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Volume - 4 - September-December 2013
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 581-585
Kavitha Mary Jackson, K Senthilraja, R Anbhazhagan, V Geethalakshmi and A Lakshmanan
Agro Climate Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken to assess the interaction effect of system rice intensification (SRI) principles on the growth and yield components such as age of seedlings, number of seedling, spacing and weeding for higher seed yield and quality. SRI is the method, developed in Madagascar in the early 1980’s, where, it has been shown that yields can be enhanced by suitably modifying certain management practices such as controlled supply of water, planting of younger seedlings and providing wider spacing. SRI cultivation could save water, protect soil productivity, save the environment by methane gas produced from submerged paddy cultivation practices, brings down the input requirements besides increasing the yield. Four agronomic practices with two levels including age of seedling (Q1: 10 days old, Q2: 14 days old), number of seedling (R1: 1 seedling, R2: 3 seedling), spacing S1: 25 x 25 cm, S2: 30 x 20 cm and weeding: T1: 10th, 20th and 30th DAT, T2: 10th and 30th DAT with 2.5 cm irrigation were taken. The results revealed that the highest grain yield was observed in the treatment combination of 10 days old seedlings, one seedling per hill, 30 x 20 cm, conoweeding @ 10th, 20th and 30th DAT (Q1R1S2T1) which records 3752 Kg/ha followed by Q1R1S1T1 (10 days old seedlings, one seedling per hill, 25 x 25 cm spacing and conoweeding @ 10th, 20th and 30th DAT) which records 3678 kg ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 586-589
Anushri Singh and Devendra Dewangan
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2010 at Instructional Cum Research Farm IGKV Raipur, Chhattisgarh. The 24 treatment combinations consisted of 3 CPE based irrigation schedules i e @ 150% CPE, @ 100% CPE and @ 75% CPE and 8 nutrient management practices i e N0 P60 K100, N60 P60 K100, N120 P60 K100, N180 P60 K100, N120 P30 P100, N120 P0 K100, N120 P60 K50 and N120 P60 K0. The split plot design was followed with 3 replications having CPE based irrigation schedules as main plot treatment and nutrient management practices as sub plot treatment. A medium duration high yielding rice variety “Mahamaya” was taken as a test crop. The CPE based irrigation schedules did not influence significantly the growth parameters i e plant height, total tillers, leaf area, dry matter accumulation and SPAD value. Irrigation water supplied under different treatments supported with frequent occurrence of rainfall and high water table failed to create any water deficit to the plant. However, all the growth parameters found to be equally effective under all irrigation schedules. Moreover effective tillers, grains panicle-1, test weight, sterility per cent and yields of grain and straw remained at par under all the irrigation schedules. The nutrient management practices significantly affected the growth, yield and nutrient concentration of rice. These nutrient levels found to equally effective for increasing yield components, grain yield, N, P and K concentration in grain and straw. The uptake of these nutrients also increased at aforesaid levels of nutrients. The increase in yield was mainly associated with significant increase in number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter accumulation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 590-593
G Kiran Reddy and V Govardhan
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
In the present study six representative pedons were selected based on topography from various physiographic units identified in dryland regions of Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. All the pedons were studied for their morphological characteristics and horizon wise samples were processed for laboratory analysis for physical, physico-chemical and chemical characteristics. The soil texture, pH (1:2.5), organic carbon, CEC, base saturation, water retention at 0.33 and 15 bars ranged sandy loamy to clay, 6.31 to 8.0, 1.25 to 7.9 g kg-1, 6.22 to 51.30 c mol (p+) kg-1, 50.53 to 95.0%, 10.80 to 44.80%, 6.0 to 22.30% respectively. Based on morphological, physical, physico-chemical, chemical and meteorological data, according to revisions of US Soil Taxonomy revealed that upland pedons Kukadam and Topcherla were classified as Alfisols, Dugapalli was classified as Entisols. Midland pedons of Vemulapalli was classified as Vertisols and Thammareddigudam was classified as Inceptisols. Lowland pedon of Devulapalli was classified as Inceptisols.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 594-601
Yusuf Usman Oladimeji
Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1044, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
Abstract
The study analyzed poverty and welfare measures among artisanal fishermen in Asa and Patigi fishing settlements of Kwara State. A multi stage random sampling technique was used to select 160 fishermen for the study. Primary data were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, Gini coefficient and Logit regression model were employed in the analysis of the data. The bulks 88 percent of the pooled fishermen operate on a family unit basis. The mean age of 42 years indicates that majority of fishermen fall within the productive age group and the Gini-index showed that income inequalities in all the fishing settlements had a mean of 0.41. Six of the ten variables were found to be statistically significant in the estimated regression at <0.01 probability level. The result of the marginal effect showed that a 1 percent increase in the investment in fishing equipment will decrease the probability of being poor by 31 percent. Fishermen should be educated to comprehend occupational diversifications and to ensure proper understanding of new fishing methods and adopt technology capable of increasing the profitability and improvement in the quality of life of rural households and make efficient use of the fishing resources.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 602-605
Kadasiddappa Malamasuri, Shaik Mohammad and K Saileela
Depertment of Agronomy, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A filed experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture Rajendranagar, Hyderbabad (Andhra Pradesh) India to estimate the nutrient removal by leaves, stem, and seed for the optimal fertilizer requirement to obtain economic yield and to estimate the response curve of Nitrogen for two genotypes (Morden and KBSH-1) of sunflower with six levels of fertilizer application during the Kharif season in the year 2005-06. The results revealed that, nitrogen removal by leaves of sunflower in case of genotype KBSH-1 was significantly higher than that of Morden in all the growth stages except at 75 days after sowing (DAS). The removal of nitrogen by sunflower leaves was not significantly influenced by different levels of fertilizer nutrients at 30 days after sowing. However, the application of 60 kg N ha-1 was the outstanding treatment to absorb adequate quantity of nutrients for the production of high seed yield. Further, the two genotypes removed relatively more N through the leaves than the stem in the vegetative phase at 30 DAS. Hence, the dry weight of leaves was more than the stem at this stage. The removal of N was slightly more in the stem than in the leaf during the bud stage of the crop. Maximum quantities of nutrients were absorbed by the stem during flowering stage. The study also revealed that, response curve indicated with incremental levels of nitrogen showed that the seed yield of Morden can be maximized by an increase in nutrient upto 125 kg ha-1 and 126 kg ha-1 for KBSH-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 606-608
G Sarika, G V Basavaraju and *K Bhanuprakash
Depertment of Sed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaragatta, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Investigations were carried out at Indian Institute of Horticultural Sciences, Hessarghata, Bangalore. Storage of seed is a problem since it is very difficult to maintain seed viability and vigour, during storage particularly in tropical regions with a high humidity. It also affects the nutritional properties of seed. In this work, we examined how the physiological, biochemical and molecular changes associated with seed ageing. Since seed aged naturally for one year and accerlated aged seeds for a period of 3 days (3DAA) have the same viability and vigour of the fresh seeds. However, increase in ageing duration reduced the viability and vigor progressively with increment in ageing viz 6, 9, 12 and 15 DAA. Seeds aged from 6 days to 15 day showed higher mean germination time, lower germination percentage, seedling vigor index I &II, when compared to fresh and NA seeds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 609-611
Dinesh Sinha, Arun Kumar Sahoo and Karan Sonkar
Depertment of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was laid out in randomized block design with six treatments including untreated control replicated four times. In this experiment number of caterpillars were counted regularly at seven days interval starting from thirty days after sowing until harvesting. Flubendiamide 480 SC when applied twice at the rate of 90 g a.i./ha was most effective against the lepidopterous pests with 19.40 q/ha yield. There was 8.15 q/ha increase in yield over control which account for 72.4 per cent increase in yield with 42.0 per cent avoidable losses. Quinalphos 25 EC, when applied twice, at the rate of 250 g a.i./ha was most economical with 9.12:1 benefit cost ratio.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 612-614
A D Raj, J H Rathod and V Yadav
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Dediapada - 393 040, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The study was carried out during years of 2008-09 to 2012-13 (5 years) in the farmer’s fields in seven villages of Narmada district of Gujarat. In all 168 demonstrations on wheat crop were carried out in area of 45 hectares with the active participation of farmers with the objective to demonstrate the latest technology of wheat production potential, technological gap, extension gap, technology index, and economic benefit of improved technologies consisting suitable variety 'GW-322 and GW-496'. The results revealed that FLD recorded higher yield as compared to farmers practice over the years of study. The improved technologies recorded average yield of 3972 kg/ha which was 19.8 per cent higher than that obtained with farmers practice of 3315 kg/ha. In spite of increase in yield of wheat, technological gap, extension gap and technology index existed which was 1028, 657 kg/ha and 20.6 per cent, respectively. The improved technology gave higher gross return of 57040 Rs/ha, net return of 45734 Rs/ha with benefit cost ratio 5.0 as compared to local check (47443 Rs/ha, 36649 Rs/ha and benefit cost ratio 4.4).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 615-617
S Sumathi and P Srimathi
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted to study the dormancy breaking treatments in babchi seeds. The aim of this study was to enhance the germination of seeds, which have a low percentage under normal conditions. Different pretreatments (soaking in cold, hot water and concentrated H2SO4, scarification with H2SO4) were carried out with different concentrations and durations. The percentage of seed germination varied with duration and concentration of treatments. The results revealed that all treatments showed increased germination compared to that of control. The hard seed coat dormancy of the seeds could be broken by scarifying the seeds with concentrated H2SO4 @ 200 ml kg-1 of seeds for 30 minutes. It improved the germination to 95 per cent which was 87 per cent higher than control. The dead seed percentage also very low in this treatment when compared to soaking the seeds in concentrated H2SO4.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 618-620
S P Panda, S Mondal, *A K Nandi, R Islam
Department of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohonpur - 741 252, West Bengal, India *Department of Botany and Forestry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapur, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at the Horticultural Research Station, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, during the period of 2007 to 2008 in randomized block design. Paclobutrazol @ 2.5 g.a.i./tree was applied in soil drench of 25 years old un-pruned grafted mango plant cv. Himsagar on 2nd day of each month from July to February along with the untreated control were considered as nine treatments, that were triplicate considering each plant as replication. Among the treatments September treatment were found to be significant influence on physiological traits- respiration rate is inhabited but rate of photosynthesis is enhance by paclobutrazol treatment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 621-627
H N Manjunatha Reddy, *B V Chinnappa Reddy and **B N Pradeepa Babu
Specialist in Business Analytics, Fidelity Business Services India Pvt Ltd, Pinehurst, Embassy Golf links Business Park, Off Intermediate Ring Road Bengaluru - 560 071, Karnataka, India *Department of Agril. Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Rural Development Institute, 1820, 6th Cross, Judicial Layout, Bengaluru - 560 064, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An attempt has been made to analyze the growth in Indian fruits exports based on secondary data, to analyze the competition and performance of Indian fresh fruits in the global market. The data was analyzed by using different econometric tools like exponential growth function, Markova chain analysis and instability index. Export of Indian fruits during pre-WTO (1985-86 to 1996-97) and post-WTO (1997-98 to 2005-06) periods indicated a positive compound growth rate in both export quantity and value during both the periods. UAE and Nepal were the most stable markets for Indian fresh banana, Saudi Arabia and UAE were the most loyal markets for Indian fresh mangoes since most of the Indian population concentrated in these countries. The selected fresh fruits enjoyed export competitiveness, during the study period. Instability was high in terms of export value than the export quantity because of high variability in the prices of these commodities and these instability values were high in post-WTO compared to pre-WTO for the commodity banana. However, for the commodity mango it was found to have a reverse trend. Total changes in export values were positive during the study period and market distribution effect was the major cause of export changes where the export of these commodities was concentrated slow growing markets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 628-631
Sulochana, R K Pandey, Anil Dhar and Rajat Mohan
Regional Sericultural Research Station, CSB Complex, Miransahib - 181 101, Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir), India
Abstract
The consumption of mulberry leaf is rising among silkworm rearers in sub tropical sub Himalayan States due to rising trend in silk cocoon price. However, shortage of mulberry leaves is experienced, because the rearers mainly depend on old mulberry trees found scattered in the region. In the present work, mulberry trees were grown without use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Effect of spray of different doses of vermicompost extract along with its soil application on mulberry foliage was compared with spray of zinc sulfate as well as with soil application of NPK and FYM. Various parameters, such as leaf yield, leaf moisture, moisture retention capacity of leaves, leaf protein and carbohydrates were compared after different treatments. Silkworms were also reared on variously treated leaves and cocoon quality assessed. The leaf yield per tree increased upto 8.328 kg after spray of 1 kg per liter vermicompost along with soil application of 3 kg per tree vermicompost (T2) from 5.758 kg by soil application of NPK and FYM (T1). The moisture retention capacity increased upto 2.25% in T2 from control (T1). Larval weight of 10 mature larva increased upto 55 gram by spray of vermicompost solution T2, T3 and T4 from 52 gram in T1 (control). Leaf protein content varied between 40 and 21 mg per gm dry weight. The carbohydrates in leaf varied between 217 and 374 mg per gm dry weight. The cocoon yield per 100 Dfls was found to vary between 79 and 81 kg. The male shell ration varied between 20 and 22%. The filament length was found to vary between 937 and 1048 m, whereas the differences were not significant in the denier of silk filament between the treatments. The result indicated that 1-3% spray of vermicompost extract and soil application (3 kg) per tree enhanced mulberry leaf quality and improved bivoltine silk cocoon quality.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 632-635
Nataraj Patted, N M Kerur, *Ashwini Hebbar, A D Naik, Prakash Mokashi and S Kumar
Depertment of Agribusiness Management, *Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Tobacco is one of the important commercial crops of India and being so, it is vital in the Indian economy. It provides employment directly and indirectly to 36 millions of people. Although the cultivation of tobacco is restricted to 0.3 per cent of the total cultivated area, it provides employment to a large number of people on the one hand, it makes significant contribution to national exchequer by way of excise revenue and foreign exchange earnings to the another side. As a labour intensive crop, growing, harvesting and processing of tobacco represent the means of livelihood of a large number of agricultural laborers. Demand for cigarette has been consistently increasing. Results of the analysis depicted that trend with respect to export for cigarette except Russia and UAE all other countries are having a positive slope with increasing trend. In case of nominal protection coefficient United States of America was the most competitive market. Current major stable markets for cigarette are Russian Republic and USA. In future Malaysia and UAE will be the major importing countries.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 636-639
K K Dibya, Y Atbhaiya and P L Choudhary
Department of Kamdhenu and Panchgavya Research Centre, Anjora, Durg - 491 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation entitle effect of shatavari used as a feed supplement for enhancing production was conducted in Dairy Chemistry Laboratory (Department of Dairy Chemistry) at College of Dairy Technology, Raipur, Chhattisgarh during the year 2010-2011. Before starting the experiment all the groups of experimental animal kept on control ration for 10 days. Experimental ration were fed to each groups for 10 days called treatment period and observations were recorded. Experimental ration withdraw after 10 days residual period to observe the residual effect of shatavari root powder containing ration. The experiment was repeated thrice and called the phases of the experiment. Milk samples were collected at both time (morning and evening). During the experiment, milk yield was recorded and observe the effect of shatavari root powder containing ration on milk yield was 6.81, 7.44, 7.60, 7.66 and 7.55 liter/day from T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. Among all treatments, T4 was an appropriate dose (200 gm/day/animal) of shatavari root powder, because milk yield was increased significantly (0.85 liter) as compared to control. Techno-economic feasibility was determined and found that the overall milk production was increased 0.500 kg (7.14 %) as compared to their previous production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 640-643
Uritkhinbam Supriya and *Daya Ram
Depertment of Extension Education, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India *Depertment of Agricultural Extension, Central Agriculture University, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur India
Abstract
Vegetables are one of the important crops as it forms basic part of our diet and besides providing nutritional security, are also major source of income especially for small and marginal farmers. They are the important sources of minerals such as iron calcium and magnesium, vitamins like A, B-complex, C and fiber in the largely vegetarian diet of our people has created increasing the demand for vegetable. The study was conducted in Imphal East District of Manipur and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the adoption of integrated pest management practices by the vegetables growers of cabbage and cauliflower with respect to integrated pest managements practices. The study revealed that 60 per cent of the farmers were in medium adopter groups followed 20 per cent each by high and medium adopter group. Further, it also revealed that, relationship between socio-personal and psychological character of vegetables growers, the variable sex and economic motivation use exhibited positive significant, other variables namely, age, education, caste, occupation, family size, innovative proneness risk orientation and attitudes towards modern vegetables crops non-significantly related with adoption level of IPM practices of cabbage and cauliflower growers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 644-647
M K Amara Denis, P L Patil, G S Dasog and *M V Manjunath
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *Department of Agricultural Engineering University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Empirical study on erosivity of rainfall pattern in Singhanalli-Bogur watershed of the Northern transition zone of Karnataka, India was carried out to estimate the annual erosivity factor (Ra) and seasonal erosivity factor (Rs) and explain their correlation with the annual and seasonal rainfall as an indicator of potential erosion risks. Mean monthly erosivity factor was higher for July and lower for January while mean annual erosivity factor was higher for 2009 and lower for 2003. Highest monthly rainfall erosivity was obtained in July of 2009. On average, 2008 scored the highest summer rainfall erosivity factor while 2007 and 2010, respectively scored the highest monsoon and post-monsoon rainfall erosivity. The monthly-wise and season-wise analysis of the effect of rainfall erosivity revealed that July and monsoon season pose a moderate to strongly high erosivity risk in the area. The contribution of rainfall erosivity parameter to soil loss was low for 2001 and 2003, moderately high for 2002, 2004 and 2006, and strongly high for 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Ameliorative measures through improved and integrated soil and water conservation technologies including selection of appropriate crops, no tillage, soil cultivation parallel with height contours, and terracing would be of immense help in reducing potential soil loss.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 648-650
Vijaykumar Ilakal, D Jagrathi, L B Hugar, S S Patil and Mouneshwari Kammar
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A survey based study was carried out to ascertain the role and participation of rural women in dairy farming, using a pretested interview schedule by personal interview for sample size of 180 rural women in Bidar district, Karnataka (India). The socio-personal study revealed that majority (60%) of the women farmers was young (18-35 years) and half of men dairy farmers were in middle age group (36-50 years). In case of education level, more than half of women and men farmers were educated up to primary level and one third of them studied up to high school. About 25 operations of dairy farming were selected in consultation with experts and were broadly categorized into four aspects as feeding and watering, dairy management, animal health care and processing and marketing activities. The study revealed that under women management, highest women employed in processing and marketing of milk (24.6 man days/year) and highest men employed in feeding and watering activities (18.7 man days/year). Similarly in case of men dairy farmers, highest women employed in processing and marketing of milk (24.8 man days/year) and highest men employed in feeding and watering activities (21.1 man days/year). The study concluded that women participated mostly in only because women were comparatively experts in preparation of curd, ghee, butter and khova and they could not engaged themselves in other activities which involved physical straining like chaffing and storage of fodder and there is a need to educate farm women about scientific management practices and mechanization of dairy farming for increasing livestock production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 651-654
G Kiran Reddy and V Govardhan
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
This study was conducted with an objective of selecting the appropriate moisture regimes and to identify the key indicators of soil quality for different moisture regimes in NSLBC (LBC) of Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. Soils are degrading due to several physical, chemical and biological constraints. Appropriate soil moisture regimes may help to check further soil degradation. This study was conducted in 2011 with six different soil moisture regimes of command and adjacent upland areas: command area- head reach, middle reach, tailend and upland area – having assured irrigation, protective irrigation, rainfed. Sixty soil samples were collected from six different moisture regimes ten each from each moisture regime and were analyzed for physical, chemical and biological parameters. A standard methodology using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear scoring technique (LST) was adopted to identify the key indicators and for computation of soil quality indices. Among six moisture regimes, the soil quality index (SQI) ranged from 0.848 - 0.945. The highest SQI was obtained in assured irrigation (0.945) followed by tail end (0.927) = protective irrigation (0.927), rainfed (0.897), head reach (0.889) while the lowest was under middle reach (0.848). The key indicators, which contributed considerably towards SQI, were bulk density, water holding capacity, organic carbon, dehydrogenase activity, available N, available Mn, ESP, available P, available K, pH and exchangeable Mg.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 655-660
Suhasini Jalawaadi, H R Basavarajappa and *D Kiranshankar
Department of Horticulture, *Department of Crop Improvement and Biotechnology, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi - 591 218, Gokak, Belgaum, Karnataka, India
Abstract
RAPD markers were used to study the characterization of 31 accessions of sapota comprising of 19 cultivars, and 6 hybrids. DNA isolated by CTAB method was used for amplification of 48 markers by using 7 RAPD primers. All 48 polymorphic fragments were used to generate the similarity matrix and construct a dendrogram. The highest genetic similarity of 100% was observed between the ‘DHS-1’ and ‘DHS-2’. UPGMA cluster analysis using Jaccard’s co-efficient of similarity of 31 genotypes showed medium to high diversity, which are distributed between the ranges of 35-100 per cent. Maximum genetic similarity distance between Oval and Murabba (91%). For the 19 cultivars, the maximum similarity of 91 units was found between ‘Murabba’ and ‘Oval’. ‘Pala’ and ‘Virudhnagar’ are closely placed due to 71 per cent oval shaped fruits. Among hybrids ‘DHS-1’, ‘DHS-2’, ‘PKM-2’, CO-1’ and ‘CO-3’ which are grouped together because of their oval and round shaped fruits with spreading and single bearing habit.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 661-666
G S Biradar and D M Chandrgi
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A study was conducted on technological gap in adoption of chilli cultivation practices in Raichur and Yadgir districts of North Eastern Karnataka during 2011-12. Manavi and Deodurga taluks from Raichur district and Shahapur and Shorapur taluks from Yadgir district were selected based on highest area under chilli cultivation. From each of the selected taluks, three villages were selected based on highest area of chilli under irrigation condition. A sample of 10 farmers from each village was selected as random. Thus, making a total sample size of 120 respondents. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. The findings revealed that Majority (78.33%) of the farmers expressed problem of price fluctuation followed by inadequate irrigation (62.50%) and same per cent of them expressed the non availability of labourers at critical stages and high wages, non availability of good quality inputs at proper price at right time (59.17%). And the major suggestions made by the respondents were minimum support price should be fixed for chilli (86.67%), followed by market should be nearer, (65.83%), should provide good quality of inputs at right time at proper price (54.16%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 667-669
Soniya A Nimkar
Department of Vegetable Crops, College of Horticulture, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan - 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
Correlation and path coefficient studies were carried out in Biparental progenies selected from heterotic cross PSB-1 x KT-9 of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea). The characters under study were plant frame (cm), number of leaves per plant, number of leaves per whorl, stalk length (cm), days to harvesting, gross curd weight (g), net curd weight (g) and harvest index (%). Net curd weight was found to be positively and significantly correlated with gross curd weight and gross curd weight was positively and significantly associated with plant frame, number of leaves per whorls and net curd weight in BIP’s (BP and MP). The highest direct and positive effect on gross curd weight was recorded by net curd weight in both the progenies i e BIP’s BP and MP. On net curd weight, highest positive direct effect was through gross curd weight in both the progenies.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 670-672
A N Lad, A M Patel, A D Raj and *V Yadav
Soil and Water Management Research Unit, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India *Krushi Vigyan Kendra (Navsari Agricultural University), Dediapada - 393 040, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during 2006-07 at Soil and Water Management Research Unit, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari for determination of effect of inorganic fertilizers (NPK) with soil amendment on soil properties and yield of garlic. Eight treatments comprising of four levels of inorganic fertilizer i e 100, 80, 60 and 0% recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) with two levels of gypsum i e 0 and 2 t/ha. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with four replications. This experiment was clear indicated that gypsum application @ 2 t/ha with 100 % RDF recorded best in term of yield, but found at par with 80% RDF along with gypsum @ 2 t/ha. An application of 100 per cent RDF showed significantly higher values of available nutrients (NPK) and organic carbon over the control but was at par with 80 per cent RDF. Soil reaction and soluble salt content were significantly reduced only due to application of gypsum. Nutrient status of soil after harvest of crop the differences in available S observed under the treatment of gypsum were found to be significant, but differences in OC, available N, P, K and micronutrient cations remain non-significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 673-676
G Sarika, G V Basavaraju and *K Bhanuprakash
Depertment of Sed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaragatta, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Study was conducted to compare the fresh and accerlated aged seed (0 to 15 day ) lots of French bean with a total soluble seed protein. French bean seed lots of different viability were obtained by an accerlated ageing technique in which seeds were hydrated at 75 percent RH and 45° C. Ageing was accompanied by a progressive delay of germination, impairment of enzymes, and degradation of soluble protein compare to that of fresh seed. However, there is no much change up to 3 day accerlated aged seed lot. A detailed analysis by DNA integrity, amplification with PCR by RAPD markers showed that there has been decline in integrity of DNA band, more amplification seen in case with more accerlated aged seed lots in particular as number of days of ageing proceeds there is more degradation of soluble proteins, the degradation of DNA is very high in 15 day accerlated aged seed lot.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 677-680
Dinesh Sinha, Arun Kumar Sahoo and Karan Sonkar
Depertment of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
In this experiment number of sucking pests was counted regularly at seven days interval starting from 30 days after sowing till harvest. In case of bioefficacy evaluation of Thiacloprid 240 SC against sucking pests on soybean crop, Thiacloprid 480 SC when applied twice at the rate of 180 g a.i./ha was most effective with 20.10 q/ha yield. There was 5.65 q/ha increase in yield over control which account for 39.1 per cent increase in yield with 28.1 per cent avoidable losses. Quinalphos 25 EC when applied at the rate of 375 g a.i./ha was least effective with 15.50 q/ha grain yield. Triazophos 40 EC when applied twice at the rate of 250 g a.i./ha was most economical with 17.46:1 benefit cost ratio.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 681-683
Sanjay Bandi and L Krishna Naik
Depertment of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The studies on influence of the dates of sowing on incidence of insect pest during 2011-12 and 2012-13 revealed that the incidence of hairy caterpillars (Amsacta spp.), leaf webber (Grapholita critica Meyr.), spotted pod borer (Maruca vitrata Geyer), gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner), pod bugs (Anoplocnemis phasiana Fabricius, (Riptortus pedestris F.) and Clavigralla gibbosa Spinola) and plume moth (Exelastis atomosa May.) was least in early sown crop (first week of June, third week of June and first week of July) and higher incidence was noticed in delayed sowing (third week of July and first week of August). However, the effect of date of sowing on incidence of bud weevil (Ceutorhynchus asperulus Faust) and blister beetle (Mylabris pustulata Thunberg) was not clearly evident. Similarly, the pod borers (gram pod borer, plume moth and pod fly) inflicted least pod damage in early sown crop (first week of June, third week of June and first week of July) and increased pod damage was noticed with delay in sowing beyond first week of July. Higher grain yield of pigeonpea was obtained in early sowing (first and third week of June) and yield was decreased with delay in sowing. Thus early sowing of pigeonpea could be an effective non-monetary input for achieving higher yield by minimizing the pest load in pigeonpea.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 684-687
Nataraj Patted, N M Kerur, S Kumar, Prakash Mokashi and *Ashwini Hebbar
Depertment of Agribusiness Management, *Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Tobacco is one of the important commercial crops, provides employment directly and indirectly to 36 millions of people. Although the cultivation of tobacco is restricted to 0.3 per cent of the total cultivated area but it makes significant contribution to national exchequer by way of excise revenue and foreign exchange earnings to the another side. Tobacco is a labour-intensive crop in India. Growing, harvesting and processing of tobacco represent the means of livelihood of a large number of agricultural laborers. Demand for flue cured virginia has been consistently increasing. Results of the analysis depicted that trend with respect to export for flue cured virginia are having a positive slope with increasing trend. In case of nominal protection coefficient Belgium was the most competitive market. Current major stable markets for cigarette are Russian Republic and Other minor importing countries.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 688-690
Vijaykumar Ilakal, D Jagrathi, L B Hugar, S S Patil and Mouneshwari Kammar
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to analyze the constraints faced by the dairy farmers in Bidar District. This study was conducted in three villages from two talukas of Bidar District by personally interviewing 90 women dairy farmers. Here, majority of the respondents stated that low milk production from the local breeds was major constraints among production constraints of women dairy farmers with a mean score of 65.82 and short supply of foot and mouth vaccine was predominant constraints among animal health care and management constraints with a mean score of 67.44. Similarly high cost of concentrate was most persisted constraints among economic constraints faced by women dairy farmers with mean score of 61.07, dependence on family member for sale of milk was prime constraints apart from personal constraints of women dairy farmers with a mean score of 64.94 and no prior information about training center was major constraints among organizational and behavioural constraints of women farmers with a mean score of 60.83. Various suggestions provided by the sample women dairy farmers were, better milk price for the producer, availability of concentration at cheaper rate, cost of veterinary services be reduced, marketing facilities be provided at village level for the outlet of milk and milk products and provision of veterinary literature to sample women dairy farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 691-693
E Venkatesham, K Geetha and B Bhadraiah
Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 007, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
This study was conducted to assess the bio-control efficacy of some native Trichoderma isolates against Fusarium oxysporum, an important casual agent of brinjal wilt disease under in-vitro conditions during 2011-2012. Twenty isolates were collected among which ten showed promising ability in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen through dual culture and production of volatile and non-volatile inhibitors. From the present study it is concluded that Trichoderma species have the potential to suppress the colony growth of F. oxysporum which is the pathogen of wilt in brinjal. Further studies are required to apply this technique of bio-control in field of egg plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 694-695
Darshana S Jadhav and Abhishek Shukla
All India Network Project on Agricultural Acarology, Department of Agricultural Entomology, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The morphometric of a coccinellid B. suturalis was studied and the present studies showed that the mean body length was 2.71 mm and width was 1.81 mm, the thorax length was 1.88 mm and width was 1.33 mm, whereas the abdomen length was 1.53 mm and width was 1.77 mm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 696-697
A D Raj, V Yadav and J H Rathod
Krushi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Dediapada - 393 040, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The study was carried out during rabi season of 2008-09, 2011-12 and 2012-13 in seven villages of Narmada district. In all 58 demonstrations on chick pea crop were carried out in area of 20 ha with the active participation of farmers with the objective to demonstrate the latest technology of chick pea production potential, technological gap, extension gap, technology index, and economic benefit of improved technology consisting suitable variety 'Gujarat Gram 2'. The results revealed that front line demonstration recorded higher yield as compared to farmers practice over the years of study. The improved technology recorded average yield of 1446 kg/ha which was 21.5 per cent higher than that obtained with farmers practice of 1182 kg/ha. In spite of increase in yield of chickpea, technological gap, extension gap and technology index existed which was 154, 264 kg/ha and 9.6 per cent, respectively. The improved technology gave higher gross return of 37475 Rs/ha, net return of 27266 Rs/ha with benefit cost ratio 3.91 as compared to local check (30671 Rs/ha, 21412 Rs/ha and benefit cost ratio 3.47). Hence, by conducting front line demonstrations of proven technologies, yield potential of chickpea can be increased to great extent. This will subsequently increase the income as well as the livelihood of the farming community.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 698-701
S V Subrahmanyam and Ch Srinivasa Kumar
Department of Mathematics, K. L. University, Vaddeswaram - 522 502, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A linear trend is fitted to the index numbers of wheat productivity in India from 1993-94 to 2011-12 through the principle of least squares. The goodness of fit between the observed and estimated index numbers of wheat productivity obtained by the linear trend is studied through various statistical methods viz standard error and closeness of fit, confidence region, and some sampling distribution techniques such as chi-square test, t-test and z-test.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 5 ; 702-705
Sachin Hundre, *P Raj Kumar and *G Dileep Kumar
National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study aims to study the customer retention in organization with special reference to banking industry. The results revealed that, to maintain existing customers is becoming more and more important. The reason for this development is based on the knowledge that long term related customers compare various offers against each other and choose the best one. Many reasons are identified as most important reasons for customer defection in a given service industry like banking, but the prominence of each factor depends upon the situation prevailing in each banking organization. The study suggests that, as consumer remains satisfied with a bank, they spread a positive word of mouth, which is very effective in case of services for attracting new customers. Longer the customer stays with a bank, the bank knows more about him, which enables it to offer customized services which make it difficult for the customer to defect. This may even provide opportunities to the bank to charge price premium by offering individualized services which may be difficult for the competitors to offer. Customer retention should be implemented in every organization/company. There exists a broad pallet of various instruments which can have a lasting effect. The earlier a company start with professional customer retention the faster first results can be experienced.


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