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Volume - 4 - January-February 2013
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 01-07
Shamarao Jahagirdar, M M Jamadar and R A Balikai
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Diseases are the major production constraints for successful cultivation. Among different diseases anthracnose, downy mildew, powdery mildew and bacterial infections are taking a heavy toll on the crop. This review mainly encompasses research work done on the epidemiological and management aspects of downy mildew in India. There is a need to develop Integrated Crop Management Practices for better utilization crop husbandry practices and to reduce use of chemical pesticides and likely effect on human health in future. It is imperative to study downy mildew research in holistic approach for long term sustainable management of the disease in subcontinent. Although, the returns per unit area of land are very high with grape cultivation, the area under grapes is not expanding fast owing to the high initial cost of establishing the vineyards, high recurring cost of production, unprecedented changes in weather leading epiphytotics of mildews in recent years.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 08-15
Shimaa Mostafa Ali Hassan, Jie Zhao and Huang Lili
College of Plant Protection, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China
Abstract
A root-knot nematode (RKN) was discovered on roots of kiwi fruit species Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis that diseased root material was sent to nematology Laboratory in College of Plant Protection, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University for identification in April 2012. DNA markers that have aided identification of Meloidogyne species an unusual variant of Meloidogyne arenaria was discovered on roots of kiwi. The population aroused curiosity by the lack of visible galling on the roots of the infected plant and the female was typically surrounded by egg sacs. Most morphometrics of the population fit within the ranges reported for Meloidogyne spp. with a mosaic of features in common with either other tropical of Meloidogyne spp. This work describes the morphological features of an unusual population of Meloidogyne Spp. found on kiwi friut, highlighting differences from the values expected for the species and points of overlap with related species. We have developed a simple PCR assay protocol for detection of the root-knot nematode (RKN) species Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica M. hapla extracted from soil. Nematodes are extracted from soil using Baermann funnels and centrifugal flotation. The nematode-containing fraction is then digested with proteinase K and a PCR assay is carried out with primers specific for this group of RKN. DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) for the identification of Meloidogyne species on kiwi in Zhou Zhi China.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 16-21
A M Byrappa N G Kumar, N R Koushik and M Divya*
Department of Agricultural Entomology, *Department of Agricultural Microbiology College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The insect fauna of field bean in Chickaballapura area of Karnataka, for abundance and their relative abundance during 2009-2010. During this study, 43 different species of insects belonging to 7 orders and 21 families of the class Insecta were recorded on field bean. Of which, order Lepidoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera recorded the highest number of species. Myllocerus sp., Anthracophora crucifera, Liriomyza trifolii, Stirellus indra, Cofana subvirescens, Hecalus sp., Canthecona sp., Messena sp., Spinx sp., Acrotylus humbertianus, Atractomorpha crenulata crenulata, Neorthacris acuticeps acuticeps, Odontotermes obesus and O. wallonensis belonging to various groups were recorded for the first time during the vegetative period with exception of later two species of termites during harvesting of matured pods. Initial sucking pests took an upper hand during vegetative stage followed by pod borers in later stage. The relative abundance (%) was varied from 0.009 to 18.74. Termites were found feeding at the far end of the crop while harvesting and the mean plant damage (%) was 22.98.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 22-27
S I El-Sherif and N A Abd El-Latif*
Department of Economic Entomology and Pesticides, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Orman, Giza, Egypt, *Plant Protection Research Institute, ARC, MOA, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Abstract
The current study investigates the statistical relationships between the foraging activities of P. hybostoma and 3 thermal factors in two years at Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. The annual means of food consumption were nearly similar in both study years while the seasonal means of it recorded maximum during summer and minimum during winter with intermediate consumptions during both spring and autumn. The annual means of soil translocation were relatively less during 1st than 2nd year. Seasonal means of soil translocation recorded maximum in autumn for 1st year and summer for 2nd year but dropped to minimum in winter for both years. Simple correlation coefficients referred that during 1st year food consumption was positively and highly significantly correlated with all tested thermal factors. Simple regression coefficients for the same year revealed that the direct influence of AT on food consumption was comparatively stronger than that of either ST5 or ST10. During 2nd year, the simple correlation between food consumption and AT was significant and positive while correlations with both ST5 and ST10 were insignificant positive. Simple regression coefficients on food consumption were markedly less in 2nd than 1st year. All simple correlation coefficients for the effect of tested thermal factors on soil translocation were positive and their statistical significance level varied from significant to highly significant. Simple regression coefficients confirmed that AT seemed to be the most effective on soil translocation and further supported that the effect of thermal factors on soil translocation was evidently less during 2nd than 1st year. Partial regression coefficients for the combined relationship between tested thermal factors simultaneously and foraging activity parameters emphasized that, for food consumption, all values were statistically insignificant during both years of investigation but the influence of them seemed to be rather stronger during 1st than 2nd year. In both years, the influence of AT was always positive and rather stronger while that of ST5 and ST10 was irregular and relatively weaker. Tested thermal factors expressed a highly significant true effect on food consumption during 1st year (with 77% E.V.) whereas, their true effect was insignificantly less during 2nd year (with only 35% E.V.). The effect of tested thermal factors on soil translocation was generally more or less similar to that on food consumption. All partial regression values, except for that of AT during 1st year, were statistically insignificant during both years of study; being positive for AT and ST5 and negative for ST10. Similarly, the effect of thermal factors seemed to be rather stronger during 1st year than 2nd year. Tested thermal factors expressed a highly significant true effect on soil translocation during 1st year (with 76.2% E.V.) compared to an insignificantly less true effect during 2nd year (58.3% E.V.).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 28-32
Varsha Kumari, Vinod Tasiwal* and V I Benagi*
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, *Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an important fruit crop, belongs to family Caricaceae. Carica is the largest of the four genera with 48 species, among which Carica papaya L. is most important and cultivated all over the world. In papaya, Anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was observed very commonly after the harvesting of the fruits or under storage conditions. The conidia were cylindrical, hyaline; single celled with oil globules in the centre and measured 9-20 x 3-7.5 μm. Acervulus measured 129-281.4 μm. Maximum radial growth was on solid medium was on V-8 juice agar followed to be significant over all tested media followed by oat meal agar, Richard’s agar, corn meal agar and no growth was observed in case of Sach’s agar. Maximum dry mycelial weight was observed on 10th day of incubation, while least growth was observed after two days of incubation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 33-36
C Nagarajan, Rashmi Gauraha and S V S Raju
Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The bio-efficacy of various treatments viz pungam oil, neem oil, neem seed kernel extract, Bt, B. bassiana were compared with commonly used synthetic insecticide namely endosulfan and quinalphos. However, overall impact of insecticidal treatments when considered, after all the three insecticidal sprays, the treatments of NSKE and Pungam oil followed by the Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus thuringiensis treatments were proved significantly superior to rest of the insecticidal treatments during the entire field study. The treatments of neem oil, endosulfan and quinalphos were found to be least effective after all the three insecticidal sprays in reducing the DBM population. The bio-rational study reveals that the number of parasitoid cocoons (C. plutellae) was gradually increased in bio-rational treated plots when compared with endosulfan and quinalphos treated plots and thus emphasizing that the conventional insecticidal treatments are more detrimental to C. plutellae.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 37-39
J M Adesina and *J E Idoko
Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, PMB-1019, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria *Department of Crop, Soil & Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, PMB- 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Abstract
The present study was conducted to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of crude extracts of Chenopodium ambrosiodes and Spondias mombin against flea beetles infestation on okra. Synthetic insecticide (Lambda cyhalothrin) was used as reference to compare the effectiveness of the plant extracts. The aqueous plant extracts were applied at 10% (v/w) and sprayed 3 times at intervals of 10 day. Results obtained from the study shows that the plant extracts screened reduced Podagrica beetles infestation which in turn translate to higher number of harvested fresh fruits. Among the plant extract used, S. mombin yielded higher number of okra fresh fruit.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 40-43
R M Ahirwar, K C Ahirwar and M P Gupta
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Tikamgarh – 472 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigations revealed that green semilooper Chrysodeixis acuta Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura Fabricus (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and infestation of stemfly, Melanagromyza sojae Zehntner (Diptera: Agromyzidae); appeared in the last week of July i e 31st SW and reached at their peak of infestation, respectively during 34th, 37th, 41st standard week. Green stink bug, Nezara viridula Linn. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) appeared in the 3rd week of August i e 34th SW when the minimum and maximum temperature was recorded 23.2 and 32.9°C, respectively, morning and evening relative humidity were 91 and 65%. Sunshine was 6.2 hours, wind speed 5.4 km/hour and rainfall 3 mm, evaporation 4.1 mm during this period. Thus, these parameters were congenial for abundance of the green stink bug in nature.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 44-47
B Mondal, G Saha* and D C Khatua*
Department of Plant Protection, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan - 731 236, West Bengal, India Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Fruit and vine rot caused extensive damage of pointed gourd in West Bengal. The causal pathogen, Phytophthora melonis Katsura commonly caused rotting of fruits and nodal and internodal tissue of the vine. Disease appeared late in new crop than ratoon crop. Crop grown on soil bed suffered more than the crop raised on scaffold. Cloudy weather, rainy days and water stagnation favoured rapid spread of the disease. Continuous removal of diseased vines and fruits from the field reduced disease severity. Male plants were less susceptible than the female plants. The composition of selective medium developed for Phytophthora melonis was oat meal 17 gram, vancomycin 200 mg, natamycin 10 mg, carbendazim 25 mg, agar agar 20 g and distilled water 1000 ml.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 48-50
S A Khedekar, V B Nargund, *Shamrao Jahagirdar, V I Benagi, **P U Krishnaraj, *G T Basavaraja and ***B S Patil
Department of Plant Pathology, *AICRP on Soybean, Main Agricultural Research Station, **Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India ***Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Center for Pulse Improvement, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field screening of new fungicide molecules against Asian soybean rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. was taken up during kharif growing season 2011 at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad. Among the ten fungicides (one combi product, two non systemic and seven systemic) tested under natural epiphytotic conditions of rust severity. Two sprays with hexaconazole, propiconazole and azoxystrobin at 0.1 per cent concentration at 45 DAS and 55 DAS were significantly superior to other fungicides in managing soybean rust. The severity recorded after end of spray schedule revealed least disease severity in hexaconazole (34.67 PDI) which was on par with propiconazole (38.26 PDI) and azoxystrobin (38.41 PDI). The economic analysis supported realization of highest benefit cost ratio in hexaconazole treatment (3.32) followed by propiconazole treatment (2.56). The reduction in PDI and increase in 100 seed weight, number of pods per plant, yield and B:C ratio was observed in hexaconazole spray @ 0.1% at 45 and 55 DAS. Thus, triazoles either Hexaconazole @ 0.1% or Propiconazole @ 0.1% or a strobulin fungicide Azoxystrobin @ 0.1% were found effective in the management of soybean rust in India.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 51-54
Anil S Mohite, Jyoti S Dahegaonkar and Ajay V Dorlikar
Department of Zoology and Research Academy, Sevadal College for Women, Nagpur - 440 009, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Phorates of Helicoverpa armigera reared on artificial diet were irradiated with sub-sterilizing dose of gamma radiation (100 Gy) and examined the emerged adults for inherited sterility. The impact of radiation on fecundity and fertility was ascertained in parental (P) and F1 generations. 44% adult emergence in irradiated pupae was recorded as compared to 84% in normal pupae. Pupal period of irradiated pupae was found to be increased by two days in P generation. Significant reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in fecundity was recorded in treated P crosses while, it was almost fell within the normal range in F1 crosses when compared to controls. Fertility was significantly affected in all the crosses of P and F1 generations. The deleterious effect was inherited in the F1 generation and was expressed when F1 progeny of the Nf × Tm cross were inbred.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 55-58
R Ganesha Naik, *S Pradeep and **T Basavaraj Naik
Department of Plant Pathology, **Department of Agronomy Agricultural Research Station, Bavikere - 577 144, Karnataka, India *Department of Entomology, Organic Farming Research Center ZARS, Navile Shimoga, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Neck blast of rice (Pyricularia oryzae Cavara) becomes more serious disease in many of the high yielding varieties/ hybrids in Karnataka. Fungicides were tested to know their efficacy in controlling the disease in the field during kharif 2009, 2010 and 2011 seasons at Agricultural Research Station, Bavikere, Chikmagalur, Karnataka. A highly susceptible rice variety HR-12 was planted in randomized complete block design and the application of various fungicides viz Dithane Z-78 75% WP (0.2%), Carbendazim 50% WP (0.1%), Propiconazole 25% EC (0.1%), Mancozeb 75% WP (0.2%), Wettable Sulphur 80% WP (0.3%), Thiophanate methyl 70% WP (0.1%), Tricyclazole 75% WP (0.06%), Benomy 1 (0.2%) and Kitazin 48% EC (0.1%) were given thrice at weekly interval. All the fungicides proved to be affective in the control of neck blast disease. Out of nine fungicides tested, Tricyclazole was found significantly superior in controlling the disease with the lowest disease incidence (15.56%) and also significant increase in yield (8594.44 kg/ha) followed by Kitazin (7677.78 kg/ha) and other fungicides. The B:C ratio was also found higher in Tricyclazole (1:2.96) followed by Kitazin (1:2.75), Carbendazim (1:2.53) and Propiconazole (1:2.49) sprayed plots compared to other fungicides and untreated control plots over three years. It is thus concluded that the fungicide Tricyclazole should be sprayed thrice at weekly interval for the control of neck blast disease in rice.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 59-61
Laxman A Padanad and S Lingaraju
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to develop eco-friendly management strategy against root knot nematode in Karnataka on local variety. Among several management options tested, intercropping with marigold has recorded minimum number of galls per root (19.2), population of nematode (1030.7/200cc of soil) and yield of 7468.82 kg/ha which was comparable with soil application of carbofuran @ 1 kg a.i/ha with number of galls per root (21.6), population of nematode (1136/200cc of soil) and highest yield (7959 kg/ha). The application of poultry manure @ 1 t/ha soil application at sowing was found ineffective recording maximum number of galls per root (54.2), population of nematode (1509.3/200cc of soil) and yield of 6105.69 kg/ha. The untreated control recorded maximum number of galls per root (95.1), population of nematode (2629.7/200cc of soil) and minimum fruit yield of 5978.09 kg/ha. Thus, intercropping with marigold or soil application with carbofuron is recommended as effective and profitable management strategy against root knot nematode in bitter guard.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 62-65
Varsha Kumari and *Vinod Tasiwal
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, *Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an important fruit crop, belongs to family Caricaceae. Carica is the largest of the four genera with 48 species. Papaya is prone to many diseases incited by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses leading to heavy loss in yield, of which papaya anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. appear to be more severe causing devastation of papaya fruits during transit and storage. Among the carbon sources tested, dextrose was found to be the best for the growth of C. gloeosporioides than other carbon sources and lactose was least utilized. Among the nitrogen sources tested, potassium nitrate was found to be the best for growth of C. gloeosporioides followed by ammonium sulphate. Also among the sulphur utilization, magnesium sulphate yielded maximum mycelial weight of pathogen among the other sulphur compounds tested, and least growth was observed in case of copper sulphate over the control (190.25 mg) so copper is useful to manage the disease incidence.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 66-69
Kailash Chandra and *Sandeep Kushwaha
Zoological Survey of India, M-Block New Alipore Kolkata, West Bengal, India *Zoological Survey of India, Central Zone Regional Centre, Scheme No. 5, Plot No. 168-169, Vijay Nagar, Jabalpur - 482 002, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The field bean, Lablab purpureus L. family leguminacae is an important pulse cum vegetable crop in India cultivated for its tender and mature pods, seeds and also for fodder. Lablab (Lablab purpureus, formerly Dolichos lablab) also called hyacinth bean. Lablab is a native to India or South-East Asia. It is probably of an Asian origin and has been under cultivation since ancient times. Its wild forms are found in India. Species diversity analyzed through consistent survey and sampling conducted in various locality of Jabalpur region from September 2011 to March 2012 indicated that the leaf plantations and pods are damaged mostly by insects belonging to order Hemiptera. A total of 7 insect species belonging to 6 different families of order Hemiptera were recorded to infest lablab plantations in different localities of district Jabalpur, one Aphidophagous ladybird beetle Cheilomenes sexmaculata Fabricius is also reported.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 70-72
R Sheeba Jasmine
Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Melalathur - 635 806, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Sugarcane Research Station, Melalathur, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, during 2010-2011 with sixteen clones and four standard varieties to evaluate the suitable clones for mid late season with high yielding and high sugar content with resistance (Less susceptible) or moderately resistance (Moderately susceptible) to early shoot borer and internode borer. Observations on number of dead hearts and total number of shoots on 30th, 60th and 90th days after planting for early shoot borer were recorded and cumulative incidence was worked out. At the time of harvest, healthy and internode borer affected canes were recorded from 10 randomly selected canes in each plot for internode borer infestation and per cent incidence and intensity with infestation index worked out. Cane yield, commercial cane sugar (%) were recorded along with cane population at the time of harvest and sugar yield computed. Results revealed that the clones 06G029 and 06G040 were less susceptible to internode borer and moderately susceptible to shoot borer. Among 16 clones tested, the clone 06G029 was identified as high yielding and high sugared variety, recorded the highest sugar yield of 17.82 t/ha and cane yield of 136 t/ha with commercial cane sugar of 13.10 %. The standard varieties, CoG 94077 and CoG 93076 registered 14.73 and 15.41 tonnes of sugar yield, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 73-75
Shamarao Jahagirdar and H Virupaksha Prabhu
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was taken up at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bijpaur to assess the bioefficacy and phytotoxocity of melody duo 66.75 against downy mildew of grapes. First spray was taken up after appearance of the disease followed by two sprays at ten days interval. The pooled analysis over two years revealed that three sprays with Melody Duo 66.75WP @ 0.4% was found effective in checking the incidence (11.0 PDI ) which was on par with Metalaxyl MZ 72WP (10.6PDI). Maximum incidence of 48.6 PDI was recorded in untreated check. The mean yield was maximum (19.9 t/ha) in Melody Duo 66.75WP followed by 18.3 t/ha in Metalaxyl MZ72WP. Thus, three sprays with Iprovalicarb 5.5% + Propineb 61.3% (Melody Duo 66.8 WP) @0.4% be used recommended as one of the component spray in the management of downy mildew of grapes in India.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 76-78
Deepshikha Manu, Ashish Kumar Chandrakar and Chandresh Kumar Chandrakar
Department of Plant Pathology, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indore (Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004) Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study was carried on Alternaria blight (A. porri) of garlic on the survey of disease incidence in cultivator’s field, estimation of yield losses. Survey conducted to assess the incidence of purple blotch in the vicinity of Indore recorded the maximum incidence in Gawali Palasia (76.75%) and the minimum in research field, department of plant pathology, college of agriculture, Indore (49.22%). The losses due to the disease ranged from 4.1 to 52.05% at the corresponding incidence of 5-65% with a strong positive correlation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 79-82
I M Lone, G K Ramegowda, Irfan Illahi, M S Paijwar, G Rizvi, Anil Dhar and K A Sahaf
Department of Botany, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi – 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
Survey for the nursery diseases in 13 sericultural nurseries spread over six districts of Kashmir valley was carried out during spring-summer 2012. Prevalence, severity and distribution of nursery diseases of mulberry were documented along with collection diseased specimens for pathogen isolation. Survey revealed the prevalence of only cutting rot disease with varied intensity with respect to season, nursery type, planting material and mulberry variety. Isolation of the pathogen on PDA medium yielded only one fungal species, Fusarium solani f. sp. mori (Mart.) Sacc. Mean cutting rot incidence in mulberry nurseries in the Kashmir valley was 2.24% and 22.02% during April-May and July-August months, respectively. It was 2.99 and 26.19% in cuttings and zero and 11.17% in grafts; 2.58 and 18.60% in open nurseries and 0.53 and 39.13% in poly house during April-May and July-August, respectively. Among the six districts cutting rot could not be recorded in Bandipora district, which was visited only once during May. During July-August, 55.97% cuttings rot was recorded in Anantnag followed by Ganderbal and Shopian districts and a least of 5.58% in Pulwama district. As high as 83.33% cutting rot was recorded with Goshoerami cuttings, the popular cultivar of the valley in a open nursery at Krangsoo in Anantnag district during July 2012.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 83-86
R S Netam, *A N Bahadur, **R K S Tiwari and *U Tiwari
Shaheed Gundadhoor College of Agriculture & Research Station, Kumhrawand, Jagdalpur - 494 005, Chhattisgarh, India *Government E. R. R. (P/G) Science College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India **T. C. B. College of Agriculture (IGKVV), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Physiological studies of pyricularia grisea on different solid culture media, carbon-nitrogen source, temperature and pH level on the mycelial growth and sporulation of pyricularia grisea, incident of blast disease of finger millet. Maximum mycelial growth and sporulation were occurred on ragi meal agar medium. Among the different carbon sources, glucose was found as the most favorable carbon source. All nitrogen sources calcium ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate favour the mycelial growth of the fungus while maximum sporulation was found in asparagine followed by ammonium nitrate. The best mycelium growth and sporulation were found at temperature 25°C and 30°C and pH 7.0 was found most suitable pH for vegetative growth and sporulation of the pyricularia grisea fungus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 87-91
Mahesh Kumar Paikra and Navneet Rana
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiments were conducted during winter season in the Experimental Research Farm of Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The population build up of insect pests and natural enemies initiated from the month of December to March. The maximum, minimum temperature and rainfall were showed positive correlation; however morning and evening relative humidity had negative correlation with diamond back moth, web worm, tobacco caterpillar, lady bird beetle and rove beetle incidence, while maximum and minimum temperature was negatively correlated with aphid and sirfid fly incidence but positively correlated with morning and evening relative humidity and rainfall.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 92-94
A G Najar and S A Ganie
Division of Plant Pathology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar – 191 121, Srinagar (J&K), India
Abstract
Survey for the incidence of wilt of chilli at pre-flowering, 50 percent flowering and final fruit picking stage was conducted in Kashmir valley. The disease was found to be prevalent in all the three surveyed districts of the valley (Srinagar, Budgam and Pulwama) with maximum Fusarium pallidoroseum population (37.42 cfu x 103 g-1 soil) at 50 per cent flowering, while Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora capsici population was maximum at final fruit picking stage (4.28 and 6.64 cfu x 103 g-1 soil), respectively. F. pallidoroseum population was maximum in all the three surveyed districts, followed by Phytophthora capsici and Rhizoctoni solani. Maximum Fusarium pallidoroseum population was found at 50 per cent flowering in district Budgam (38.92) followed by Srinagar (37.33) and Pulwama (36.00).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 95-98
Zakir Hussain Khan
Biosystematics and Biodiversity Laboratory, Division of Entomology, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, (J & K), India
Abstract
Studies on biology, nature of damage and behavior of rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guence) have been carried out under the agro climatic conditions of Delhi on Pusa Basmati l cultivar. Life span from egg to adult of male is 33.0 to 48.0 days with an average to 40.5 days whereas that of female varied from 37.0 to 53.0 days with an average of 45.0 days. A female laid 68-94 eggs (average 80.9 eggs) in its life time. Pre-oviposition period was found to vary from 1-2 days (average 1.5 days), ovipositon period lasted 2-3 days (average 1.67 days), incubation period 7-9 days (average 6 days), larvae moulted five times within period of 19-27 days (average 23 days), pupal period 6-8 days (average 7.8 days), adults live, male 2.0-4.0 days (average 3 days) and female 6.0-9.0 days (average 7.5 days). The measurements of all stages form egg to adult including different larval stages have also been done.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 99-102
Sandeep Kumar G Parmar, M M Naik and Abhishek Shukla
Department of Entomology, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at College Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari to test the efficacy of various insecticides. The spinosad 0.002 per cent was found the most effective and economical treatment in controlling the pod borer pest complex (M. testulatis and H. armigera). The highest seed yield of blackgram was also recorded in the same treatment. The other treatments are also effective as compared to control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 103-108
S A Ganie and Zakir Hussain Khan
Division of Entomology, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, (J & K), India
Abstract
The studies on taxonomy of fruit flies associated with cucurbit crops in Kashmir Valley were carried out during 2008. For the purpose six locations namely Batamaloo, Dal and Shalimar in district Srinagar, Chadoora, Bugam and Narkara in district Budgam were selected. Various cucurbit crops namely cucumber, bottle gourd, ridge gourd and bitter gourd were selected for collection of fruit flies. Four species of fruit flies on cucurbits namely Bactrocera cucurbitae, B. dorsalis, B. tau and B. scutellaris were identified on the basis of taxonomical characters, from which two species B. tau and B. Scutellaris were first time recorded on cucurbits from Kashmir Valley.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 109-111
Sandeep Kumar G Parmar, M M Naik and Abhishek Shukla
Department of Entomology, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out on population dynamics of pest complex of blackgram at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during kharif 2008. The population of jassid (Empoasca kerri Pruthi) started from July with a peak during August, whereas whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) and aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) infestation started from July and reached to a peak level during August. The incidence of gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner) started from July with a peak during September. The incidence of spotted pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer) initiated from July with a peak during August. The weather parameters had no marked effect on population of insect pests in blackgram.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 112-113
G S Gulam Zameer, L R Kharwade, H N Kamble and U Dey
Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
An experiment has been conducted at College of Horticulture, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani during 2008-09 on the screening of different strains/varieties against natural epiphytotics of the powdery mildew caused by Sphaerothica pannosa var rosae (Wall.ex.Fr) Lev. in three replications. Powdery mildew, which is wide spread disease in rose growing areas, causing severe damage to the crop and reduction in the yield. Among the genotypes of rose screened, 3 genotypes viz Gladiator, First Red and Naranga were found moderately resistant which exhibited the powdery mildew disease intensity in the range of 15.09 to 18.33 per cent, while remaining 3 genotypes viz Passion, Gold Strife and Nobeless were found moderately susceptible with per cent disease intensity in the range of 26.70 to 33.27 per cent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 114
S C Mohapatra and *S S Nanda
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (OUAT), Bolangir – 7670 02, Odisha, India *Dean Extension Education cum Research, Orissa Universitu of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to examine the yield of toria in relation to six different dates of sowing. The toria variety Parvati was sown in 5 × 5 m² plot. The mean aphid population from terminal 10 cm of central shoot was taken at 15 days interval. Sudden increase of aphid infestation was noticed in October 25 sowing in both the year. The maximum yields were obtained in October 05 sowing in both the years as compared to lowest yield in November sowing.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 115-116
Efath Shahnaz, F A Misger and Amit Kumar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra/Extension Training Center, Malanglpora (SKUAST-Kashmir), Pulwama – 192 308, J & K, India
Abstract
Saffron is an important spice of the world and Kashmir has earned a distinct place for itself in the global market with respect to the quality of the final product. However, Kashmir is lacking in terms of production, with an average yield of 2.23 kg/ha as compared to 8.24 kg/ha in Spain and 10.0 kg/ha in Italy. One of the major bottlenecks in its cultivation is the corm rot disease which results in significant decreases in yield and subsequent harvest of seed corm. An on farm trial (OFT) was laid out in the saffron belt of Lethpora in district Pulwama to find the efficacy of different doses of carbendazim on the corm rot of saffron. Carbendazim was tested at two levels of 0.1 per cent (T1) and 0.2 per cent (T2), applied as seed treatment at the time of plantation of new corms and cormlets, with farmers practice (no seed treatment) serving as control. In the first year, the average yield of 2.50 kg/ha obtained in T1 was at par with 2.60 kg/ha obtained in T2, with no significant difference over control (2.32 kg/ha). However, in the second year, the average yields of 2.00 kg/ha (T1) and 2.16 kg/ha (T2) were statistically superior over control (1.00 kg/ha). The extremely low yields in the control treatment, during the second year can be attributed to untimely rainfall in the month of August. It can be a further indication that the rotting of corms is decreased by the application of carbendazim which resulted in better floral yields in treated plots.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 117-118
G S Gulam Zameer, L R Kharwade, H N Kamble and U Dey
Department of Plant Pathology, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Survey of rose field and rose grower of Parbhani district revealed that 86.5 per cent of rose grower faced the problem of powdery mildew disease, 68.00 per cent rose growers had grown local variety while 32 per cent grown gladiator variety. It was found that gladiator variety was less susceptible to powdery mildew.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 119-121
Mahesh Kumar Paikra and Navneet Rana
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Maximum larval mortality percentage after seven days was recorded with E2Y45 20 SC @ 40 g a.i./ha (83.33%) followed by cartap hydrochloride 50% SP @ 375 ml/ha (73.33%), E2Y45 20 SC @ 12.5 g a.i./ha (66.66%), B.t.k. (Halt) @ 1000 g a.i./ha (63.33) and E2Y45 20 SC @ 10 g a.i./ha (53.33%). Among the tested insecticides, the lowest larval mortality was recorded with azadirachtin 0.15% (neem) @ 2500 ml/ha (43.33%). The other concentration of E2Y45 20 SC @ 10 g a.i./ha, E2Y45 20 SC @ 7.5 g a.i./ha, E2Y45 20 SC @ 5 g a.i./ha and endosulfan 35 EC @ 1500 ml/ha were intermittent, however, much better than the untreated control. These treatments though were at par with each other in most of the parameters, like reduction in larval population, number and yield of cabbage heads, percentage head damage and per cent larval mortality etc.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 122-135
M K Prasanna Kumar, D K Sidde Gowda, Rishikanth Moudgal*, N Kiran Kumar**, K T Pandurange Gowda and K Vishwanath
Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAS Bangalore), V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India *Dow Agro Sciences, India, **Department of Crop Protection, V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The various methods used for managing rice disease includes, use of resistant varieties, cultural practices, biological and chemical control. All these methods have varied degrees of success in managing rice diseases. The most important control tactics used worldwide includes use of resistant varieties and chemical control. Efforts are made develop a new strategy for environmentally friendly control of fungal plant diseases with the development of proteomics-based fungicides. The trend towards a more judicious use of fungicides in combination with disease forecasting done would be continued which will help reduce the risk of adaptation by the target pathogen and at the same time will reduce residues in the environment and on the produce.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 136-138
Vandana Sharma, *Harvir Singh and Sangita Mawasi
Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India *Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa - 110 012, New Delhi, India
Abstract
The study was carried out in Narsingpur district of Madhya Pradesh in 2008-09 know the business analysis of pesticide. All crops suffer from damages caused by various pests, including insects, rodents, mites, nematodes, birds, wild animals and plant diseases due to infection of bacteria and fungi. Both annual and perennial weeds are common in field crop, vegetables and fruit trees. All these pests cause 10-15% losses in crop yields and consequently reduce the economic gain. To control the losses due to insect - pest, the farmer use the insecticide and pesticide. These insecticide chemical and pesticide are susceptible and vulnerable to attack of insect pest and disease. Pesticide as special category of toxic agrochemicals used to control pests, insects rodents fungal herbs and weeds we differentiated the plant and into crop which meet the need of the man and weed which compete with crop. Weed depletes crops environment of nutrients, water and light. Crop yields are reduced considerably due to weed interfere, and causes inconvenience, to agricultural operation the quality of produced is also reduced by weed infestation so solve this problem the chemical that are used to kill plant or weed are called weedicide their use has been increasing rapidly since 1944, when 2, 4D was first use as a herbicide.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 168-175
Sandeep Sinha and Pushpanjali Wagh
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur – 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out at Seed Breeding Research Farm, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) during rabi season of 2010-11. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters studied except for number of seed per capsule. The highest magnitude of genotypic variation was observed for 1000-SW, number of capsules per plant, oil content, number of seeds per capsules, number of capsules per plant number of primary branches per plant, plant height. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was observed for dry matter of capsules, dry matter of leaves, plant height, biological yield, dry matter of branches, total dry matter of plant, dry matter of main stem and seed yield per plant indicating that heritability is due to additive gene action and selection based on these characters may be effective. Correlation coefficient analysis revealed that biological yield, number of capsules per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of primary branches per plant, dry matter of capsules, total dry matter of plant and 1000-seed weight indicated strong positive correlation with seed yield per plant at both genotypic and phenotypic level, whereas, dry matter of branches showed high genotypic correlation but moderate phenotypic correlation, while, oil content and plant height expressed moderate positive genotypic correlation. Path coefficient analysis revealed that dry matter of capsules, biological yield, harvest index, dry matter of branches, dry matter of main stem and dry matter of leaves, showed high positive direct effect on seed yield per plant, and selection for these characters would lead to increase in yield. Divergence analysis revealed that considerably low amount of genetic divergence was present in the material under study. Based on Mahalanobis’s D2 statistic, genotypes were grouped into three non-overlapping clusters. Intercrossing of genotypes from different clusters showing superior mean performance may help in obtaining higher yields.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 1 ; 446-450
T V Jyothi and N S Hebsur
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The use of wastewater treatment processes becomes increasingly challenged with the identification of more and more contaminants, rapid growth of population and industrial activities, and diminishing availability of water resources. A number of techniques are used for treatment of water to hold great promise to provide alternatives for better protection of public health and the environment. The emphasis was placed on their basic principles, main applications, and new developments. The rapid infiltration process uses the soil matrix for physical, chemical, and biological treatment. Ozonation can remove the pharmaceuticals up to 60%. Iron oxide NMs are promising for industrial scale wastewater treatment, due to their low cost, strong adsorption capacity, easy separation and enhanced stability. It can be concluded that, along with the growing knowledge and the advances in manufacturing industry, the applications of these technologies will be increased at an unprecedented scale.


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