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Volume - 5 - July-August 2014
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 609-615
Shraddha Bhatt, R V Vyas, Sneha Mistry and H N Shelat
Department of Microbiology, Anand Agricultural University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India
Abstract
World population is increasing at an alarming rate and is expected to reach about six billion by the end of year 2050. On the other hand food productivity is decreasing due to the effect of various abiotic stresses; therefore minimizing these losses is a major area of concern for all nations to cope with the increasing food requirements. In general, salinity and drought exerts its malicious effect mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the cell. Salinity and drought are among the major stresses, which adversely affect plants growth and productivity. In this review we have emphasized on various aspects of salinity and drought stresses and role of PGPR and VAM to mitigate it the stresses. PGPR/PGPB and VAM are can produce natural chemical compounds which helps plant to withstand against stresses and in growth. This technology is cheap yet effective and easy to use in agriculture.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 616-619
Anjan Kumar Naik, Vinayak Pise, Shashidhar Viraktamath, Shashikant S Udikeri and Vivek Uppar
Depertment of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present investigations were carried out on the farmer’s field at Govanakoppa village under Bailahongal taluk in Belgum district. Eight species of pollinators were recorded among these, seven species belonged to the order Hymenoptera and one belonged to the order Diptera. Of the eight species honey bees were predominant. Apis cerana F., A. florea F. and A. dorsata F. constituted 35.21, 31.22, and 24.53 percent of total pollinators. Foraging activity of A. dorsata was uniform throughout the day and during the entire flowering period (7th to 42nd days after flowering). Activity of A. cerana and A. florea was also uniform but significantly higher numbers of A. cerana and A. florea bees (0.26 and 0.28, 0.26 and 0.27 bees/10m2/5 min) were observed at 1330 hours. Som the conservation of pollinators and use of honey bee colonies will play efficient role in enhancing the yield. These results reveal that BG-I cotton expressing Cry 1A gene, do not hinder the activity of honey bees.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 620-624
Mohammed Farooq, R V Hegde and M I Jamadar
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in rabi 2009-10 and 2010-11 to evaluate the performance of different genotypes of coriander at Agriculture Research Station, Janwada Farm, Bidar. Among the 41 genotypes evaluated Hisar Sugandh recorded significantly the highest plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and seed yield followed by NRCSS ACr-1 where as the lowest seed yield was recorded in DCC19. The genotypes Hisar Sugandh (11.64 q/ha), NRCSS-ACr-1 (8.65 q/ha), GCr-2 (7.77 q/ha) Sadhana (7.53 q/ha) and RCr-684 (7.33 q/ha) proved there superiority significantly over the check DWD-3 (6.58 q/ha). The genotype DCC-3 recorded the highest herbage yield as against the lowest in RCr-435.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 625-629
Sanjay Kumar, R K Agnihotri, Gurpreet Singh, Vandana Chauhan, M Anayat and Rajendra Sharma
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Khandari Campus, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra - 282 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Heavy metals are of great concern as soil pollutants because they lead to loss in agriculture productivity and can threaten the health of human beings and animals through the food chain. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cd and Hg on root development and biomass production in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Maize is one of the world's most important crops ranking third after wheat and rice, so the changes induced by one of the most toxic heavy metals. Three concentrations viz 50, 100 and 150 µm of Cd and Hg were applied. Cd and Hg at 50 µm/L concentration resulted in less significant effect on adventitious roots and remains the same, while 150 µM/L concentrations of Cd and Hg showed more toxic effect and reduced rate increased to 14, 9% and 19 and 17% over control in 150 µM/L concentrations. In biomass, the decline rate at 150 µM/L was 22, 31% and 21, 25% in root dry weight and shoot dry weight compared to control. However, the addition of nitrogen (5mM) somehow minimized the effect of these heavy metals. Nitrogen increased the root development and biomass content of metal treated plants. Mercury showed more toxic effects than cadmium.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 530-533
G Uma, M Venkata Ramana and A Gowri Devi
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 at College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar. The experiment consisted of 12 treatments laid out in randomized block design with three replications consisting of two pre-emergence herbicides integrated with post emergence herbicides and one hand weeding at 40DAT and two post emergence herbicide, hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 days after transplanting, compared with weed free and unweeded check. The predominant weed flora observed in the experimental field were Echinochloa crusgalli, Panicum repens, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus difformis, Eclipta alba and Ammania baccifera. The results revealed that pre-emergence application of Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% @10kg granules ha-1 + Hand weeding at 40 DAT (5455 kg ha-1 and 6345 kg ha-1) and Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% @ 10 kg granules ha-1 + Bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield (5365 and 6265 kg ha-1) which remained at par with two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAT (5580 and 6464 kg ha-1). Further the net returns and B:C ratio were also high with the pre-emergence application of Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + Pretilachlor 6% @ 10 kg granules ha-1 + Bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i. ha-1 (1.40).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 634-636
Nataraj Patted, Ashwini Hebbar*, Gouri Yelvattimath, Prakash Mokashi and S Kumar
Department of Agri-business Management, *Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Chilli is one of the important spice crops of India. Among the spice exports, chillies share is about 25 percent. Its export earns about ` 200 crores (2004-05). Chilli crop is grown largely for the production of dry chillies. Demand is increasing for value added products of chillies, such as chilli paste, chilli powders and other sauces for the convenience of food industry. In the extraction industry, there is always demand for high capsaicin content (over1%) in chilies. Western countries are having good demand for Indian dry chilies. United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and Bahrain are the major countries to import Indian dry chillies.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 637-639
Azra Anjum, M A Khan, Kamaluddin, B A Padder*, Ishtiyaq Ahad and S C Bharadwaj**
Faculty of Agriculture, SKUAST-Kashmir, Wadura, Sopore - 193 201, Jammu and Kashmir, India, *Division of Plant Pathology, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India **Rust Research Laboratory, Directorate of Wheat Research, Flowerdale, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important rabi season crop of Kashmir province of Jammu and Kashmir state of India. Rust surveys were conducted during the rabi season of year 2012-13 in two different wheat growing areas of Kashmir valley; Srinagar and Baramulla. Among the foliar diseases, rust diseases are considered to be greater threat to wheat cultivation in almost all wheat growing states of India. The prevalence of leaf rust disease on wheat and Identification of leaf rust races 12-9 (93R37-1) and 77-11 (125R28) under valley conditions were reported. The information shall be helpful for the breeders and pathologists working on wheat in devising their long term strategies with respect to the resistance gene deployment across time and space for effective control of this disease across the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 640-642
Baba Fakruddin, Mohammed Ibrahim, Mahantha Shivayogayya and Santosh Khadakabhavi
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Genetic diversity among three seventy two mutant lines of rice from two parental varieties viz BPT-5204 and RP- Bio 226 were irradiated with gamma rays of 30 and 40 Kr was used to evaluated using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. Based on 17 morphological characters of these mutant lines were grouped into three Clusters. Cluster I with 359 mutant lines was the largest cluster followed by Cluster II with 12 mutant lines and Cluster III with one mutant line was observed. The highest intra-cluster distance was recorded for cluster-I followed by cluster II and cluster III. The inter cluster distance ranged from 130.99 cm to 261.43 cm. The highest distance was observed between cluster III and I. Lowest cluster distance was measured from cluster II and I. Percent contribution of characters towards divergence was found that number of spikelet per panicle and number of filled grains per panicle contributed for maximum genetic diversity and likely to produce heterotic combinations and wide variability in segregating generations.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 643-649
G Sathiya Narayanan, M Prakash and V Rajesh Kumar
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram - 608 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Pulses are the most important seed crops in India contributing significantly high quality protein. Blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper), is an important pulse crop of our country belonging to the family leguminoceae and sub- family Papilonoceae. The low productivity in pulses is due to the fact that they are grown mostly in marginal and rainfed areas, under inadequate soil moisture and poor fertility status of the soil. To overcome these adverse environmental conditions, integrated seed treatment given as a pre-sowing treatment is a boon in dry land/rainfed agriculture. Hence, a study was attempted to find out the influence of various seed treatments on growth and yield parameters in blackgram under saline condition. The seeds of blackgram cv VBN 4 were imposed with various seed hardening and pelleting treatments and the treated seeds along with control were evaluated for their seed quality, growth, gas exchange and yield parameters under saline condition in laboratory and field trials. The study revealed that seeds fortified with MgSO4 + polykote + carbendazim + dimethoate + bioinoculant (Pseudomononas fluorescens) + Rhizobium + Azophos + pelleting with DAP recorded higher seed yield and other parameters when compared to other treatments and control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 650-654
Sheshaiah, I Shanker Goud, V Vikas Kulakarni and U K Shanwad*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, *Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out to identify moisture stress tolerant genotypes based on better root characteristics. The experiment was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur during rabi 2012-13, total thirty two genotypes have been evaluated in randomized block design fashion under root structures for 18 different characters (both morphological and root traits). The results of ANOVA revealed significant differences for all the studied characters. The root length ranged from 20.75 to 71.00 cm and highest root length exhibited by GP6-1102 (71.00 cm) and RSFH-130 (70.57 cm), while highest root volume, fresh root weight, dry root weight and total dry matter (TDM) content of plants exhibited by RSFH-130 ¬¬¬over the other genotypes. Based on the mean per se performances four promising genotypes viz GP6-614, GP6-854, GP6-863 and RSFH-130 were identified for significant high root length, root volume, fresh root weight, dry root weight and total dry matter, which may perform more efficiently under moisture stress condition by utilizing water from the deeper layers of soil profile.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 655-657
Nataraj Patted, Ashwini Hebbar*, Gouri Yelvattimath, S Kumar and Prakash Mokashi
Department of Agri-business Management, *Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The areca nut is the seed of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. It is commonly referred to as betel nut, as it is often chewed wrapped in betel leaves. There is a positive growth in export of areca nut to different countries in the world. Maldives and United States of America were only the loyal countries to import Indian areca for its consumption. Areca nut products like areca nut powder and others are being exported from India. As per projection there is growth of Indian areca nut export to all the studied countries. Indian government need to think in more production of export.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 658-661
S V Geeta, A M Shirol, S Nishani, M Shiragur and K J Varuna
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K. R. C. College of Horticulture (UHS Bagalkot), Arabhavi - 591 218, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Gladiolus is one of the important commercial flowers with a large number of varieties. Determining the level of genetic diversity of fifteen gladiolus varieties using molecular markers (SRAP) would be helpful for further breeding programme. Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) is a new molecular marker technology developed based on PCR. SRAP analysis was carried out using twenty five primer combinations out of which, eleven primer combinations were polymorphic and revealed a total of 80 scorable bands, among which 68 were polymorphic with an average of 6.18 polymorphic bands per pair of primers. The similarity matrix coefficient ranged from 31 to 73 percent, suggesting a higher genetic variation within gladiolus varieties. On comparing the genetic diversity as revealed by the dendrogram, it was evident that Jester Gold was identified quite distinct variety.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 662-665
Swapnil S Wagh, G S Laharia, A G Iratkar and A S Gajare
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of organic manures (vermicompost and neem cake) and inorganic fertilizers on soil fertility, at Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Dr. PDKV, Akola. Application of 75% RDF + 12.5% RDN through vermicompost + 12.5% RDN through neem cake shows highest nutrient uptake, available nutrient (N, P and K) and available micronutrient (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn). Improvement in soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, mean weight diameter, and available water capacity was observed in treatment receiving 100% RDN through vermicompost followed by treatment application of 50% RDF + 50% RDN through vermicompost.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 666-669
M Surender, S Sokka Reddy, M R Sudarshan* and Ch V Durgarani
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Plant Breeding, Maize Research Centre, ARI, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out during kharif and rabi 2010-11 at Maize Research Centre, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Sixty germplasm lines were screened with gene specific SSR marker: umc1066 to distinctly identify the differences among opaque-2 alleles. Seven lines have shown distinct allelic differences to wild type allele in the non-QPM lines. In order to identify the ease with which the seven potential donors could be used in conversion programs, they have been crossed with BML 2, BML 6, BML 7 and BML 15. The molecular weight of all the seven opaque-2 mutant alleles in the donors appeared to be same (~156 bp) on agarose gels with metaphor: merc agarose (1:2). In order to assess the visibility and feasibility of using these donors, CML181 and CML186 have been crossed with a few important non-QPM inbred lines like BML 2, BML 6, BML 7 and BML 15. The gel patterns revealed a satisfactory resolution between the alleles.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 670-675
G Sathiya Narayanan and M Prakash
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Rapid loss of vigour and viability of oilseeds particularly in sunflower during storage is one of the major constraints in this crop. Hence, a storage study was undertaken in sunflower cv. Morden and seeds were imposed with physical seed enhancement techniques viz dry dressing with Thiram @ 2 g kg–1, slurry treatment with Thiram @ 2 g kg–1, dry dressing with Halogen mixture @ 3 g kg–1, slurry treatment with Halogen mixture @ 3 g kg–1, pelleting with Arappu leaf powder @ 200 g kg–1, pelleting with Neem leaf powder @ 200 g kg–1, pelleting with Pungam leaf powder @ 200 g kg–1, pelleting with Vasambu rhizome powder @ 200 g kg–1 of seed. The treated seeds along with control were stored in cloth bag and 700 gauge polythene bag under ambient conditions for 10 months and evaluated for seedling quality parameters. The study revealed that the seeds treated with halogen slurry treatment and stored in 700 gauge polythene bag registered low moisture content and electrical content, high germination percentage and oil content, when compared to control and they also maintained minimum seed certification standard upto 10 months in this crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 676-678
T N Dhanalakshmi, S Ramesh and E Gangappa
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Intake of diets poor in iron, zinc and protein is the major cause for micronutrients and protein malnutrition in women and preschool children in Indian subcontinent including southern parts of Karnataka, the home to millions of resource-poor people who depend on finger millet for their primary energy source. The most cost effective approach for mitigating micronutrients and protein malnutrition is to introduce finger millet varieties selected and/or bred for increased iron, zinc and protein contents. Attempts to breed finger millet for enhanced grain micronutrients and protein contents are still in its infancy. Assessing and exploitation of existing variability among germplasm accessions is the first principle of breeding micronutrients and protein-dense finger millet cultivars. Under this premise, a mini-core subset, which captures maximum variability of entire finger millet collection developed and maintained at International Crops Research Institute of Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India was evaluated for grain micronutrients and protein contents. The results revealed substantial variability for grain nutrient contents in mini-core accessions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 679-682
Shreeshail Rudrapur, B L Patil and S L Patil
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in the Malaprabha command area as many scientific irrigation methods were implemented by the RKVY project. The required data were collected from the 35 farmers each practicing alternate furrow irrigation method (scientific) and flood methods of irrigation (traditional) in the cultivation of cotton. The study revealed that the adopters of scientific irrigation technology produced 31.41 percent higher income from alternate furrow irrigation than flood irrigation. The increase in the income was further decomposed into different sources of change such as adoption of scientific irrigation technology and changed input levels. The scientific irrigation technology alone could contribute 69.18 percent increase in income, while the contribution of change in input levels was found to be negative (-37.77%). Amongst the various inputs, fertilizer (-5.72), bullock and machine labour (-0.93%) and cost of irrigation (-37.42) contributed negatively where as seed (4.70%), human labour (1.14%) and FYM (0.45%) contributed positively to the income.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 683-686
Shamsuddin Mir, Mushtaq Ahmad and G A Parray
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Combining ability analysis were conducted for maturity, grain yield, its components and related attributed traits in a half diallel cross design involving ten maize inbred lines studied for thirteen characters to determine the nature of gene action in parents and hybrids. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) indicating the presence of both additive and non-additive gene effects for controlling the traits. Variances due to (GCA) which is indicative of additive and additive × additive type of gene action were much higher in magnitude than (SCA) for all the traits except days to 75% husk browning, cob length and no. of grains row-1. The ratio of the components revealed that the magnitudes of (SCA) components were much higher than that of (GCA) in all crosses indicating preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the characters as compared to additive gene action. W3, W5 and NAI-113 were the best general combiner for grain yield, earliness and dwarf plant height, respectively. Based on the highly significant desirable SCA effects, it could be concluded that the best crosses for most of the traits were NAI-113 × W3, NAI-152 × NAI-123, NAI-152 × NAI-143, NAI-137 × W5, NAI-137 × NAI-142, W3 × NAI-147 and W5 × NAI-116. These crosses could be selected and used in breeding programme for improving the concerned trait.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 687-690
M Srinivasan and K Kumutha
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The establishment of in vitro production of arbuscular mycorhizal (AM) fungi has great potential in understanding AM symbiosis with other soil microorganisms. The colonization potential of AM fungi obtained through in vitro and in vivo methods in maize (Zea mays) was studied. Glomus intraradices spores produced from monoxenic in vitro-culture through root organ culture (ROC) method and by open pot culturing methods in vivo (soil root segments) were used. The maize seeds were grown in pots maintained under greenhouse with controlled environmental condition and two types of growth media were tested viz soil and sand mixture and vermiculite. Root colonization potential of in vitro-produced spores was higher than the root-segment inoculum, reaching 63% and 53%, respectively, after 60 days incubation period with soil and sand mixture substrate. The spore count per 100 g of soil was highest in soil sand mixture (145 ± 3.58) than vermiculite based media (121 ± 2.99) when in vitro cultured spore where used as inoculum. Maize roots colonized by the monoxenically-produced spores showed high colonization potential, less contamination and thus it can be used in biochemical and molecular investigations of the AM symbiosis. In contrast, the roots colonized through open pot culture method were substantially contaminated by other fungi and showed low colonization percentage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 691-694
Ashwini H Gudigar, Manjunatha Hebbara, Rajesh Rawal and A Channabasamma
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of magnetic treatment on growth of sunflower crop. Saline soil was collected from farmer’s field at Shankratti village, Athani taluk, Belagavi district, Karnataka. The percentage of germination as well as growth parameters viz plant height and dry matter accumulation were highest in the magnetic treated 0.6 EC water. But the content of sodium and potassium in plant was highest in the magnetic untreated water.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 695-699
Shraddha Bhatt, R V Viyas, Sneha Mistry and H N Shelat
Department of Microbiology, Anand Agricultural University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Present investigation was carried out in the year 2013-14 to find out an efficient Rhizobium cultures for mung bean. Selected isolates were further characterized on the basis of their morphological, biochemical and physiological properties. Morphological and physiological identified all the isolates as Rhizobium. All the native isolates from were capable to tolerate wide range of pH, NaCl. In vitro characterization of isolates has been done at Anand Agricultural University (Anand) for PGPR traits showed presence of nifH of all the isolates and standard culture MTCC-2099. 16S rDNA sequencing identified isolate M1 as Rhizobium selenitroreducens (NCBI Accn no: KF850625).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 700-702
M F Baqual, M A Mir, S A Mir*, Sabeena Afzal, Sakiba Saleem and Shabir A Wani
Temperate Sericulture Research Institute, Mirgund, *Division of Agricultural Statistics, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Study conducted on 300 farmers regarding percentage of their family members involved in sericulture, revealed that majority of respondent’s viz 37.67 percent fall in medium level category followed by 34 percent respondents falling in high level category. The least number of respondent’s viz 22 out of 300 i e 7.33 percent fall in low level category. It was also interesting to note that 74.33 percent of respondents of selected districts had an experience of 0-15 years in sericulture and belonged to low level category of experience, whereas only 19.67 percent of them had 15-30 years of experience and were categorized as medium level experience holders. However, a meagre percentage of farmers i e only 6 percent had 30-45 years of experience in sericulture venture. The results also indicated that none of the stakeholders of target areas had sericulture as a primary occupation. Although 21 percent of them had agriculture as a primary occupation, yet 44.67 percent of them were practicing mixed/ diversified farming with sericulture as one of the components. As regards extension contact of farmers with various agencies, it was noticed that 54.34 percent of them had contact with one research institution/department of sericulture, whereas 38 percent enjoyed dual contact and 5.33 percent had contact with all the agencies. Only 2.33 percent of the farmers had zero contact or had no contact with any agency. The cocoon productivity figures revealed that 30.33 percent of respondents under study harvested 6-31 kg of green cocoons/ounce of silkworm seed, 61.00 percent harvested 31.56 kg/ounce whereas, only 8.67 percent of them harvested 56-81 kg of cocoons/ounce of seed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 703-706
Sameer Lokapur, G N Kulkarni, Kadli Vinayak, Kadli Veeresh and Ravi Gurikar
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study aimed to analyze socioeconomic characteristic of farmers of major vegetables in the Belgaum district which has high concentration of area under vegetables. The multi-stage random sampling procedure was adopted to choose the 120 sample farmers. The average age of the sample respondents was 44.97 years with family size of about seven members. Majority of the respondents families were nuclear having equal number of male and female. For more than 85 percent of respondent’s agriculture along with working as farm labour was main occupation. The highest literacy percentage was seen among potato farmers (96.67) compared to other farmers. Most of the farmers educated up to middle school. The average size of land holding was 7.22 hectares with 3.62 hectares of irrigated land. Respondents cultivated vegetables on an average 1.91 ha of land for all vegetable together with almost majority of cereals; pulses oil seed and sugarcane as commercial crop were being included in their cropping pattern. The cropping intensity was (157.76%) high for all the sample farmers together for all major vegetables. In addition to growing in vegetables under selected vegetables crops in each sample category, on a considerable area (26.39%) the farmers also cultivated other vegetable as well. Thus, the extent of vegetable area in each vegetable sample category was accounted to be of considerable size and varied between 28.33 percent and 45.10 percent. The overall area proportion under vegetables for all sample category together was 36.33 percent of the gross cropped area. Thus, the result signified the important of vegetable crops in the farm economy of study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 707-709
Amitendra Kumar Das, Sujeet Kumar and C K Suresh
Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Lactobacillus plantarum is a heterofermentative microaerophilic gram positive microorganism. Numerous strains of Lactobacillus plantarum have been isolated from different ecological niches including fruits and vegetables products. These bacterial cultures produce antifungal compounds which includes low molecular weight compounds composed of organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, proteinaceous compounds, hydroxyl fatty acids and phenolic compounds but many of these compounds has not studied still. A bioassay result reveals that Lactobacillus plantarum is very effective against Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia spp. The fresh and dry weight of fungus decreases significantly. These studies depict the importance of Lactobacillus as a potent biocontrol agent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 710-716
S Vijay and S Suresh
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Coccids (scales and mealy bugs) have attained serious pest status on a wide range of host plants. They have been recorded from 60 plant species of flower and medicinal crops. Most of these belonged to Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, where in economic damage was observed on these flower and medicinal crops. Major species observed included Phenacocccus solenopsis Tinsley, P. madeirensis (Green), Rastrococcus iceryoides (Green), Nipaecoccus viridis (Green), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Ckll.), Coccidohystrix insolita (Green), Labioproctus polei (Green), Saissetia coffeae (Walker), Saissetia oleae (Bernard), Parasaissetia nigra Nietner, Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius), Megapulvinaria maxima (Green), Eucalymnatus stellatus (Signoret), Cerococcus indicus Maskell, Ceroplastodes cajanii (Maskell), Hemilecanium imbricans (Green), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret), Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas), I. purchasi Maskell and Conchaspis angraeci (Ckll.). Biodiversity indices indicated that the maximum diversity of coccids was noticed from Pseudococcidae in both the flower and medicinal crops. Highest species richness of coccids was recorded on H. rosa sinensis in Coimbatore followed by Erode and Tuticorin districts.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 717-719
Raheesa Khatib, Nagaraju, Veena* and S Pavitra
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Leaf spot caused by Cercospora canescens is important disease of greengram. Efficacies of systemic and non-systemic fungicides were evaluated against Cercospora canescens at different concentrations under laboratory conditions. Out of thirteen fungicides tested in vitro, Hexaconazole + Zineb and Carbendazim + Mancozeb, Hexaconozole, Propiconazole, Difenoconozole and Tebuconazole + Trifloxystrobin showed cent percent inhibition of mycelial growth at all the concentrations tested. The least inhibition of mycelial growth was observed in Chlorothalonil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 720-721
Sameer Lokapur, G N Kulkarni, Kadli Veeresh, Kadli Vinayak and Ravi Gurikar
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study aimed to analyze problems of production and marketing of major vegetables in Belgaum district which has high concentration of area under vegetables and recognized as major vegetable market in the state. The multi-stage random sampling procedure was adopted to choose 120 sample farmers who cultivated major vegetables namely, onion, potato, chillies and tomato. Among the problems considered, non-availability of labour was the major problem for most (76.83%) of the farmers followed by high incidence of pest and diseases (68.17%). The seeds of high yielding varieties was priced high and hence inferred that the cost of planting material considered to high. Poor transportation facility was the most important marketing problem among the vegetable growers. The other problems were non-availability of standard units of measurement and faulty weighment which especially in vegetable marketing were another problem and a cause for lower income. High commission charge was another major problem followed by fluctuation in the prices of vegetables. Non-availability of market related information on daily vegetable market conditions is another important problem as perceived by majority of the farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 722-724
N N Chaudhary, H R Khafi, A D Raj, V Yadav* and P Yadav**
Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India *Krushi Vigyan Kendra Navsari Agricultural University, Dediapada - 393 040, Gujarat, India **Chandra Shekhar Azad Agriculture and Technology University, Kanpur - 208 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Pearl millet hybrid “GHB-538” was sown at 60 cm × 10 cm spacing on 18th February, 2011 at Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Junagadh. The maximum grain (3629 kg/ha) and fodder (6917 kg/ha) yields were recorded by application of 120 kg K2O/ha followed by 90 kg K2O/ha. The growth and yield attributes increased by application of 40 kg S/ha. The maximum grain (3619 kg/ha) and fodder (6875 kg/ha) yields were recorded by application of 40 kg S/ha followed by 30 kg S/ha. Application of 120 kg K2O/ha and 40 kg S/ha recording remarkably higher percent oil (3.54%) in grain over control. Application of potassium 120 kg K2O/ha and 40 kg S/ha to summer pearl millet crop significantly increased the potassium content in grain and fodder as well as nutrients (N, P, K and S) uptake by grain and fodder over control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 725-729
Ritesh Mishra, P K Omre, Manvika Sehgal and A K Verma
Department of Post Harvest Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
In the present study edible coating based on five different levels of Carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5%) and Whey protein concentrate (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were used. We have tested and compared the following postharvest storage quality conditions of coated jaggery and a control for 15 weeks: moisture content, reducing sugar, yeast count, texture changes, optical density and sensory attributes. The results indicate that the storage of jaggery were modified and improved by coating. The statistical data revealed that different treatment of jaggery samples significantly affected the pH, reducing sugar, total microbial count and optical density. The reducing sugar, optical density, total viable count and mould count increased significantly as the storage period increased. However, moisture content and pH followed decreasing pattern during the storage. The result of the study concluded that coating of jaggery sample could help in retaining the desirable moisture upto some extent. Also it can be concluded that problem related to keeping quality of jaggery could be overcome by applying edible coating based on carboxymethyl cellulose and whey protein concentrate.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 730-733
B V Pavitra and M N Sreenivasa
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study conducted at Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during 2012-2013 aimed to detection and quantification of siderophore production from twenty Phototrophic Purple Non Sulphur Bacterial (PPNSB) isolates from paddy rhizosphere, by three different tests commonly used to detect siderophores. Quantitative estimation of siderophores was done by the Chrome Azurol assay (CAS), the universal test independent of siderophore type. Results revealed that isolates NKPRPPNSB (H2) and NKPRPPNSB (H10) shown maximum siderophore units 64.5% and 63.83%, respectively. The type of siderophore was detected by chemical as well as spectrophotometric assay among 21 isolates including reference strain 7 isolates were found to produce hydroxamate type of siderophore, 5 isolates produced phenol-catecholate (Pyochelin) siderophores and 3 isolates were found to produce both the hydroxamate (Pyoverdin) and phenol-catecholate. Isolate NKPRPPNSB (H2) showed that maximum siderophore productionon succinate medium at pH 7.0. Both the isolates NKPRPPNSB (H2) and NKPRPPNSB (H10) were produced maximum siderophore units with all tested amino acids.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 734-737
P Karthickumar, V R Sinija, K Alagusundaram and B K Yadav
Department of Food Product Development, Indian Institute of Crop Processing Technology, Thanjavur - 613 005, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Among several commercially important vegetables, brinjal is prone to severe insect infestation. Infestation by brinjal fruit and shoot borer cannot be identified by mere visual examination until completion of over 15 days of its growth cycle. Conventional methods to detect the internal quality of vegetables are time consuming and destructive in nature. This has promoted the development of several non-destructive techniques in the past decade. Among these, acoustic resonance technique is based on assessing the quality of a sample by impaction and subsequent analysis of the acoustic response (dominant frequency). The developed system consists of sample holder cum impacting device, sound acquisition system and signal processing unit. Considering the effect of sample weight, stiffness coefficient values of both uninfested and internally infested brinjal were calculated from dominant frequency values. Difference in stiffness coefficient values (in 107 Hz2g 2/3) of uninfested (2.65 to 5.26) and infested (1.12 to 2.24) brinjal was observed and as expressed as a direct measure of internal quality. Acoustic resonance technique has been successfully employed as a non-destructive method to determine the internal quality of brinjal and future work can be directed to other fruits and vegetables.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 738-742
H V Harishkumar, B N Venu, K B Umesh and V Naveen*
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Farming systems of Kolar district of Karnataka have been analyzed based on the primary data collected through a sample of 120 farmers covering equal samples under major farming systems was elicited through survey method for the period 2010-11. Four farming systems viz crop + dairy, crop + sericulture, crop + dairy + sericulture and crop + sheep were identified as major farming systems based on preliminary survey and previous studies in the area. The data was analyzed using Cobb-Douglas production function and Gini co-efficient analysis. The result revealed that net annual income realized by a household was highest in C + D + S (` 3,58,880) farming system of which 43.78 percent was from sericulture enterprise alone and least in C + Sh (` 46,281) farming system of which 59.95 percent was from non-farm activities. Area under vegetable crops (ha) was found highly significant against net annual income in all irrigation based farming systems (C + D, C + S, C + D + S). Number of disease free laying’s reared was found highly significant against net annual income in sericulture based farming systems. Area under field crops (ha) non-significant in irrigation based farming systems but highly significant in rainfed based farming system (C + Sh).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 743-745
Nagaraj Gokavi, C S Ravi and G N Thippeshappa
Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, College of Horticulture (University of Horticultural Sciences), Mudigere - 577 132 Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to study the effect of spacing and NPK levels on yield and nutrient uptake by makoi under hill zone-9 of Karnataka at Horticulture Research Station, Thirthahalli, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot during the year 2013-14. The results revealed that, spacing of 60 × 45 cm and application of NPK fertilizer @ 125:75:75 kg/ha was found beneficial for getting higher fruit yield and uptake of nutrients by makoi. Among the different spacing levels, plants spaced at 60 × 45 cm recorded significantly higher fresh and dry fruit yield (14.33 and 2.58 t/ha, respectively), N (92.41 kg/ha), P (13.13 kg/ha) and K (43.94 kg/ha) uptake by makoi. Among the different fertilizer levels, application of 125:75:75 kg NPK/ha recorded maximum fresh and dry yield (16.03 t and 3.71 t/ha, respectively) and higher uptake of N (132.56 kg/ha), P (15.34 kg/ha) and K (66.85 kg/ha) by makoi compared to other levels and control. The interaction of spacing and fertilizer levels showed non-significant effect in increasing fresh and dry yield of makoi and uptake of NPK by makoi. However, the combination of 60 × 45 cm spacing with fertilizer dose of 125:75:75 kg NPK/ha resulted highest fruit yield and nutrient uptake by makoi.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 746-749
Indresh Kumar Verma, P N Verma, Vivek Singh, S K Singh, Shweta and C B Yadav
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad - 224 229, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Ninety nine accessions of faba bean were evaluated during rabi 2010-11 to study the diversity pattern among the genotypes. The genotypes were grouped into ten clusters. The distribution pattern indicated that maximum number of genotypes (19) was grouped into the cluster V followed by 18 in cluster III and 15 in cluster IX. The inter-cluster distance in most of the cases was higher than the intra-cluster distance, indicating wider genetic diversity among the accessions of different groups. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster VIII and IX (55.18) followed by II and IX (48.71), showing wide diversity among the groups. The highest intra-cluster distance was observed for the cluster IX (14.92) and the lowest for the cluster VII (5.10). Cluster IX, VIII, X and I were among the most divergent clusters having high seed yield performance along with its contributing traits could be utilized in hybridization programme for getting desirable transgressive segregants and high heterotic response.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 750-752
Sunil Kumar Paswan, Vijay Sharma, Vivek Kumar Singh, Azad Ahmad and Deepak
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229, Uttar Pradesh, India Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur - 303 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out during kharif 2012 at Research Farm of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar, Faizabad (Uttar Pradesh). The experimental material comprised of one hundred genotypes of cultivated rice and four standard check varieties (Sarjoo-52, NDR 359, PB- 1 and CSR 30).Observations were obtained for days to 50% flowering, flag leaf area, plant height, panicle bearing tillers per plant, panicle length, number of spikelet’s per panicle, spikelet fertility, 1000- grain weight, kernel length, kernel width, L/B ratio, biological yield per plant, harvest index, grain yield per plant. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences due to treatments for all the characters. A wide range of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variability was observed. The high magnitude (>20%) of PCV along with GCV was observed for grain yield per plant, biological yield per plant, flag leaf area, number of spikelet’s per panicle, panicle bearing tillers per plant, L/B ratio. Whereas, flag leaf area, 1000- grain weight, L/B ratio, kernel width and plant height showed high estimates of heritability. Harvest index, L/B ratio, flag leaf area, number of spikelet per panicle and kernel width showed high genetic advance in percent of mean. The present study revealed that there was highly genetic variability among the tested genotypes, indicating that it could be used for further improvement in rice breeding.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 753-756
R Krishna Murthy
Division of Soil and Water Management, Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAS), V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In the humification process, organic materials are chemically decomposed either through mineralization or recombination of their intermediate degradation products. Recent concerns of impaired nutrient cycling in intensively cropped low land rice soils, we have been investigating the effect of submergence on the nature of soil organic matter (SOM). In this study, the labile mobile humic acid (MHA) fraction and the more recalcitrant calcium humate (CaHA) fraction were extracted from soils incubated under laboratory conditions. Higher content of MHA fraction was noticed in T10: Chromolaena compost @ 2.0% C (0.80 g 100 g-1 soil) and least was in T5: Parthenium green manure @ 0.5% C (0.28 g/100 g soil) among treatments receiving organic manures on 60th day after flooding. The CaHA ranged from 0.13 to 0.59g 100 g-1 on 60th day of flooding. Increasing the rate of carbon application from 0.5 to 2.0 percent further increased the MHA and CaHA. Values of E4/E6 ratios of MHA and CaHA in the soils treated with organic manures showed lower values from respective controls and as duration of flooding increased E4/E6 ratios further decreased.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 757-762
P Sumathi and N Kumari Vinodhana
Department of Millets, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Seven pearl millet genotypes were crossed in a diallel mating design and the resultant twenty one hybrids were evaluated for their combining ability and heterosis for eighteen different fodder cum grain attributes. The estimated components of variance for SCA were larger in magnitude than GCA for days to 50 percent flowering, plant height, total number of tillers, total number of productive tillers, total number of leaves, leaf weight, stem weight, leaf stem ratio, crude protein (%), crude fibre (%), green fodder yield per plant, ear head girth, thousand grain weight, stover yield per plant and grain yield per plant indicating the predominance of a non-additive gene action. Among the parents CO 7, PT 6049 and PT 6041 exhibited high gca effect along with good per se performance for most of the grain and fodder contributing traits. Based on the per se performance, sca effects and standard heterosis the crosses CO 7 x PT 6043, CO 8 x PT 4450, PT 6056 x PT 6043, PT 4450 x PT 6043 and PT 6049 x PT 6043 were identified as prospective dual purpose pearl millet hybrids in this study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 763-765
Damini Thawait, Sanjay Kumar Diwedi, Srishti Pandey and Shikha Singh
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 495 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiment was carried out to find out the effect of SRI- based planting patterns (spacing and number of seedlings hill-1) on transplanted scented rice (cv. Dubraj) during kharif season at Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur. Among 14 treatments, T2 (planting of 2-3 seedlings hill-1 at a spacing of 25 × 25 cm) recorded significantly highest plant height 125.44 (cm), number of tillers hill-1 (16.15), dry matter accumulation, (62.17ghill-1 at 90 DAT), yield attributing characters (viz panicles per hill, filled grains per panicle and test weight) along with grain (3.82 t ha-1) and straw yield (7.79 t ha-1). The grain quality parameters like milling (%) and hulling (%) of Dubraj remained unaffected due to planting variables in the study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 766-769
Shrikrishna, Vilas Kulkarni, Prakash Mokashi and Quaser Gull Rather
Department of Agribusiness Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The Karnataka Togari Abhivrudhi Mandali Limited (KTAML) Gulbarga was registered under the Companies Act 1956 and started in the year 2002. The objective of studying of KTAML is to protect interest of tur farmers by way of better price realization. In this regard the study has taken to analyze trend in Tur procurement by Tur Board. The data relating to the procurement of tur for the past ten years i e 2002-03 to 2011-12 were drawn from the ledger account and purchase books of the board. For the overall period the regression was significant as indicated by the F value and the fluctuation in quantity procured due to time factor was 59 percent as indicated by R2. Whereas, the trend in quantity procurement of tur at Gulbarga centre, the cubic coefficient increased and statistically significant as indicated by the F value at 5 percent level of significance. For the overall period ‘b’ coefficient was significant as indicated by the F value and the fluctuation in quantity procured due to time factor was 52 percent as indicated by R2. Whereas, the trend in quantity procurement of tur at Bidar centre, the cubic coefficient increased and statistically significant as indicated by the F value at 5 percent level of significance. Overall trend was significant as indicated by F values and fluctuation in data due to time factor was 72 percent as indicated by R2.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 770-773
Amitendra Kumar Das, Sujeet Kumar and C K Suresh
Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is one of the most essential mineral nutrients for plant growth and development as it plays crucial role related to metabolism, energy transfer and various other regulatory functions. Plant phosphorus availability is increased by the bacteria. These bacteria contain phosphate transporter proteins which is helpful for absorption of phosphorus from surrounding. In this research we tried to identify the phosphate transporter gene by in silico studies and also identify the homology sequence of this the phosphate transporter gene in different species of Lactobacillus. With the help of phylogenic analysis; these bacteria are evolutionary related in terms of their phosphate transporters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 774-776
Nataraj Patted, Ashwini Hebbar*, Gouri Yelvattimath, Prakash Mokashi and S Kumar
Department of Agri-business Management, *Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Globally rice is grown in more than 150 million hectare area. India and China together hold about half the world’s rice area and more than 60 percent people are rice eaters. Rice is the main staple food and the first cultivated crop in Asia long before the era of which we have the historical evidences Rice is the staple food for more than 65 percent population globally. Indian rice is mainly exported to Taiwan, Bangladesh and other countries. There is a positive growth rate in area, production and productivity. In order to increase the trade in international market Indian government can think of trade agreement between these countries. Prediction has also showed a mark able growth of Indian rice.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 777-781
Kavitha Mary Jackson and K Ilamurugu
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present research was undertaken to study the chemical composition of rice root exudates under aerobic condition. Rice is grown under non-puddled and non-flooded condition in aerobic rice. Root exudates are an important source of nutrient for the rhizosphere microorganisms. The components of root exudates varied in anaerobic and aerobic condition. Hence, this study was designed to assess the changes in chemical composition of rice root exudates under aerobic condition. HPLC and GC analysis of rice root exudates depicted that it contains seven amino acids (Alanine, Proline, Tyrosine, Arginine, Serine, Glycine and Methionine), four sugars (Xylose, Galactose, α-Glucose and Mannose) and four organic acids (Acetic acid, Oxalic acid, Malic acid and Citric acid) at various crop growth stages. At earlier stages of crop growth rice root exude higher amount of organic acids (0.95 M g-1 root of acetic acid), sugars (Glucose-1.77 M g-1 root) and amino acids (Alanine-0.34 M g-1 root). However, root exudation decreased in later stages (acetic acid-0.21 M g-1 root, glucose-1.10 M g-1 root).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 782-784
M S Puneeth Raj and B S Vyakaranahal
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The field experiment was carried out at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, during rabi season of 2012 to assess the effect of nitrogen and cutting management treatments on plant growth of oat (Avena sativa L.). The experiment consists of 12 treatment combinations. Nitrogen: N1: 80 kg/ha, N2: 100kg/ha, N3: 120kg/ha, N4: 140 kg/ha. Cutting management: C1: No cut, C2: one cut, C3: two cut and for all treatments 60:40 P2O5, K2O per ha. Results revealed that application of 140:60:40, N, P2O5, K2O kg/ha showed significant plant performance such as plant height (cm) at harvest, tillers number/plant 30 DAS and tillers number/plant at harvest for the application of 60:40, P2O5: K2O per ha + 140 kg N/ha.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 785-790
B Balakrishna, K V Siva Reddy, V Chenga Reddy and Y Satish
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study characterization of cotton germplasm as per DUS guidelines of cotton was carried during kharif 2013-14 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam Farm, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh by using 65 hirsutum genotypes and 20 barbadense genotypes. The data was collected on leaf, stem, flower and boll characteristics. Variability was observed for leaf colour, leaf hairiness, leaf appearance, leaf petiole pigmentation, plant stem hairiness, stem pigmentation, plant growth habit, flower petal colour, flower stigma, pollen colour, boll shape, boll tip and one genotype (TCH 1705) showed anther filament colouration among 65 hirsutum genotypes. Among 20 barbadense genotypes variability was observed for plant growth habit and flower stigma position. The identified unique genotypes are reservoir of valuable genes and these can be used as parents in breeding of abiotic and biotic stress resistant cotton varieties with superior fibre characteristics.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 791-793
D K Solanki, K Tedia, M K Sharma* and S K Nagre*
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 497 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the different rice genotypes of different group for acid tolerance during kharif season 2012-13, under highly acidic condition (pH 4.6) and low in available macronutrients. Available Fe, Mn and Cu were above the critical levels, while the Zn was below the critical level. The experiment was laid out with 63 rice genotypes and 5 check varieties in augmented design. Based on grain yield, grain yield efficiency index and relative yield, genotypes were classified in efficient and inefficient to acid soil. Among the tested genotypes, Denteshwari in early, IR 64 in mid early, Indira Maheshwari in medium, Safri-17 in late durations and Mahisugandha in aromatic groups produced higher yield, grain yield efficiency index and relative yield and efficient to acid soil. Further, R 1033-968-2-1 in early duration, Chandrahasini in mid early duration, Shyamla in medium duration, Swarna in late duration and Improved Pusa Basmati in aromatic groups genotypes were recorded the lowest yield, agronomic traits, grain yield efficiency index and relative yield and most inefficient to soil acidity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 794-797
Arundhati Bordoloi and Awadhesh Kumar Shukla*
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Assam Agricultural University), Gellapukhuri Road, P/O Tinsukia - 786 125, Assam, India *Department of Botany, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak - 495 117, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi indigenous to Arunachal Pradesh in uptaking plant nutrients from applied organic matter in Piper mullesua plantlets. Application of organic amendment to Piper mullesuaplantlets inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances plant biomass, phosphatase activity, P and N content. Organic amended soil increases the percentage of mycorrhizal fungal infection as well as other growth parameters in P. mullesua plantlets. The plant biomass, phosphatase enzyme activity, concentration of P and N was significantly higher in P. mullesua plantlets inoculated with AM fungal species viz Glomus versiforme, G. etunicatumand G. aggregatum. This study shows that mycorrhizal inoculants were efficient in utilizing and mobilizing inorganic nutrients available in organic amendment. The correlation coefficient between plant biomass and phosphatase activity was highly significant (p>0.001) on application of organic amendment in those AM fungi inoculated plantlets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 798-801
T S Channaveeresh and Shripad Kulkarni*
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe polygoni DC is one of the major constraints in the production of black gram. In order to find out the effective fungicides, botanicals and bioagents against Erysiphe polygoni experiment was carried out under in vitro evaluation of fungicides, botanicals and bioagents was carried out with respect to inhibition of conidial germination of E. polygoni. Azoxystrobin 250% SC at 0.1 percent concentration (94.16%) inhibited maximum conidial and it was followed by hexaconazole 5% EC (90.51%). Among botanicals maximum of 79.93 percent conidial inhibition observed with Azadirachtin (1500 ppm) followed by NSKE (76.64%). Among bioagents @ 6 g/L concentration Bacillus subtilis (75.47%) inhibited maximum conidial germination followed by Pseudomonas flurescens (72.19%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 802-805
Sheshrao S Kautkar, Rishi Richa and Anjineyulu Kothakota
Department of Post Harvest Process and Food Engineering, Govind Ballab Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Ohmic heating is an advanced thermal process wherein electric current is passed through the liquid particulates foods with primary purpose of heating them. The heating is occurs in the form of internal energy generation within the food material. In this study the quality characteristics of ohmically heated ginger paste in terms of pH, total soluble solids (TSS), colour and microbial count were evaluated. The data was planed using full factorial design with three replications. The independent variables selected were voltage gradient (5-13 v/cm), salt level (0-2%) and KMS treatment (0 and 0.2%). The results indicate that pH and TSS of ginger paste ranges from 4.16 to 4.20, respectively and were significantly influenced by salt level. Colour of ginger paste in terms of L*, a* and b* values was highly influenced by KMS addition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 806-809
Azad Ahamed, Vijay Sharma, Sunil Kumar Paswan, Vivek Kumar Singh and O P Verma
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present studies were conducted at Genetics and Plant Breeding Research Farm, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, during kharif season of 2012. Fifty rice genotypes were evaluated in randomized block design for study the correlation and path coefficient among the agronomical yield and its contributing traits. Correlation studies showed that grain yield per plant showed significant and positive correlation with biological yield per plant, effective tillers per plant, plant height, spikelet’s per panicle and flag leaf area. Significantly inter correlation among traits is useful for breeding programme to improvement of yield and its components. Path analysis identified biological yield per plant, harvest index and days to maturity as highly desirable components for direct effects on grain yield. The inter-relationship among the characters identified above may be used in the breeding programme to exploit the yield potential for enhancing the productivity of the rice crop and to develop high yielding varieties with ease and target oriented research work.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 810-813
I B Biradar, Y Raghuramulu and K Vasudeva Naik
Main Horticultural Research and Extension Centre, Udyanagiri Main Campus, University of Horticultural Sciences, Seemikeri Cross, Bagakot - 587 102, Karnataka, India Central Coffee Research Institute, CRS Post, Chikamagalur District, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Coffee being a perennial crop it is very important to plant healthy and vigorous seedlings in the field at the time of establishment of new plantations. In recent years due to erratic rainfall pattern, the establishment of coffee seedlings was found to be unsatisfactory as the six months old seedlings were unable to survive in the long dry spells that follow after field planting. Also, it was felt that the practice of nipping of tap root at the time of transplanting into poly bags may also be hindering the normal growth of tap root system and thereby make the seedlings vulnerable to long dry spells. In view of the above, a need was felt to revisit certain of the steps in raising of coffee seedling nursery for producing healthy and vigorous seedlings for field planting. In this direction, a nursery trial was conducted for a period of two years at Central Coffee Research Institute, Chikmagalur with the main objective of investigating the effect of nipping of tap root at the time of transplanting and size of poly bag on growth and dry matter production of coffee seedlings at nursery. Results revealed that in all three varieties most of the growth parameters and dry matter recorded did not differ significantly among the treatments at the early stage of seedling growth (90 DAT) in the nursery. However, at 180 days after transplanting when the seedlings are ready for field planting, all the three varieties recorded significantly higher growth in big size poly bags (5" × 12") when compared to normally recommended standard size poly bags (6" × 9") irrespective whether the tap root is nipped or not at the time of transplanting.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 814-816
E Sathiyavani and N K Prabhakaran
Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2012-13 to study the effect of weed management practices on yield and economics of turmeric. Pre-emergence application of metribuzin 0.7 kg/ha, pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha and atrazine 0.75 kg/ha, each integrated with two hand weeding (HW) on 45 and 75 DAP, POE application of fenoxaprop 67 g/ha + metsulfuron 4 g/ha, straw mulch (SM) 10 t/ha + one hand weeding on 75 DAP; PE oxyfluorfen 0.3 kg/ha and oxadiargyl 0.25 g/ha, POE glyphosate 1.03 kg/ha and 1.54 kg/ha, each integrated with two HW on 45 and 75 DAP; three hand weeding on 25, 45 and 75 DAP and unweeded check were evaluated. Pre-emergence application of metribuzin 0.7 kg/ha + hand weeding on 45 and 75 DAP, PE pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + HW on 45 and 75 DAP and PE oxyfluorfen 0.30 kg/ha + HW on 45 and 75 DAP recorded significantly lower and comparable weed density and dry weight and higher and comparable weed control efficiency. Plant height, dry matter production, fresh rhizome yield, net return and B:C ratio were higher in pre-emergence application of metribuzin 0.7 kg/ha + hand weeding at 45 and 75 DAP. Pre-emergence application of metribuzin 0.7 kg/ha + hand weeding at 45 and 75 DAP for very effective weed control and higher productivity and profitability in turmeric.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 817-821
K K Panigrahi and B Baisakh
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Orissa University of Agriculture and technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out with 44 genotypes which included 17 Local genotypes from diverse origin of Odisha and 27 mutants at Experimental Block (EB-II), Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, OUAT during rabi season of 2011-12. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference among all the genotypes for all the characters studied except for seed/pod. The high magnitudes of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variations were recorded with plant height, primary branches/plant and pod/plant. High heritability coupled with genetic advance was observed for plant height, pod/plant and primary branches/plant indicating that heritability is due to additive gene action and selection based on these characters may be effective. Correlation coefficient revealed that all the characters except for seed/pod had strong association with yield/plant. Path coefficient analysis of different traits contributing towards yield/plant revealed that positive direct effect was exhibited by days to maturity, plant height, primary branches/plant, and number of cluster/plant, pod/plant, pod length and 100 seed weight. While days to 50% flowering and seed/pod expressed negative direct effect on yield/plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 822-824
R S Jadon, R Lekhi, Satyakumari Sharma and Rahul Sharma
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Rajmata Vijyaraje Sindhiya Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior - 474 002, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur to study the effect of gibberelic acid, IBA and NAA as foliar spray of cauliflower. The result indicated that growth characters like plant height (cm), diameter of the stem (cm), spread of the plant (cm) and number of leaves per plants were increased significantly under different treatments. Yield attributing characters viz diameter of curd (cm), weight of curd per plant (kg), weight of the head per plant (kg), length of head per plant (cm), yield (q/ha) and dry weight of curd per 100 g of fresh weight were also increased significantly with different treatments. Among growth regulators GA3 was most promising in effect followed by NAA and IBA. The higher concentration of growth regulators were found more effective than their respective lower concentrations but statistically significant difference between medium and higher concentration is very less of nil than lower and medium concentration of different hormone under tested. The growth regulator GA3 at 150 ppm slowed significantly higher performance over the remaining treatment in all the growth characters viz plant height etc. Growth regulator GA3 at 150 ppm performed significantly better than the other treatments regarding the yield and yield attribute characters. Growth regulator GA3 at 15 ppm with recommend fertilizer dose of NPK gave highest additional net profit over control followed by GA3 at 100 ppm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 825-826
Ravi Belli, S Shashikumar* and Shweta Biradar*
College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, BIRDS Campus Tukkantti - 591 224, Gokak, District Belgaum, Karnataka, India
Abstract
To assess the effect of galactogogues on milk production, 30 crossbred cattle in mid-lactation were randomly and equally distributed as control (C) and experimental (E) groups. Milkplus® was supplemented to the E group @ 30g/d/animal for a period of 2 months. Supplementation of Milkplus® enhanced the milk yield (from 8.26 to 10.11 l/d), milk fat % (3.95 to 4.38), total dry matter intake (from 8.72 to 9.26 kg/d) in C and E groups respectively. Economics indicated that the farmers got extra profit upon supplementation. The extent of estrus induction was 68 and 43 percent for E and C groups. Supplementation of Milkplus® is profitable for lactating cattle.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 827-828
Raheesa Khatib, Veena* and S Pavitra
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Present investigation was undertaken to determine the evaluation of botanicals against Cercospora canescens causing leafspot of greengram at Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru, Karnataka and crushed into paste. Leaf spot of greengram caused by Cercospora canescens is an important disease in India. Evaluation of the botanicals indicated the inhibition of mycelial growth. Among seven botanicles neem seed kernel extract (60.74%) showed maximum inhibition of mycelia followed by ginger (27.78%) and datura (26.30%) and these were found most promising ones with the higher inhibition of mycelial growth at 15 percent concentration.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 829-830
R K Mathukia, B K Sagarka and R M Solanki
Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Drip irrigation at 1.0 PEF significantly improved growth and yield attributes. Drip irrigation at 0.6 and 0.8 PEF recorded lower values of growth and yield attributes and yield compared to surface irrigation. Application of 50 kg N/ha enhanced growth and yield parameters viz plant height, branches/plant, capsules/plant and test weight and ultimately increased seed (1232 kg/ha) and stalk (1898 kg/ha) yield with higher net returns (` 39434/ha), B:C ratio (2.74) and WUE (2.02 kg/ha-mm) over 30 kg N/ha.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 831-833
Umesha, S N Vasudevan, K Bhanuprakash* and B N Radha**
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India *Indian Institution of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta, Bangalore, Karnataka, India **University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted at the Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta, Bangalore and Department of Seed Science and Technology, UAS, Raichur to know the molecular basis for seed enhancement in onion cv. Bellary Red. The DNA integrity results are indicated that, damage to DNA which accumulates during the seed ageing is repaired by priming during early hours of germination. The RAPD profile analysis also indicated that, priming allowed repair system to combat sub cellular damage activated enzyme synthesis and thus restored deterioration process started due to ageing. The changes in the activities of the enzymes, upon priming, suggest that mobilization of storage material may be responsible for increased germination and vigor in primed seeds when compared to unprimed aged seeds. Therefore, RAPD can be used as a molecular tool to know the molecular changes associated with seed enhancement.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 834-835
M Patidar, B R Baraiya, V Moghe and J Malgaya
Department of Entomology, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur - 484 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The experiment was carried out at the AICRP (Sesame and Niger) ICAR with the head quarter at, JNKVV Campus, Jabalpur (Madhya P.). Observations on experimental plot were recorded on sesame crop from July to October. During the course of study eight insect pests were recorded. Sesame crop was found to be infested by eight major insect pests, white fly, jassids, til hawk moth, hairy caterpillar, mirid bug and leaf roller/capsule borer were observed in early stage to flowering, while thrips, leaf roller/capsule borer and gall fly were observed. Study significant differences in yield kg/ha were observed in protected and unprotected plots. Avoidable losses to insect pests complex on sesame was estimated 20.37 percent under protected plot had higher yield (540 kg/ha) than unprotected plots (430 kg/ha).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 836-838
P M Suresh, V Swaminathan and M Kumar
Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu - 625 104, India
Abstract
The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with nine treatments replicated four times with cv. Alphonso at farmer’s field in Devadhanapatti. Pre-harvest sprays were taken up under field condition and compared with a sprayed control as check. Storage studies were done by keeping fruits at ambient temperature. Pre-harvest sprays with bio inoculants (Pseudomonas fluorescens FP7 along with chitin) were sprayed six times at 15 days interval starting from 15 days before expected flowering of mango trees. Calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, potassium sulphate and borax were sprayed 30 days prior to harvest. Mulching with dried leaves along with spraying of one percent potassium sulphate resulted in increased the highest TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, total sugars and carotenoids.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 839-840
R K Mathukia, B K Sagarka and R M Solanki
Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate drip irrigation and integrated nutrient management in chickpea at JAU Junagadh rabi season of 2009-10 to 2011-12. Drip irrigation at 0.8 PEF significantly improved growth and yield attributes and thereby increased seed (1699 kg/ha) and stalk (2531 kg/ha) yields along with higher net returns (` 29257/ha), B:C (2.09) and WUE (4.88 kg/ha-mm) over surface irrigation. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer (20-40-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O/ha) along with FYM @ 2 t/ha enhanced growth and seed yield (1533 kg/ha) and stalk yield (2294 kg/ha) with higher net returns (` 23066/ha), B:C ratio (1.84) and WUE (5.08 kg/ha-mm) over recommended dose of fertilizer.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 841-842
K Renuka and R Chandrasekhar
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping Architecture, Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
IBA 200 ppm recorded less number of days for root initiation, highest percentage of rooting, maximum number of roots per cuttings, cumulative length of roots per cuttings and highest percentage of establishment of rooted cuttings followed by IBA 100ppm + NAA 50ppm. Among the NAA treatments studied NAA 200 ppm recorded superior rooting parameters. All the growth regulator treatments recorded significantly superior rooting parameters over control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 5 - Issue : 4 ; 843-844
Vivek Kumar Singh, Vijay Sharma*, Sunil Kumar Paswan, Azad Ahamed and M P Chauhan
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229, Uttar Pradesh, India *Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The investigation was undertaken in 8 × 8 diailel crosses (excluding reciprocals) of linseed with a view to assess the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in respect to yield components. A considerable amount of variability among 36 treatments for the traits studied indicated the usefulness of selection for these traits in the genetic material used for future improvement in linseed. High value of phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV) closely followed by genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV) for harvest index, number of capsule per plant, seed yield per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and biological yield per plant indicating the little environment effect on the expression of these characters. Remaining characters showed moderate to low PCV and GCV values. High heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance in per cent of mean was recorded for harvest index, seed yield per plant and number of capsules per plant offered scope for improvement through selection. Moderate or high heritability along with low genetic advance in per cent of mean was observed for remaining characters indicated selection is not much affected for these traits.


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