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Volume - 4 - July-August 2013
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 455-460
Anuj Roshan Toppo, Devendra Kumar Dewangan and Eshu Sahu
Depertment of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2010 at the Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). In the experimental field, Ecinocloa colonum, Cynodon dactylon, Bracharia ramose, Digitaria sanguinalis, Dinebra retroflexa, Cyperus rotandus, Alternanthra sessilis, Parthenium hysterophorus and Euphorbia geniculata were the dominant weeds and found throughout the crop growth period. The lowest density and dry matter production by weeds and weed growth rate were recorded under farmer’s practice (hand weeding twice) at 20 DAS and 40 DAS (T12), followed by hoeing twice (by wheel hoe) at 15 DAS and 35 DAS (T11), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb hoeing (by wheel hoe) at 35 DAS (T10), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb HW at 35 DAS (T9) and quizalofop ethyl 10 EC @ 37.5 g ha-1 + chlorimuron ethyl 25 WP @ 9 g ha-1 + surfactant @ 0.2% fb HW at 35 DAS (T6). The significantly maximum seed yield (21.13 q ha-1) was obtained in the hand weeding twice at 20 DAS and 40 DAS (T12) as compared to others, but it was at par to hoeing twice (by wheel hoe) at 15 DAS and 35 DAS (T11), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb hoeing (by wheel hoe) at 35 DAS (T10), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb HW at 35 DAS (T9) and quizalofop ethyl 10 EC @ 37.5 g ha-1 + chlorimuron ethyl 25 WP @ 9 g ha-1 + surfactant @ 0.2% fb HW at 35 DAS (T6). The economic returns in terms of net returns and B:C ratio were maximum under hoeing twice (by wheel hoe) at 15 DAS and 35 DAS (T11) followed by farmer’s practice (hand weeding twice) at 20 DAS and 40 DAS (T12), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb hoeing (by wheel hoe) at 35 DAS (T10) and imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb HW at 35 DAS (T9).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 461-464
M K Amara Denis, A Kamara and Edwin J J Momoh
Depertment of Soil Science, School of Agriculture, Njala University, Njala Campus, Via Taiama, Kori Chiefdom, PMB, Southern Province, Sierra Leone, West Africa
Abstract
Surface soil samples from three chiefdoms were analyzed for soil health parameters such as pH, CEC (cmol kg-1), available N, P and K and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Soils are moderately to strongly alkaline, except for few samples in Barri and Kpaka chiefdoms which were strongly acidic demanding the use of lime in order to optimize the yield of crops besides fertilizer use. Organic carbon was low to medium in Gallines Peri and low to high in Barri and Kpaka chiefdoms. Available N was low to medium in Gallines Peri and Barri chiefdoms and low to high in Kpaka chiefdom. Available P was low to medium in soils of Gallines Peri and low to high in soils of Barri and Kpaka chiefdoms. On an average nearly 50% of soils in the study area showed P deficiency which demand proper application of P containing fertilizers to obtain optimum yield. Available K status was low to medium with higher K deficiency forBarri and Kpaka than Gallines Peri chiefdom which demands appropriate K application in order to achieve optimum yield. The exchangeable Ca and Mg status of soils was moderate which is adequate for most crops. Balanced fertilization is needed for sustained and enhanced productivity of crops in the district.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 465-468
S M Ali Humayun and R Gupta
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
In a screening trial with 70 linseed cultivars against linseed bud fly, the bud fly infestation ranged from 4.76 per cent in BAU-06-6 to 47.82 per cent in BAU-06-11 as against 26.92 to 35.08 percent bud damage in susceptible check Neelum and 12.23 to 20.00 percent bud fly infestation in resistant check Neela. These entries were categorized into various groups based on B.I.I. Under highly resistant group (o to 5%) only one cultivar BAU-06-6 was observed having 4.76 per cent bud fly infestation. The other cultivars had bud fly infestation above 10 per cent. Days to 50 per cent flowering on linseed resistance to D. lini. A positive correlation was observed between blooming period and bud fly infestation with r value 0.613. The variety Nl-119 with minimum flowering duration of 40 days was observed to be less attacked by the bud fly with 12.27 per cent bud damage, while the variety SLS-66 with flowering duration of 93 days was found most susceptible with 36.05 per cent bud damage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 469-472
Basavaraj S Lakkundi and A S Channaveerswami
Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to study the influence of osmopriming treatment on seed quality in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad following factorial CRD in four replications with the common control. These treatments were included in the study i e Factor-I: PEG concentration (T) 1.00 Mpa (T0), 1.25 Mpa (T1), 1.50 Mpa (T2), Control (T3) and factor-II: Drying (D) with drying (D1), without drying (D2). Among the different PEG concentrations, T0 recorded significantly highest germination (76.75%), root length (14.50 cm), shoot length (19.40 cm), seedling dry weight (27.52 mg), seedling vigour index-I (2459), seedling vigour index-II (2030), field emergence (72.91%) and lowest electrical conductivity (0.665), among the drying treatments, significantly highest germination (81.42%), root length (14.78 cm), shoot length (19.82 cm), seedling dry weight (27.84 mg), seedling vigour index-I (2817), seedling vigour index-II (2268), field emergence (77.85%) and lowest electrical conductivity (0.632) were recorded in D1 and among interaction T0D1 recorded significantly highest germination (84.75%), root length (15.19 cm), shoot length (20.89 cm), seedling dry weight (28.41 mg), seedling vigour index-I (3048), seedling vigour index-II (2408), field emergence (81.30%) and lowest electrical conductivity (0.611).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 473-475
B Aruna, B Bhadraiah and *Pavan Kumar Pindi
Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Microbiology, Palamuru University, Mahabubnagar – 509 001, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Castor is one of the potential oil seed crops of India. Oil seed crops are important crops of a very high economic and commercial value and reported to have a mycorrhizal association. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the mycorrhizal colonization of four cultivars of castor bean in five different agricultural soil types collected from different locations of Mahabubnagar District. Among four cultivars of Castor, Kranthi is the best supporting one in clay type of soil, which is the most widely, used cultivar in Mahabubnagar. Its mycorrhizal colonization was found to be the maximum in comparison with other cultivars in different soil types which are most effective in increasing the height, dry weight and yield of plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 476-479
Y Atbhaiya and P L Choudhary
Department of Kamdhenu and Panchgavya Research Centre, Anjora, Durg - 491 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted in Department of Dairy Chemistry at College of Dairy Technology, Raipur, Department of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex at College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg and Columbia college of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur, Chhattisgarh during the year 2011-2012. The experiment consists of six treatments which were replicated five times under complete randomized design. In this experiment six treatments i e normal control (without diabetes), diabetic control (diabetes induced by streptozotocin 50 mg/kg body weight/rats), standard drug group (Glyclazide 1.44 mg/200g body weight rats), cow urine powder SMP blends (100 mg), cow urine powder SMP blends (200 mg) and cow urine powder SMP blends (400 mg). Proximate composition of cow urine powder SMP blends maximum recorded creatinine (154.12 mg), potassium (164.27), calcium (113.39 mg), sulphate (83.48 mg), total nitrogen (1.79 g), urea (34.96), total solid (93.50%), moisture (6.50%) and pH (8.1). In this experiment treatment combination of cow urine powder SMP blends 400 mg group of rats which was streptozotocin treated and observed the glucose level and lipid profile level upto 15th days. The blood glucose and lipid profile level observed 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th days. The decreased trained was observed. The higher values on 1st day but from 5th, 10th and 15th day onwards values decrease significantly (i e glucose level 630.50 to 133.50, cholesterol 133.71 to 90.82, LDL 98.53 to 40.85, HDL 35.25 to 49.97, triglyceride 188.56 to 126.47 mg/dl). After 1st day to 15th day of the experiment it has been found that 400 mg/rats/day cow urine powder SMP blend has resulted maximum reduction of blood glucose and lipid profile level of the experimental animals.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 480-483
M P Bhilave, S B Nadaf, S V Bhosale and V B Nalawade
Division of Fisheries Science, Department of Zoology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - 416 004, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Aquaculture feed ingredients tend to be mostly by-products of processing or milling industries. Different proportions of less expensive ingredients can often be combined to achieve the nutrient balance of more expensive ones. However, it is also necessary to consider factors such as the quality, palatability and nutritional properties of ingredients as well as the possible content of anti-nutritional components that are known to affect the growth and health of fish. Plants have been the major source of drugs in Indian system of medicine and other ancient systems in the world for living organisms. The important features of fish culture are that the fishes should have good food. As the aquaculture technology evolved, there has been a trend towards high yields and faster growth of fish. It is necessary to enhance the food supply by providing all the nutrients to the fish in a cultivating field. Formulations should be based on available nutrient and digestible energy from the ingredients. Nutritional and technological improvements have an impact not only on the economics but also on the environment. Taking into account these considerations, present study was undertaken to analyze feeds formulated from plant origin sources such as mangrove, radish, maize, ficus, mulberry leaves, and beet root.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 484-487
R K Pandey and Anil Dhar
Regional Sericultural Research Station, CSB Complex, Miransahib - 181 101, Jammu (Jammu & Kashmir), India
Abstract
Intercropping of mulberry with local crops is one way of attaining the objective of sustainability. In the soil eroded belt of sub Himalayan India (Kandi), mulberry (M. alba variety S146) was grown with a spacing of 8 × 9 feet between tree to tree and row to row, in between the traditional short duration fodder crops of the area, Trifolium alexandrinum (Barseem) in winter, Sorghum vulgare (Chari) in monsoon and pulse crop, Vigna radiata (Moong), in summer seasons. Stored rain water was used for the maintenance of mulberry trees and intercrops in drought like situation of the area in summer. Vermicompost was employed for the maintenance and restoration of the soil fertility of the eroded soil. Mulberry saplings planted as perennial trees, yielded 10 kilograms of leaves per tree in two harvests in spring and autumn season, besides surplus leaves of other seasons, from third year onwards for several years. Annually, from an acre of land, around 100 kg of silk cocoons were harvested from two cocoon crops, in spring and autumn season, besides 200 quintals of barseem fodder in winter, 1.25 quintal of moong in summer and 48 quintals of Chari fodder in monsoon from an acre of land. Around 3 kg mulberry fruits were additionally available per tree annually in spring season. The multipurpose mulberry trees also yielded pruned wood to partially meet the domestic fuel requirement of the village women. The pliable, easily bent twigs of the mulberry tree, obtained during pruning operations, were also used to make baskets. The aged surplus mulberry leaves of summer and late autumn up to November were also used for goat feeding in the area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 488-491
K H Pagare, S S More, Pallab Debnath and Ravi Shrey
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani – 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
This study examines the physical input - output in rabi jowar cultivation and socio-economic condition of farmers in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. It is revealed from the study that in case of physical input and output of rabi jowar growers, as farm size increases use of human labour decreases. There was no significant difference in the use of bullock labour and machine labour use among different categories of farm. In case of socio-economic characteristics, result revealed that among 120 respondents, 116 were male and 04 were female farmers. In case of education level, maximum respondent in all category of farm were educated upto high school level i e in between 36.00 per cent to 40.00 per cent. Around 15.00 to 20.00 per cent respondent were illiterate among different category of farm. In general cropping intensity was found to be 147.00 per cent in the study area. In case of livestock position, around 73.33 per cent farmers have cow in their livestock basket. Half of the respondent maintained buffalo in their livestock position. On the contrary, Goat was not so popular in the region of study area. Results also revealed that, the implements used were generally of traditional type i e iron and wooden plough, harrow, seed drill and bullock cart. A shift towards modern technology also was observed among large farmer such as use of tractor with attachment, drip irrigation system, electric motor etc.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 492-496
M M Adhikary, S K Acharya and A Biswas
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia - 741 212, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present world is reeling under serious economic recession to elicit serious impact on both life and livelihood of myriads of people across the world. Agriculture and live stock are the two most important economic sectors supporting and generating humongous volume of livelihood in rural social systems over centuries. This sector is now suffering from declining growth, uncertain market, low capital formation, and vagaries of nature. The present investigation examines the achievability of sustainable livelihood in terms of selected variables prevalent in and integral to a farming system. The sustainable livelihood has become a complex disposition of some intrinsic factors viz wage, calorie intake value, food intake value, level of drudgery, seasonality of wage, gender dimension of wages, security perception of livelihood, and its spatial distribution along the slope of economic affiliation. It has been found that some variables like size of holding, cropping intensity; irrigation status, migration, motivation, and education are being relegated to the issues of livelihood generation. The predominant factors like income, crop yield, technology adoption have sometimes been subsided by factors like wage pattern, family size, cropping intensity, intercropping space etc to live behind a basket of alternative thinking that only economic interventions or package of practices can’t assure sustainable livelihood. We have to go beyond by refocusing our retention on some set of soft variables that are interactively characterizing the prospect of livelihood generation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 497-500
Anuj Roshan Toppo, Devendra Kumar Dewangan and Eshu Sahu
Depertment of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was during kharif season of 2010 at the Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The experiment was laid in randomized block design with three replications. Soybean variety ‘JS-335’ was sown as a test crop with a seed-rate of 75 kg ha-1 at a spacing of 30 × 10 cm. Results revealed that significantly higher yield attributes, seed yield and harvest index were obtained under farmer’s practice (hand weeding twice) at 20 DAS and 40 DAS (T12), as compared to others. This was followed by hoeing twice (by wheel hoe) at 15 DAS and 35 DAS (T11), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb hoeing (by wheel hoe) at 35 DAS (T10), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb HW at 35 DAS (T9) and quizalofop ethyl 10 EC @ 37.5 g ha-1 + chlorimuron ethyl 25 WP @ 9 g ha-1 + surfactant @ 0.2% fb HW at 35 DAS (T6). They did not find phytotoxicity effect on the vegetative growth of soybean. The economic returns in terms of net returns and B:C ratio were maximum under hoeing twice (by wheel hoe) at 15 DAS and 35 DAS (T11) followed by farmer’s practice (hand weeding twice) at 20 DAS and 40 DAS (T12), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb hoeing (by wheel hoe) at 35 DAS (T10) and imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb HW at 35 DAS (T9).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 501-506
Tariq A Khan, *G K Ramegowda and **M Y Dar
Indira Gandhi Academy of Environmental Education, Research and Eco-Planning, **School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474 011, Madhya Pradesh, India *Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, CSB, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
An attempt was made to ascertain the effect of feeding silkworm, Bombyx mori L. with road dust polluted mulberry leaves during 2012 spring alone and in combination with sub-lethal dose of nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) using silkworm hybrid, SH6 × NB4D2 in relation to the road dust from the National Highway 1A at Pampore, Kashmir, India. Impact on the silkworm performance measured in terms of larval, cocoon and silk parameters with nine combinations of leaf feed during early and late age rearing was measured besides the dust trapped on mulberry leaves. As the distance from road to mulberry plots decreased the dust deposition on leaves increased. Larval duration got extended by three days when fed with extremely dust polluted (EDP) mulberry leaves from plots located within 30 m from highway which further extended by another day by sub-lethal dose of BmNPV. Mortality ranging from 3.33 to 22 percent was observed in proportion to dust pollution which increased significantly up to 54 percent upon exposure to sub-lethal dose of BmNPV. Weight of mature larvae got almost halved when fed with EDP leaves during both chawki and late age rearing compared to those fed with least dust polluted (LDP) leaves from plots located beyond 150 m from highway. Feeding with EDP leaves during late age significantly reduced single cocoon and shell weights and shell ratio besides filament length. Denier was below the desirable range, while rendita got doubled and reelability got reduced up to 26 percent due feeding with road dust polluted mulberry leaves.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 507-512
M R Amin, *M M Adhikary, **M B Ahmed and ***M A Kashem
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet - 3100, Bangladesh *Department of Agril. Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia - 741 252, West Bengal, India **Department of Agro-technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh ***Department of Agril. Extn. Education, Bangldesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh - 2202, Bangladesh
Abstract
The main purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of radio in the dissemination of agricultural information as perceived by farmers. Data were collected from randomly selected 100 radio listener through personal interviewing during November 2007 to June 2008. In Bangladesh agricultural information broadcasted through seventeen (17) national and regional radio programs. Thirteen crops were selected to study the effectiveness of information broadcasted through radio. Radio was most effective in case of information related to winter vegetables cultivation. But it showed less effectiveness in case of information related to citrus fruits. Among the all selected 56 individual issues included under 13 crops radio perceived as most effective (based on effectiveness index) in case of land preparation, fertilizer application and irrigation of the tea. But it showed less effectiveness in case of information related to control of anthracnose, canker and root rot diseases of citrus fruits. Among 10 selected characteristics such as education, farm size, annual income organizational participation, cosmopoliteness, agricultural knowledge, and training received of the farmer showed positive significant relationship with their effectiveness of the information disseminated through radio.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 513-515
Y Atbhaiya and P L Choudhary
Department of Kamdhenu and Panchgavya Research Centre, Anjora, Durg - 491 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted at Dairy Chemistry Laboratory at College of Dairy Technology, Raipur, Department of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex at College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg and Columbia College of Pharmacy, Tekari, Raipur, Chhattisgarh during the year 2011-2012. The experiment consists of four treatments which were replicated three times under complete randomized design. In this experiment four treatments i e normal control (without diabetes), diabetic control (diabetes induced by streptozotocin 50 mg/kg body weight/rats), standard drug group (Glyclazide 1.44 mg/200g body weight rats), skim milk powder group (50 mg/animal/day). Proximate composition of skim milk powder (SMP) with pH 6.6 contains total solids 95%, total nitrogen 3.52 (g), urea (nil), calcium 230.00 (mg), potassium 370.00 (mg) and, sulphate and creatinine were not detectable. In this experiment treatment combination of skim milk powder 50 mg group of rats which was streptozotocin treated and observed the glucose level and lipid profile level up to 15th days. The blood glucose and lipid profile level observed 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th days. The decreased trained was observed. The higher values on 1st day but from 5th, 10th, and 15th day onwards values decrease significantly (i e glucose level 494.00 to 222.75, cholesterol 132.63 to 117.42, LDL 96.38 to 76.12, HDL 36.39 to 41.30, triglyceride 167.15 to 128.72 mg/dl). After 1st day to 15th day of the experiment it has been found that 50 mg/rats/day skim milk powder has resulted reduction of blood glucose and lipid profile level of the experimental animals. On the basis of above findings it can be recommended that the pharmaceutical industries can use as a binder material.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 516-519
N K Sharma, M M Adhikary and S K Acharya
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia - 741 212, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in two villages of adjoining states West Bengal and Bihar as to estimate and analyze the reasons for rejection and its expected impact of on the technology socialization process. It has been found that education (X2), farm size (X10), expenditure allotment (X11), electricity consumption (X14), adoption leadership (X17), Innovation proneness (X20), market orientation (X26), utilization of cosmopolite source of information (X28), information seeking behavior (X29) have added a decision in a complex technology socialization process. This is also discernible that higher resource endowment in the form of farm size and higher plethora of information have contributed so far in concrete, clear and confident rejection decision on the other side rejection process has been an integral part for those who are ‘farm elite’ in rural social ecology. The social entropy as has been envisaged is basically a diode of adoption-rejection conflict. That has continuously mentored or driven the process of technology socialization which is sometimes getting rhythmic, turning distorting and disruptive the other side.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 520-521
Randeep K Kushwaha, Sanjay Sharma, Navneet Rana, Gajendra K Chandrakar and Vikas Singh
Depertment of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Persistence toxicity of newer insecticides was worked out through feeding test conducted under greenhouse condition on potted TN-1 plant. All the plants were sprayed with the insecticides uniformly as per the treatments decided for bio-efficacy testing. On the basis of honey dew area marked under different treatments at different DAS it may be stated that starved female do not feed on PII-504, treated plant up to 6 DAS then the insect start feeding subsequent but the quantum of feeding was low as compared to other insecticidal treatments. The BPH was observed to feed on Buprofezin treated plant from beginning although the quantum of feeding increased gradually in subsequent period. The insect do not feed on Imidacloprid treated plant up to 4 DAS, afterward, feeding was started and increased gradually. In case of Monocrotophos treated plant, honey dew excretion increased gradually and it was higher to untreated control from 12 DAS.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 522-526
M R Amin, *M M Adhikary, **M B Ahmed and ***M A Kashem
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet - 3100, Bangladesh *Department of Agril. Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia - 741 252, West Bengal, India **Department of Agro-technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh ***Department of Agril. Extn. Education, Bangldesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh - 2202, Bangladesh
Abstract
Present investigation was to determine the extent of exposure of the farmers to agricultural programs broadcasted through radio. Data were collected from randomly selected 100 radio listeners through personal interviewing during November 2007 to June 2008. Among seventeen selected radio broadcasted national and regional agricultural programs, farmers were more or less exposed to only eight programs. Among the eight programs shamol Sylhet (regional) ranked first followed by desh- amar- mati- amar (national program), ajker chasabad (regional program) and so on. From overall consideration most (85%) of the respondents had low to medium exposure to radio broadcasted agricultural programs. Among the entire agricultural programs broadcasted through radio, farmers preferred to know the information related to market value of agricultural product followed by questioning- answering and so on. Among 10 selected characteristics the age, education family size, farm size annual income, cosmopoliteness and agricultural knowledge of the farmer showed positive significant relationship with their extent of exposure to agricultural radio programs. The most prevalent problem as cited by the respondents in case of receiving information through radio was lack of opportunity for interaction.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 527-530
S B Gamannanavar and S V Halakatti
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted on 120 farmers of Sujal watershed area and found 40.00 per cent farmers were middle aged, 31.67% farmers were educated up to pre-university. Nearly fifty per cent of farmers (47.50%) belonged to high social participation. Half of the farmers (50.00%) belonged to high extension contact considerable per cent of farmers participated in one day training on soil and water conservation (32.50%) followed by plant protection (26.67%), maize-chickpea was the major cropping pattern followed by farmers (56.67%) farmers in the study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 531-533
S V Theurkar
Research Scholar, JJT University, Vidyanagari, Churu Road, Chudela – 333 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
White grubs are called as chaffer beetles or May-June Beetles. The white grubs are the national pest. Holotrichia serrata (Fab) is a species of a Scarabaeidae family; larvae of Melolonthidae. Holotrichia serrata (Fab) is most abundant species found in Khed Taluka which is caused damage to commercial growing crops and host trees. The beetles of Holotrichia serrata (Fab) also emerge from soil after the first monsoon or pre-monsoon shower. The Holotrichia serrata (Fab) has been univoltine life cycle in which grub or larvae is most harmful to the crops and adults harmful to the host trees. The Khed Tahsil is northen part of Pune district which is situated at 18°-52 North and 73°-54' East. The present study influence of soil moisture, soil temperature and soil type on Holotrichia serrata found in Khed Tahsil. In the laboratory, the effect of three physical factors (soil moisture, soil temperature and soil type) on the depth of adult Holotrichia serrata (Fab) burrowing was investigated. Soil moisture and soil type had a significant effect on the depth of burrowing, while soil temperature did not affect burrowing depth.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 534-536
R P Senthilkumar and A Sheeba Christina
Depertment of Biotechnology, Prist University, Thanjavur - 613 403, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An efficient in-vitro plant regeneration protocol was developed for the medicinally potent plant Phyllanthus rheedei Wight. (Euphorbiaceae) using nodal segments and intermodal segments as explant for micropropagation at the Priest University, Thanjavur during the year 2012-13. Maximum of shoot was achieved on Murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with BAP (2 mgL-1) after 3-4 weeks of inoculation. The nodal segments produced multiple shoots when they were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.5 mgL-1) + IAA (1 mgL-1) induced multiple shoot initiation. The inter nodal segments produced maximum callus induction on 50 days when MS basal salts were fortified with BAP (3.5 mgL-1) + NAA (2.5 mgL-1) + 2, 4-D (0.5 mgL-1). It was observed that the explants produced scanty callus when the concentration of the hormones are low.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 537-539
N U Pawar, T G Satpute, S S More and Pallab Debnath
Department of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A multistage random sampling technique was used and 160 borrowers were selected for the present study. The required data from the selected borrowers were collected with the help of specially designed and pretested schedules by personal interview method. The secondary data was obtained from the office of the Parbhani district Central Cooperative Bank Ltd. Parbhani. The information about loan utilization for various aspects like, seed, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides etc and also loan utilization towards labour charges was calculated. The study revealed that marginal and small borrowers diverted nearly half of the crop loan to labour charges and other purposes. Small and medium borrowers have used nearly 46.53 per cent and 31.54 per cent of crop loan amount for other than crop production. Only 9.32 per cent loan was misutilized by large farmers and major portion of loan amount i e 90.68 per cent of loan used for crop production purpose.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 540-542
D Guruswamy, A Abad Siddiqui, Mir Nisar Ahmad, S Nazeer Ahmed, G K Ramegowda, Anil Dhar, M A Khan and K A Sahaf
Regional Sericultural Research Station, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
Silkworm hybrid SH6 × NB4D2 is the most popular, well acclimatized and performing traditional hybrid throughout Kashmir valley of Jammu and Kashmir state since its introduction during mid 1990s. There is a scope and need for infusion of productivity and superior cocoon quality parameters as the preference for this hybrid is coming down in the recent past. Two bivoltine silkworm races, RP-II and S-36 having white oval cocoons, superior or on-par with SH6 and NB4D2, the parents of ruling traditional hybrid is thought as substitutes for either of the parents. With this objective intensive study was carried out during 2006-10 spring seasons to evaluate the stability of RP-II and S-36 races with respect to the performance of selected biological and economic traits. Results clearly demonstrated the consistent superior performance by both RP-II and S-36 races for productive traits particularly yield by weight, cocoon weight and shell ratio and on par performance with respect to viability (yield by number) traits over SH6 and NB4D2 besides sustained superior performance and improved overall yield. Thus proving their suitability as substitutes for parents of commercial F1 hybrid of traditional hybrid needs to be explored on priority.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 543-544
Rakesh Kumar Pandey, Rajat Mohan and Anil Dhar
Regional Sericultural Research Station, Central Silk Board, Central Silk Board Complex, Miransahib, Jammu - 181 101, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
An effort was made to assess the recovery after hail damage during February-March 2013 among eight Morus alba varieties at Regional Sericultural Research Station, Miransahib, Jammu. The damage was recorded as sprouting per cent after one week of the hailstorm and was compared with the sprouting % prior to hail damage. The recovery was assessed after 120 days of hail damage in terms of sprouting per cent. It was found that the hail damage was highest in S-1635 (29.84%), followed by S-146 (16.83), Vishala (11.66), C-2038 (11.00), TR-10 (8.17), Chak Mazra (6.83), FYT-99/G4 (6.16) and Suvarna-2 (3.5). However, it was only S-1635, which showed recovery of 7.67% after 120 days, while others showed further loss. Therefore, it is recommended to propagate Morus alba variety S-1635 at farmer’s level in sub tropical Jammu area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 545-546
C M Balai, *R P Meena, *B L Meena and **R K Bairwa
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Badal Mahal, Dungarpur - 314 001, Rajasthan, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhoinda, Rajsamand, Rajasthan, **Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bundi, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The improved technologies recorded mean yield of 18.72 q/ha which was 68.19 per cent higher than that obtained with farmers practices of 11.13 q/ha. In spite of increase in seed yield of chickpea, technological gap, extension gap and technology index existed which was 6.28, 7.58 q/ha and 25.13 per cent, respectively. The extension gap can be bridged by popularizing package of practices where in stress need to be laid on improved variety, use of proper seed rate, balanced nutrient application and proper plant protection measures. Improved technologies gave higher net return of Rs. 20598/ha with benefit cost ratio 2.67 as compared to local check (Rs. 11235/ha, benefit cost ratio 2.35).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 547-548
Darshana S Jadhav and Abhishek Shukla
Department of Entomology, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to investigate some commonly occurring coccinellids of South Gujarat. The finding suggests that there were nine species of coccinellids abundant under South Gujarat. These species were Coccinella transversalis Fabricius, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius), Brumoides suturalis (Fabricius), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), Illeis cincta (Fabricius), Pseudaspidimerus trinotatus (Thunberg), Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Mulsant) and Scymnus (Pullus) latemaculatus Motschulsky.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 549-550
S B Gamannanavar and S V Halakatti
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The results revealed that more than 30.00 per cent of beneficiaries expressed that soil and water conservation practices helped them to increase groundwater recharge (36.67%) and reduction in soil and water erosion (35.00%) while 60.00 per cent of beneficiary farmers expressed obstruction for cultural operation as the constraint for adoption of soil and water conservation practices and non-availability of labourers (80.83%) was the major problem hindering adoption of the improved crop production practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 551-552
B K Mohanty and *Bikash Sarkar
Command Area Development Division, Bhadrak - 756 100, Odisha, India *Central Institute of Fresh Water Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganj, Bhubaneswar - 751 002, Odisha, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to compare the performance of different paddy winnowing methods in Odisha with a view to develop an improved winnower for its feasibility and economic viability in the state. The winnowing methods under investigation were manual winnowing by traditional method, manual winnowing by GAIC (Gujarat Agro Industries Corporation) winnower, mechanical winnowing by power operated RRL winnower, and mechanical winnowing by power operated OUAT thresher cum winnower. On the basis of the test results, an improved winnower (power operated) has been developed and evaluated at CRRI, Cuttack with paddy variety Parijata having moisture content 12.5% (db) with different feed rates and air velocities. The output capacity of winnower per hour under study was observed to be 42 kg, 474 kg, 295 kg and 100 kg for traditional winnowing method, GAIC winnower, RRL winnower and OUAT winnower, respectively. However, the output capacity of the winnower developed was found to be 830 kg/hour with optimum feed rate 1050 kg/hour and air velocity 5.4 m/s. Similarly the net winnowing cost of paddy with the winnower, developed was calculated to be Rs. 0.02/kg of paddy as against Rs. 0.74 for traditional method and Rs. 0.18 for GAIC winnower. Looking into the cost effectiveness and better performance of the improved winnower developed, the unit needs to be popularized and commercialized in the state Odisha.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 553-554
Mitali Soni
Department of Agricultural Economics, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study covers costs and return of backyard poultry in Jagdalpur block of Bastar district of Chhattishgarh. The analysis is based on the backyard poultry in relation to economic analysis of the sample poultry units. Net income per bird per year estimated to be Rs. 359 maximum being in size group II (Rs. 368) and minimum in size group I (Rs. 352). Poultry farming in Chhattishgarh in general and Bastar in particular has tremendous scope due to competitive cheaper land, labour inputs which should be exploited for development of poultry farming. The practice of backyard poultry should be extended to viable units by creating necessary infrastructure and training for poultry management.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 555-557
Ch. Victoria Devi and M M Adhikary
Depertment of Extension Education, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia - 741 212, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The study was conducted on the JLGs of rural women in Bishnupur District of Manipur, with a primary objective of creating such models to promote and undertake different activities to ensure an integrated rural development through optimum utilization and full development of human material resources available locally. It was found that most of the women have earned higher income with the help of micro-finance given by ORI. Some of them have even started newenterprises. Today, ORI is playing a key role of providing secured livelihood of rural women in particular and women empowerment in general, in the study area. There should be proper training for JLG members, enhancement of loans (micro-finance), arrangement of marketing facilities outside the state for indigenous products and organizing fair/exhibition to encourage the women members of JLG.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 558-559
Randeep K Kushwaha, Sanjay Sharma, Navneet Rana, Gajendra K Chandrakar and Vikas Singh
Depertment of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The various stages were separately collected from the reared mass culture of brown plant hopper under the green house conditionsat the Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). PII-504 20% SG followed by Imidacloprid 17.5% SL applied @ 0.3 gm and 0.25 ml/liter water was found highly effective in minimizing brown plant hopper populations with knock down effect. The descending order of vulnerability was observed in the order, female>male>1st instar nymph>3rd instar nymph>2nd instar nymph, both the insecticides were found superior over the conventional insecticides. Monocrotophos, Buprofezin could not defeat the conventional insecticides in terms of mortality of various stages of BPH. Among the three nymphal stages first and third instars were more sensitive to the insecticidal treatments as compared to second instar.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 560-561
R K Naik, R C Dash and A K Goel
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
The morphometric data for sisal are mean of leaf dimensions were leaf length ranges from 60-140 cm, width ranges from 3.1-7.1 cm and thickness ranges from 0.9-2.2 cm. The mean weight of mature leaves were varies from 77-560 g. The fibre content of leaf depends on the leaf length, leaf weight and plant age. Fibre content of leaves were varies from 3.0-4.5 % of fresh green leaf weight. The mean fibre bundle strength and fibre fineness were varies from 28-35 g/tex and 4.18-5.33, respectively. The butt- end of sisal leaf contains 2-3% and 7-8% more moisture than middle and tip-end of the leaf, respectively. The loss of moisture content of leaf due to storage was 15% and 25% after 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Fibre extraction of leaf must be carried out on the same day of harvest or within 48 hours.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 562-563
B K Mohanty
Command Area Development Division, Bhadrak - 756 100, Odisha, India
Abstract
The most widespread thermal use of solar energy, so far has been for water heating, cooking, electricity production and in air-conditioning. Apart from all these uses, solar water heaters have most prominent use. However, the technical feasibility of domestic solar water heating systems (DSWHS) has long been established and their financial viability needs to be carefully examined, particularly in tropical countries with relatively lower annual capacity utilization and poor purchasing power of potential users. By detailed data analysis, calculations show that for a family of six persons we can save up to Rs 8949 by installing a DSWHS. In addition, we can save 1.68 cylinders of LPG per year by using solar cooker. Thus solar energy is a big aspect if one utilizes it in perfect and judicious manner. The purpose of putting the effort is to save energy and by doing so we can definitely make effective use of solar energy.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 564-566
S B Gamannanavar and S V Halakatti
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was undertaken during 2010-2011 by selecting 120 beneficiary farmers from 12 villages to investigate the association between adoption of watershed practices with socio-economic characters of beneficiaries. The results revealed that majority of the beneficiaries were middle aged, semi-medium income group (50.83%), high social participation (47.50%), high management orientation (63.33%). Nearly 30 per cent of beneficiaries were educated up to pre-university and had medium land holding category. About 50 per cent among them have bore well as source of irrigation and high extension contact. The correlation coefficient (r) revealed that education, social participation, extension contact, livestock possession, trainings received was having positive and significant relationship with adoption. Whereas, age, land holding, annual income, management orientation were not having significant relationship with the adoption of the watershed practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 567-568
Soma Bhattacharjee Biswas, Anindita Saha and Debabrata Dasgupta
Department of Agricultural Extension, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, Birbhum - 731 236, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Environmental ethics ensures a healthy man-nature relationship by ethical values which finally lead to sustainable development. Education for sustainable development including key sustainable development issues like, climate change, disaster risk reduction, biodiversity, poverty reduction, and sustainable consumption etc into teaching and learning process. Education for sustainable development consequently promotes competencies like critical thinking, imagining future scenarios and making decisions in a collaborative way. Unless and until ecology and environment supplemented with ethical values, get a right place in various cultures and societies through different educational system, neither mass media nor other informal educational activities can become the instruments of environmental sensitivity. This necessitates incorporation of compulsory ecological and environmental studies at all levels of education.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 569-572
B K Mohanty and *Bikash Sarkar
Command Area Development Division, Bhadrak - 756 100, Odisha, India *Central Institute of Fresh Water Aquaculture (CIFA), Kausalyaganj, Bhubaneswar - 751 002, Odisha, India
Abstract
This investigation gives the details of the biomass briquetting technology, types of briquetting machines commercially available, cost economics, energetic and future scope of biomass briquetting for feed, fodder and energy. A huge quantity of crop residues and agro-processing wastes are available annually in our state Odisha and remain unutilized as surplus. Part of this is burnt which could be briquetted and used as fodder in fodder deficit areas and part for combustion/gasification for energy purposes. In the years to come, with the increase in productivity of crops, on one hand, and reduction in animal population, especially the draught animals, and environmental concerns regarding burning of straw, on the other hand, the availability of surplus biomass for briquetting will be much more from the present context of the sustainability of energy use. If the surplus biomass is briquetted, its handling, storage and transport will become much easier and the briquettes can either be used as feed and fodder for animals or as domestic and industrial fuel for energy.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 573-576
R K Bali, *R K Pandit, Mokshe Sajgotra and Ajay Koul
Division of Sericulture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Udheywalla - 180 002, J & K, India *Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir, India
Abstract
Silkworm breeding in India is of recent origin as compared to sericulturally advanced countries like Japan and China. Prior to 1920, only regional indigenous multivoltine races like Pure Mysore of South India, Nistari of West Bengal and Sarupat and Moria of Assam were popular. In late forties silkworm improvement programme was initiated in Eastern India and from 1960’s onwards serious research work on silkworm race improvement programmes was started by various sericulture research institutions and Universities which resulted in evolving various productive races. Over the years, India has achieved a quantum jump in silk production and at present it is the second largest producer of silk after China. The major achievements are; lowering of renditta from 16 to 6 and increase in cocoon yield per 100 dfls from 18 kg to 45 kg under field conditions. Besides this, a number of silkworm races have been evolved for different agro climatic zones of the country.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 4 - Issue : 4 ; 577-579
B K Mohanty and R K Das
Command Area Development Division, Bhadrak - 756 100, Odisha, India
Abstract
This increasing trend of energy consumption has been accelerated by improvements in the quality of life, which almost directly relates to the amount of energy consumption as a result of the industrialization of developing nations and the population increase in the world. To meet the growing demand of energy, there is at present the pressing need of alternative sources of energy in order to give the solution to the present-day problems with the fossil fuels. The sources of green energy include the energy from sun, wind, biomass, geothermal, hydropower system etc. which will provide an important attribute for sustainable development. This is because attaining sustainable development requires the use of energy resources and technologies that do not have adverse environmental, economic and societal impact. This article explains the practical relevance of deriving the energy from sources like ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, hydrogen energy, solar energy. Electric power can also be generated from solar energy; wind energy etc. So, within the near future, the sources of green energy need to slowly replace the usage of fossil fuels. Increasing the utilization of the sources of green energy to a maximum extent will benefit the mankind.


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