of seed treatment with Jelly + T. harzianum which is followed by coir pith + T. harzianum. Among all the treatments bio-priming of soybean seed (variety: JS335) in field condition, coir pith + Pseudomonas fluorescens and Jelly + T. harzianum exhibited higher per cent germination, least per cent mortality. In case of variety DSb21, Jelly + P. fluorescens and Jelly + T. harzianum exhibited higher per cent germination, least per cent mortality.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 435-440
H. Virupaksha Prabhu, S. S. Adiver and Shamarao Jahagirdar
Depertment of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Thirty five isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina, causal organism of charcoal rot of sorghum, were obtained from different agro-climatic regions of major rabi sorghum growing areas (Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh). Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase enzyme variability of different isolates of M. phaseolina were studied. Totally six bands were resolved while studying the isozyme pattern of peroxidase. Among isolates of M. phaseolina the Rm values of the bands position varied from 0.5-3.0, while the number of bands in an isolate ranged from 1 to 6. Dendrogram based on Peroxidase enzyme analysis revealed five major clusters. Totally eight bands were resolved while studying the isozyme pattern of polyphenoloxidase. Among isolates, the Rm values of the bands position varied from 0.3 to 6.0, while the number of bands in isolates ranged from 1 to 4. Dendrogram based on polyphenoloxidase enzyme analysis revealed 10 major clusters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 441-444
S. S. Patil, R. N. Khandare and A. S. Gajare
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture Latur (Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani), Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out to study the quality of irrigation water from Ahmedpur tehsil and 300 ground water samples were collected from 30 villages of Ahmedpur tehsil periodically in two seasons i e summer season and winter season. The ground water samples were analyzed for its composition and parameters like pH, EC, cations (Ca++ and Mg++) and anions (HCO3- and CO3--). Soil samples were also collected from the same places of Ahmedpur tehsil, with a view to studying the changes in chemical properties of soil viz pH and EC. The pH of ground water samples in summer and winter season from Ahmedpur tehsil were 7.18 to 8.81 (7.93) and 7.12 to 8.68 (7.58) respectively, while electrical conductivity in summer season varied from 0.478 to 1.310 dSm-1 (0.812 dSm-1) and the winter season values were 0.236 to 1.012 dSm-1 (0.575 dSm-1). The cations like Ca++ and Mg++ content in ground water samples ranged from 2.3 to 4.90 (3.52) and 3.2 to 5.5 (4.53) mel-1, respectively, during summer season while during winter season it was 2.20 to 4.70 (3.20) and 3.0 to 5.3 (4.27) mel-1 respectively. The anions like CO3-- and HCO3- content ranged from 1.8 to 4.1 (2.89), 5.0 to 8.10 (6.34), mel-1 respectively, during summer season, while during winter season values were 1.2 to 3.4 (2.15) and 4.7 to 8.6 (6.05) mel-1 respectively. The pH of soils of Ahmedpur tehsil in summer and winter season were 7.35 to 8.96 (8.18), 7.20 to 8.91 (7.90) and electrical conductivity ranged from 0.557 to 1.577 (0.985), 0.378 to 1.311 (0.764) dSm-1, in summer and winter season, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 445-450
Vikas Pali and Satish Verulkar
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Three sets of field experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, to evaluate the effect of drought on advanced breeding lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) according to their drought-tolerance levels. The experimental materials comprised of 117 advanced breeding lines of divergent nature, developed from different donors namely landraces like Dagad deshi, Bhataphool, Laloo 14, IR 42253, IR 62266, CT 9993. Locally adapted high yielding varieties like Danteshwari, Mahamaya, Swarna etc were taken as female parent. The advanced breeding lines which performed well under irrigated conditions were Nidhi × IR 42253 followed by BG 380-2 × IR 42253, Poornima × IR42253 etc while in rainfed condition the lines were Danteswari × Dagad deshi followed by Mahamaya × Dagad deshi, Dagad deshi × R 1097-44-3-1 etc whereas, under terminal stage drought these lines were RP 2333 × IR 42253 followed by Abhaya × IR 42253, SL 100 (D) R 1 etc. A few lines were identified which performed consistently well under all three sets of condition, during kharif 2009-10 these lines were Abhaya × IR 42253 followed by G 95-02 × Danteshwari, R 979-1528 × IR 4222-1 etc. Genotypes like BG-380-2, G 95-02, 5173, RP 2333, R-979-1528 and Mahamaya etc were also found to be good under all three sets of condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 451-453
Bheemanagoud H. Patil, M. B. Patil, Shantamma*, C. H. Punith Kumar and Y. S. Amaresh
Depertment of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India *University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Rice is one of the major food crops of North Eastern Karnataka. Rice affected by many fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode diseases resulting in reduction of plant growth and causes considerable yield loss. Among fungal diseases grain discoloration, a complex disease is one of the important diseases in rice growing areas of North Eastern Karnataka. An intensive roving survey was conducted during kharif 2011 and rabi/summer 2011-12 to know the incidence and severity of grain discoloration in farmer’s fields of Raichur, Yadgir and Koppal districts. During kharif 2011, severity of the disease was maximum in Koppal district with percent disease incidence of 12.19 and percent disease index of 10.13. Highest percent disease incidence of 14.34 was recorded in Herur village of Gangavathi taluk, Koppal district followed by Raichur (10.49%) and Yadgir (8.73%). During rabi/summer 2011-12, the maximum severity of disease was again observed in Koppal district only where percent disease incidence was 12.37 with percent disease index of (10.82%). In the 2011-12 year the highest percent incidence (14.55%) was recorded in Virapur village of Gangavathi taluk, Koppal district followed by Raichur (11.04%) and Yadgir (10.08%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 454-456
Santosh Khadakabhavi, G. Girish*, Sheela Duddagi* and Baba Fakruddin
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
*Agricultural Research Station (University of Agricultural Sciences Raichur) Gulbarga - 585 101, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted at Agricultural Research station Gulbarga, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur during rabi 2011-12. The planting material were grown in 11 × 11 simple lattice design with two replications to estimate variability parameters for grain yield and their attributing characters in 121 germplasm lines of sorghum. The highest heritability per cent in broad sense (84.96) was recorded for grain yield per plant, followed by panicle length (82.84). Genetic advance were found to be highest for the same characters (36.89 and 21.97). These results indicated additive with epistatic effect for the phenotypic expression of the character and there by suggesting selection on the basis of phenotype for improvement of these characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 457-459
Deepa Indoria, C. M. Balai* and Mani Ram
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (MPUAT), Rajsamand, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (MPUAT), Badal Mahal, Shashtri Colony, Dungarpur - 314 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The blanching process showed maximum degradation of β-carotene except coriander leaves. In coriander leaves, during blanching, degradation of β-carotene was found 10 percent while in case of sun drying and refrigeration the losses were found 34.90 and 20 percent, respectively. In case of green chilli, the losses of β-carotene during blanching was found 74.9 percent whereas, in case of sun drying and refrigeration the losses were observed 49.9 and 24.9 percent, respectively. Carrots when blanched showed the losses of β-carotene upto 63.08 percent while in sundried and refrigerated, the degradation of β-carotene were found 44.5 and 25.92 percent, respectively, In case of papaya blanching resulted in 33.34 percent of degradation of β-carotene, whereas, papaya when sundried and refrigerated showed the losses of 9.53 and 14.28 percent, respectively
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 460-463
Ravi Kumar, V. P. Rahul, Neeraj Kumar* and M. P. Chauhan
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Department of Zoology, Vardhman College, Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Ten lines were crossed with four testers in a L x T mating design to estimate the combining ability for yield and its component traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L). The variance due to sca was greater than gca, which indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branches plant-1, number of secondary branches plant-1, capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1, biological yield plant-1, seed yield plant-1, harvest index, 1000-seed weight and oil content. The parent’s viz RL-2450 and LMS-168-03 can be considered as superior parents in the present study as they recorded high per se with positively significant gca effect for seed yield plant-1. Among the 40 hybrids evaluated, crosses viz RLC-33 × Jawahar-23, RL-2450 × T-397, NPRR-137 × Jeevan, RL-24109 × Padmini, NP-109 × Jawahar-23 and LMS-166-03 × Padmini were considered as superior as they observed high per se and significant sca effect for seed yield plant-1. These superior crosses involved parents with significant positive gca effects which in turn suggested the possible role of additive gene action in these crosses
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 464-466
K. S. Sowmya, G. C. Kuberappa* and C. D. Srikanth
Organic Farming Research Centre, ZAHRS, Navile, Shimoga - 577 225, Karnataka, India
*Department of Apiculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The investigation on pollinator fauna, abundance and foraging activities on vishnukanthi (Evalvulus alsinoides L.) and madhuvantha (Stevia rebudiana Bertoni) was carried out at Department of Apiculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangaluru. Hymenopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans were found foraging on the flowers of vishnukanthi (Evalvulus alsinoides L.). The peak activity of A. dorsata was at 1100 h, whereas A. cerana and A. florea were abundant at 1000 h. Similarly, other insect pollinators were showed their peak activity at 1100 h. Flowers of madhuvantha (Stevia rebudiana Bertoni) were also visited by many hymenopterans. Peak activity of A. cerana and A. florea were recorded at 1300 h and 1100 h, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 467-472
Mohammed Farooq, R. V. Hegde and M. I. Jamadar
College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Studies were conducted in rabi 2009-10 and 2010-11 to know the effect of dates of sowing and row spacing on yield in coriander at Agriculture Research Station, Janwada Farm, Bidar (Karnataka). The study consisted of five dates of sowing (D1- 1st October, D2- 15th October, D3- 1st November, D4- 15th November and D5- 1st December) as main plot treatments and three row spacing’s (S1- 15 × 15 cm, S2¬- 22.5 × 15 cm and S3- 30 × 15 cm) as sub plot treatments with three replications. Plant height, number of leaves, primary and secondary branches per plant and seed yield per hectare were observed to be significantly highest in coriander sown on 15th October (57.69 cm, 41.28, 8.14, 19.00 and 6.46 q/ha, respectively). Among the spacing’s, S1 (15 × 15 cm) recorded highest plant height (54.52 cm), S3 (30 × 15 cm) recorded the highest values for number of leaves, primary and secondary branches per plant (37.72, 7.03 and 14.99) whereas, S2 (22.5 × 15 cm) recorded the highest seed yield (4.12 q/ha). The interaction effects were significant and the treatment combination D2S2 (15th October sowing with 22.5 × 15 cm spacing) was superior for the seed yield (7.18 q/ha).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 473-475
M. S. Kishore, B. M. Ramachandra Reddy*, Muttanna*, Stephen Raj and Yallappa Harijan**
Depertment of Agricultural Marketing Co-operation and Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
*University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
**Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in 2011-12, in the APMC yard at Bandipalya, Mysore with the objective to assess the investment pattern vis-à-vis infrastructure facilities. The study revealed that starting from the day of its establishment, two major investments were made, i e in 1979 (` 120 lakhs for the purchase of land for the market yard) and 2011 (` 17.19 crore for the construction of vegetable yard and flower auction facility under NHM). The total investment made on creation of infrastructure between 1979 and 2011 was found to be ` 20.09 crores. The total amount spent on the maintenance of this infrastructure (1999 to 2009) was ` 10.16 crores. The recently built vegetable sale yard was being utilized very well, whereas the sophisticated flower auction yard was still dysfunctional and unoccupied. The study also found that the funding was shared between two sources viz the Government and Committee fund in the ratio 1:11 and the total fund used was ` 30.23 crores. Due to the total investment made the net income increased from ` 72.69 lakhs in 2007-08 to ` 6.72 crores in 2011-12, with a growth rate of 70.81%, showing the APMCs commendable return on capital expenditure.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 476-479
Anjan Kumar Naik, Vinayak Pise, Shashidhar Viraktamath, Shashikant S. Udikeri and Vivek Uppar
Depertment of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present investigations were carried out on the farmer’s field at Govanakoppa village under Bailahongal taluk in Belgum district. Bee attractants play a beneficial role in enhancing pollination and yield of crops especially when target crop is not so attractive to the bees naturally or when the weather conditions are not conducive for foraging by the bees on target crop. In India, importing commercial bee attractants is cost prohibitive and hence they are practically far away from the reach of majority of Indian farmers. When overall mean of all the three sprays was considered it showed that Citral E, Citral Z, F. budrunga, S. densifolia attracted significantly more number of bees (2.13 to 3.11 bees/10m2/5 minutes) which were on par with each other and were as good as fruit boost (2.17 to 2.67 bees/10 m2/5 minutes). This could prove an efficient tool to farmers in enhancing yield and a critical component of IPM.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 480-485
S. Poonguzhali and K. Ramamoorthy
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
More than half of the Indian population is vegetarian and legumes play a very important role in human diet as vegetable protein which is an essential supplement to cereal based diet. Self sufficiency in the production of cereals could be achieved through green revolution, but not in pulses. Increase of pulse crop production is need of the hour in developing countries to feed the human population. Poor performance of pulses may be attributed to several factors, of which preservation of seed is of great importance. Invariably the seeds have to be stored through the monsoon for the next sowing during which period the rise in the ambient relative humidity coupled with the prevailing high temperature can accelerate the ageing process of seed, leads to deterioration, resulting in loss of vigour and viability. To overcome this problem, easy and eco friendly invigouration treatments can be successfully employed to prolong the shelf life of unsold stock and highly useful for long term storage. Blackgram seeds of different vigour status could be invigourated using eco friendly treatments like moist sand conditioning with 5% WHC with 48 hours of duration, 24 hours of moisture equilibrium and 1 hour soaking recorded an improvement in seed quality parameters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 486-489
: G. K. Madhu, S. B. Yogananda*, H. R. Sanju, M. N. Thimmegowda and Mallesha**
Depertment of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
*Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAS), V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 401, Karnataka, India
**Depertment of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2012 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya (Karnataka) in maize and field bean intercropping system with different row proportion and nutrient management practices. The results revealed that, application on nutrients based on SSNM produced significantly higher growth, yield components and kernel yield (82.96 q ha-1) of maize as compared to LCC (75.23 q ha-1) and RDF (71.23 q ha-1). Among the row ratios, significantly superior growth, yield components and kernel yield (78.09 q ha-1) of maize were recorded in sole maize followed by maize + field bean in 4:1 row proportion (77.68 q ha-1). Among the interaction, sole maize with SSNM recorded significantly superior growth, yield components and kernel yield (84.33 q ha-1) and it was on par with maize + field bean in 4:1 row proportion with SSNM (84.13 q ha-1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 490-493
Nagaraj Gokavi and M. Ravikumar
Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, College of Horticulture (University of Horticultural Sciences Bagalkot) Mudigere - 577 132, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to study the effect of spacing and NPK on yield and economics of makoi under hill zone-9 of Karnataka at Horticulture Research Station, Thirthahalli, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot during the year 2013-14. The results revealed that, spacing of 60 × 45 cm and application of NPK fertilizer @ 125:75:75 kg/ha was found beneficial for getting higher fruit yield and benefit cost ratio by makoi. Among the different spacing levels, plants spaced at 60 × 45 cm recorded significantly higher fresh and dry fruit yield (14.33 and 2.58 t/ha, respectively) by makoi. Among the different fertilizer levels, application of 125:75:75 kg NPK/ha recorded maximum fresh and dry yield (16.03 t and 3.71 t/ha, respectively) by makoi compared with other treatment levels and control. The interaction of spacing and fertilizer levels showed non-significant effect in increasing fresh and dry yield of makoi. Whereas, the treatment combinations S1F8 (60 × 45 cm and 125:75:75 kg/ha) was found maximum in getting higher benefit cost ratio of 1:3.69. However, the combination of 60 × 45 cm spacing with fertilizer dose of 125:75:75 kg NPK/ha resulted highest fruit yield and benefit cost ratio in makoi.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 494-500
P. Adiyaman and S. Kanchana
Depertment of Food Science and Nutrition, Home Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Recently, an increased interest in the identification of valuable possibilities for preserving the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical profiles of value added fruit products during storage. This research aimed to evaluate the retention of total antioxidant activity (TAA) and phytochemical profiles such as total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total proanthocyanidins content (TPAs), total tannin content (TTC), β-carotene content (BCC) and ascorbic acid content (ACC) of osmo-dried star fruit slices during storage on three different packaging materials viz 200 gauge of low density polyethylene (P1), high density polyethylene (P2) and metalized polypropylene (P3). The experimental results showed that the methanolic extract of fresh star fruit shown highest amount of TAA (91.77 ± 8.68 mg AAEAA/100 g FW), TPC (161.56 ± 9.24 mg GAE/100 g FW), TFC (72.00 ± 2.69 mg QE/100 g FW), TPAs (19.00 ± 0.02 mg CE/100 g FWB), TTC (31.28 ± 1.52 mg TAE/100 g FW), BCC (256.66 µg/100 g FW) and AAC (135.8 mg/100 g FW) when compared to methanolic extract of osmo-dried star fruit slices. The storage study results showed that the osmo-dried star fruit slices packed in P3 had better retention of TAA (95.80%), TPC (97.36%), TFC (91.07%), TPAs (96.91%), TTC (86.06%), AAC (99.30) and BCC (97.09%) and sensory quality (colour, appearance, flavour, taste, texture and overall acceptability) respectively followed by P2 and P1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 501-505
Ankit Kumar Chandraker, N. K. Choubey and P. R. Paikra
Depertment of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out during kharif 2010-2011 at the Instructional-Cum-Research Farm, IGKV, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The soil of the experimental field was clay in texture. The soil was neutral in pH and head low nitrogen, medium phosphorus and high potassium content. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications and the treatments consisted of twelve weed management practices. The result revealed that significantly highest plant height, number of branches, dry matter accumulation, leaf area, leaf area index, seed and stover yield and harvest index were obtained under imazethapyr @ 100 g ha-1 fb hoeing (T6). It was followed by pendimethalin @ 1000 g ha-1 fb hand weeding (T9).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 506-508
H. R. Sanju, Mudalagiriyappa*, G. K. Madhu and Mallesha
Depertment of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India e-mail: sanjuhrgowda@gmail.com
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru (Karnataka) to study the effect of drip fertigation with different sources, levels of fertilizer and methods of fertilizer application on yield attributes, yield and quality of groundnut in red sandy loam soil. The investigation revealed that drip fertigation with 100% RDF as water soluble fertilizers (WSF) recorded significantly more number of pods plant-1 (41.3), pod weight plant-1 (35.6 g) and 100 kernel weight (38.7 g). Higher pod yield (2798 kg ha-1), haulm yield (3329 kg ha-1), shelling percentage (77.1%), oil content (45.6%) and protein content (27.1%) was also recorded with drip fertigation with 100% RDF as WSF over other treatments. However, it was on par with drip fertigation with 75% RDF as WSF. Significantly lower yield attributes, yield and quality parameters were recorded in surface irrigation with soil application of 100 percent RDF (NF). Between two methods of irrigation, 33.3 percent higher pod yield was recorded in drip irrigation (2015 kg ha-1) over surface irrigation (1514 kg ha-1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 509-511
Shweta Biradar, S. Shashikumar and Ravi Belli*
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, BIRDS Campus Tukkantti - 591 224, Gokak, District Belgaum, Karnataka, India
*College of Agriculture, RARS, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bijapur - 586 001, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Trainings were conducted on integrated crop management in coconut and use of coconut climbers in climbing the coconut tree from Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s during the year 2013-14 at respective coconut growing tract of the Belgaum and Bagalkot districts. Twenty farmers were selected for each training programme randomly from the coconut growing taulks of Belgaum and Bagalkot district viz Athani and Raibag taluks of Belgaum district and Jamakhandi and Biligi taluks of Bagalkot district. The selection was made in joint collaboration with department of Horticulture, CGS, NGO’s, SHG’s, Gram panchayat/Krishi Bhavans through media coverage likely by print and electronic Medias. Thus, forming total of eighty participants of four training programmes. The duration of training programmes was for six days. Apart from imparting the skills of coconut climbing machine various aspects on coconut crop management was covered. Results of the present investigation revealed that majority of the coconut growers in the district are facing the problems of labor scarcity and shortage of skilled labor during the time of harvesting. The traditional method of harvesting the nuts using knife with bamboo sticks for dwarf trees and physically climbing the tall trees is quite risky and accident prone.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 513-517
R. Ramesh Babu, N. Hariprasad Rao, R. V. S. K. Reddy and M. Mahesh
Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, (Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Correlation and path analysis were carried out for yield and yield attributing traits in 46 oriental pickling melon genotypes during kharif 2012 at Vegetable Research Station, Agriculture Research Institute, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Yield per vine was correlated positively and significantly with node number of first female flower, days to first female flower, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit girth, flesh thickness, placenta weight per fruit, days to first fruit harvest, seed cavity width, seed cavity length, TSS, number of fruits per vine, number of primary branches per vine and 100 Seed weight. Path coefficient analysis revealed that traits like 100 seed weight, placenta weight per fruit and fruit weight exhibited high positive direct effect on fruit yield per vine and these traits recorded significant positive correlation with fruit yield per vine signifying the importance of these traits in selection programme for crop improvement.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 518-520
Tsewang Tamchos, Ashok Kumar and R. B. Srivastava
Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research and Development Organization, Leh - 194 101, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
Fruit production in cold arid region of Ladakh is dominated by few temperate zone fruit species such as apple, apricot, walnut and peach, while the other species (rose hip, sea buckthorn) are less known. Wild species grown in their natural environment could be exploited as new food, or used to obtain valuable natural products and derivatives. Present study was conducted in Nubra valley (literally means” valley of flowers”) of Ladakh region during 2011 and 2012. Among naturally growing wild rose (locally known as siah from where SIACHEN derives its name) plants 20 genotypes are selected, 10 genotypes belong to Rosa ecae and 10 genotypes to Rosa webbiana. The mean fruit weight, length and width were ranged from 1.87 to 4.15 g, 2.25 to 4.85 cm, 1.12 to 2.80 cm, respectively. Ascorbic acid levels ranged between 225 to 1015 mg/100 ml. The phenotypically divergent genotypes identified in this study could be of much use in future breeding programmes besides as a source of food, medicine and other necessary things.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 521-523
Ravi Belli, S. Shashikumar* and Shweta Biradar*
College of Agriculture, RARS, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005, Karnataka, India
*Krishi Vigyan Kendra, BIRDS Campus Tukkantti - 591 224, Gokak, District Belgaum, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Breed of sheep in Belgaum district mainly consists of local, non-descript sheep with Deccani sheep characters in major. Three male Rambouillet rams were provided to the traditional sheep farming farmers selected purposively from five villages namely Bilakundi, Adalhatti, Adahalli, Hosur and koujalgi of Belgaum district, Karnataka state. Sixty lambs born to crossbreeding Rambouillet rams with local ewes were grouped under experimental (E) group and sixty lambs born to local sheep under control (C) group. Body weights of the T group lambs were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than C group lambs. Wool yield was improvised from 1.5 kg/year and rough grade in C group to 2.2 kg and average grade wool in T group. Crossbreeding systems vary in managerial complexity and in use of beneficial effects due to crossbred ewes and lambs. Crossbred lambs had low age at maturity and age at breeding. As it improved the economy of the farmers, it was concluded that crossbreeding is an essential tool for improvement of productivity of local sheep.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 524-526
Ashish Banjare and G. P. Banjara
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 141 004, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field investigation was conducted during the rabi season of 2012-13 at Research cum Instructional Farm Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) to study growth and yield of fodder sorghum as influenced by nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80, 120 160 kg N ha-1) and its methods of application (Broadcasting, side dressing and band placement). The application of 160 kg N ha-1 which was at par with 120 kg N ha-1 applied through band placement method significantly increased plant height, number of leaves plant-1, dry weight of leaf, dry weight of stem, leaf : stem ratio, dry matter accumulation plant-1, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate, green and dry fodder yield. However, broadcasting and side dressing methods were ranked 2nd and 3rd place respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 527-529
Amit Kumar Patel, Damini Thawait and Samaptika Kar
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiment was carried out at Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur to study the effect of combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield and fertility status of during kharif 2012. The treatments receiving both organic and inorganic fertilizers have improved the soil fertility level. In fertility status of soil, the application of 80:40:80 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1 (Organic-FYM) recorded highest available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium after rice harvest. So it helps in enhancing yield, fertility levels and fertilizer use efficiency and contributes in sustainable crop production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 530-534
E. Priyadarshini, M. K. Singh and Daya Ram
Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted during 2013 in Manipur state of North-east India. Out of total 9 districts of the state, two districts namely; Imphal-East and Imphal-West were selected purposively for the present study. All pesticide retailers of both the districts (total 109 respondents) were surveyed through complete survey method using pre-tested structured interview schedule. Risk bearing ability, achievement motivation, knowledge and aspiration level of the pesticide retailers were found in medium level which were skewed towards low level except in case of achievement motivation of pesticide retailers in the state. Identification of different pest and pesticides emerged as the most needed training area followed by IPM techniques. Among crop specific training need, vegetable crops ranked first followed by rice. Training on application ICTs in business were also needed. Seasonal business of pesticide, lack of need-based training and higher transportation cost were the constraints as identified by the pesticide retailers in Manipur.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 535-538
Shreeshail Rudrapur, B. L. Patil and S. L. Patil
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Present investigation impact of scientific water management technology on maize cultivation in the Malaprabha Command Area of Karnataka revealed that border strip method of irrigation was found better in terms of yield, income and water savings in cultivation of maize. The crop yield was higher in border strip method of irrigation (47.86 q/ha) over flood (40.57 q/ha) and furrow method of irrigation (43.50 q/ha). The net returns was also higher in border strip method of irrigation (` 37634.55/ha) over flood (` 23299.22/ha) and furrow method of irrigation (` 26805.18/ha). The highest cost of irrigation was found in flood method of irrigation (` 3598.71/ha) compared to furrow (` 2994.99/ha) and border strip method of irrigation (` 1961.14/ha). The highest water consumption was seen under flood method of irrigation (14.04 ha cm) followed by furrow (13.17 ha cm) and border strip method of irrigation (8.15 ha cm).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 539-542
Manish Kumar Sharma, S. K. Taunk, G. K. Shrivastava and G. S. Tomar
Department of Agronomy,College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Krishaknagar, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted during the kharif 2012 at Research-cum-Instructional Farm, IGKV, Raipur to investigate the alternate strategies of integrated nutrient management by innovative pelleting techniques to increase growth, yield and nutrient use efficiency in transplanted rice. The soil was Inceptisol, neutral in pH, low in available N, medium in available P and high in available K. The 13 treatments consisted of six integrated nutrient management treatments in conventional and same in pelleted forms and one control. The treatments were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The rice variety MTU-1010 was transplanted on July 28, 2012 and harvested on November 9, 2012. The results revealed that pelleted 2.5 t FYM + 80:50:30 kg N: P2O5:K2O ha-1 produced highest grain and straw yield, harvest index; nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in grain and straw, uptake of N, P and K and nitrogen and potassium use efficiency, respectively. However, the highest potassium content in straw and potassium use efficiency was recorded under pelleted 5 t FYM + 50:30:20 kg N: P2O5: K2O ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 543-546
Sujeet Kumar and Ramanjini Gowda
Department of Plant Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The experimental material consists of F5 lines, which is derived from crossing between L121 and Vaibhav for evaluation of high shelf-life. In this experiment, L121 received from Indian Institute of Horticultural Sciences, Hesaraghatta, Bangalore used as female parent and another parent Vaibhav, released from University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore was used as male parent. Best Twenty F5 lines were selected from F4 phenotypic performance. These F5 lines were derived from intraspecific cross involving L121 × Vaibhav. The objective of this study was to evaluate these recombinant inbred lines for many fruit quality traits such as plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruit yield, single fruit weight, fruit firmness, fruit lycopene content, total soluble solids, and fruit shelf life and to characterize them by Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. For most traits a wide range of genetic variability was found but for shelf life trait genetic variability is narrow, because these lines selected on the basis of shelf-life data and molecular variation was also detected. Some genetic SSR polymorphic marker associated with the fruit shelf-life. It identified by single marker analysis.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 547-550
R. Narasimhulu, N. V. Naidu, K. H. P. Reddy, C. P. D. Rajan, G. Mohan Naidu and M. Shanthi Priya
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding,Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Forty mungbean genotypes evaluated for yield and its components during rabi, 2012-13 revealed wide range of variability for various quantitative characters. The highest GCV and PCV were recorded for number of branches per plant, pods per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for plant height, pods per plant, pods per cluster, biological yield per plant, harvest index and seed yield per plant suggesting that these traits were controlled by additive gene action hence, selection may be effective. Seed yield had significant and positive association with number of pods per plant, clusters per plant, pods per cluster and biological yield. Further path coefficient analysis identified biological yield, harvest index, clusters per plant, pods per cluster and plant height as important component characters as these showed high positive direct effect on yield as well as other characters contributed indirectly towards seed yield via these characters. Hence, selection for genotypes with these characters could facilitate improvement of seed yield in mungbean.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 551-554
Samaptika Kar, Damini Thawait* and Amit Kumar Patel*
Department of Horticulture, *Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The study on genetic variability and correlation coefficient of different garlic genotypes was conducted at Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during the rabi 2012-13. The total 22 genotypes including one check were evaluated under randomized block design with 3 replications. Correlation analysis was studied in 22 genotypes of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Chhattisgarh. The association study among different characters revealed that selection for bulb yield should be based on marketable yield, plant emergence, number of leaves per plant, plant height, equitorial diameter and average bulb weight. Path coefficient analysis revealed that marketable yield had the highest direct effect followed by equatorial diameter, plant height, average bulb weight, weight of 10 outer cloves and neck thickness. Hence, these components should be considered as selection criteria in garlic improvement programme for Chhattisgarh plains.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 555-558
K. Indira Kumar
Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishay Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The symptoms of serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Agromyzidae : Diptera) was first recorded in the first week of January (1st SMW) and reached its peak (60.27%) during last week of March (13th SMW). Correlation studies revealed that maximum temperature (r = 0.86), minimum temperature (r = 0.79), wind speed (r = 0.80) and evaporation (r = 0.96) exhibited significant positive correlation with percent leaves infested by L. trifolii. Morning and evening relative humidity exhibited negative correlation with leaf infestation by L. trifolii (r = -0.93 and r = -0.74, respectively). Sunshine (r = 0.11) and rainfall (r = 0.13) did not exhibit any influence on L. trifoli. The regression equations computed were Y = 57.52 + 0.24 × (maximum temperature) (R2 = 0.75) and Y = -1.05 + 0.21 × (minimum temperature) (R2 = 0.63). From these equations it may be expressed that with every 1°C increase in maximum temperature and minimum temperature, there was an increase in percent leaf infestation by L. trifolii to the tune of 0.24 and 0.21 percent, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 559-563
P. B. Gamanagatti, B. L. Patil, A. A. Patil, N. R. Mamle Desai, R. A. Yeledhalli and M. T. Dodamani
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Rose is one of the oldest flowers under cultivation and most popular of all garden flowers throughout the world. The economics of protected cultivation technology (PCT) under rose was evaluated during year 2013-14. The average cost per hectare establishment cost for rose PCT unit was found to be ` 11038.65 thousand. PCT rose required 5081.98 human labour days, of which 17.57 percent came from the family and remaining 82.43 were hired. The cost B was ` 8783.88 thousand and cost C was ` 8955.05 thousand. The gross return received from rose was ` 29961.65 thousands. The output-input ratio at cost D 2.53. Per flower cost of production was the ` 1.37 and with subsidy it was 1.21. The B:C ratio was 1.81 for 10 percent, where as 1.74 and 1.64 for 12 and 15 percent, respectively. The payback period for rose is 2.27 years and internal rate of return was 45 percent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 564-567
S. Sundharavadivu, A. K. Singh and T. Sravan Kumar
Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
To analyze the constraints faced by the farmers in rice production, the investigation was carried out in two taluks of Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu which were purposively selected. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 120 farmers was randomly selected from six villages. The data was collected through personal interview and analyzed by suitable statistical methods. Fourteen independent variables were subjected to statistical analysis for studying their relationship with dependent variable. Correlation analysis revealed that there was a negative and significant relationship between education, farm size, training undergone, credit orientation, social participation, extension contact, scientific orientation, management orientation and innovativeness of rice farmers with the constraints faced by them in rice farming. However, age, farming experience, mass media exposure, economic motivation and risk orientation showed non-significant relationship.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 568-570
Shweta Sharma, Yogesh Sharma, C. M. Balai* and Ajeet Singh**
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry,Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner - 334 006, Rajasthan, India
* Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Badal Mahal, Shastri Colony, Dungarpur- 314 001, Rajasthan, India
**Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur- 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season on loamy sand soil to investigate the effect of phosphorus (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1), molybdenum (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 kg Mo ha-1) and PSB (without inoculation and with inoculation) on yield and economics of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Application of phosphorus upto 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in significantly higher seed yield (1454 kg ha-1), straw yield (3614 kg ha-1), net returns (` 25054 ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.24) over their respective preceding levels (0 and 20 P2O5 ha-1) but it was found at par with 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 in respect to seed and straw yield, net returns and B:C ratio. Among different levels of molybdenum, 0.5 kg Mo ha-1 gave significantly higher seed yield (1376 kg ha-1), straw yield (3561 kg ha-1), net returns (` 23621 ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.13) over respective lower level. PSB inoculation significantly enhanced the seed and straw yield, net returns and B:C ratio of fenugreek. The interaction effect of phosphorus × PSB was found significantly higher seed yield (1568 kg ha-1) recorded with treatment combination 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 + with inoculation of PSB which was at par with other treatment combination 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 + with inoculation of PSB
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 571-572
Nagaraj Gokavi and M. Ravikumar
Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, College of Horticulture (University of Horticultural Sciences Bagalkot) Mudigere - 577 132, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 573-574
S. C. Gaur, P. N. Singh, L. B. Gaur*, S. N. Singh and L. P. Tiwari**
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding,Baba Raghav Das (P/G) College, Deoria - 274 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
**Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur - 208 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 575-576
Veena, Yashoda R. Hegde and Raheesa Khatib*
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
*University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangaluru- 560 065, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 577-578
Shantamma, S. G. Mantur and K. T. Rangaswamy
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangaluru- 560 065, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 579-580
Hukam Chandra, Yogesh Ruwali and Lalan Kumar
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 581-5820
Sameer Lokapur, G. N. Kulakarni, Ravi Gurikar and Kadli Vinayaka
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 583-584
V. M. Victor, A. K. A. Lawrence* and A. K. Dave
Department of Farm Machinery and Power, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
*Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, Waugh School of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, SHIATS, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 585-586
Veena, Yashoda R. Hegde, Raheesa Khatib* and U. Divya Jyothi
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
*University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangaluru- 560 065, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 587-588
B. H. V. Prasad and P. R. Manapure
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture (Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth), Nagpur - 440 001, Maharshtra, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 589-590
V. M. Bharade and S. P. Mhetre
Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 591-592
Sudhir Kumar Rawat, Subhash Chandra Singh and Sudhakar Dwivedi*
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (CSAUAT, Kanpur), Belatal - 210 423, District Mohoba, Uttar Pradesh, India
*S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Chatha - 180 009, Jammu & Kashmir, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 593-594
K. S. Sowmya, G. C. Kuberappa* and C. D. Srikanth
Organic Farming Research Centre, ZAHRS, Navile, Shimoga - 577 225, Karnataka, India
*Department of Apiculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 595-596
Veena and Yashoda R. Hegde
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 597-598
Vikas Yadav, Prakash Yadav and P. N. Katiyar*
Department of Horticulture, *Department of Agronomy, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur - 208 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 599-600
Vinod Singh Gour, Harikrushana Kotadiya, Manali Datta and Himanshu Gupta
Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 303 002, Rajasthan, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 601-602
K. S. Sowmya, G. C. Kuberappa* and C. D. Srikanth
Organic Farming Research Centre, ZAHRS, Navile, Shimoga - 577 225, Karnataka, India
*Department of Apiculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 603-604
Damini Thawait, Samaptika Kar and Amit Kumar Patel
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 605-606
Sudhir Singh Dhakad
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV), Girvar, Shajapur - 465 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 3 ; Pages: 607-608
Veena, Yashoda R Hegde and U. Divya Jyothi
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India


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