Volume - 4 - May-June 2013
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 321-328
Fayaz A Bahar, Farooq A Aga, Purshotam Singh, Sameera Quyoom, Bilal A Lone and S Ansar-ul-Haq
Department of Agronomy, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, J & K, India
Through the employment of herbicides to control weeds in cultivated fields, we were moving against nature’s laws of biodiversity. No single herbicide or management tactic can solve a particular herbicide-resistance problem. Both to prevent and manage resistance, once it occurs, requires a basic knowledge of the biology of the weeds and their population dynamics, But our battle against the pest is not inevitably the one we are going to lose; it must be fought as a complex war with all available options. Commonsense and laws of nature tell us this is a game we can never entirely win. Yet there is no reason to believe that we cannot maintain a satisfactory level of crop protection. A fundamental understanding of the forces that select resistant individuals and the processes by which resistance is accelerated or delayed, plus the experience gained over a broad range of growing conditions and countries, should better prepare us to combat herbicide resistance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 329-332
Rakesh Kumar Meena and *Prashant Shukla
Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidalaya, *Devleela Biotechs Laboratory, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
This study was aimed at exploiting the genetic variations among eight edible popular rice variety of Chhattisgarh through electrophoretical separation of grain proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacryamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In the initial screening, molecular weights of peptides ranged from 57kd to 13 kDa with the presence or absence of particular band. The different fraction of protein might play very important role in eating quality of the rice. The cluster analysis, using UPGMA after quantifying the protein bands, revealed two main clusters at 52% homology. Cluster 1 was further divided into two sub clusters showing 70% homology and close genetic proximity among genotypes. The rice genotypes HMT premium and HMT standard were grouped together into sub clusters 1. These genotypes revealed 100% homology with each other, Swarna and basmati were also in sub cluster1 and both are 76% and 84% homology with the HMT group of rice genotypes while sub cluster 2 was grouped with three rice genotypes with 70% homology to sub cluster 1. In sub cluster 2, Javaphool rice genotype has 81% similarity with Tulsimala and Kalimunch rice genotypes. Tulsimala and Kalimunch rice genotypes were around 80% to each other.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 333-336
S Hemalatha, M Y Kamatar and Rama K Naik
Extension Education Unit, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
In order to know the socio-economic status of existing millet growers a study was undertaken in Karnataka. A total of 683 millet growers were interviewed out of which four per cent were female and the rest 96 per cent were male. Sixty one per cent respondent-farmers were small and medium farmers and 39 per cent were large farmers with an average family size of 9 members. Among the facilities available - source of drinking water for majority of the households was tanks. Toilet facilities were not available for 72 per cent of the families. It was found that majority (66%) of the farmers were literates, 30% had primary level education, while 5.8% had education up to the degree level. About 30% farmers had education from secondary school to pre-university course. Majority of the farmers dwelled in stone and mud house (81%) and only 18% owned the houses constructed with cement and bricks. Survey revealed that, on an average, three members per family worked as family labourers on their own farm for which their wages were not paid or recorded. They worked for 243 days in a year as labourers as well as supervisors whenever labourers were engaged. The annual income for the family was mainly from sources other than agricultural operations like masonry, working in industry and petty business. Earnings from jobs in some cases were upto to Rs. 74,479 and from agricultural source were Rs. 44,907. The major expenditure was towards purchase of agriculture inputs followed by food, education, clothing and other essential things. Ninety per cent of the farmers expressed that millets were cultivated to meet feed and fodder requirements for cattle. Other reasons expressed were that they can be organically grown with no pesticides and fertilizers (68%), less tolerant to disease (68%), can be cultivated with less water or under drought conditions (68%), protection of soil fertility (51%), less labour requirement (44%). Most of the respondent millet growers did not follow any value addition (94%) to any of the millets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 337-340
Anushri Singh and Devendra Dewangan
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
The experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2010 at Instructional Cum Research Farm Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The results revealed that CPE based irrigation schedules did not influence significantly the growth parameters i e plant height, total tillers, leaf area, dry matter accumulation and SPAD value. Irrigation water supplied under different treatments supported with frequent occurrence of rainfall and high water table failed to create any water deficit to the plant. However, all the growth parameters found to be equally effective under all irrigation schedules. Moreover, effective tillers, grains panicle-1, test weight, sterility per cent and yields of grain and straw remained at par under all the irrigation schedules. The nutrient management practices significantly affected the growth, yield and nutrient concentration of rice. These nutrient levels found to equally effective for increasing yield components, grain yield, N, P and K concentration in grain and straw. The uptake of these nutrients also increased at aforesaid levels of nutrients. The increase in yield was mainly associated with significant increase in number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter accumulation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 341-346
Devendra Singh and R A Singh
Department of Agronomy, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad - 224 229, Uttar Pradesh, India
A field experiment was conducted at the Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad (U.P.) India. Three sowing methods were taken to study the effect of varieties HUW 234, UP 2425 and HP 1744 and time of application of nitrogen on the growth, yield and nutrient uptake of wheat. The results revealed that the plant height, ear length, number of grains per ear, harvest index and test weight were significantly higher in the cross sowing method then close sowing and broadcasting had significantly higher number of effective tillers. Wheat variety UP 2425 significantly increased the plant height, number of tillers, number of effective tillers, ear length and number of grains per ear and grain and straw yield. Wheat variety UP 2425 was found most adaptable under cross sowing and enhanced grain yield by 13.08 and 26.37% over HUW 234 and HP 1744, respectively. The three split nitrogen application significantly increased the plant height, dry matter, spike length, grains spike-1, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield and harvest index over two and single split nitrogen application. The highest grain yield (27.6q ha-1) recorded in three-split nitrogen application was due to significant improvement in yield contributing characters. Effective tillers increased significantly with the three split nitrogen application spanning up to ear emergence. Though the UP 2425 grains contained higher protein content but the N uptake differences between the two varieties were significant. The three split application also effected a significant improvement in the N uptake over the two split application.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 347-349
S Nazeer Ahmed, G M Darzi, G K Ramegowda, Anil Dhar, Mohmad Aslam, Haroon Rashid, M A Khan and K A Sahaf
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Kashmir valley falls under temperate climatic zone and the climate during spring season is salubrious and congenial for practicing Bivoltine sericulture. Though Kashmir is having enormous potential to produce more, the mono cocoon crop pattern is hindering the progress of the industry. Identification of season specific silkworm hybrids is an important factor for enhancing the revenue for the farmer and interns paves the way to make sericulture economically viable. In recent past, CSR single and double hybrids have been introduced in the valley in addition to the ruling conventional hybrid, SH6 × NB4D2. An effort has been made to delineate the performance of four silkworm hybrids being commercially reared in spring seasonsof2008 to 2011 in the sericulturaly active areas of Kashmir valley in districts of Pulwama, Bandipora and Kulgam. Study clearly revealed that the CSR double hybrids have out yielded other three combinations with an improvement of 23% over the bench mark yield (35 Kg/100 DFLs) and 10% over the conventional hybrid (SH6 × NB4D2). The rearing of this hybrid under temperate conditions of Kashmir can pave way for better economic returns to the farmers and sustenance of sericulture industry in this traditional part of the country.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 350-353
S Vijayachandra Reddy and S M Mundinamani
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
The present study has analyzed the cost and returns of major identified organic farming systems viz organic farming system-I: Groundnut + greengram followed by wheat + dairy, organic farming system-II: Sesamum followed by jowar + dairy and organic farming system-III: Maize + groundnut + dairy in Bagalkot district of Karnataka State by collecting primary data from 95 organic growers for the period 2011-12. The analysis of cost and returns in major identified organic farming systems in the study area revealed that, the net returns realized by the farmers was found to be maximum in organic farming system-III (Rs. 40,760.05) as compared to other farming systems identified in the study area. In addition to crop enterprises, dairy enterprise was found to be one of the important allied enterprises practiced by the sample farmers and major income source in the study area. The analysis revealed that, the share of dairy alone in the major organic farming system-I, II and III accounts for 27.83 per cent, 39.88 per cent and 32.41 per cent to the gross returns, respectively. This study suggests, efforts should be made through Raitha Samparka Kendra (RSK’s) and Krishi Vigyana Kendra (KVK’s) to popularize these organic farming systems for improvement in productivity and profitability of crops and livestock in the study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 354-358
Mallikarjuna Lingappa, *R C Gowda, M R Yogesh and *D C Hanumanthappa
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *AICRP on Long Term Fertilizer Experiment, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
A study was conducted to quantify the root biomass addition through maize and finger millet crops in selected treatments of long term fertilizer experiment in an alfisol. Significant differences were noticed among the treatments in terms of root biomass addition with maximum of 14.24 q ha-1 of maize root biomass and 12.14 q ha-1 of finger millet root biomass was recorded in T4 S3 (150% NPK + 10 tons FYM ha-1) and also highest yield of both the crops were obtained in same treatments. The organic carbon increased with the addition of FYM along with inorganic fertilizers. Plots treated continuously with only inorganic fertilizers recorded much lower values of nutrient status than those treated in combination with lime and FYM. Available sulphur content of soil was significantly increased in all the treatments over T1 S1 (100% N). Significantly higher available sulphur content of 84.76 kg ha-1 was recorded in T4 S3 and lower of 41.23 kg ha-1 was recorded in T1 S1 (100% N).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 359-362
A C Lohakare, S H Gawande, V N Khandait and V K Basunathe
Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension, Nagpur Veterinary College, Seminary Hills, Nagpur - 441 506, Maharashtra, India
This study was conducted at Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, Maharashtra during 2009-10. The study had been conceptualized with overall objectives to assess the existing adoption of animal husbandry practices by cattle owners and its relationship with personal, socioeconomic and psychological characteristics in Vidarbha region. It is observed that majority of respondents 75.72 percent were in medium category with respect of their level of adoption of animal husbandry practices, followed by high level of adoption 15.24 percent and 9.04 percent in low level of adoption.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 363-365
M Haque, Birendra Kumar, *Suman Kalyani and *Ranvir Kumar
Bihar Agricultural College, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour - 813 210, Bihar, India *B. P. S. Agricultural College (Bihar Agricultural University), Kasba Road, Purnea - 854 302, Bihar, India
An experiment was conducted at Birsa Agricultural University Farm, Ranchi to investigate the effect of cropping system and weed control on weeds and productivity of crops. Intercropping of maize with soybean and ground nut effectively reduced the weed density and dry weight of weeds at 30 and 60 days after sowing compared to their pure cropping. The grain yield of maize under intercropping was on at par with that obtained under its pure cropping during the individual year of the experimentation. However, on the basis of two years pooled data the grain yield of maize was significantly influenced by cropping system. The grain yield of maize obtained under maize + soybean (1:2) intercropping was statistically at par with that obtained under its pure cropping and in turn were significantly superior to the grain yield obtained under maize + groundnut intercropping system but the significant reduction (24.65%) and (18.72%) in grain yield of soybean and groundnut was noticed in intercropping systems compared with its sole cropping. Maize equivalent in maize + groundnut (1:2 and system was statistically alike (6608 kg ha¬-1 and 6344 kg ha-1, respectively) made significant improvement compared to remaining cropping systems. Hand weeding at 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing was comparable with pre-emergence application of oxyfluorfen @ 0.2 kg a.i. ha-1 in reducing the population of weeds and weed dry matter production at 30 and 60 days after sowing. Oxyfluorfen @ 0.2 kg a.i. ha-1 proved equally effective and as good as hand weeding in increasing the grain yield of maize, soybean and groundnut. Hand weeding at 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing gave the highest maize equivalent yield (5847 ka ha-1) which was statistically at par with the equivalent yield obtained with pre-emergence application of oxyfluorfen @ 0.2 kg a.i. ha-1 (5602 ka ha-1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 366-368
T C Yogesh, A P Vishwanath and P Thimmegowda
Depertment of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
A study was conducted in the Zonal Agriculture Research Station at V. C. Farm, Mandya during kharif 2008 to study the influence of zinc, iron and microbial inoculants on growth and yield of aerobic paddy. The results of the experiment revealed that among the different treatments RDF + FYM 10 t ha-1 + ZnSO4 @ 20 kg ha-1 + VAM + Azospirillum + PSB recorded significantly higher growth parameters like plant height (68.08 cm), number of tillers hill-1 (40.37), leaf area (2198.58 cm2), leaf area index (2.44), total dry matter accumulation (116.99 g plant-1) and grain yield (43.63 q ha-1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 369-371
C M Balai, R K Bairwa, B L Roat and B L Meena
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (MPUAT), Badal Mahal, Shashtri Colony, Dungarpur - 314 001, Rajasthan, India
The study was carried out during Kharif season of 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2012 in 25 villages across 3 blocks (Dungarpur, Bicchiwara and Aspur) of Dungarpur district. In all 362 front line demonstrations on maize crop were carried out in an area of 76.0 ha with the active participation of farmers with the objective to demonstrate the latest technology of maize production potential, technological gap, extension gap, technology index and economic benefit of improved technologies consisting suitable varieties PHEM 2, Bio 9637 and HQPM 5, integrated nutrient management (90:40:0 NPK kg ha-1 + Azotobector + PSB @ 20g/kg seed) and integrated pest management (deep ploughing + seed treatment with Trichoderma viride @ 6g/kg seed + Methyl parathion 2% dust @ 25 kg ha-1 + Carbofuran 3% G @ 7.5 kg ha-1) at Dungarpur, Bicchiwara and Aspur blocks of Dungarpur district during 2008 to 2010 and 2012. The results revealed that FLD recorded higher yield as compared to farmers’ practices over the years of study. The improved technologies recorded average yield of 24.68 q ha-1 which was 74.78 per cent higher than that obtained with farmer’s practices of 14.15 q ha-1. In spite of increase in yield of maize, technological gap, extension gap and technology index existed which was 10.32, 10.53 q ha-1 and 29.49 per cent, respectively. The extension gap can be bridged by popularizing package of practices where in stress need to be laid on improved variety, use of proper seed rate, balanced nutrient application and proper plant protection measures. Improved technologies gave higher net return of Rs. 16212 ha-1 with benefit cost ratio 2.48 as compared to local check (Rs. 6242 ha-1, benefit cost ratio 1.68).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 372-374
Amreen Taj and *V B Sanath Kumar
Depertment of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India
In vitro evaluation of antagonists, plant extracts, animal products and fungicides against charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in maize. The Fungal antagonists Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum and the bacterial isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis can be exploited as potential bio-agent for controlling M. phaseolina as they were found most effective in inhibiting the radial growth of the test fungus. Among the nine plant extracts and five animal products tested at 100, 50 and 25%, plant extracts of garlic at 100, 50 and 25% have shown higher radial growth inhibition percentage (88.00, 81.90 and 72.5%, respectively) and at 100% concentration, cow dung inhibited maximum growth (71.80) milk inhibited maximum growth (64.87%), in general, the inhibition of radial growth increased with increase in concentration of each plant and animal extract.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 375-379
M R Yogesh, S S Prakash, Mallikarjuna Lingappa and *M N Thimmegowda
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *Depertment of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
An investigation was carried out to understand the soil nutrient status in North Nala paddy fields of Sulekere Command Area, Mandya district. For characterization 17 composite samples from head and mid and 18 samples were collected from the tail region of South Nala. Soil characterization revealed that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline range with low soluble salts. Soils are low to medium in available N, P and K status and sufficient in Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients. The Coefficient of variance (%) for pH, available N and exchangeable Ca was low (<15%), while EC and available K, Mg and S are moderate (15% - 35%); SOC and DTPA extractable micronutrients had highest variability (>35%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 380-382
Poonam Prajapati, *J D Sarkar, **Pawan Kumar and ***Sarita Sahu
Department of Agricultural Communication, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263 145, Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India *Department of Agricultural Extension, ***Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur-492 006, Chhattisgarh, India **Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra, India
The study was carried out during 2009-10 in two selected blocks (Dhamdha and Berla) of Durg district of Chhattisgarh state. From each block 75 banana growers were selected making a total of 150 respondents. To measure the constraints faced by the banana growers in adoption of recommended banana production technology, simple ranking technique was applied. Constraints faced by the banana growers in adoption of recommended banana production technology are concerned it was found that majority of the respondents reported high cost of tissue culture plants, inadequate availability of quality planting materials, declining of water level in summer season, fluctuation of price of the produce. As regards to suggestions of banana growers for minimizing the constraints faced by them during the adoption of recommended banana production technology, it was observed that Improved quality of tissue culture plants should be available in time and sufficient quantity at village level emerged as the main suggestion as reported by respondents. The other suggestions were subsidies should be increased on inputs like plants, fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, drip spare parts etc increase the transportation and approach road facility at village level, market facility should be increased.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 383-385
Anita Mohanty, *C R Mohanty and **P K Mohapatra
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (OUAT Bhubaneswer), Jajpur - 754 081, Odisha, India *Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, OUAT, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India **Department of Botany, Revenshaw College, College Square, Cuttack - 753 003, Odisha, India
The present investigation was carried out to study the response of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) cultivars to organic and inorganic fertilizers. The experiment was conducted at Krishi vigyan Kendra Jajpur, Orissa during spring 2012. The treatments comprised of vermicompost, poultry manure, biofertilizer with 50% RDF and 75% RDF in different combinations including control (RDF). The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with fifteen treatments replicated thrice. The results revealed that application of 50% RDF + vermicompost + polutrymanure + biofertilizer (T11) produced significantly maximum plant height, number of branches per plant, plant spread in N-S and E-W directions, average flower weight, number of flowers per plant, flower yield per plant (g) and flower yield per plot (kg) as compared to control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 386-392
A D Naik, L B Kunnal*, N M Kerur, Anand Naik** and N Ashoka
Department of Agribusiness Management, *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India **Department of SSAC, University of Agricultural Science, Raichur - 584 101, Karnataka, India
The present study is an effort to study resource use efficiency of minor millets in the northern parts of Karnataka. The functional analysis revealed that bullock labour, farmyard manure and seeds were under used whereas human labour and fertilizer were over utilized in little millet (savi) production. Except land all the other inputs were over utilized in fox tail millet (navane) production. Thus there is need to reallocate the expenditure on different resources in savi and navane production so as to maximize the profits in the farm. Very few sample farmers of savi and navane were found to operate at high technical efficiency rating of above 90 per cent. There exists a vast scope for improving savi and navane productivity in the study area by increasing the technical efficiency without the use of additional quantity of resources. The findings of the study indicated the lower economic efficiency of both savi (25.82%) and navane (22.23%) sample farmers. Thus, improvement in economic efficiency through concerted efforts on part of the farm management personnel and extension agencies is the felt need for improving the productivity of these crops and income levels at the farm level.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 393-396
A Biswas, S K Acharya and M Saha
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Mohanpur, Nadia - 741 252, West Bengal, India
The total world population of 14,00 million people are under reeling under abject poverty. India has a contribution as high as 30% to the world poverty. To fight against poverty wage and income generation have been essential intervention. The main domain of Indian poverty reigns in rural India and in her fiscal economy agriculture had to support 64% of the population contributing only 15% to her GDP. The things turn complex when it is a complex rainfed agro-ecosystem in district like purulia. The study was conducted to estimate the wage level of rural population viz the tribal population of purulia. It has been found that wage has been strong correlated to the variable holding size, abject poverty, yield level. In estimating the wage generation and nature from this rain fed agro-ecosystem, a set of agro-economic and socio personal variable has been conceived to have causal impact on the consequent variable wage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 397-401
S R Patait, K V Deshmukh, Pallab Debnath and Ravi Shrey
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
This study examines the performance of mango in India’s export for the period of 20 years, i e 1990-91 to 2009-10. In analytical techniques, tabular analysis and functional analysis such as linear and compound growth rate has been applied to analyze the data. It is revealed form the study that at overall period, on an average the production of mango was to the tune of 11189.690 MT per annum. On the contrary, UAE is the major export destination for mango. It is also observed from the study that the growth rates of mango export during the study period was positive and significant for volume exported and value received. This indicates that the export performance is taking place in desired direction. It can be suggested from the study that there is a lot of prospectus for improving the export performance of mango. It can be possibly done by bringing more land under mango cultivation. Government should also undertake special policy for encouraging the export of mango.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 402-407
Gayatri Joshi and Ruchira Shukla
ASPEE Agribusiness Management Institute, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujrat, India
The present study was conducted in three districts of South Gujarat with the help of personal interview of 150 retailers to understand the status of distribution, factors affecting distribution and the satisfaction level of retailers with sales services. It was found that availability at retail outlet is the major factor influencing purchase of packaged snack food products followed by taste, quantity, quality and freshness of the products. Instant gratification is the main purpose behind purchasing of packaged snack food products. Packaged snack food product brands should launch new products to satisfy the variety seeking baying behaviour of consumers. They should also take extra care for proper arrangement and visibility backed by proper availability of the products at retail outlets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 408-411
Veena S Jadhav and Archana Bhatnagar
Department of Family Resource Management, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
The study was carried out to know the impact of sustainable agriculture on family income. Ninety women farmers from Belgaum, Dharwad and Haveri districts were selected as the respondents of the study. In all the districts, agriculture was the main source of income of all the selected families but the average annual income was highest in Belgaum (Rs. 38939.02) followed by Dharwad (Rs. 29897.96) and Haveri (Rs. 27380.95) districts. The results indicated that in adoption of organic farming observed with the index score more than 60.00 in all the districts. The sustainable agricultural practices have been found beneficial to the women farmers and in all the 3 districts the sustainable agricultural practices have shown impact on family income.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 412-415
Nagaraj, M V Bharamagoudar, Basavaraj Hulagur and S N Hanchinal
Depertment of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
This investigation aims to study the extent of adoption of farm mechanization practices by paddy growers in Sindhanur and Manvi talukas of Raichur district with sample size of 120 paddy growers in Tungabhadra Project Area. The results revealed that, 96.67 per cent of the farmers were using mouldboard plough in the field, by maintaining its depth of operation i e 15-30 cm. With regard to harrowing operations 93.33 per cent farmers regularly use this operation after ploughing the land. Nearly 89.17 per cent of the paddy growers possessed a skill on the use of cultivators. They used in the field by maintaining its depth of operation i e 10-20 cm. With regard to rotavator, 48.33 per cent of respondents had applied rotovator in the field and mainly they used the L-type and helical type blades. However, in overall adoption, nearly 50 per cent of the respondents belonged to medium category. It is due to the fact that the farm mechanization in paddy cultivation is gradually increasing in the study area and the growers are slowly coming forward to adopt these implements. The paddy growers were still resistant to adopt paddy transplanter due to its high cost and its dwindling yield. The preparation of mat nursery, the use of the specific aged seedlings, the preparation of main field for transplantation etc, were the factors responsible to hinder the adoption process. With reference to adoption of rotavator the growers quote the similar reason of high cost which was not permitting them to use in the field. The paddy growers were not using the cheapest and oldest implement i e cono-weeder. It is due to the fact that now-a-days, the spacing between rows is not maintaining in the paddy field and hence these cono-weeders not used by the growers and such implements are disappearing from the farmers on operation. This suggests that, vast scope for the development departments to intervene and improve the adoption level of farmers about farm mechanization practices. Paddy transplanting method is gaining popularity in the region.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 416-419
M Haque, Birendra Kumar, Suman Kalyani* and Ranvir Kumar*
Department of Agronomy, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour, Bhagalpur - 813 210, Bihar, India *Bhola Paswan Shastri Agricultural College, Purnea - 854 302, Bihar, India
A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil during the rainy seasons to investigate the effect of maize based intercropping system on maize yield and associated weeds under rainfed upland ecosystem. Intercropping system could not affect the growth and yield attributes of component crops. All the intercropping system recorded significantly higher maize-equivalent yield, productivity (kg/ha) and significant reduction in weed population and weed dry biomass or weed dry weight than sole cropping of maize. Among the intercropping system, maize + groundnut (1:2) registered higher maize-equivalent yield and was statistically comparable with the maize -equivalent yield obtained from maize + Soybean (1:2) intercropping system. Intercropping system was biologically efficient by utilizing the land through increased LER as compared to sole cropping. Intercropping of maize either with soybean or groundnut in (1:2) row ratio significantly reduced the population and dry weight of weeds compared to pure cropping. Highest weed control efficiency was found with maize + soybean intercropping system.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 420-422
M V Bharamagoudar, Sneha Talawar, Nagaraj* and S N Hanchinal**
Department of Agril Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India *Department of Agril Extn Edu, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangaluru- 560 065, Karnataka, India **Department of Agril Extn Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584 101, Karnataka, India
The present investigation was undertaken with sample size of 120 for assess the cost and returns and problems in adoption of Bt cotton production in Raichur District of Karnataka for the year 2011. Raichur is one of the potential Bt cotton growing district with an area of 29388 hectares. The cost and returns results revealed that, average cost per hectare of Bt cotton cultivation was Rs. 37333, followed by average yield per hectare was 20.16 quintals. The average prices for Bt cotton grower farmers was Rs. 4500, average total returns was Rs. 90000 and average net returns was Rs. 52667 and B:C ratio was 2.41. The study also focus on the problems in the adoption of Bt cotton production, the results reveals that, Lack of irrigation water was problem which is especially in case of tail end farmers, High cost of chemical fertilizers and non-availability of required hybrid seeds were the three important problems expressed by the farmers that has to be checked and there is a need for intervention of researchers and seed agencies. The study suggests that, working out low cost and effective chemical certainly benefits cotton farmers to afford and use them to obtain better yield and profit. Government should ensure that the seeds are available to the farmers in adequate quantity before the sowing season starts at nearby place to improve the adoption level of the crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 423-427
H N Manjunatha Reddy, B V Chinnappa Reddy and B N Pradeepa Babu
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
An analysis of export competitiveness and the performance of Indian fresh onion in the international market were made using the secondary data from different sources like FAO, APEDA. The data was analyzed by using different econometric tools like exponential growth function, Markov chain analysis and instability index. For assessing export competitiveness of Indian onions Constant Market Share model and Nominal Protection Coefficients were used. The outcome of the study shows that the export growth rate of Indian onion was positive and this growth rate was more in post WTO period and onion exports mainly directed to the countries like Bangladesh, UAE and Malaysia. The export of Indian onions was not stable and this instability was more in post-WTO period. It was accompanied by the sudden spurt in export of onion during post-WTO especially after 2000s. Indian fresh onions are competitive during the study period. This competitiveness was relatively higher in post-WTO period; however the market distribution effect revealed that onion exports were concentrated in slow growing markets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 428-430
R Sellammal and M Maheswaran
Depertment of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Mutation induction by radiation has contributed greatly in creating broad genetic variability and a large number of varieties has been released directly or through cross breeding. In this present study the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations were studied in M2 generation of two rice cultivars were treated with gamma rays with different doses to find out the frequency, spectrum, efficiency and effectiveness of chlorophyll mutations in relation to the genotype and the nature of the mutagen. As far as the spectrum of chlorophyll mutations is concerned, a wider spectrum in both the cultivars was observed. The percentage of albinos was found to the maximum of 1.22 and 1.57 per cent among the M2 seedlings derived from 350Gy gamma ray irradiation of Rathu Heenati and PTB33. Chlorophyll mutation frequency was enhanced with increasing dose. Among the chlorophyll mutants induced albino type formed the majority class. Effectiveness decreased with increase in dose with a few exceptions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 431-432
Deepmala Kindo, Harish Kumar Netam and P K Tiwari
Department of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
The seven fungicides were taken under the study were Hexaconazole 5 SC (Contaf), Propiconazole 25 EC (Tilt), Tricyclazole 75% WP (Beam), [Carbendazim (12%) + Mancozeb (63%)] (Saaf), Tebuconazole 25 EC, Mancozeb 75% WP (Dithane-45) and Carbendazim 50% WP (Bavistin) against sheath rot of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae, were investigated in vitro by poisoned food technique. These fungicides were tested for their inhibitory action against the pathogen at the concentration level of 500 ppm. Under in vitro evaluation study of test fungicides against S. oryzae, the Hexaconazole 5 SC (Contaf), Propiconazole 25 EC (Tilt), Tricyclazole 75% WP (Beam) and Tebuconazole 250 EC (Folicur) were found best in reducing mycelia growth of the pathogen.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 433-434
Azra Parveen
Department of Agricultural Economics, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Raipur- 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
An attempt has been made to work out the growth rate in area, production and productivity of maize in Surguja district of Chhattisgarh. The production performance of maize in overall period (2000-2010) was observed positive and significant growth in state of Chhattisgarh, Surguja district have also shows the positive growth rate of area and production. On an average cost of cultivation per hectare of maize was found Rs. 18340.45 and cost of production per quintal was Rs. 328.46 of main product and Rs. 19.53 of by product. The value of output on an average was found to be Rs. 44352 for main product and Rs. 2549.5 for by product respectively. The yield of maize was observed 52.80 quintal of main product and 50.99 of by product, input-output ratio of maize was observed as 1:2.52.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 435-436
S S Hiremath and K R Kadam
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Belgaum - 10, Karnataka, India
A study was conducted in Athani taluk of Belgaum district during the year 2011-12. A total of 100 respondents of radio listeners were selected by purposive random sampling for the study from four villages twenty five each respondent from each village. It was found that 62 percent of the respondents listened “Raitarige Salahegalu” followed by 62 percent of respondents listened “Radio Doctor” programme. Rural women preferred programmes on entertainment, agriculture, social evil, food and nutrition. Further, 41 percent of the rural women have suggested increasing the duration of informative and important programs.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 437-438
Dinesh Sinha and Harish K Netam
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
This experiment was conducted on two varieties namely Bragg and NRC-37 with four dates of sowing. Observation were taken by counting the girdle beetle affected plants in randomly selected three, one meter row lengths in each plot at 15 days interval starting from the appearance of girdle beetle infestation. Based on the seasonal mean among different dates of sowing first date (4th July) had 2.63 infested plants per meter row length, and ranks first as most appropriate date of sowing among all four different dates. Maximum infestation by girdle beetle was recorded on crop sown on 4th August with 6.01 infested plants per meter row length. Maximum grain yield was obtained from the crop sown on 4th July i e 2320 and 2240 kg/ha from varieties NRC-37 and Bragg.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 439-440
Mallikarjuna Lingappa, A G Babu and M R Yogesh
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Unbalanced fertilization to rice crop had negative effect on the diversity of the microbial community and total microbial biomass in the soil. The nitrogenous fertilizers alone had the most deleterious effect on crop productivity and the biological soil environment. The long-term fertilizer experiment (LTFE) also showed that balanced application of N, P and K promoted microbial biomass growth and improvement of community composition. Unbalanced fertilization reduced microbial N and increased C:N ratio of the microbial biomass.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 441-443
R Sellammal
Depertment of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
In the present study an attempt was made to survey the genic markers identified for brown plant hopper resistance on a set of 60 rice accessions phenotyped using modified seed-box screening test (MSST). The survey of 11 genic markers associated with brown plant hopper resistance indicated that the markers are monomorphic across the accessions. The phenotype of brown plant hopper resistance remains dynamic and ever changing thus making the gap wider between the profiles of phenotype and genotype.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 444-445
S V Ahire
Department of Botany, Nowrosjee Wadia College, Pune - 411 001, Maharashtra, India
Arbuscular mycorrhizae have been reported in a wide range of crop plants as stimulating plant growth through uptake of phosphorus and other micro-nutrients. Interaction between mycorrhizal fungus and rhizobium in pigeon pea was studied using Leonard jar, pot culture and field experiments. These results revealed that dual inoculation significantly enhanced total dry matter, nodule formation and productivity over that in control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 3 ; 451-454
Sneha Talwar and M V Bharamagoudar
Depertment of Agricultural extension Education, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
The contribution of the services sector to the Indian economy has been manifold, 55.2 per cent share in gross domestic product (GDP), growing by 10 per cent annually, contributing to about a quarter of total employment, accounting for a high share in foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows and over one-third of total exports and recording very fast (27.4%) export growth through the first half of 2010-11. The services sector growth was significantly faster than the 6.6 per cent for the combined agriculture and industry sectors annual output growth during the same period. Further, India with a services sector share of 52 per cent in national GDP in 2009 and 55.2 per cent in 2009-10 compares well even with the developed countries in the top 12 countries with the highest overall GDP. The study also exposes that, the two fast-growing broad services categories are: a) financing, insurance, real estate and business services; and b) transport, storage, and communication. The latter overtook the former in 2009-10 with a high growth of 15 per cent. A third category, growth of trade, hotels, and restaurants, slowed in 2008-09 and has recovered moderately in 2009-10. The fourth category, community, social, and personal services, saw a sudden jump in 2008-09 to overtake the growth of all other categories, reflecting the high growth in public administration and defence. The main challenge is in making forays into globally traded services in still niche areas for India, such as financial services, health care, education, accountancy, and other business services where India has a large domestic market and has also shown recent signs of making a dent in the international market, but only a very small part of the full potential has been tapped.




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