Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 135-146 Syandan Sinha Roy, M Nasim Ali, Saikat Gantait*, Somsubhra Chakraborty and Maitreyi Banerjee** Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty Centre for Integrated Rural Development and Management, School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, Narendrapur - 700 103, Kolkata, India *Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia-43400 Serdang Selangor Malaysia **West Bengal State Council of Science and Technology, Bikash Bhavan, North Block (4th Floor), Salt Lake City - 700 091, Kolkata, India Abstract Bamboo, the sovereign of grass family, is considered to be the fastest growing and one of the most versatile woody plants in earth in terms of productivity. Nevertheless, its wide usage in paper industry as a raw material leads to depletion of natural resource of bamboo. In countries like India, 99% of the economically important bamboos are supplied from the natural forests. These economically important bamboo species are needed to be characterized and restored in natural environment or replaced with new plantation. Majority of bamboo species are generally propagated via vegetative means whereas sexual propagation of bamboo is limited to a few species. Considering several drawbacks of both vegetative and sexual method of propagation the micropropagation technique is inevitable in the present era of biotechnology. During recent years, multiple endeavors have been undertaken for establishment of in vitro propagation independently or in combination with characterization of bamboo species with the aid of biochemical markers for sustainable utilization of genetic diversity; its conservation and future studies are documented in the present review.