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Volume - 4 - March-April 2013
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 139-145
Prerna, Amit Kumar and R S Sengar
Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut - 250 110, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Due to global warming temperature is increasing at a rate unmatched by any temperature change over the last 50 million years. Drought and Heat stress due to increased temperature are agricultural problems in many areas in the world. This review describes some aspects of high temperature and drought induced changes in morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in plants, which affect plant growth and development and may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield. Flag leaf area, relative water content, proline content and grain yield decreased significantly under drought stress environment as compared to irrigated environment. The adverse effects of heat stress can be mitigated by developing crop plants with improved thermotolerance using various approaches. This study was aimed at evaluating some parameters such as stomatal conductance (gs), canopy temperature (CT), canopy temperature depression (CTD) and heat shock proteins etc.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 146-149
B Karunai Selvi
Department of Botany, V. V. Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar - 626 001, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms were isolated from rhizosphere soil of various leguminous plants. Phosphate solubilizing microbial colonies was varied from each and every leguminous plant. Bacterial population was more in number when compared to fungal population. The highest phosphate solubilizing bacterial population was observed in Clitoria ternatea. Bacillus sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the dominant organisms found almost in all the rhizosphere soil samples. A clear halo zone was produced by the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms on solid Pilovskaya’s agar medium with tricalcium phosphate, indicating that phosphate solubilizing ability of the bacterial and fungal isolates. These isolates were used to prepare microbial inoculants. Different ratios of vermicompost and rice bran were used as a carrier material to prepare phosphate solubilizing microbial inoculants. The ratio of vermicompost and rice bran is in increasing order 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 showed higher counts of viable cells in the carrier material. Phosphate solubilizing soil bacteria could serve as efficient microbial inoculants for improving the phosphorus nutrition of crop plants.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 150-154
Vasant M Ganiger, M B Madalageri and G Bhuvaneswari
Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, Haveli Farm, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot - 587 101, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of organic amendments on soil fertility in terms of biological properties in the process of organic production of bell pepper. Two bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties viz California Wonder and Gangavati Local raised under nine completely organic nutrient sources along with recommended package of practice and completely inorganic nutrients sources. The initial and after cropping season soil biological properties were studied by using standard procedures in their estimation. The results revealed that after two cropping seasons, irrespective of varieties there was substantial increase in the total bacterial count (22.97%), fungi (20.23%), actinomycetes (36.89%) and mycorrhiza (44.63%) in all the nutrient combinations wherever organic sources were used compared to inorganic treatment. All the organic nutrient sources were found to be similar in their effect on soil biological properties. Among the organic sources of nutrients the soils of O5 [FYM (50%) + PM (50%) equivalent 100% RDN basal)] had most beneficial biological properties in terms of higher microbial population viz fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, mycorrhiza and dehydrogenase activities. The least was observed in inorganic control treatment O11 (100 % RDF).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 155-159
C Vijay Kumar, S S Prakash, G M Prashantha, M B Mahendra Kumar, S Lohith and T Chikkaramappa
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 at Agricultural College Farm, Karekere, Hassan, Karnataka on sandy loamy soil. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four treatments replicated thrice. The dry matter accumulation both in haulm and tuber was significantly influenced by various treatments compared to farmers practice and application of farm yard manure alone. The potato tuber yield (16.50 t ha-1) with the application fertilizers as per the farmers practice and FYM @ 25 t ha-1 alone (10.92 t ha-1) was significantly lower than that obtained with application of recommended dose of fertilizers from different sources and time of application along with FYM @ 25 t ha-1 (20.64 to 22.24 t ha-1). However, the highest tuber yield of 22.24 t ha-1 was obtained with the application of recommended dose of fertilizer through DAP, urea and SOP along with FYM @ 25 t ha-1 which was at par with the tuber yield recorded in other recommended dose of fertilizer treatments. The available nutrient status of both macro and micronutrients was increased in the soil after the harvest of the crop due to application of recommended dose of fertilizer from different fertilizer source along with FYM.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 160-163
S K Acharya and N K Sharma
Department of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur, Nadia - 741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The creation, growth and decay of any social system, retaining myriads of life forms, have basically been the concerns and exposition of energy. Social metabolism envisage a natural connectivity amongst physical, biological and social systems ad their under lying cybernetics. It is the flow of energy that drives the social systems generating information, applying information and transforming the present social process in to a desired social out come. Energy remains retained, shelved and configured within a cell and within a social capsule and also is subject to a ruptured release for unlashing motivations and psychological capabilities. The present paper examines the collision and collusion between imposed technologies vis-a-vis extraneous knowledge vs intrinsic vis-a-vis in situ knowledge. The rejection of innovation, prescribed by experts, has got a reverse osmosis impact in the entire technology socialization process. Generally the rejected and discontinued technology has been branded as laggard but the logic behind rejections not esteemed properly. The farming system performance cannot be conceived as an indoor, interactive drama, rather it is a splendid disposition of social metabolism, where in the flow in and flow out of energy can be audited and monitored for sustainable farming performance of both the farmer and the manager or the both encapsulated in a single entity. The factors like cropping intensity, size of holding, education, motivation, access to information, the socialization level of technology have been found generating reticulate impact on the social osmosis through the intervening characters like, adoption, rejection and discontinuance, on and over a spectrum of prescribed innovation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 164-167
H B Dinesh, M R Gururaja Rao, A Mohan Rao, S Ramesh and K M Harinikumar
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Influence of male sterility inducing cytoplasm on combining ability with respect to ethanol yield and its attributing traits in sweet sorghum was studied in 48 hybrids developed by crossing six A- lines viz ICSA 631, ICSA 731, ICSA 324, ICSA 500, ICSA 38 and ICSA 84 and their corresponding B- lines with four R- lines viz SEREDO, ICSV 700, ICSV 111 and E 36-1 in line × tester mating design. The 16 parents and their 48 hybrids were grown separately in contiguous blocks in single row of 3m length with 0.15 m × 0.60 m spacing in simple lattice design with two replications at the experimental plots of University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra (GKVK), Bangalore, and Karnataka, India. Significant cytoplasm effects on gca effects of A & B -lines and on mean performance and sca effects of hybrids were detected only in a few of the nuclear genetic backgrounds. The direction and magnitude of the effects varied with the trait and the nuclear genetic background and was minimal to have any practical significance on the performance of hybrids in respect of any of the traits. The mean cane height, mean cane weight, juice volume per plant, juice extraction per cent and ethanol yield per plant of male sterile cytoplasm based hybrids were comparable with that of the male fertile based hybrids.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 176-179
H M Saqeebulla, K T Gurumurthy, C T Subbarayappa, P Veeranagappa and M B Mahendra Kumar
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Five soil profiles were studied under different land use systems. The soils were found to be slightly acidic in soil reaction and all most all the soils were found to be low in electrical conductivity indicating low amount of soluble salts in the soils, while organic carbon content gradually decreased with depth among the land use systems. Low cation exchange capacity values were observed under different land use systems studied which may be attributed to low clay content and dominance of Kaolinite type of clay. Calcium carbonate content increased from 0.32 to 0.69% cent in all the profiles. Free iron oxides that in all the profiles are relatively low and it decreases with depth. The available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur were decreased usually with depth. Exchangeable calcium and magnesium increased from 5.80 to 6.80 and 2.10 to 2.90 cmol (P+) kg-1 among the land use systems. Among the land use systems micronutrient were decreased with depth it might be due to its close association with organic matter.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 180-183
M R Ahanger*, G K Ramegowda, I Illahi, G Rizvi*, A Dhar and K A Sahaf
*Department of Botany, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121 J & K, India
Abstract
An attempt to measure the variability to frost damage during winter 2011-12 among 57 mulberry germplasm accessions of five Morus spp. was made at Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Pampore, Kashmir, India. Frost damage was measured as the cumulative dieback of shoots from longest, shortest and median branches in three randomly selected trees from each germplasm accession during April 2012. Irrespective of the species, origin and shoot length the mean frost damage was 12.08% which ranged from 0.16 (S-146) to 33.29% (C-763). Among the Morus species, M. bombycis registered lowest dieback followed by M. multicaulis, M. indica and M. alba and highest was observed with a sole accession of M. kayayama. The mean frost damage in indigenous mulberry accessions (13.31%) was relatively more compared to that in exotic accessions (10.39%). Among the indigenous mulberry accessions, native germplasm from Kashmir registered lower frost damage (6.47%) compared to rest (15.58%). S-146 registered the highest tolerance to frost damage with a dieback of 0.16% followed by S-1708 and four Kashmir accessions viz Chattatul, Botatul, Chattatul Zangir and Zangabad. Among the exotic genotypes, Serpentina of Italian origin offered the highest tolerance followed by Goshoerami, Obawase, Enshuutakasuke and Rokokuyoso of Japanese origin. Shimanouchi and Kasuga of Japanese origin and Mandalay of Burma origin were severely damaged among the exotic group. Tallest branch in a tree registered more frost damage (14.32%) than median (11.56%) and shortest branches (8.70%), in general. Correlation studies with dieback due to frost damage and shoot length registered weak and negative relationship. This study marks a beginning in understanding the complex response of mulberry to extreme winters of Kashmir.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 184-187
H B Dinesh, M R Gururaja Rao, A Mohan Rao, S J Satheesh Naik, H N Chethan* and C S Shantharaja*
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, *Depertment of Seed Science and Technology University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Fossil energy resources, the primary source of transport fuel in the world is depleting dramatically to meet the ever-increasing energy demands globally. However, climate change caused by green house gas emissions (GHG) from fossil fuels and energy security in the future are the two major concerns which drives us to search for alternative energy sources. Crop plants are one of the best sources of renewable energy which can be used as feedstock for biofuel production. Hence, the biofuel resources like sweet sorghum, other herbaceous grasses and fast growing forest trees are on their way to meet the energy requirements. Sweet sorghum, a C4 graminaceous crop which has sugar rich stalks and which is a water use efficient crop has a very good potential as an alternative feed stock for ethanol production. Ethanol yield and its attributing traits in sweet sorghum was studied in 24 hybrids developed by crossing six A- lines viz, ICSA 631, ICSA 731, ICSA 324, ICSA 500, ICSA 38 and ICSA 84 with four R- lines viz, SEREDO, ICSV-700, ICSV 111 and E 36-1 in a line × tester mating design. The 10 parents and their 24 hybrids were grown separately in contiguous blocks in single row of 3m length with 0.15 m × 0.60 m spacing in simple lattice design with two replications at the experimental plots of Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra (GKVK), University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. Mean performance and manifestation of significant in hybrid heterosis for mean cane height, mean cane weight, juice yield, juice extraction per cent and ethanol yield was observed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 188-191
S D Bhor, A S Gajare and S K Ghodke
College of Agriculture (Marathwada Agricultural University), Latur - 413 512, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A pot experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Latur, during the year 2009, to study the quality and decomposition rate of vermicompost as influenced by crop residues and earthworm species. The crop residues, viz sugarcane, soybean, sorghum, pigeon pea, wheat, sunflower were inoculated with earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia foetida and monitored for the rate of decomposition of crop residues and quality of vermicompost. Periodical observations were taken for 80 days. Among the different crop residues vermicompost prepared from soybean gave good quality vermicompost followed by pigeon pea. Vermicompost prepared from soybean is rich in N, P, K and micronutrients as compared to remaining all the crop residues, however C:N ratio of pigeon pea residues was narrower followed by soybean. The quality of vermicompost was found superior due to earthworm species Eisenia foetida (S1) because of higher nutrient concentration in vermicompost.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 192-195
K Nagaraju, B C Meenakshi and R Sundararaj*
Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Termite control in forest and nursery plantation has very important role therefore present work was planned for isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic bacteria on termites from Western Ghats of Karnataka. The preliminarily survey work was carried out, there were twenty five dead/diseased termite samples collected in and around Mudigere taluk, Chikamagalore district, the isolates which were brought to laboratory after surveyed and identified the strains based on their morphological characters. The entomopathogenic isolates were subjected to gram staining, spore staining and crystal staining and based on shape, size and also based on biochemical reactions they were isolate and codes of UASB1 to UASB20. Biological control of termites has greater importance now-a- days.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 196-198
S A Nadaf, H M Chidanandappa and Venkanna Yadahalli
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In order to study the effect of zinc and boron on quality parameters and oil yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) a field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil (Typic Haplustalf) with deficient in available zinc (0.46 mg kg-1) and boron (0.43 mg kg-1) soil of Shivamogga (Karnataka). Results of the experiment showed that protein content, oil content and oil yield of groundnut was significant increased over the control due to application of boron @ 5 kg ha-1 and zinc sulphate at three level 5, 10 and 20 kg ha-1 either alone are in combination with borax.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 199-201
Divya Shah, Ashish Kumar Chandrakar, Chandresh Kumar Chandrakar and Rajesh Siyag
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indore, Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season, 2008-09 at Research Farm Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, College of Agriculture, Indore (Madhya Pradesh) for evaluating the effect of nutrient management on yield attributes and economics of soybean. The treatment T6 (150% RDF + 40 kg S + 6.25 kg Zn/ha) significantly produced maximum number of pods/plant, seeds/pod, seed yield/plant (10.03 g) seed index (8.50g), grain yield (1673 kg/ha) and straw yield (1727 kg/ha) followed by T5 (150% RDF). The maximum net return of Rs. 20525/ha along with highest benefit: cost ratio of 3.00 was obtained with treatment T5 (150% RDF), while gross income was highest (Rs. 31841/ha) with treatment T6 (150% RDF+ 40 kg S + 6.25 kg Zn/ha).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 202-206
C B Koujalgi, S M Mundinamani* and B S Kulkarni*
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Horticultural Sciences, Sector No. 60, Navanagar – 587 102 Bagalkot, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An economic analysis of pomegranate cultivation in Karnataka for its viability and sustainability has been taken up in Northern Districts of Karnataka during 2009-10. The results indicated that, the per hectare total establishment cost including maintenance cost up to bearing period was Rs. 2,85,998.76 and Rs. 2,78,440.31 for Bagalkot and Koppal districts, respectively. The cost per hectare in pomegranate orchard from the fourth year onwards in Bagalkot district was Rs. 55,009.38 and it was Rs. 56,217.46 for Koppal district. The project evaluation criteria indicated that NPV was Rs. 3, 02,602.65 and Rs. 3, 87,900.02 for Bagalkot and Koppal districts, respectively discounted at the rate of 9.00% opportunity cost of capital. The B: C ratio was 1.53 and 1.68, IRR was 19.76 and 22.45% for Bagalkot and Koppal districts, respectively. The payback period was 6.11 years for the orchards in Bagalkot district and 6.04 years in Koppal district.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 207-210
P Thimme Gowda, S I Halikatti and S B Manjunatha
Depertment of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment with maize (Zea mays L.) cv. Kargil M-900 Gold was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad, Karnataka during kharif season of 2010 and 2011 with four planting dates viz June first fortnight, June second fortnight, July first fortnight and July second fortnight with four cropping systems namely, intercropping of maize and pigeonpea 2:1, 2:2 and 4:2 row ratio including sole maize. Various thermal indices including growing degree days (GDD), phenothermal index (PTI) and heat use efficiency (HUE) for maize were calculated by using standard methods for above treatments. The results showed that timely June I fortnight sown maize took significantly more number of days (111 days) and growing degree days (1569.1) to complete physiological maturity and recorded higher heat efficiency (0.363 g plant 1 °C day-1) as compared to subsequent delayed sowing, but was on par with June II fortnight sowing). Among the various cropping systems sole maize took more number of days and growing degree days to complete physiological maturity and registered higher heat use efficiency as compared to maize grown in association with pigeonpea irrespective of row ratio.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 211-214
K Nagaraju, B C Meenakshi and R Sundararaj*
Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Entomopathogenic fungal spores at cell concentrations of 105 conidia/ml for growth and multiplication of fungal isolates on solid media. For A. flavus maize + glucose which give good spore count of 10 × 105 conidia/ml, similarly for P. notatum sorghum + glucose with spore count of 19 × 105 conidia per ml, for M. anisopliae maize + glucose media gave good spores of 24 × 105 conidia per ml. For B. bassiana wheat + glucose solid media gave good spore count of 20.5 × 10 5 conidial/ml. For A. flavus papaya liquid medium more growth and multiplication of spore i e, 22 × 105 conidial/ml, similarly for other isolates like P. notatum carrot media with spore count of 22 × 105 conidia/ml, M. anisopliae orange liquid media with spore count of 22.5 × 105 conidia/ml and for B. bassiana carrot medium with spore count 23.2 × 105 conidia/ml, respectively provided good growth and multiplication environment. Among different media used potato dextrose agar supported good for growth and multiplication of A. flavus spore of 14 × 105 conidial/ml, Sabouraud’s broth for P. notatum give good condition for multiplication of spore count of 13x105 conidia/ml, malt extract broth for M. anisopliae with spore count 18.5 × 105 conidial/ml and 19.1 × 105 conidial/ml for B. bassiana isolates. Whereas, nutrient agar medium, tryptone soy agar, laurient agar, potato dextrose agar and brain heart infusion agar. For B. cereus PDA media supported very good which the colony count of 12 × 105 Cfu/ml, for B. thuringiensis LA media with colony count of 11.5 × 105 Cfu/ml and 12 × 105 Cfu/ml, P. fluorescens showed very good in BHIA media. Among liquid media wise NB, TSB, LB, PDB and BHIB broth, for B. cereus PDB broth supported very good growth of 12 × 105 Cfu/ml, for B. thuringiensis LB broth supported good growth of 15 × 105 Cfu/ml and for P. fluorescens NB broth supported good growth of 10 × 105 Cfu/ml.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 215-217
J M Veeresh, N K Rajesh Kumar and K Raghavendra
Depertment of Agricultural Engineering, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Future agriculture is more concern on energy saving even small variation in pressure leads to more consumption of energy to pump for distributing water for irrigation in this scenario a research work carried in ZARS, GKVK, UAS, Bangalore on pressure variation of different micro sprinklers. Pressure discharge relationship can be very well established by the power type equation of form Q = aHb indicating that discharge increases with increase in pressure. The values of discharge exponent close to 0.5 for all the type of micro sprinkler indicated that all the three types of micro sprinklers are of desired quality in terms of their response to variation in operating head. Minimum discharge of 30.26, 50.21 and 83.63 lph were recorded for the operating pressure of 1.0 kg/cm2, where as the maximum discharge of 59.10, 86.0 and 128.10 lph were recorded for operating pressure 2.6 kg/cm2 for S-2, S-3 and S-1 micro sprinkler respectively. The S-2 type micro sprinkler has the lower discharge than other two micro sprinklers at the same operating pressures.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 218-220
N Jaishankar, JagJiwan Ram* and Pralhad**
Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, B’gudi (UAS Raichur), Yadgir - 565 280, Karnataka, India *Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture Engineering, Raichur, Karnataka, India **Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Raichur, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of some commercial feed supplements alone or in combination on the performance of broiler chickens. For the purpose, 320 day-old unsexed commercial broiler chicks were distributed sixteen replicates of 20 chicks each. Eight treatments viz Control (T1), Hepatocare (T2), Cal-c-care (T3), Nephrosol (T4), Hepatocare + Cal-c-care (T5), Hepatocare + Nephrosol (T6), Cal-c-care + Nephrosol (T7), Hepatocare + Cal-c-care + Nephrosol (T8) was assigned to duplicate groups. All the fed supplements were administered through water as per the recommendations and the trial lasted for 42 days. The cumulative body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, livability and net returns were ranged from 2236 (T1) to 2359 g/bird (T2), 4006 (T5) to 4168 g/bird (T1), 1.72 (T4) to 1.87 kg feed/kg weight gain (T3), 93.0 to (T2) to 100 per cent (T5) and from Rs. 20.5 (T1) to 27.0/bird (T2 and T4), respectively however, the differences are statistically similar (p >0.05) among different treatments. In general, the performance of broilers supplemented with feed supplements particularly Hepatocare was better when compared to control and found to be economical.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 221-223
Santoshkumar Kamareddi, V C Patil and *S A Nadaf
Depertment of Agronomy, *Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Axillary buds excised from aseptic shoot cultures of mulberry were encapsulated in sodium alginate provided with MS nutrients and protectants as a synthetic endosperm to enhance survival, germination and prevent contamination of encapsulated axillary buds of mulberry. The synthetic seeds with synthetic endosperm constituents of MS nutrients, streptomycin sulphate (0.1%) and carbendazim (0.1%) gave not only good protection against contaminants, but also resulted in germination of nearly 60 per cent of the encapsulated axillary buds. Among the two different storage temperature, storage of synthetic seeds at 5°C was most preferable as more than 50 per cent of the encapsulated axillary buds survived for as long as 30 days.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 224-228
S K Acharya and S Bera
Department of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur, Nadia - 741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present paper has been the outcome of a rigorous research work to identify the factors attributing to the fast reduction of local fish biodiversities. The indigenous fish goners are the most important bio-ecological indicators to measure the intensity of changes disturbing ecological balances of any micro-farming system both in intrinsic and extrinsic manner. Some local and innovative measuring devices, elicited by the stakeholders themselves, were applied to calculate the FMV and fish landing in different local markets. This would ultimately make the researchers draw conclusion that the factors like chemical loads in agriculture, occupational change of the rural people, destruction of local bodies, indiscriminate use of pesticides in agricultural field and adjoining water bodies are all responsible for ushering a faster decline of these local fish species. The decline of species has been measured in terms of loss of decadal score down the years and declining availability of these fishes across the spatial distribution had been statistically intercepted to get the most expected estimation of species count and the factors contributing to them. Other PRA tools had been administered and subsequently been quantified for facilitating the objective analysis and drawing thereby a logical conclusion.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 229-231
K Nagaraju, R Sundararaj* and B C Meenakshi
Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The entomopathogenic bacteria was isolated and used for mass production to assess the optimum temperature, cell concentration and the incubation period required to cause mortality of termites. Therefore mortality at variable levels of temperature; using different cell concentration and variable incubation period to cause optimum mortality of termites was assessed. High mortality of termites and lowest LT 50 values were recorded by Bacillus thuringiensis. Cell concentration of entomopathogenic bacteria viz B. subtilies, B. cereus, P. florescens, S. aureus and B. thuringiensis, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109 and 1010 were used. At 109 cell concentration mortality was high. Among five bacterial isolates screened B. thuringiensis showed very high mortality of termites and Probit analysis showed in B. thuringiensis recorded the lowest LC 50 at cells concentration of 109 i e (36.87 × 109 cfu ml-1) in worker. Among soldiers also a similar trend was observed at 109 cfu/ml, lowest dosage-mortality LC 50 42.27 × 109 cfu ml-1. Initially low mortality at 1 week and gradually increased and it was more at 2 weeks. Among five bacterial isolates screened B. thuringiensis showed very high mortality of termites and recorded the lowest LC 50 at 2 weeks.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 232-236
Umesh Singh Tomar and H S Prodhan
Department of Plant Breeding, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia - 741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Association and path coefficient analysis were studied among 15 agro-morphological traits in 30 green maize germplasms. In general, genotypic correlations were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations. The green ear yield was found to be correlated strongly with ear diameter, ear length, cob length, cob diameter, ear insertion height and green fodder yield. However, it had significantly negative correlations with days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, turcicum leaf blight reaction, puncture pressure and TSS content. The path coefficient analysis indicated that ear length, ear diameter, ear insertion height and green fodder yield exerted positive direct effects on green ear yield. The character ear diameter had the maximum indirect effect on green ear yield via cob diameter. Correlation and path analysis suggested that more emphasis should be given to genotypes having more of green ear length, ear diameter and green fodder yield for farmer's point of view. However, the quality characters of consumer interest like, TSS content and puncture pressure have negative correlations with the ear yield. The highest correlated response to selection to green ear yield found through green ear diameter and green ear length.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 237-240
K P Kaleon, S K Acharya and S Bera
Department of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741 252, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present study has selected the hill ecosystem of North Sikkim as a research locale to estimate the people’s perception on the impact of climate change on this fragile ecosystem. The variables Y1 (climate change perception), Y2 (yield change perception), Y3 (water bodies perception), Y4 (health problem perception), Y5 (species decline perception), Y6 (perception indicator change), Y7 (landslide perception), Y8 (distance perception), Y (comprehensive climate change perception) the following variables has been selected and customized as core of predict ants, against which the following variables X1 (age), X2 (education), X3 (family size), X4 (media interaction), X5 (per capita holding size), X6 (cropping intensity), X7 (technology socialization status), X8 (family income), X9 (expenditure after health), X10 (animal health mentoring), X11 (location of the market), has been selected as to have causal impact on the above stated perceptual variables. It has been found that the variable X2 (education) has got decisive impacts on climate change perception. While path analysis has been carried out the variable X3 (family size) has exerted the HIDE (highest indirect effect) on climate change perception. The correlation analysis has evinced that the variables X2 (education), X6 (cropping intensity), X8 (family income), have been significantly correlated with climate change perception. The principle component analysis depicted that the following key factors through the respective conglomeration of variable have impacted on the process of climate change perception and the factors are farm capacity, health ecosystem, geo-diversity, media complex, socialization dynamics, resource based climate change perception, landslide perception. Canonical correlation analysis has been conducted to determine whether two set of variables are in independent of one another or conversely determining the magnitude of the relationship.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 241-245
C B Koujalgi*, S M Mundinamani, B S Kulkarni, S B Mahajanshetty and M K Sheikh
*Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The investigation was carried out in the year 2008-2009 to identify the marketing channels of pomegranate and also marketing analysis for the sale of in different channels. Three main marketing channels of pomegranate in the study area they are Channel-I: Producer→ Commission agent cum wholesaler→ Retailer→ Consumer, Channel-II: Producer→ Distant wholesaler and Channel-III: Producer→ Exporter have been identified for pomegranate marketing. Among the three channels, the second channel was the most popular channel wherein the farmer incurred a marketing cost of Rs. 33.86/ton and Rs. 35.78/ton in marketing of pomegranate and received a net price of Rs. 33,656.19/ton and Rs. 33,851.23/ton in Bagalkot and Koppal districts, respectively. Based on potential establishment of this enterprise in years to come, the study identified the need for new processing units, hitech storage facilities and effective forward linkage in the region to safeguard the interest of pomegranate growers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 246-249
Mohmad Iqbal Reshi and Muzaffer Ahmad Malik
Department of Regional Planning and Economic Growth, Barkatullah University Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Education is the basic right of every individual of a society. The constitution of India made education a compulsory thing for every individual of the country and recently included it in fundamental rights of the constitution. Importance of education is quite apparent. It is both a stimulus and a response which ultimately lead to development of mankind. Research and Development is directly linked to activity in terms of invention. It is easy to imagine that education, especially higher education, is important to the invention and innovation process. The scope of developing educational institutions is overwhelmingly greater in Kashmir compared to other states of the country as the topography of the valley restricts the development of other industries. Due to the apathy of all concerned that valley is suffering a lot of financial loss and also social embracing at times. The insufficient educational institutions in valley induce a number of students to migrate out of valley for higher education. This imposes a cost which escalates to hundreds of crores annually. All this play a significant part in drain of wealth directly from the valley and multiplier effect indirectly on other production ventures.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 250-253
P S Prasanna Kumar, Sachin Hundre, P S Ranjith Kumar and *L B Hugar
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur – 581 410, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study examined the energy use pattern in cotton cultivation under irrigated situations of Raichur district. The investigation revealed that fertilizer was found to be the dominant source of energy contributing 3,206 mega joules (MJ) per acre which accounted for 54.63 per cent of the total energy utilized in cotton cultivation. The total energy utilized for cotton cultivation by small farmers (6,100 MJ/acre) was significantly higher than that of medium (5,890 MJ/acre) and large (5,621 MJ/acre) farmers. The operation wise energy use pattern in cotton cultivation showed that among all the operations, ploughing consumed highest amount of energy (487 MJ/acre) which accounted to 23.88 per cent followed by harvesting (382 MJ/acre) of the total energy utilized for all operations in cotton cultivation. Further, the total cost of input energy was found to be marginally higher in the case of small farmers (Rs. 17,930.42/acre) compared to medium (Rs. 17,456.03/acre) and large farmers (Rs. 15,957.77/acre) in cotton cultivation. The total cost incurred per unit of input energy was 2.92 per MJ in cotton cultivation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 254-256
K Nagaraju, R Sundararaj* and B C Meenakshi
Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Termite infestation is very common in forest nurseries; therefore present work was planned for isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic fungus of termites from Western Ghats of Karnataka. the preliminarily survey work was carried out, there were twenty five dead/diseased termite samples collected in and around Mudigere taluk, Chikamagalore district, the isolates which were brought to lab after surveyed and identified the strains based on their morphological characters. The fungal samples they were cultured on Petri plates, they were observed under microscope for colony character and they identified are given code numbers; UASBF (24) 1 to UASBF (24) 18. These isolates are identified and listed based on conidial morphology and microscopic appearance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 257-261
Sweta Ramole and *U Chouhan
Department of Bioinformatics and *Department of Mathematics, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT), Bhopal - 462 051, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Plant aquaporins form a large protein family including plasma membrane-type (PIPs) and tonoplast-type aquaporins (TIPs), and facilitate osmotic water transport across membranes as a key physiological function. Water uptake, transportation and retention in plants play a very important role in all the development stages of the plant. This study focuses on the structural and phylogenetic evolutionary analysis. The objective was also to get a deeper and comprehensive understanding of PIP gene family in rice computational and insilico analysis of structure, phylogeny and expression of 17 PIP genes of rice was performed. 234 tags localized by OsPIP were characterized using MPSS computational technique. Expression pattern using microarray analysis revealed PROFX, PIP21, PIP12 as highly expressed ,indicating their major role as water transporter in plants. The conserved domain correlated well with the phylogenetic analysis, and MPSS results were in accordance with results obtained using Microarray analysis and Genevestigator.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 262-266
A D Naik, L B Kunnal*, N M Kerur, Anand Naik** and N Ashoka
Department of Agribusiness Management, *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India **Department of SSAC, University of Agricultural Science, Raichur - 584 101, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study is an effort in the direction of having an integrated study of all aspects of production and value chain of underutilized millets (savi and navane). The per hectare total cost of cultivation of savi worked out to be Rs. 7236.92, while the per quintal cost of production worked out to be Rs. 603.08. Gross return realized from one hectare of savi grown by the sample farmers was Rs. 8442.96. The benefit cost ratio worked out to be 1.17 indicating the profitability of savi cultivation in the study area. Per hectare total cost of cultivation of navane worked out to be Rs. 6587.22 and per quintal cost of navane production worked out to be Rs. 470.52. The gross returns realized from navane cultivation were Rs. 7350 per hectare with a benefit cost ratio of 1.22.7. As decorticated grains are costly and seasonally demanded the value addition is found to be attractive and hence there is a need to establish small processing units in the production areas in order to encourage the production of underutilized millets considering their cultural importance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 267-269
Patil Nanagouda and A H Rajasab
Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Botany Gulbarga University, Gulbarga - 585 106, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In the state of Karnataka, north Karnataka accounts for the bulk of the total onion production and is distributed throughout the country. A survey was conducted to evaluate the importance, agronomic practices, irrigation, plant protection activities and economic status of onion in Gulbarga region. Forty five onion growers from seven villages belonging to 3 taluks of Gulbarga district were interviewed through a formatted questionnaire. The survey revealed that the crop plays an important role in the economy of the onion growers. An average of 1.08 acres (16%) of their total land was under onion cultivation in the district. Nearly 70 percent sample farmers grown local varieties and more than half chosen yellow cultivar. Because of many constraints like poor quality/costly seeds/ seedlings, non availability of manures, scarce and costly labors, heavy infestation of weeds, erratic power cut, un-scientific usage of chemical fertilizers and plant protection chemicals, poor storage facilities and traditional farming, the average yield was 57 quintals per acre which was very low when compared to international average.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 270-272
K Nagaraju, B C Meenakshi and R Sundararaj*
Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The entomopathogenic fungus was isolated from dead termites and used for mass production to assess the optimum temperature, cell concentration and the incubation period required to cause optimum mortality of termites. Therefore mortality at variable levels of temperature was recorded. Mortality at different cell concentration and variable incubation period was recorded. Effect of entomopathogenic fungus grown at different temperatures 18°C, 20°C, 23°C, 25°C, 27°C and 30°C on infectivity to O. obesus. The analysis showed that the termite mortality was initially low and gradually increased and it was more at 25°C. Among four fungal isolates screened B. bassiana and M. anisopliae showed very high mortality of termite mortality and recorded the lowest LT 50 value in M. anisopliae followed by B. bassiana. The mortality was initially low and gradually increased and it was more at 108. Among workers of B. bassiana recorded the lowest LC50 at cell concentrations of 108 i e (27.23 × 108 conidial ml-1) and in soldier recorded lowest mortality LC50 30.72 × 108 conidial ml-1. Mortality was high in 3rd week in B. bassiana and M. anisopliae and recorded the lowest LC 50 values.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 273-275
A D Naik, L B Kunnal*, N M Kerur, Anand Naik** and N Ashoka
Department of Agribusiness Management, *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India **Department of SSAC, University of Agricultural Science, Raichur - 584 101, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study is an effort to study growth and instability of minor millets in the northern part of Karnataka. The growth in savi area was negative and significant for both sample district (-1.93%) and the state (-5.62%) as a while. Accordingly the production of savi also showed declining trend as indicated by their negative growth rates in case of both district and state level savi production. Growth in navane area, production and productivity was negative for both the sample districts. The decline in area (8.62%) and production (8.69%) was found to be significant in Bellary district. For the state as a whole, the growth rates of navane area (-8.92%) and production (-8.46%) showed significantly declining trend, while growth rate of navane productivity (0.39%) was found to be positive and statistically significant at one per cent probability level. The average savi production for the state as a whole was predominantly due to change in mean area (160.79%) followed by change in mean yield (86.33%). At the state level the stability of navane production was largely attributable to change in mean yield (69.54%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 276-279
Bhuwneshwari, Satish K Verma, Kamal Narayan, M S Paikra and Satram S Paikra
Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the selected varieties of processing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under Chhattisgarh plains. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications and nine treatments/genotypes during rabi 2009-10. The results revealed that the highest percent emergence was recorded in Kufri Chipsona-1 (93.26%), the maximum number of leaves plant-1 was counted in Kufri Surya (311.62), significantly the maximum number of shoots plant-1 (5.33) and tallest plant (62.66) was found in Kufri Chipsona-1 at 60 DAP, no mark differences was observed among all the treatments as regard number of stolen plant-1 but relatively higher number of stolen plant-1 was noted in Kufri Surya (31.52) at 60 DAP and Kufri Chipsona-1 (33.02) at 75 DAP, tuberization efficiency was found relatively higher in Kufri Chipsona-1 (3.75 g), the highest number of marketable (11.56) and unmarketable (4.11) tubers as well as tuber yield plant-1 of marketable (440 g) and unmarketable (57.7 g) was counted in Kufri Chipsona-1. The highest total yield (280 q/ha) was recorded in Kufri Chipsona-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 280-282
S B Manjunath, V V Angadi and P Thimmegowda
Depertment of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences during Kharif, rabi and summer of 2010-11 under irrigated conditions. The result obtained from the study revealed that among the different row spacing of 45 and 60 cm recorded significantly higher yield of crude protein, crude fibre, total ash and ether extract compared to 30 cm (S1) row spacing. Among the different nitrogen levels 300 kg N ha-1 recorded higher crude protein content compared to lower levels of nitrogen treatment in all the cuttings. However, green forage and dry matter yield also higher with a row spacing of 45 cm and 60cm and application of 300 kg nitrogen per ha compared to lower level of nitrogen and was 40.0, 26.2 and 11.9 per cent higher over 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 283-285
Udita Tiwari, R K Agnihotri*, Swati Shrotriya and Rajendra Sharma*
Department of Biochemistry, * Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Khandari, Campus, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra - 282 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The effect of lead (Pb) on some biochemical constituent’s viz chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, protein, carbohydrate and proline content of wheat (Triticum aesticum) seedlings were evaluated under 10, 30 and 60 mM concentration. These concentrations significantly affected all the parameters when compared to control. Pb at 10 mM concentration resulted in less significant effect on chlorophyll, a, b and carotenoids, while higher concentration (30 and 60 mM) significantly reduced chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of the seedlings. However, the addition of nitrogen (5mM) somehow minimized the effect of this heavy metal. Nitrogen increased the chlorophyll content of metal treated plants. Almost similar results (like pigment composition) have been observed for protein and carbohydrate contents. The proline content of plants was increased under Pb treatments. In this case, the additional supply of nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate decreased proline content of plants treated with Pb. Results of this study are in opinion that above 30 mM concentration of lead in the soil is toxic for cultivation of this valuable crop in this region and farmers should apply the recommended dose of N2 to reduce the lead toxicity for proper growth and development of the plant and ultimately the productivity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 286-287
C Vijay Kumar, S S Prakash, G M Prashantha, M B Mahendra Kumar, S Lohith and T Chikkaramappa
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2009 at Agricultural College Farm, Karekere, Hassan on sandy loamy soil to study the effect of different sources and time of fertilizer application on yield and economics of potato under rainfed condition in Hassan District. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four treatments replicated thrice. The potato tuber yield (16.50 t ha-1) with the application fertilizers as per the farmers practice and FYM @ 25 t ha-1 alone (10.92 t ha-1) was significantly lower than that obtained with application of RDF from different sources along with FYM @ 25 t ha-1 (20.64 to 22.24 t ha-1). However, the highest tuber yield of 22.24 t ha-1 was obtained with the application of RDF through DAP, urea and SOP along with FYM @ 25 t ha-1 which was at par with the tuber yield recorded in other RDF treatments. The B: C ratio was maximum in all the treatments (2.16 to 2.55) receiving RDF from different source and time of application over the farmers practice (1.75) and FYM @ 25 t ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 288-289
N Jaishankar, JagJiwan Ram* and Pralhad**
Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, B’gudi (UAS Raichur), Yadgir - 565 280, Karnataka, India *Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture Engineering, Raichur, Karnataka, India **Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Raichur, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A 42 days trail was conducted to study the influence of Hepatocare and Cal-c-care supplementation on the performance of broiler chicken fed on commercial broiler diet. The cumulative body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, livability and net returns were ranged from 2242 ± 47 (T1) to 2290 ± 27 g/bird (T5), 3563 ± 27 (T4) to 3627 ± 36 g/bird (T3), 1.51 ± 0.01 (T4, T5) to 1.54±0.03 kg feed/kg wt gain (T1), 97 ± 3 (T1, T5) to 100 ± 0 per cent (T3, T4) and from Rs. 29.8 ± 2.3 (T4) to 31.4 ± 0.6/bird (T5), respectively. The supplementation of cal-c-care and hepatocare on every alternative day for 42 days period of bird rearing has improved bodyweight gain, feed conversion ratio and decreased the incidence of mortality. Addition of hepatocare and cal-c-care is beneficial for commercial broilers as growth promoter and didn’t notice any adverse effect throughout the study. Hence cal-c-care and Hepatocare can be used at the rate of 4ml/ litre to have better production performance of broilers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 290-291
K Nagaraju, R Sundararaj* and B C Meenakshi
Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The survey work was carried out in different forest nurseries and plantations which are located in Western Ghats of Karnataka. Dead and diseased termite species were collected in the forest nurseries and plantations located in the places such as Mudigere taluk, Chikamagalore district in Western Ghats of Karnataka. Dead and diseased termites were collected from the mounds, stem, shoots, dead branches and roots of plants. The entomopathogenic bacteria and fungus isolation and characterization done than Antibiotic sensitivity test performed by the commonly used agar diffusion method by using different concentrations of antibiotic paper discs (50, 100, 150, 200, 250µ), the resulting value was measured by the diameter zone of inhibition surrounding the antibiotic disc as Incubated all the plates of bacterial at the temperature of 37°C for 24 to 48 hours and also for fungus incubate the plates at 25°C for 72 hours. The sensitivity of the entomopathogenic microorganisms (both bacteria and fungus) were defendant on concentrations of the antibiotics. As the antibiotic concentration was more; the zone of inhibition was increased. At low concentration of antibiotic the microbial resistance was increased.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 292-293
B N Suresh, S Y Wali T, N Jaishankar*, Thirumalesh** and B K Ramesh***
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bijapur - 586 101, Karnataka, India *Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, B’gudi (UAS Raichur), Yadgir - 565 280, Karnataka, India **Veterinary College Bidar, Karnataka, India ***Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bellary, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An on-farm trial was undertaken to assess the growth performance and economics of goat kids under grazing supplemented with urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) or mineral mixture. Five farmers having at least 3 kids of 3 month age were selected for the study. One selected kid from each farmer has an access for UMMB lick (G-2) for about 30 minutes daily and another kid was fed daily 10g area specific mineral mixture (G-3) while the remaining one was not provided with any feed supplement (G-1). All the three kids in each farmer were taken for grazing along with the other animals. The trail continued for 3 months. The average daily body weight gain was significantly (p <0.01) higher in group 2 (63.19) and group 3 (58.30) than in group 1 (52.70 g/day). The use of UMMB was more economical than mineral mixture supplementation. Smallholder goat farmers thus can be encouraged to use UMMB for better animal performance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 294-295
Sankar P Adhikary
Department of Botany, Aska Science College, Aska - 761 111, Ganjam, Odisha, India
Abstract
Thus, the investigation concluded the presence of bioactive compounds was known to posses antioxidant activities and other properties which act as a stimulatory at lower concentration and inhibitory at concentration exceed a particular limit. It is suggested that Alangium salvifolium contains certain bioactive compound, may help for crop improvement. However, the mechanism for an effect needs further evaluation and extensive study with other parameter of the plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 296-297
Vikas Gupta and *H L Sharma
Department of Agronomy, *Department of Statistics, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur -482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present paper is concerned with correlation coefficient amongst growth characters and seed yield components in rice crop taking into consideration the experiment on integrated nutrient management (INM) in rice-wheat cropping system. The present investigation was carried out at Research Farm of the Department of Agronomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) including two consecutive years i e during both kharif and rabi seasons of the year 2002-03 and 2003-04. The growth characters and their seed yield components were positively and significantly correlated in rice crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 298-300
K Nagaraju, B C Meenakshi and R Sundararaj*
Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A study was conducted to evolve the potential entomopathogens upon collection of samples (dead termites) in Western Ghats of Karnataka. Entamopathogens was isolated, identified and after mass multiplication the isolates were inoculated to three predominant termite species viz Odontotermes wallonensis, Odontotermes brunneus and Odontotermes obesus were observed for 7 days and mortality was recorded. O. wallonensis against entomopathogenic bacteria were screened and the DMRT analysis for B. subtilies, B. cereus, P. florescens, S. aureus and B. thuringiensis and with control (without entomopathogens) of termites both castes of worker and soldier at different time intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 hours, respectively. After 36-48 hours exposure period mortality was high in B. thuringiensis and B. cereus was showed some infection. O. brunneus was also showed similar results with high mortality rate at 36-48 hours of exposure period among four isolates viz B. thuringiensis showed high mortality. At 60 hours exposed to B. thuringiensis we found 100% mortality. In O. obesus initially mortality was low but as the time advanced gradually the mortality also increased and it was peak at 36-48 hours after exposed to entomopathogenic bacteria.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 301-302
A Krishna Murthy, G Dhanalakshmi and J V Ramana*
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Yagantipalle, Banaganapalli, Kurnool - 518 124, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Influence of micro mineral supplementation (Ca, P, Cu, Zn and Mn) through regional specific mineral mixture (RSMM) on reproductive performance of milch buffaloes was studied in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. Graded murrah buffaloes (75) having post partum anoestrus condition were supplemented with RSMM for 90 days. Among the animals 42.66% responded to supplementation of RSMM of which 65.7%, 25% and 9.3% of animals exhibited oestrus during first, second and third month of the study. The present study indicated that supplementation of RSMM play major role in influencing the reproductive performance of milch buffaloes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 303-304
B N Suresh, N Jaishankar*, Thirumalesh** and B K Ramesh***
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bijapur - 586 101, Karnataka, India *Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, B’gudi (UAS Raichur), Yadgir - 565 280, Karnataka, India **Veterinary College Bidar, Karnataka, India ***Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bellary, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to compare the growth performance of Osmanabadi kids under different feeding regimen during rainy season. Twelve Osmanabadi weaner goat kids of 21/2 to 3 months age were randomly divided into three groups of four animals each. In group 1, kids were sent for grazing in the field along with the flock for 8 hrs. In group 2, kids were offered concentrate mixture @ 1% of body weight in addition to grazing with the main flock.In group 3, kids were maintained under stall and offered ad lib green fodder and concentrate mixture @ 1% of body weight. The trial was lasted for 84 days. The results revealed that the average body weight gain were 55.36 ± 3.40, 74.76 ± 2.63 and 61.25 ± 5.26 g/day/kid in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively and differed significantly (p<0.01) each other. It was observed that the growth rate is higher under grazing with supplementation than that in grazing alone or stall feeding indicating that grazing with supplementation found to be advantageous during rainy season. Hence it can be concluded that semi intensive farming is best to attain better body weight gain and economic returns.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 305-307
K Nagaraju, R Sundararaj* and B C Meenakshi
Department of Agriculture Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Scientist, Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Entomopathogenic fungus isolated from samples of insect cadavers that might have died because of a pathogen infection and termite-associated materials from outer and inner parts of termite mounds were collected from the forest nurseries and plantations located at places such as Mudigere Taluk in Western Ghats of Karnataka. The analysis showed the termite mortality was initially low but gradually increased and highest was found at 36-48 hours of exposure period. Among four fungal isolates screened two B. bassiana and M. anisopliae showed 100% of mortality of termites, compared to Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus flavus lowest LT50 values. Odontotermes brunneus also showed similar results with high mortality at 36-48 hours of exposure period among four isolates viz B. bassiana and M. anisopliae showed high mortality at 60 exposures, and resulted 100% mortality by B. bassiana and M. anisopliae with lowest LT50 values. In Odontotermes obesus initially mortality was low but as the time advanced gradually the mortality of termites were also increased and it was peak at 36-48 hours of exposure and low mortality at 60 hours.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 308-312
Channabasanagowda, Pramod M Chandkavate*, B N Venu* and Ravinderkumar Patil**
CMR Institute of Technology (VTU), Bangalore, Karnataka, India, *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Agricultural Research Station, Aland Road, Gulbarga - 01, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The commodity exchanges in commodity futures have developed into indispensable and they are found to be more competent in ‘price discovery’ and reassigning the risk. However, successful commodity derivative trading identify for appropriate institutional support and awareness among the commodity producers. The future is certainly glowing for the Indian commodities market. Once the much anticipated institutional participation like NGOs, cooperatives, agribusiness companies enters the market, it will create speculation, arbitration and hedging for all kinds of players in the market. As the market matures and intensify further, we can hope to see the day almost immediately, when Indian commodities market will provide a benchmark for traders worldwide, especially in those commodities where India is a major producer or consumer. The market has made vast progress in terms of technology, transparency and the trading activity which bring liquidity and better price discovery for all players, especially for the retail investors who can stare at commodities as an investment option. Attractively, this has happened only after the Government protection was removed from a number of commodities and market forces were allowed to play their role after solving all these problems through administered price mechanisms. The management of price risk and resource allocation going to attain greater importance in future with the promotion of free trade and removal of trade restrictions in the domestic and global market.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 313-317
Hamidreza Rastegar, Mohammadreza Rastgar and Ghasem Kulabadi*
School of Tourism, The University of Queensland, Brisbane - 40 72, Australia *Dasht Aria Company, Neyshabur, Fars Provience, Iran
Abstract
Dairy farms and their associated activity can cause different types of pollutions, for example giant livestock farms, which can house hundreds of thousands of pigs, chickens, or cows, produce vast amount of waste, often generating the waste equivalent of a small city. Silage liquor (from fermented wet grass) is even stronger than slurry, with low pH and high BOD is one of these threats to the environment which can create soil, water and other pollutions. These potential harmful impacts can be prevented by more stringent enforcement policy and/or a greater awareness of the polluting potential.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 2 ; 318-320
Rakesh Singh Sengar and Kalpana Sengar
Tissue Culture Laboratory, College of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut - 250 110, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The management and monitoring of agricultural and environmental resources and the origin of foods are of increasing importance today. GIS have proved to be important tools in solving problems encountered. Advances in the capabilities of the web language have enabled information providers to include animation and interactive elements in their web sites. These developments have expanded the potential of the GIS world. The internet map server provides a framework for requests and for delivering information to Web browsers from a GIS application on their www server. The result is ready access to maps and information anywhere on the Internet. This system provides agricultural specialist with the elements needed for decision making. The main advantages of geographical information system are; impartiality, rapidly, flexibility. Decision makers have immediate access to cultivated area depending by type of crop, stage of a crop’s growth cycle, yield forecast, technical condition for land preparation etc. This information is absolutely necessary to elaborate short and long term agricultural strategies.


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