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Volume - 5 - March-Aprl 2014
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 135-146
Syandan Sinha Roy, M Nasim Ali, Saikat Gantait*, Somsubhra Chakraborty and Maitreyi Banerjee**
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty Centre for Integrated Rural Development and Management, School of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, Narendrapur - 700 103, Kolkata, India *Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia-43400 Serdang Selangor Malaysia **West Bengal State Council of Science and Technology, Bikash Bhavan, North Block (4th Floor), Salt Lake City - 700 091, Kolkata, India
Abstract
Bamboo, the sovereign of grass family, is considered to be the fastest growing and one of the most versatile woody plants in earth in terms of productivity. Nevertheless, its wide usage in paper industry as a raw material leads to depletion of natural resource of bamboo. In countries like India, 99% of the economically important bamboos are supplied from the natural forests. These economically important bamboo species are needed to be characterized and restored in natural environment or replaced with new plantation. Majority of bamboo species are generally propagated via vegetative means whereas sexual propagation of bamboo is limited to a few species. Considering several drawbacks of both vegetative and sexual method of propagation the micropropagation technique is inevitable in the present era of biotechnology. During recent years, multiple endeavors have been undertaken for establishment of in vitro propagation independently or in combination with characterization of bamboo species with the aid of biochemical markers for sustainable utilization of genetic diversity; its conservation and future studies are documented in the present review.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 147-150
Anupsingh Thakur, *Atul Suresh Hande and **Preeti Kumari
College of Agriculture, Sangulwadi, Vaibhavwadi - 416 810, Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India *Department of Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India **Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology of Jammu, Main Campus Chatha - 180 009, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
The existence of isoform diversity among antioxidant enzymes contributes to the spatial and temporal fine tuning of cellular responses. Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase-like protein (EC 1.11.1.12) enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, to be specific those acting on peroxide as acceptor (peroxidases). This enzyme participates in glutathione metabolism. PHGPx have been identified in several plant species and functions in the removal of phospholipid hydroperoxides, which are generated as products of lipoxygenase catalyzed oxygenation of fatty acids. Resulting, enzyme protect plant cell from programmed cell death by abiotic and biotic stress. The present study aims to provide a comparative view of the functional attributes of major isoforms of PHGPx in plants species. A total of 5 protein sequences of PHGPx were subjected to homology search, multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree construction and motif analysis. The phylogenetic tree constructed revealed different clusters based on PHGPx in respect of dicot and monocot plants such as different source of plant species represented by Cucumis sativus, Solanum lycopersicum, Setaria italic and Hordeum vulgare. The multiple sequence alignment of these PHGPx protein sequences from different plants showed conserved regions at different stretches with maximum homology in amino acid residues. Motif 2(FTVKDARGNDVDLSRYKGKVLLIVNVASQ CGLTNSNYTELTQLYEKYKDQ) and motif 3(FGDGIKWNFTKFLVDKDGHVVDRYAPTTSPLSIEKDIKKLL) were conserved among all sequence.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 151-155
Nitin John and Manish Kumar Arya
Depertment of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm in the Department of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The experiment comprises of 12 treatments of different levels of NPK, magnesium, sulphur and zinc. These all nutrients have synergistic effect on concentration and uptake by plant. Nitrogen, in presence of potassium, produced a synergistic effect enhancing their respective content and uptake in plant. Sulphur, zinc and nitrogen when used in combination, increases the concentration and uptake. Sulphur application increases phosphorus content and uptake by the liberation of strong acid from supplied sulphur and its consequent dissolution effect and mobilization of soil-P into available form for plant use but not at significant level. The slight increase in potassium content might be due to sulphur application and declination of potassium content with addition of magnesium. Sulphur concentration also increases with increasing level of zinc. Zinc concentration and uptake also increases significantly at all the stages with zinc application in the presence of phosphorus and magnesium. Application of zinc and sulphur increases the potassium content in grain and straw and produced more biomass and finally enhanced the uptake. It was also found that nitrogen and sulphur interacted synergistically on the uptake of potassium, but the uptake of potassium decreased with higher rate of sulphur and magnesium addition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 156-158
H C Lakshman and R V Airsang
P/G Department of Studies in Botany, Microbiology Laboratory, Karnatak University, Dharwad - 580 003, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A green house experiments were conducted to study the effect of six different vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for their symbiotic response on Ricinus communis which is important petro oil yielding plant. Of the used six AM fungi, Glomus macrocarpum was found to be the best and significantly, different from the uninoculated control plants in improving growth and nutrition resulting in greater plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, plant biomass, P and Zn content. In order to obtain healthy, vigorously growing seedlings, inoculation with Glomus macrocarpum, can be recommended as an inoculums to the seedlings at nursery.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 159-162
K Senthilraja
Depertment of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Sugar industry is the second largest industry in India, which discharges large quantities of liquid and solid wastes. Pressmud, commonly known as filter cake, is one among the solid wastes obtained during manufacturing of sugar having no major industrial applications. The pressmud contains considerable amount of plant nutrients including micronutrients. The pressmud fibre is one of the sugar industry wastes, which can be used for mushroom cultivation. The pressmud fibre mixed with the paddy straw at 1:3 ratio recorded relatively higher yield of oyster mushroom Pleurotus euos (APK1) when compared to other treatments. There was no distinct difference in the nutrient composition of the mushroom harvested from different treatments. In general, the 25 per cent pressmud fibre supplementation with paddy straw increasing the spawn running, pin head and fruit body formation and resulted in increased mushroom yields, while more pressmud fibre addition had a negative effect on growing.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 163-167
M K Amara Denis and *A Oladele Toyin
Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Njala University, Njala Campus, PMB, Via Taiama, Njala Mokonde, Moyamba District, Sierra Leone *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Studies on soil erodibility and erosivity parameters of rainfall pattern in the Njala area was undertaken to assess the current pattern of rainfall and its potential to cause soil erosion and to ascertain the level of susceptibility or vulnerability of soils to erosion by water. The month of July recorded the highest amount of rainfall (621.89), followed by August (532.68 mm) while June recorded the lowest amount of rainfall (240.28 mm). It was observed that July and August account for more than half of the total rainfall received during the rainy season. The study revealed that the predominant rainfall pattern in the Njala area is convective and monsoonal which is attributed partly to the characteristic properties of the rainfall which are most often concentrated in the late afternoon, and instability of rainfall which is largely as a result of the heating of the ground during the short period of sunshine in the rainy season. The highest rainfall erosivity was recorded in July (19.5 mm/hr) followed by August (17.2 mm/hr) and the lowest in June (1.6 mm/hr). September and October recorded similar rainfall erosivity values (4.3 mm/hr and 4.2 mm/hr, respectively). Mokoli silty clay soils recorded the highest soil erodibility (K-factor) value of 0.57 ton/acre/ha and Momenga gravely clay soils the lowest value of 0.26 ton/acre/ha indicating that Mokoli silty clay soils are highly susceptible or vulnerable to erosion while Momenga gravelly clay soils are less susceptible or vulnerable to erosion. The silty nature of the Mokoli silty clay soils could have offered these soils a higher percentage of micro pores than macro pores in which case the infiltration could be lower, thus, leading to build up of runoff and subsequent erosion potential of these soils.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 168-171
Sarita V Gund, P U Krishnaraj and A S Byadgi*
Department of Biotechnology, *Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Tomato leaf curl virus disease samples were collected from tomato field of University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad. The identity of virus was confirmed by coat protein gene specific PCR amplification of 1 Kb DNA fragment. The infection of ToLCV showed leaf curling symptoms with stunting of plants in tomato, tobacco, Parthenium and Ageratum conizoides. The coat protein gene of Dharwad isolate was sequenced and compared with the other twenty coat protein genes of different isolates from Karnataka state. Dharwad isolate coat protein gene showed 93 percent identity with tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus isolate, ToLCV. The phylogenetic tree using Neighbor-joining method resulted in three different clusters. The Dharwad isolate found to cluster with Bangalore isolates forming single sister branch. The phylogeny analysis using amino acid sequence data indicated similar pattern of sequence similarity between Dharwad and Bangalore isolates.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 172-174
R S Kallurmath
Depertment of Botany, Government First Grade College, Navabag, Bijapur, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In the present study the antifungal activity of Neem leef extract (NLE) and lime (Ca [OH2]) were tested against spore germination of Aspergillus niger, which causes black mold disease of onion. A. niger is potent pathogen of onion in India and Elsevier. The findings may be relevant with an objective of black mold disease management using different concentration of NLE and lime as a fungicide of biological origin and chemical control. The spore germination decreases with increase in the concentration of NLE and lime as 45.58 percent and 17.80 percent, respectively and they show most significant (P <0.01) in disease management. Studies were also made by zone inhibition (Agar diffuse) technique. Maximum inhibition was observed (27 mm) at 20 percent and minimum (17.50 mm) at 1 percent concentration. Black mold disease can be reduced by spraying Neem leaf extract and lime in store house and in field at the time of curing after their harvest. Selected test solutions are eco friendly and not much expensive compared to other fungicides.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 175-180
Pushpa K Kavatagi and H C Lakshman
Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Karnatak University Dharwad - 580 003, Karnataka, India
Abstract
This study investigated in the interaction of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), nitrogen fixer (Azotobacter) and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on two verities of Solanum lycopersicum L. (Var PMK 1 and Vaibhav). It was observed that the Solanum lycopersicum L., showed improved plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoot and roots in single inoculation either Glomus fasciculatum or Azotobacter chrococcum. The effect was, more pronounced in dual inoculation of Glomus fasciculatum with Azotobacter chrococcum, However, triple inoculation Glomus fasciculatum, Azotobacter chrococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens significantly improved root length, fresh weight of root, dry weight of root, fresh weight of shoot, dry weight of shoot, percentage root colonization, spore number and number of leaves over the control. It can be concluded that triple inoculation improve the tomato seedling sustainability at nursery.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 181-184
N Amrutha, G V Basavaraju and G Sarika
Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Department of Seed Science and Technology (GKVK), UAS, Bangalore during kharif 2012-13 to assess the response of nutrient levels and spacing on yield attributing parameters of Black gram cv. LBG-625 (Rashmi). Experimental results revealed that fertilizer application of 50:100:100 + Black gram rhizobia (250 g ha-1) + PSB- Bacillus megaterium (250 g ha-1) recorded more number of clusters plant 1 (11.00), pods plant 1 (46.11), pod weight plant 1 (15.87 g), threshing per cent (78.86%), seed recovery per cent (98%) and seed yield (13.61 q ha-1) superior over other fertilizer treatments. Among the planting geometry 60 × 10 cm recorded higher seed yield of 14.44 q ha-1 as compare to 45 × 10 cm (11.39 q ha-1) and 30 × 10 cm (10.00 q ha-1). Interaction of fertilizer levels and spacing through the application of 50:100:100 + Black gram rhizobia (250 g ha-1) + PSB- Bacillus megaterium (250 g ha-1) with planting geometry 60 × 10 cm recorded higher seed yielding attributes viz pod weight plant-1 (22.60 g), seed recovery per cent (98.28%) and seed yield (15.83 q ha-1) were obtained.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 185-187
H C Lakshman
Post Graduate Studies in Botany, Microbiology Laboratory, Karnatak University, Dharwad - 580 003, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The importance of bioinoculants in improving plant growth with reduced level of phosphate fertilizers has been well recognized. Interaction studies between Glomus mossae and Bacillus polymyxa on Niger plants were under taken. Results revealed that the inoculation of Glomus mossae and Bacillus polymyxa with 50:50 RP: SSP had influenced significantly increased root colonization, plant biomass and phosphorus uptake in shoots. The combined inoculation of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and phosphate solubilizers in niger brought optimum seed yield per plant. And thus it may be concluded that combined inoculation can be recommended to the niger plants with low phosphorus source than individual inoculation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 188-192
P V Ramesh Babu, Ch Pulla Rao, R Veeraraghavaiah, G Vijaya Kumar and K Vijay Kumar
Depertment of Agronomy, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to study the growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rice fallow maize under different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus applied to rice and fertilizer schedules given to maize during rabi on rice fallow maize (Zea mays L.) under zero till conditions on sandy clay loam soils of Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla during 2008-09 and 2009-10. The treatments consisted of four nitrogen levels i e 80 kg N ha-1, 120 kg N ha-1, 240 kg N ha-1, green manuring @ 5 t ha-1, three phosphorus levels i e 0, 30 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 to preceding rice and three fertilizer schedules i e 0, 50 and 100% (F1, F2 and F3) recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) to succeeding maize. Application of 240 kg N ha-1 in combination with 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 applied to kharif rice and 100% RDF to maize significantly increased the growth parameters viz plant height, drymatter accumulation, 50% silking and tasselling, grain yield, straw yield and nutrient uptake maize over other levels of nitrogen phosphorus and fertilizer schedules. The available N, P, K status of the soil increased in tune with the N and P uptake due to enhanced levels of nutrients.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 193-195
C Tamilselvi and U Bangarusamy
Depertment of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Studies were carried out to understand the effects of certain plant growth regulators on growth parameters in relation to yield improvement of banana cv. Ney Poovan. Foliar spray of different plant growth regulators at 3, 5 and 7 month after planting were given. Among the different growth regulator treatments, salicylic acid 100 ppm significantly increased the growth parameters, such as, pseudostem height and girth and functional leaf number, phyllochron, leaf area and higher fruit yield. However, high pseudostem girths were recorded in growth retardant treated plants. Salicylic acid and benzyl adenine spray produced higher fruit yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 196-198
Manish Kumar Arya, *Rakesh Kumar Dhanwani, **Nitin John and *V N Mishra
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Katghora, Korba, Chhattisgarh, India *Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, **Depertment of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes of potassium fraction in relation to potassium fertilization in a vertisol under maize-sunflower cropping system at Instructional Farm in the Department of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. The treatment consisted of five level of fertilizer potassium (K) application (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, kg K2O/ha) in four replication using randomized block design. The amount of all fractions was higher in surface layer (0-15 cm) than that in the sub surface layer (15-30 cm). The order of dominance of different form of potassium in the soil were non-exchangeable potassium (K) > exchangeable potassium (K) > available potassium (K) > water soluble potassium (K).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 199-202
N Sowmya, K N Mali and P S Gangadhar
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted during the year 2013 in University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad of Karnataka state. A sample of 60 students of UAS, Dharwad was selected by using the simple random method of sampling. Majority of the students were aware about finding the books by author and title name (86.66%). Most of them (91.66%) are visiting the library for reading the textbooks. Most of the students (95%) are found to be using books frequently. Majority of them (nearly 90%) are found to use the internet for browsing information. Majority of the students are old of 20 years and 23 years. Gender is equal containing both male and female of both UG and PG students. The number of the library's reading chairs, tables and the lighting system of the library is bright and adequate for reading (91.66%) and library standby power supply system (86.66%) were also available. Majority of them (nearly 66.67) are found to be convenient. Majority of the students are interest in Agriculture (70%), then followed by Home Science (18.33%) and Marketing (11.67%). Data was analyzed by using suitable statistical tools like mean, frequency and standard deviation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 203-206
Sunanda Sanganal, A A Patil, B Rekha, Vijayalaxmi Sanganal and K R Prasanna Babu
Depertment of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Gladiolus is commercially propagated through corms and cormels. The performance of gladiolus depends upon corm size, cultural practices and also the growing conditions. Corms of optimum size and weight should be used for commercial flower production. Three cormel sizes S1: (0.75 ± 0.25 cm, S2: 1.25 ± 0.25 cm, S3: 1.75 ± 0.25 cm) and eighteen hybrids developed at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad were taken for study. To study the variability in gladiolus hybrid and cormel sizes, a study of correlation in conjunction with path analysis was made in gladiolus hybrids available at the Institute. Weight of the corm produced showed a significant positive correlation with length of leaves, dry matter accumulation, number of cormells, ten cormells weight, breadth of leaves, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, days to 100% sprouting and days to 50% sprouting at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Number of leaves, leaf area index, leaf area, plant height, length of leaves, number of cormells and dry matter accumulation had positive direct and indirect effects.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 207-211
Nancy Thomas, Jiby John Mathew, N K Sajesh and Prem Jose Vazhacharickal
Depertment of Biotechnology, Mar Augusthinose College, Ramapuram - 686 576, Kottayam, Kerala, India
Abstract
Bioconversion of lignocellulosic agricultural residues through cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.) offers value addition as well as food security in developing countries. The present study was conducted to investigate the productivity of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) and pink oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eous) using various lignocellulosic substrates including paddy straw, banana leaves, saw dust and coffee husk. Boiled wheat grains were mixed with 4% (w/w) CaCO3 and 25 (w/w) CaSO4 and inoculated with fungal mycelia and incubated at 27 ± 1°C for 12 days until the gains were fully covered with mycelium. Production studies were carried out in polyethylene bags of one kilogram substrate with 2% of spawn laid in six layers. The biological efficiency of the both species was determined independently of the various substrates. The highest biological efficiency was noted with Pleurotus eous on saw dust (88.53 ± 1.3) where as Pleurotus pulmonarius produced maximum yield on paddy straw (87.13 ± 0.9). Further evaluation on total protein as well as total sugar content revealed the nutritional supremacy of the former one. The current study provides an opportunity for the commercial implication of oyster mushroom especially Pleurotus eous with the utilisation cheap and easily available lignocellulosic substrates.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 212-214
R K Bairwa, V Nepalia, C M Balai*, R Jalwania, P C Regar and L N Verma**
Department of Agronomy, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India Krishi Vigyan Kendra (MPUAT), Badal Mahal, Shashtri Colony, Dungarpur - 314 001, Rajasthan, India **Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Takarda, Chomu, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dungarpur (Rajasthan) during summer, 2010 and 2011 on sandy clay loam soil to investigate the effect of phosphorus (control, 20, 40 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1) and sulphur (control, 15, 30 and 45 kg S ha-1) on available NPK and S status of soil after harvest of summer green gram. Application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in significantly higher available N and P in soil over rest of the treatment on pooled basis. However, significant increased in available N only upto 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 during both the years of study. Available K was recorded significantly higher under plot treated with 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 but it was found at par with 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 during 2011. The available sulphur was significantly increased upto 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 but it was found at par with 40 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1. Among different sulphur levels, 45 kg S ha-1 build up significantly higher available S in the soil over rest of the treatments. While, available K was significantly increased upto 15 kg S ha-1 but it was at par with 30 and 45 kg S ha-1 on pooled basis. Sulphur fertilization was no significant in respect to available N and P. Interaction effect was found significant in respect to available sulphur status after harvest the crop. On pooled basis combined application of 45 kg S ha-1 along with 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 resulted in significantly higher available sulphur in the soil over rest of treatment combinations.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 215-218
D G M Saroja and M Subba Rao
Depertment of Plant Pathology, Bapatla Agriculture College (Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University), GBC Road, Bapatla - 522 101, District Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was aimed to detect the seed mycoflora associated with Bengalgram seed collected from four revenue Mandals of Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh to evaluate the efficacy of fungicides and plant extracts for seed treatment. Ten species of fungi viz Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chysogenum and Trichoderma sp. were found associated with Bengalgram seed collected from farmers seed lots. Standard blotter paper method was proved to be the best compared to agar plate method in isolating the seed mycoflora of Bengalgram. Captan and thiram at 2000 ppm concentration was effective in inhibiting the growth of most of the seed mycoflora tested in vitro followed by mancozeb, carbendazim and zineb. While among the plant extracts, the extracts of Allium sativum at 5 percent and Zingiber officinalis at 15 per cent were effective against the seed mycoflora followed by the extracts of Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus sp., Lantana camara and Vinca rosea.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 219-221
K Vijaya Kumar, P V Rama Kumar, J S V Sambamurthy and P G Tulasi*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India *Agricultural Extension Officer, V. Madugula, Visakhapatnam - 531 027, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Combining ability analysis in a set of fourteen parents crossed in a dialllel fashion (excluding reciprocals) to obtain 91 F1s for yield and yield contributing characters revealed that sca variance was higher than that of variance due to gca for all the nine characters indicating prevalence of non-additive gene action for the characters. YLM 66 was a good general combiner for number of primary branches, number of capsules per plant, oil content and seed yield per plant. A comprehensive examination of the results revealed that crosses YLM 66 × YLM 108, YLM 66 × YLM 106 and YLM 101 × YLM 83 were good specific combiners for yield and yield contributing characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 222-224
M Srinivasa Rao, V Satyanarayana Rao and K Udaya Bhanu
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Fifty four genotypes of castor (Ricinus communis L.) of diverse origin were studied to observe the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and yield attributing characters. The analysis of variance revealed that sufficient variability was present in the material studied for all the 28 characters. The phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was slightly higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the characters indicating the influence of environment. Higher heritability coupled with high genetic advance observed for all the characters except oil content and L/B ratio indicating the preponderance of additive gene action making selection effective.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 225-229
Sunanda Sanganal, A A Patil, Vijayalaxmi Sanganal, B Rekha and K R Prasanna Babu
Depertment of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Studies on the corm production of gladiolus hybrids were carried out in the Floriculture Unit, Division of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Dharwad, Karnataka, to investigate the effect of cormel size on corm production in different hybrids of gladiolus. The important characters studied were number of days taken for sprouting, plant height, number of leaves, corm diameter and corm weight. Three cormel sizes S1: (0.75 ± .25 cm, S2: 1.25 ± .25 cm, S3: 1.75 ± .025 cm) and eighteen hybrids developed at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad were taken for study. Plant height, more number of leaves, were obtained in large cormels (S3) and T10: Melody Chinna × American Beauty followed by (T7) Summer Pearl × Han Van Green and T18: Sylvia × Tropic Sea. Cormel sizes and hybrids differed significantly with respect to the diameter of the corm produced, T10: Melody Chinna × American Beauty recorded maximum diameter (5.31 cm). Whereas, T13: Summer Pearl × American Beauty (3.39 cm) recorded minimum corm diameter. Larger cormells (S3) and T10: Melody Chinna × American Beauty recorded maximum weight of corm produced, whereas it was least in T16: Melody × Tropic Sea.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 230-234
Vikas Yadav, P N Singh and Prakash Yadav*
Depertment of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India *Depertment of Agronomy, C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, India
Abstract
This investigation was conducted in ‘Sharbati’ cultivar of low-chill peach to assess whether pre-harvest foliar application of boron, zinc and iron individually or their combination influences plant growth (shoot growth and leaf area), leaf nutrient status of plant, fruit quality and yield or not. Treatments consisted of B as H3BO4 at 0.1%, Zn as ZnSO4, 7H20 at 0.5% and Fe as FeSO4 at 0.5% and plant sprayed with water served as the control. Treatments were applied two times on after petal fall stage and again at 15 days after the first spraying. Result indicated that fruit harvest from plants which were sprayed with B (0.1%) + Zn (0.5%) + Fe (0.5%) had significantly higher shoot growth (1.45 m, 1.49 m) and leaf area (24.82 cm2 and 24.80 cm2), chlorophyll content [a (2.86, 2.26), b (0.79, 0.81) and total (2.80, 2.97)], quality parameters like TSS (13.23°Brix and 11.95°Brix), lowest acidity (0.68% and 0.68%), maximum reducing sugar (8.73% and 8.85%), non reducing sugar (1.87% and 1.87% ), total sugar (8.47% and 8.43%), TSS: acid ratio (19.56 and 17.56) sugar: acid ratio (12.54 and 12.40) and ascorbic acid content (19.02 mg 100 g-1 pulp and 19.05 mg 100 g-1 pulp) in both the years, respectively. Result proved that foliar spraying of peach trees with 0.1% H3BO3 + 0.5 % ZnSO4, 7H2O + 0.5% FeSO4, 7H2O was best for improvement of fruit growth, fruit yield. Leaf nutrient status of plant like boron (67.30 mg kg-1 DW and 64.70 mg kg-1DW), zinc (95.22 mg kg-1DW and 96.90 mg kg-1 DW) and iron (142.53 mg kg-1 DW, 142.30 mg kg-1 DW) were found maximum when plant sprayed by micronutrient individually than other treatments but B (0.1%) + Zn (0.5%) + Fe (0.5%) combine treatments was found most suitable for normal plant growth and its health.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 235-241
Mushtaq Ahmad and Gul Zaffar
Division of Genetics and Pant Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, India
Abstract
In the present investigation, 10 parents were selected on the basis of divergence and mated in diallele mating design. Hybrids and parents were raised to measure heterosis for different forage yielding attributes. 45 hybrids and 10 parents were studied to determine the magnitude of heterosis and genotypic correlation between fodder yield and its contributing characters. Green fodder yield per plant showed a wide range among hybrids. Among the 45 hybrids, 42 had significant positive heterosis over the mid-parent. 37 hybrids had significant heterobeltiosis in the positive direction (desirable). The hybrid from the cross SKO-210 × SKO-213 had the highest magnitude of heterosis in the positive direction followed by SKO-207 × SKO-209 and SKO-205 × SKO-210 for green fodder yield per plant. Green fodder yield plant-1 had a significant positive correlation with number of leaves per plant, number of tillers per meter, plant height, leaf stem ratio and negative and significant correlation with days to 50% flowering. Path analysis indicated that plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of tillers per meter and number of leaves per plant had direct and positive effects on green fodder yield per plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 242-244
Gourishankar Sajjanar, G. Roopa Lavanya, Manjunath S. B. and P. S. Kiran Kumar
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Allahabad School of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted to study the effect of plant growth regulators, organics, inorganics and biofertilizers on growth, yield and seed vigour characters in green gram during kharif 2011. The experiment comprised of 13 treatments including control. Based on the mean performance 50% RDN (10:40:40 kg NPK kg per ha) + FYM @ 2 tonnes per ha + Rhizobium @ 20 g per kg seed + GA3 @ 40 ppm (T1) was identified as best treatment for seed yield and vigour characters. T1 obtained high plant height (cm), more number of branches, more number of leaves, less days to 50% flowering, more number of pods per plant, more number of seeds per pod, more seed yield per plant, more vigour characters. Interaction effect of variety with plant growth regulators, organics, inorganics and biofertilizers were significant for all the characters except days to 50% flowering, number of seeds per pod and germination (%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 245-248
P Deepthi
Depertment of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The effects of carbon sources and nitrogen sources on growth, biomass and cultural characteristics in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) isolate of Macrophomina phaseolina were studied. Among the evaluated different carbon sources, growth of M. phaseolina differ significantly with each other and it was found maximum in mannitol followed by lactose, maltose, dextrose, glucose and sucrose. Highest fresh and dry mycelial weight of M. phaseolina was found in dextrose (5.785 g and 0.677 g) followed by maltose (5.624 g and 0.556 g), sucrose (5.320 g and 0.523 g), glucose (5.123 g and 0.513 g), lactose (4.736 g and 0.365 g) and mannitol (4.554 g and 0.138 g). No biomass was recovered in control. Among the evaluated different nitrogen sources, maximum mycelial growth was found in magnesium nitrate followed by calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, barium nitrate and control. Significantly higher fresh (6.473 g) and dry (0.813 g) mycelial weight of M. phaseolina was observed in potassium nitrate followed by sodium nitrate (5.560 g and 0.793 g) and calcium nitrate (4.970 g and 0.666 g) and all other were at par with each other.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 249-253
Ashok Kumar, S K Singh, Amita Sharma, P K Bhati and S Y Dhurai
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out with 29 genotypes of rice to study the nature and magnitude of genetic divergence using D2 statistics. Twenty nine genotypes were grouped into 6 clusters based on Euclidean cluster analysis with cluster-I containing maximum of 13 genotypes. Maximum intra-cluster distance was observed in cluster-V indicating greater genetic divergence among genotypes belonging to this cluster. Number of spikelets per panicle, plant height and days to 50% flowering contributed maximum towards genetic divergence. Maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster-IV and VI followed by cluster-II and VI, cluster-I and VI and cluster-III and VI indicating wide genetic diversity between the clusters which may be used in rice hybridization programme(s) for improving grain yield through transgressive breeding. Hence, the crosses between HUR-3022 × Loha Chhad (cluster-IV × cluster-VI), Karahani × Loha Chhad (cluster-II × cluster-VI), Pusa Basmati-1 × Loha Chhad (cluster-I × cluster-VI), Pani Dhan × Loha Chhad (cluster-III × cluster-VI), BPT-5204 × Loha Chhad (cluster-IV × cluster-VI) and Karahani × BPT-5204 (cluster-II × cluster-V) could be suggested for the exploitation of transgressive segregants for both yield and yield traits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 254-258
Raveesha Siddaiah, Saikumar C Bharamappanavara and Tanveer Ahmed*
Department of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, Division of Resource Economics, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany *Assistant Director of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Government of Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study on PCARDBs attempted to analyze the credit impact on income and employment of borrowers and participation of weaker section in banking activity in Tumkur district of Karnataka state. Credit acts as a facilitator and it performs the important function of providing the farmers with requisite control over the resources affecting production. Cooperative credit structure was the main agency for providing credit both for crop production and investment in agriculture. The data relating to all the five PCARDBs of the study area were collected from the annual report tables maintained by office of the registrar of co-operative societies. A total of 75 farmers were chosen from the three taluks (25 farmers from each taluk). The impact of PCARDBs finance on the beneficiaries has been analyzed from the point of view of change in income and employment by comparing the pre-loan and past loan period. The present study result of participation of weaker section in the co-operatives particularly in PCARDBs assumes greater importance for the overall improvement in the society. There is a need to encourage SC/ST participation in the PCARDBs, so as to improve their Socio-economic status.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 259-263
K Manjunatha Chari, M V Ravi, B M Madhu and R V Beladhadi
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Cotton stalk resides were obtained after the cotton picking and farm residues like weeds were obtained in the field. The disposal of these wastes has been a major concern for the farmers as well as economist. However these wastes contain bio degradable organic and mineral constituents which are of plant origin which can be better utilized for composting. Composting was prepared by turning at monthly interval with chaffed cotton stalks and farm wastes, enrichment with other additives. Enriched compost was prepared using additives like urea, single super phosphate and during the termination of compost zinc, iron, copper and manganese were used. The result reveled that there was a reduction in pH and narrow C:N ratio, reduction in lignin content and total phenol during the composting period compare to original raw material and with increase in other nutrients like major, secondary and micronutrients during the period of composting period.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 264-268
Mushtaq Ahmad and Gul Zaffar
Division of Genetics and Pant Breeding, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, India
Abstract
In present investigation 10 parents were selected on the basis of divergence and mated in diallele mating design. Hybrids and parents were raised to measure heterosis for different grain yielding attributes. 45 hybrids and 10 parents were studied to determine the magnitude of heterosis and genotypic correlation between grain yield and its contributing characters. Grain yield per plant showed a wide range among hybrids. Twenty five crosses gave significant positive heterosis where as twenty four crosses had significant positive heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant. Higher heterosis and heterobeltiosis was noted in the hybrid cross combinations viz SKO-211 × SKO-213, SKO-207 × SKO-208, SKO-210 × SKO-212, SKO-210 × SKO-213, SKO-208 × SKO-213, SKO-209 × SKO-210, SKO-208 × SKO-211, SKO-205 × SABZAR, SKO-204 × SKO-212 and SKO-204 × SKO-210 for grain yield per plant. Grain yield plant-1 had a significant positive correlation with spikelets per panicle, seed length breadth ratio and 1000 seed weight (g). Path coefficient analysis revealed that the direct and positive effect of each contributing trait on grain yield per plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 269-272
R Swamy Sekhar and Kuldeep Mehta
Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of growth regulators on strawberry cv. Chandler at the Nando Experiment Block of Department of Fruit Science, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan. The growth regulators were observed to exhibit significant effect on the quality parameters in strawberry plants. The maximum physical parameters in terms of fruit size and weight observed with combination treatment of CPPU 6 ppm + GA3 50 ppm. The maximum total soluble solids, total sugars, reducing sugars and least acidity were observed in the plant treated with GA3 75 ppm. The highest non reducing sugars were recorded with CPPU 6 ppm and maximum anthocyanin content was recorded with GA3 50 ppm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 273-276
Sarika D Patil, T K Sen, S Chatterjee, D Sarkar and R M Handore*
National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Nagpur - 440 010, Maharashtra, India *Department of Botany, University of Pune - 411 007, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Status of DTPA extractable micronutrient cations in relation to some important physical and chemical properties of typical soils was studied in Goregaon and Aamgaon tehsil of Gondia district, Maharashtra. The data indicate that the surface soil possessed more acidity than the underlying one. The DTPA-extractable Fe and Mn were relatively high, whereas DTPA-Cu was above the critical level and Zn was deficient with decreasing concentration with the depth. There was significant negative correlation between soil pH and DTPA-extractable micronutrients.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 277-279
Anjan Kumar Naik, N R Koushik and Vivek Uppar
Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Soil biological and chemical properties as well as habitat conditions alter drastically when there is a conversion from natural to agricultural habitat. Most nutrients available for plant growth depend on complex interactions between plant roots, microorganisms and soil fauna. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the faunal diversity of agricultural and horticultural ecosystem, as faunal diversity influence decomposition and nutrient mineralization processes. Population of soil mites and springtails were higher in soybean (cryptostigmata, 41.33, mesostigmata, 11.33 and collembola, 25.67 individual/400gm soil) and groundnut (cryptostigmata 24.67, mesostigmata 11.67 and collembola 15.00 individual/400gm soil) ecosystem compared to wheat (cryptostigmata, 14.67, mesostigmata, 7.33 and collembola 9.00 individual/400gm soil) ecosystem during our investigation. However in horticultural ecosystem, population of collembola recorded highest in mulberry ecosystem (24.00 individual/400gm soil) followed by areca (11.33 individual/400gm soil). This higher population was due to presence of high amount of leaf litter and organic manure on the upper layers of soil. Population range of other soil arthropods was negligible in both agricultural and horticultural ecosystems.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 280-283
Rajesh U Rawal, V B Kuligod and Sudheendra Saunshi
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of graded doses of nitrogen on maize under varying levels soil salinity in Roogi village of Mudhol taluk during kharif 2012. The experiment comprised of four salinity levels (ECe <2 dSm-1, ECe 2-4 dSm-1, ECe 4-6 dSm-1 and ECe 6-8 dSm-1) and four nitrogen levels (150 kg N ha-1, 175 kg N ha-1, 200 kg N ha-1 and 225 kg N ha-1). Growth parameters like plant height (206 cm), leaf area index (4.26 cm), chlorophyll content of leaves (48.34) and dry matter accumulation per plant (181.9 g) were significantly higher at lower salinity level of <2 dSm-1 compared to higher salinity ECe 6-8 dSm-1. Treatment receiving 225 kg N ha-1 had better growth over the treatment receiving 150 kg N ha-1. Crop growth was not influenced by higher doses of nitrogen under saline conditions. The highest crop yield of 8.31 t ha-1 was observed under <2 followed by 2-4 dSm-1 and lowest crop yield of 3.46 t ha-1 were recorded at 6-8 dSm-1. Application of increased level of nitrogen resulted significant increase in yield. Application of 225 kg N ha-1 (6.74 t ha-1) recorded maximum yield it was closely followed by the 200 kg N ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 284-287
Mohammad Ashraf Mir, Mohammad Farooq Baqual and Shakeel Ahmed Mir*
Temperate Sericulture Research Institute, Mirgund, *Division of Agricultural Statistics, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
India produces around 20000 metric tons of silk against the consumption of 29000 metric tons, thus creating a deficit of 9000 metric tons. In Jammu and Kashmir State of India (Kashmir valley), 900 villages are associated with Sericulture industry involving about 7500 families, thus approximately contributing 35 per cent of total production of 830 metric tons of cocoon produced in the state. The present study with 300 sample respondents selected from four districts of Kashmir valley including Kupwara, Baramulla, Budgam and Pulwama was conducted to ascertain their socio-economic determinants and their influence on cocoon production. The data which was collected through a well defined questionnaire and personal contact with the stakeholders revealed that 83.67% of the respondents had marginal land holdings with less than 1 ha, 81.67% of them had very low (0-20%) of their available land under mulberry, only 13% of them were females, 61.33% of the respondents were practicing sericulture falling in the age group of 35-55 years, majority of them 52.33 % being illiterate with 53% of them having family strength of 5 members and thus the nuclear family. Only 26.35% of the farmers registered cocoon production in the range of 50-100 kg/ounce (100 Dfl’s) of silkworm seed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 288-291
M I Jamadar and A S Sajjan
Depertment of Seed Science and technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Influence of age of seedlings and spacing on plant growth, seed yield and quality attributes of transplanted pigeonpea was studied at Main Agricultural Research Station Dharwad, Karnataka during 2009-10. The seedlings transplanted in inter row spacing of 150 cm recorded significantly more number of pods per plant (297.25), pod weight per plant (336.17 g), seed weight per plant (266.17 g), seed yield recovery percentage (86.58) but significantly higher seed yield (22.46 q/ha) was recorded with 90 cm inter row spacing. The 28 days old seedling transplanted to field recorded significantly higher plant height (215.67 cm) at harvest, dry matter accumulation (676.96 g/plant), number of pods (300/plant), pods weight (352.78/plant), seed yield (23.42 q/ha) as compare to control (direct sown), 21 days and 35 days old seedlings. Interaction of inter row spacing with age of seedlings were found non significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 292-296
Daya Ram, M K Singh, K Santosh Singh and K P Chaudhary
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Iroisemba, Imphal - 795 004 Manipur, India
Abstract
Imphal east district of Manipur was selected purposively for present study, bsed on the maximum area cultivated under hybrid rice. The results revealed that 27.36 per cent of the respondents showed no gap in seed rate by adopting the recommended seed rate. However, majority of the respondents (72.64%) was found in the partial gap. Majority of the respondents were 51.89 per cent showed partial gap in timely nursery rising. 68.87 per cent of the respondents were found in full gap in adoption of plant protection in nursery. Majority of the respondents (66.04%) were found under partial gap in timely transplanting. Majority of the respondents (54.72%) were found under no gap in the use of recommended nitrogen fertilizer dose. The uses of phosphorus fertilizer by majority of the respondents (66.04%) were found under partial gap in the using of recommended phosphorus fertilizer. Majority of the respondents (62.26%) showed partial gap in the use of recommended potassic fertilizer dose. Majority of the respondents (71.70%) belonged to medium category of technological gap followed by low level of technological gap (25.47%). Only (2.83%) of the respondents had high extent of technological gap. This indicates that majority of the farmers where in partial gap due to lack of complete knowledge and information about the recommended practices in hybrid rice cultivation technology.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 297-299
Pardeep Kumar, Kuldeep Kumar, R K Yadav* and Alankar Lamba*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India *Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur - 208 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Analysis of genetic components of variance in F1 generation of seven parents generating by diallel mating design excluding reciprocal crosses. Analysis of variance indicated that the significant difference observed for almost all the traits. Different genetic components viz D, H1, H2, F, h2, F and E are estimated. Dominance genetic variance (H1 and H2) is higher than the additive genetic variance (D) for all the traits studies. The value of F is positive for all the traits except plant height (-0.07), number of seeds per siliqua (-0.31) and test weight (-0.03). The degree of dominance (Ĥ1/Ď)0.5 indicated that all the traits showed over dominance. Ratio of positive and negative effects of genes Ĥ2/4Ĥ1 was nearly 0.25 for all the traits in F1. The ratio of dominance and recessive genes more than unity for all the traits except plant height, number of seeds per siliqua and test weight. The trait number of primary branches per governed by more number of genes (4.68) and dominance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 300-302
Pramodkumar Yadav, G Roopa Lavanya, Ashish Singh and G Suresh Babu
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A research was conducted to examine the 76 mungbean mutant lines in M3 and M4 generation treated with 16 different concentrations of mutagenic agent (gamma rays and sodium azide) along with one control (malaka local) to study the genetic variability and genetic diversity during kharif 2011-12. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications and data were recorded on eleven morphological characters at different growth stages. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among mutant lines for all characters studied. Highest genetic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were recorded for number of pods per plant. Highest heritability (broad sense) coupled with high genetic advance (%) was recorded for number of pods per plant. Mahalanobis’s (D2) statistic was used to find out genetic divergence among the lines. The mutant lines were grouped into nine clusters. Cluster XI showed highest cluster mean value for the number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant (gm) in compassion of other cluster. Therefore, hybridization between mutant lines belonging cluster IV and VII is suggested for development of superior genotypes. Maximum contribution towards genetic diversity was exhibited by seed yield per plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 303-308
Sheela Duddagi, D L Savithramma and Shivaleela Kukanur
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Association, direct and indirect effects on yield are essential for crop improvement. Three cross combinations of mungbean viz BL 866 × KKM 3, SML 134 × VGG 4, ML 347 × NP 36 in F2 generations were studied to assess degree association, direct and indirect effects of different morphological traits, water use efficiency and its attributing traits on yield. Based on results in populations of three crosses BL 866 × KKM 3, SML 134 × VGG 4, ML 347 × NP 36 seed yield per plant has strong positive correlation with clusters per plant, pods per cluster, pods per plant, pod yield per plant, threshing per cent and pod yield per plant exhibited highest direct effect. Pods per plant exhibited highest indirect effect via pod yield per plant. In ML-347 × NP-36 seed yield per plant has strong positive correlation with SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading. The present findings could be useful for establishing selection criteria for high seed yield in the mungbean breeding.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 309-312
M Gayathri and P Rajendra Prasad
Depertment of Entomology, S. V. Agriculture College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Different insecticides are used to control the mealy bug as well as to know the effect of insecticides on the growth and development of silkworm Bombyx mori L. The maximum per cent population reduction (61.28%) of mealy bugs was observed with Oxydemeton methyl 0.05 per cent and dimethoate 0.05 per cent (58.18%) treatments. DDVP and nimbicidine treatments were also found to be effective at all three concentrations. Studies on insecticidal toxicity to silkworm larvae recorded relatively shorter waiting period (3-5 days) for nimbicidine and DDVP at all three concentrations. Whereas, longer waiting period (7-10 days) for dimethoate and Oxydemeton methyl at 0.05, 0.025 and 0.0125 per cent concentrations were noticed. Oxydemeton methyl (at all three concentrations) in spite of its high effectiveness against the mealy bugs is not recommended to use on mulberry leaves due to its high residual toxicity and unfavourable effects on the silk worm. DDVP and nimbicidine at all the three concentrations recorded shorter waiting period, satisfactory control of mulberry mealy bugs and favourable effects on the economic character of silkworm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 313-316
Shivaleela Kukanur, D L Savithramma, Sheela Duddagi and A Vijayabharathi
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 at University of Agricultural Sciences(UAS) Bangalore in a simple lattice design (15 × 15) with two replications to estimate genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance as percentage of mean of days to 50% flowering, plant height, primary branches per plant, pods per plant, kernel yield per plant, test weight, pod shelling, sound mature kernel, pod yield per plant, protein content, oil content, late leaf spot and rust disease incidence in a mini core collection and other advanced breeding lines of groundnut. In the material studied, the PCV and GCV estimates were high (>20%) for pods per plant, pod yield per plant, kernel yield per plant and test weight suggesting presence of considerable variability. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for plant height, primary branches per plant, pods per plant, kernel yield per plant, test weight, sound mature kernel percentage, late leaf spot, rust and pod yield per plant suggesting that these traits are governed by additive gene action and hence, selection is effective in improvement of these traits. Thus from the present study we can say that the mini core of the germplasm acts as the repository of variability for most of the traits and the traits under study can be improved by selection.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 317-321
S Kanagarasu and A John Joel
Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food crop in many tropical countries in Africa, South America and Asia. To improve cassava productivity or enhance its nutritional quality, selection of parental material is necessary. The current study therefore investigated genetic diversity of 41 cassava accession using eight root traits and 13 physicochemical, biochemical and viscosity properties of flours. Principal component analysis (PCA) for physicochemical, biochemical and viscosity indicated that the first three principal components accounted for 57.96% of the total variation with PCA1, PCA2 and PCA3 contributing 28.91, 15.29 and 13.76%, respectively. Both root morphological descriptors and physicochemical, biochemical and viscosity of flours were able to group the accessions into distinct clusters independent of colour, taste, biochemical content and functionality. The present study would be valuable for efficient management of germplasm and for effective utilization of materials in breeding programmes to produce hybrids of desirable characteristics to meet the needs of farmers, consumers and industries.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 322-325
M Jayalakshmi and S G Wankhade
Depertment of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Dr. Panjab Rao Deshmukh Krish Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried at Nagarjun Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Garden. Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. There were four levels of nitrogen viz 0 kg (N0), 40 kg (N1), 60 kg (N2), 80 kg (N3) and three levels of phosphorus 0 kg (P0), 20 kg (P1), 40 kg (P2) ha-1, tried in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The experimental findings revealed that growth parameters like plant height and number of tillers was recorded significantly highest due to the application of 80 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. The fresh herbage yield was maximum with application of 80 kg N ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 326-329
S B Nagaraj and H C Swathi*
Depertment of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India *Depertment of Sericulture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out at Kolar district during 2011-2012 to study the Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on chlorophyll content, growth and yield of mulberry under rainfed condition. Significantly higher leaf yield was recorded in T4- 75% RDP + VAM inoculation (360.30 g/plant). There was 43.28 percent increase in leaf yield T4- 75% RDP + VAM inoculation over control plot. This was due to maximum plant height (176.92cm), highest number of branches per plant (36.56), higher moisture content of leaves (72.95%), higher chlorophyll (34.20) recorded in T4- 75% RDP + VAM inoculation and more number of leaves per plant (260.94), higher (0.46%) higher leaves phosphorous content at 60th day after pruning.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 330-335
Sheela Duddagi, D L Savithramma and Shivaleela Kukanur
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Three cross combinations of mungbean viz BL 866 × KKM 3, SML 134 × VGG 4, ML 347 × NP 36 in F2 generations were studied for genetic parameters for yield, water use efficiency and its attributing traits. Based on results of genetic parameters, populations of BL-866 × KKM-3 for seeds per pod, threshing percent and SML-134 × VGG-4 for plant height, primary branches per plant, pod length, pod yield per plant, seed yield per plant and Specific Leaf Area, cross ML-347 × NP-36 for plant height, pods per cluster, pod length, threshing percent, Specific Leaf Area and SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading showed additive type of gene action as the said traits in these particular cross combinations contain high heritability values combined with high genetic advance. Δ13C has recorded lower value of genetic advance as percent of mean indicating narrow range of variability high gene interaction or non additive gene action. Present study revealed that during selection, seed yield per plant, threshing per cent, SLA and SCMR may be used as selection criteria followed by seeds per pod, primary branches per plant, pod yield per plant and pod length.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 336-339
M Gayathri and P Rajendra Prasad
Depertment of Entomology, S. V. Agriculture College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The silkworm larvae fed with tukra affected leaves from hatching to spinning stage resulted marginal enhancement in the larval weight and reduction in total larval span of silkworms. However, the other quantitative characters showed no significant difference between all the treatments and control with regards to larval mortality percent, cocoon weight, pupal weight, cocoon yield/10,000 larvae brushed and ERR. An increased shell weight (1.93 g) and shell ratio (18.58%) was observed with feeding of high per cent disease index of leaves to the silkworm larvae. It may be due to the tukra affected leaves contained increased protein, total sugars and decreased phenol content compared to healthy leaves due to the infection of pathogens.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 340-341
Manish Kumar Arya, *Rakesh Kumar Dhanwani, **Nitin John and *V N Mishra
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Katghora, Korba, Chhattisgarh, India *Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, **Depertment of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study of crop response to K application in vertisol in maize-sunflower cropping system, at Instructional Farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) India. The treatment consisted of five level of fertilizer K application (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, kg K2O/ha) in four replications using randomized block design. No crop responses were observed to K fertilizer in terms of yield and potassium uptake of maize and sunflower crops. This indicates that soil under study is sufficient to meet the potassium requirement of the crops.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 342-244
R J Gajera, H R Khafi*, A D Raj*, V Yadav* and A N Lad*
Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India *Krushi Vigyan Kendra (Navsari Agricultural University), Dediapada - 393 040, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus and bio-fertilizers on quality of greengram. The significantly highest seed (1140 kg/ha) and stover (5890 kg/ha) yields recorded by application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 which was at par with 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 level was to the tune of 44.0 and 13.2 percent, respectively over control. The highest seed (1100 kg/ha) and stover (5800 kg/ha) yields was recorded by application of Rhizobium inoculation over liquid PSB inoculation and control. Significantly higher protein content (23.42%) was recorded by application of 60 kg P2O5 level over control, but which was at par with application of 20 and 40 kg P2O5 level. Significantly higher N content in the seeds (3.75%) and stover (0.870%) was recorded by application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1, which was at par with application of 20 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 level. Application of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 recorded significantly higher P content in seed (0.36%) as compared to control and 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Application of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 recorded significantly higher N and P uptake (42.50, 51.10 and 4.13 and 9.96 kg/ha, respectively) by seeds and stover over control. Significantly higher N and P uptake by seeds (40.19 and 4.14 kg/ha) was recorded be inoculation with rhizobium over control. Significantly higher N and P uptake by stover (48.72 and 9.74 kg/ha) were recorded by inoculation with rhizobium over control, which was at par with inoculation with liquid PSB.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 345-346
V M Bharade and S S Mhetre
Department of Agricultural Botany, Marathwada Agricultural University Parbhani, Maharshtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken with a view to assess the genetic purity of cotton cultivars using electrophoretic patterns of water-soluble (albumin) seed proteins. The experimental material consisted of two varieties viz NH 452 and NH 545 and two hybrids, NHH 44 and PHH 316 and their parents. Qualitative and quantitative differences were observed among the cultivars for their banding patterns depending on their Rm values.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 347-348
K Vijaya Kumar, P V Rama Kumar, J S V Sambamurthy, K V M Krishna Murthy, V Srinivasa Rao and P G Tulasi
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Bapatla – 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
High heritability coupled with high genetic advance in percentage of mean was recorded for plant height, number of primary branches, number of capsules/plant, number of seeds/capsule and seed yield per plant. Highest PCV was recorded by number of secondary branches followed by seed yield per plant. The lowest was recorded by oil content. Genotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 3.80 to 51.08%. Highest GCV was recorded by number of secondary branches followed by seed yield per plant while the lowest was recorded by oil content.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 349-350
Satyakumari Sharma, G S Rawat, R Sharma and R K Mathukia
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Rajmata Vijyaraje Sindhiya Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior - 474 002, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of fertilizer (10-20 and 20-40 kg N-P2O5/ha) and row spacing (30 and 45 cm) on clusterbean genotypes (HG-04-875, RGR-6, RGR-7 and HG-563). The results indicated that number of branches/plant and length of pod significantly increased with increasing dose of fertilizer from 10-20 to 20-40 kg N-P2O5 kg/ha. However, plant height, biomass/plant, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, test weight, seed weight/plant, stalk weight/plant, seed yield, stalk yield and harvest index remained unaffected due to fertility levels. Crop sown at 45 cm row spacing produced more number of branches/plant, biomass/plant, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, seed weight/plant and stalk yield than 30 cm row spacing. While plant height, length of pod, test weight, stalk weight/plant and seed yield were not influenced by row spacing. Harvest index significantly decreased at 45 cm row spacing over 30 cm row spacing. Clusterbean genotypes differed significantly in plant height, biomass/plant, number of pods/plant, 100-seed weight, seed weight/plant, stalk weight/plant, seed yield, stalk yield and harvest index and the variety ‘HG-563’ followed by ‘RGR-6’ were found superior to others in these respects. Higher production from clusterbean can be secured by sowing variety ‘HG-563’ at 45 cm row spacing and fertilizing with at least 10-20 kg N-P2O5/ha under the agro-climatic conditions of Gwalior region.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 351-352
Nitin John and Manish Kumar Arya
Depertment of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Status of sulphur, magnesium and zinc differ with the treatment applied after harvest of the crop. Available sulphur after harvest of crop was increased due to application of elemental sulphur before sowing of the rice crop. There were significant differences among the various treatments for Mg content in soil after harvest of rice crop. There was slight decrease in Mg content after harvest of rice crop. The mean value of Zn content after harvest of rice crop was 2.14 ppm, whereas initial mean value was 2.01 ppm. There was slight increase in Zn content after harvest of rice crop. The higher level of Mg increased the zinc content in soil due to sharing its role with zinc. The DTPA Zn taken as available soil Zn did not differ with source of Zn but increased with each level of Zn application.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 351-352
Nitin John and Manish Kumar Arya
Depertment of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Status of sulphur, magnesium and zinc differ with the treatment applied after harvest of the crop. Available sulphur after harvest of crop was increased due to application of elemental sulphur before sowing of the rice crop. There were significant differences among the various treatments for Mg content in soil after harvest of rice crop. There was slight decrease in Mg content after harvest of rice crop. The mean value of Zn content after harvest of rice crop was 2.14 ppm, whereas initial mean value was 2.01 ppm. There was slight increase in Zn content after harvest of rice crop. The higher level of Mg increased the zinc content in soil due to sharing its role with zinc. The DTPA Zn taken as available soil Zn did not differ with source of Zn but increased with each level of Zn application.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 353-354
K P S Kirar, R Lekhi, Satyakumari Sharma and R Sharma
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Rajmata Vijyaraje Sindhiya Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior - 474 002, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Effect of recommended dose of fertilizer (NPK), vermi-compost on the basis of RDN, Azotobactor and PSB on growth and flower yield of China aster indicated that maximum height of plant, maximum height of diameter, maximum width of leaves, maximum date of blooming and full blooming per harvesting of floral heads, maximum number of leaves and maximum length of longest leaf were significantly increased with 75% NPK + Vermi-compost + Azotobactor + PSB followed by under treatment 50% NPK + Vermi-compost + Azotobactor + PSB. maximum weight of floral heads, Maximum length of floral head, maximum width of floral heads, maximum length of floral stalk, maximum number of floral heads, maximum fresh weight of floral head per plant, maximum fresh weight of floral head were significantly increased with 50% NPK + Vermi-compost + Azotobactor + PSB followed by 75% NPK + Vermi-compost + Azotobactor + PSB.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 355-356
K Vijaya Kumar, P V Rama Kumar, J S V Sambamurthy, P Ashoka Rani and G Vijaya Kumar*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Bapatla – 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India *Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA), Ongole, Prakasam, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Stability of 14 parents and 91 F1s were studied in four environments. The first principal component axis (IPCA 1) captured 52.56% of the interaction sum of squares at 106 degrees of freedom. Similarly, the second principal component axis (IPCA 2) explained a further 30.30% of the GEI squares. Based on AMMI biplots the hybrids viz YLM 66 × YLM 104, YLM 11 × YLM 107 and YLM 17 × YLM 66, showed little G × E interaction because of relatively small distance from the coordinates to the abscissa and were regarded as stable hybrids with high seed yield per plant over environments. Of the four environments tested, Peddapuram was found to be favourable for seed yield per plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 357-359
Udaya Bhanu Kote, M Srinivasa Rao, V Satyanarayana Rao and M Lal Ahamed
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Fifty two genotypes were characterized based on their morphological characters as per DUS guidelines of castor. viz stem colour, types of inter nodes on stem, plant branching pattern, petiole colour, lamina leaf colour, bloom, type of inflorescence, colour of stigma, capsule type, spike shape, spike compactness, seed colour.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 360-361
Nitin John and Manish Kumar Arya
Depertment of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of application of secondary and micronutrients on soil fertility at Instructional Farm in the Department of Soil Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The experiment comprises of 12 treatments of different levels of NPK, magnesium, sulphur and zinc. Recommended dose of NPK (100:60:40 kg ha-1 N : P2O5 : K2O, respectively) with combination of zinc sulphate and magnesium sulphate has positive effect on rice productivity. The increase in yield of rice grain and straw is due to combined effect of zinc, sulphur, and magnesium with NPK fertilizers and maximum availability of these nutrients to the plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 362-363
S B Bade, H R Khafi, A D Raj, V Yadav*, P Yadav** and T C Poonia
Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India *Krushi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Dediapada - 393 040, Gujarat, India **Department of Agronomy, C. S. A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 at Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat) on clay soil to study the effect of bio-fertilizer and fertility levels on growth, yield and economics of cluster bean. Twelve treatments comprising all possible combinations of three levels of bio-fertilizers viz without inoculation, with PSB inoculation and with Rhizobium inoculation and four levels of chemical fertilizers viz 0, 50, 75 and 100% RDF were tried in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The result of the experiment revealed that application of 100% RDF and seeds inoculated with Rhizobium significantly increased the growth parameters viz plant height, branches per plant as well as yield attributes like pods per plant, seeds per pod and test weight. The highest seed (1006 kg/ha) and stover (4138 kg/ha) yields were significantly recorded by seed inoculation with Rhizobium while seed (907 kg/ha) and stover (4124 kg/ha) yields were produced with application of 100% RDF to the cluster bean.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 364-365
R Swamy Sekhar and Kuldeep Mehta
Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of various (Pro.Ca, CPPU, GA, Ethephon, NAA, CPPU + GA) growth regulators on runner’s production of strawberry cv. Chandler under the open field condition. The present experiment was conducted at the Nando Experiment Block, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan, H.P. for two consecutive years (2011-12 and 2012-13). The growth regulators were observed to exhibit significant effect on the runner production in strawberry plants. The maximum runner production was observed in the plant treated with GA3 75 ppm followed by GA 25 and 50 ppm and CPPU + GA treatments. However, the minimum runner production was recorded in Pro.Ca compare with the control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 366-367
B Ramachandraiah and N Hariprasad Rao
Department of Vegetables Science, Dr. Y. S. R Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Pre-emergence application of oxadiargyl @ 90 g a.i ha-1 integrated with post emergence application of quizalofop ethyl 75 g a.i ha-1 at 2-4 leaves stage recorded lower weed density, weed dry weight, weed index and higher weed control efficiency than other treatments. All the pre-emergence herbicides integrated with post-emergence herbicides recorded significantly lower weed density, weed dry weight, weed index and higher weed control efficiency than the treatment of pre-emergence herbicides integrated with hand weeding at 30 DAT and mulching with ground nut shells at 30 DAT.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 368-369
M Gayathri and P Rajendra Prasad
Depertment of Entomology, S. V. Agriculture College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Survey was conducted in mulberry fields to know the severity and seasonal incidence of tukra disease across six villages of Chittoor and Ananthapur districts of Andhra Pradesh. The per cent disease index (PDI) was noticed in three different varieties of mulberry viz V1, M5 and local. Across different villages relatively high PDI was noticed in Mamunduru and Ramunipalli villages of Chittoor and Ananathapur districts respectively. Among three different varieties high incidence of tukra 46.7 ± 2.06 noticed on V1 variety of mulberry. Its seasonal incidence was high in summer and pre monsoon season compared to other months.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 2 ; 370-372
S B Bade, H R Khafi, A D Raj, V Yadav*, P Yadav** and T C Poonia
Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India *Krushi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Dediapada - 393 040, Gujarat, India **Department of Agronomy, C. S. A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 at Junagadh to know effect of bio fertilizer and fertility levels on yield, quality, nutrient content and uptake of cluster bean. Twelve treatments comprising of three levels of bio fertilizer viz without inoculation, with PSB inoculation and Rhizobium inoculation and four fertility levels viz 0, 50, 75 and 100% RDF were tried in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The result of the experiment indicated that significantly the highest seed and stover yield of 1006 and 4138 kg/ha respectively, was recorded in seed inoculation by Rhizobium treatment. The increased in recommended dose of fertilizers significantly increased seed (907 kg/ha) and stover (4124 kg/ha) yield. Inoculated with Rhizobium significantly increased protein (27.5%), N, P content and uptake by seed and stover. The highest protein content (25.1%) as well as content and uptake of N and P by seed and stover were observed by 100% RDF. Significant improvement in available N and P status in soil was also reported due to Rhizobium inoculation and 100% recommended dose of fertilizers.


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