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Volume - 3 - January-February 2012
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 01-09
Prabjeet Singh, Uma Melkania*, Sajid Maqsood**, Mohammad Danish, Nitin Verma and Purshotam Singh***
College of Fisheries, *Department of Environmental Sciences, Govind Balab Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttrakhand, India **Faculty of Agro Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand ***Division of Agronomy, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir (J & K), India
Abstract
Fisheries and aquaculture play important roles in food supply, food security and income fluctuation globally. About 43.5 million people are directly involved with this sector, with majority among them in developing countries. This sector supports nearly 200 million livelihoods. Climate change is projected to impact broadly across, ecosystems, societies and economies, increasing pressure on all livelihoods and food supplies, including those on fisheries and aquaculture sector. Global warming will have a direct bearing on the physiological activities of the fish. The climate change will have negative effects on aquaculture including stress due to increased temperature and oxygen demands, uncertain supplies of freshwater, extreme weather events, sea level rise, increased frequency of diseases and toxic events and uncertain supply of fishmeal from capture fisheries. Communities located in deltas, coral atolls and ice dominated coasts will also be particularly vulnerable to sea level rise and associated risks of flooding, saline intrusion and coastal erosion. However, it would require rapid adjustment of management tools and regulations as necessitated by changed conditions or circumstances. Adaptation will need to contain strong mechanisms for equity, as increased competition may reduce access for poorer people and other vulnerable groups to production, employment and consumption.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 10-13
A R Farrokh, I Azizov*, A Farrokh, M Esfahani*, E Amiri and M Rangbarchobeh
Field of Plant Physiology, Rasht Tobacco Research Institute, Guilan Province, Iran *Professor of Botany, Institute of Republic of Azerbaijan National Academy, Iran
Abstract
In order to verify effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on some of agronomical and morphological features of flue cured tobacco, an experiment was done in agronomical year 2008 in Rasht Tobacco Research Institute located in Guilan Province in design of factorial with 3 replication. Fertilizing levels used, were including: (N1)35, (N2)45, (N3)55 and (N4)66 Kg N/ha and (K1)150 and (K2)200 Kg K/ha. Yield of dry leaf (dry weight of leaf), flowering, dry weight of stalk, biological yield (biomass) and harvest index were studied. Effects of nitrogen on yield of dry leaf and dry weight of stalk in probability level of 5% and on flowering and biomass in probability level of 1% became significant. Potassium had a significant effect on flowering in probability level of 1%. Also, interaction effects of nitrogen and potassium on flowering in probability level of 5% and on biomass and harvest index in probability level of 1% have been significant. Comparison of average effect of simple nitrogen showed that the highest performance rate of dry leaf, dry weight of stalk and biomass have been gained as a result of application of 35kg N/ha. Also, according to the table for comparison of average effect of potassium, the highest rate of flowering has gained been due to consumption of 150 kg K/ha. According to the table for comparison between average mutual effects of nitrogen and potassium, the highest yield rate of dry leaf from treatments 5 and 1, the highest rates of flowering and harvest index from treatment 6, the highest rate of dry weight of stalk and biomass have been gained from treatment 5.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 014-018
Dinesh Tiwari, B B Sharma and Pramod Kumar Debey
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U. S. Nagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out during kharif season of two consecutive years 2007 and 2008 using same layout on fixed site at Crop Research Centre of G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar to study the effect of integrated nutrient management in pigeonpea based intercropping system under tarai condition of Uttarakhand. The treatments were consisted of three intercropping systems (pigeonpea sole, pigeonpea + urdbean and pigeonpea + maize), two seed inoculation levels (PSB inoculation @ 20g culture per kg seed and no PSB) and three FYM levels (0.0, 2.5 and 5.0 t/ha). The experiment was laid down in factorial randomized block design with 3 replications. Pigeonpea + urdbean intercropping system recorded the highest yield of pigeonpea and pigeonpea equivalent yield (PEY) than sole pigeonpea and pigeonpea + maize intercropping system. Similarly, PSB inoculation and application of FYM at 5.0 t/ha increased the grain yield of pigeonpea, urdbean and maize and PEY significantly. The highest net return (Rs. 27911/ha) and B: C ratio (1.58) was obtained under pigeonpea + urdbean cropping system. PSB inoculation and 5.0 t FYM/ha also recorded maximum net return and benefit: cost ratio.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 019-022
Reshu Chaudhary, R S Sengar and Sanjiv K Tyagi*
Tissue Culture Lab, College of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Modipuram - 250 110, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India *Department of Botany, D.A.V. College, Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. Complex) is the most valuable commercial crop of India. It holds not only sugarcane and distillery industries but also a key position in the national economy by earning foreign exchange. The contemporary sugar industry plays many significant roles in relation to food, energy and economic security. In present investigation deals with the effect of growth hormones on in vitro morphogenetic responses of leaf sheath explants of sugarcane varieties Cos 98259 and Cos 767. Leaf sheath are suitable explants for shoot regeneration via callus for in vitro micropropagation of sugarcane varieties. In the present study high frequency callus formation was recorded in leaf sheath explants achieved on MS medium containing 3 mg/l 2,4-D while shoot regeneration from the callus was obtained on medium supplemented with BAP, Kinetin or NAA (0.5 mg/l each). The micropropagated shoots of sugarcane were successfully rooted on half strength MS liquid medium containing NAA (5.0 mg/l) and sucrose (50 mg/l).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 023-026
B S Kumar, Somasekhar and D Sagar
Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The investigation on the biology of Caryedon serratus (Oliver) on groundnut was carried at the Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Raichur during 2007-08. The results revealed that the length of egg ranged from 0.90 to 0.98 mm with a mean of 0.94 ± 0.02 mm and breadth ranged from 0.65 to 0.71 mm with a mean of 0.67 ± 0.01 mm. Incubation period of egg ranged from 7 to 14.5 days with a mean of 10.35 ± 1.48 days. First, second, third and fourth instar grubs measured 1.80 ± 0.03, 2.98 ± 0.11, 4.26 ± 0.32 and 6.85 ± 0.48 mm in length and 0.94 ± 0.06, 1.49 ± 0.04, 1.85 ± 0.03 and 2.40 ± 0.04 in breadth, respectively. Head capsule of first, second, third and fourth instar grubs measured 0.29 ± 0.04, 0.32 ± 0.04, 0.53 ± 0.04 and 0.71 ± 0.035 mm in length and 0.26 ± 0.032, 0.29 ± 0.041, 0.50 ± 0.04 and 0.68 ± 0.04 mm in breadth, respectively. The duration of the first, second, third and fourth instar lasted for 11.90 ± 1.37, 13.40 ± 1.20, 12.30 ± 1.26 and 9.50 ± 0.64 days, with a total larval duration ranging from 34 to 50 days with mean of 47.1 ± 4.47 days. Pupa measured about 6.00 ± 0.24 mm in length and 3.39 ± 0.04 mm in breadth and the pupal period lasted for 19 to 31 days with a mean of 28.00 ± 3.28 days. The total development period ranged from 60 to 95.5 days with a mean of 84.25 ± 9.23 days. Pre-mating and mating period ranged from 12 to 32 and 14 to 38 minutes with a mean of 21.30 ± 6.03 and 25.30 ± 7.83 minutes, respectively. Pre-ovipositional period ranged from 26 to 49 hours with a mean of 38.40 ± 6.26 hours. Ovipositional period ranged from 6 to 19 days with a mean of 12.70 ± 4.05 days. Fecundity ranged from 32 to 59 eggs with a mean of 46.50 ± 9.11 eggs. Adult longevity ranged from 17 to 32 and 21 to 38 days in case of male and female with a mean of 21.80 ± 4.55 and 26.30 ± 4.80 days, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 027-031
A Rai, N Chaudhuri* and J Ghosh
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar - 736 165, West Bengal, India *Regional Research Station, Terai Zone, UBKV, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Twenty four paddy varieties were screened for susceptibility to angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) under laboratory conditions in terai region of West Bengal. The susceptibility of paddy varieties was assessed on the basis of developmental period; adult progeny developed and weight loss of infested grains. The results revealed that adult progeny and weight loss of infested grains due to this pest were significantly low in the less susceptible varieties like IET-10391, IET-13544 and IET-4315. On the other hand the reverse trend was observed in case of highly susceptible varieties like Swarna Mashuri, Sita. Considering the physical parameters of the grain, medium to large sized slender grain with thicker husk, densely haired grains and moisture content of the grains impart resistance to angoumois grain moth.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 032-035
C K Pramila, Rame Gowda, R Ramachandra, M K Shiva Prakash and K Y Ranjitha
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In the present study two filed experiments were carried out during 2009-10 to study the effect of sowing seasons and maturity stages on seed yield and quality in marigold cv. Pusa Narangi. The results revealed that significantly tallest plants (90.80cm), more number of primary branches (11), number of flowers per plant (32), number of seeds per plant (165), seed yield per plant (14.51g) and test weight (2.63g) were recorded during kharif season. Whereas, significantly maximum flower size (6.55cm), highest germination (88.40%), seedling length (12.46cm), seedling dry weight (0.994mg), vigour index I (1102) and vigour index II (88) were recorded in rabi season. In the second experiment, the flowers harvested at 120 and 125 DAT significantly recorded better seed quality parameters viz germination (81.60 and 83.2%), 1000 seed weight (2.87 and 2.90g), seedling length (12.20 and 11.95cm), seedling dry weight (1.023 and 1.007mg), vigour index I (995 and 994) and vigour index II (83 and 84) compared to earlier and later stages.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 036-039
S Shwetha and J Narayana
Research in Environmental Sciences, Kuvempu University, Jnana Sahyadri, Shimoga - 577 451, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiments were carried out under irrigated conditions during kharif season of 2006-07 at Kuvempu University campus to evaluate the performance of organic (Vermicompost and FYM) manures and inorganic fertilizers on paddy crop and their effect on soil fertility. The kharif paddy variety KMP-101 was used for the experiment. The paddy when supplied with 100% of recommended NPK fertilizer (100:50:50kg ha-1) along with vermicompost @ 10t/ha produced significantly higher number of effective tillers m-2 and filled grains panicle, grain yield/ha and straw yield ha-1as compared with no application of fertilizer and 100% of recommended NPK fertilizer alone, but it was on par with the treatment that received vermicompost @15t ha-1. Despite higher soil reserve of available nitrogen (298kg ha-1), available phosphorus (30kg ha-1) and available potassium (336kg ha-1) were found both in the application of vermicompost 15t ha-1than application of conventional RDF alone and no fertilizer application. Significantly higher number of grains per plant (18.66kg/ha), panicle length (25cm), test weight (2.37 g/panicle) were also noticed in application of vermicompost combined with 100% of recommended dose than rest of the treatments except in application of vermicompost @15t ha-1. The result indicated that application of vermicompost @ 15t ha-1 and @ 10t ha-1 + RDF increases the grain yield besides sustaining the fertility status of the soil as compared with 100% of RDF alone.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 040-044
R K Saini and P Giridhar
Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Mysore - 570 020, India
Abstract
Decalepis hamiltonii (Swallow root) is the endangered medicinal shrub of economic importance. Low percentage of germination is the major problem for in vitro and ex vitro cultivation of the plant. All treatments resulted in differential effect on germination, conversely 0.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 0.3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 0.05 ppm gibbrellic acid (GA3) and 1.0 ppm of N6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) significantly improved the germination in vitro and ex vitro grown seeds. Exposing seeds to 0.3% H2O2 was found best with 94% of total germination and 12% of total atypical germination after 35 days of inoculation. Similarly 100% germination of immature zygotic embryo was obtained by supplementing MS medium with GA3 (0.05 ppm), BAP (1.0 ppm) and TDZ (1.0 ppm). Some of these treatments also reduced the atypical germination, helped uniform seedling development and growth. This study will be useful for obtaining maximum number of seedlings with uniform growth for field plantations as well as developing in vitro propagation protocol for cultivation and transformation studies of D. hamiltonii.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 045-050
M Chennakesavulu and M Reddi Kumar
Department of Plant Pathology, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati – 517 502, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Soil inoculation method was followed to know the most virulent isolate of Fusarium udum. Isolate CFU2 exhibited maximum per cent disease incidence (66.70%) while the isolate KFU11 recorded the lowest PDI. Among 15 isolates of F. udum, isolates CFU1, CFU2, CFU5, CFU7, KFU9, KFU10, KFU11, KFU12, KFU13 and KFU14 grew more than 80 to 85 mm after ten days of inoculation were considered as fast growing. Among all the isolates, CFU2 isolate showed significant variation in radial growth (90 mm) on PDA medium. The size of macro conidia was ranged from 32-34 x 4-5 µm to 67- 68 x 10-11 µm, and micro conidia were ranged from 5-6 x 1-2 µm to 9-2 x 1-3 µm. The number of septa in macro conidia and in micro conidia was 3-4 and 0-1 respectively and hyaline. The macro conidia were sickle shaped with blunt end and micro conidia were round to oval shaped. Intercalary and terminal chlamydospores were observed in all the isolates.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 051-058
Prabhuling Tevari, B R Atteri and Siddaya*
Division of Agricultural Economics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa - 110 012, New Delhi, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Potato has been an important commercial crop of Uttar Pradesh especially in the districts of Farrukhabad and Kannauj. However, the cost of production has increased due to increase in inputs costs. Poverty of farmers and poor post harvest facilities and marketing infrastructures results in low market price during the potato harvesting season. Low profit and low income of farmer’s especially small and marginal farmers acted as constraints to put more investment in to production process. This paper examines the production and marketing cost of potato and estimates the marketable and marketed surplus of potato in selected districts of Uttar Pradesh. The study revealed that there was a significant decrease in area and production of potato in Ghaziabad and Gautam Buddha Nagar districts. With respect to group wise across all the districts of Uttar Pradesh it was found that the total cost of cultivation of potato per hectare increased with the increase in the size of the farm. Seed, labour and fertilizers inputs were the major cost inputs used in the production by the farmers of all the districts. The medium and large cultivators who managed to dispose of their major part of produce in off-season, after storing in cold storages received relatively higher return per hectare because of favourably higher prices in those months. Hence, improving the physical infrastructure and providing processing facilities are essential for reducing adverse economic implications on the farmers of the state.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 059-062
S B Shahakar, Mukesh Kumar and Rakesh Singh Sengar
Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut - 250 110, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Rice, one of the most important cereal crop directly consumed by human and second largest crop in panting acreage after wheat in the world. To meet the growing demand for rice biotechnological intercession for its improvement become increasingly important such intercession hinge on the development of efficient transformation protocol. Production of callus and its subsequent regeneration are the limiting step in crop plant to be manipulated by biotechnological mean. In present studies, callus induction and regeneration protocol was optimized for the varieties Pusa Basmati-1, Pusa Sundha-4, Pant Dhan- 10 and Saket-4. The media containing MS and N6 salt, carbohydrate source, amino acid and growth regulator were evaluated. Medium N6 gave higher callus induction frequency than MS and for regeneration MS medium proved better. While the variety, Pusa Basmati-1 showed higher callus induction response than the other varieties studied. Calli from Pusa Basmati-1, Pusa Sundha-4 were transformed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring plasmid pCAMBIA 1305 that carries gene for ß-glucuronidase and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) which gave better transformation efficiency.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 063-066
A K Rai, A K Basu and P C Gupta*
Department of Seed Science and Technology, *Department of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur – 741 235, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Field experiments were conducted in replicated split plot design at district Seed Farm “D” Block, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalya, Nadia, West Bengal, India during boro and kharif seasons of 2008-09, to assess the two plant growth regulators viz, GA3 and Phytonol, on growth and seed yield of rice crop cv. Shatabi (IET-4786) at panicle emergence stage. Besides untreated control, GA3 was used at 10 ppm and 20 ppm, while for Phytonol, it was used at 1ml and 2ml/3 liters of water. Significantly highest number of effective tillers/hill (9.200), 100 seed weight (1.756g), yield/panicle (2.104g), and yield/ha (42.828q) were recorded due to the treatment Phytonol @ 2ml/3lit. of water, as compared to control, while in a comparison between seasons, the maximum plant height was obtained during kharif (97.43cm) as compared to boro (80.52cm), whether, reverse scenario was recorded in seed yield and other attributing characters. Single seedling transplanted plant was produced maximum plant height and seed weight per panicle during kharif, while the more number of tillers was obtained when plant was transplanted with triple seedlings.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 067-069
Avinalappa H Hotti, Rudra Naik V, R K Patil, Pushpa Bharti and V S Kubsad
Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Six lines were crossed with three testers in line x tester mating design to estimate combining ability for yield and yield attributing traits in field bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet). The variance due to general combining ability (GCA) was lesser than the variance due to specific combining ability (SCA) for all the characters under study except for number of pods per plant and the ratio of gca to the sca variance for these traits was less than unity except for number of pods per plant, which indicated the role of dominance gene action in the inheritance of these characters. The female parents DA-11 and DA-12 and the male parent DA-14 were identified as good general combiners for most of the yield attributing characters as they recorded high per se with positive significant gca effects for seed yield per plant. Whereas, DA-12 (female) and DA-13 (male) recorded as good general combiners for protein content. Among 18 crosses evaluated, three crosses DA-11 x DA-15, DA-10 x DA-15 and DA-7 x DA-14 exhibited high and positive significant sca effects for seed yield per plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 070-072
Ajay Kumar Singh, P N Singh and Ruchi Rani Gangwar
Department of Agricultural Economics, Udai Pratap College, Varanasi – 212 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study is undertaken to examine the present status of post-harvest management practices of vegetables at producer level. The Kumaon division of Uttarakhand was purposively selected for the present study. Multistage random sampling was used for selection of potato growers. The sample size consists of 90 potato growers of Udam Singh Nagar district. The post-harvest management of sample potato was analyzed in terms of grading, packing, transport and sale pattern. Simple statistical tools were employed to accomplish the objective of the study. On overall basis 78 percent of the samples farmers were found grading vegetables. The analysis reveals that out of the seven criteria size/shape and free from pest were given higher priority by the farmers of Udam Singh Nagar. The farmers were found using gunny bag as packaging material. The average cost of grading was Rs. 4.5 per quintal for an average quantity of 136.17 quintals graded per farm. It was found that the cost of packaging potato incurred by the potato grower was Rs. 28.50 per quintal which includes Rs. 25.00 as cost of package and Rs. 3.50 as labour cost and the average cost of transportation was Rs.3 2 per quintal in patato. It was revealed that most of the sample farmers were selling their produce to wholesaler cum commission agent (near market) i e Haldwani mandi.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 073-076
K J Manu, M V Mohan Kumar*, V S Mohana** and K N Ganeshaiah
Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, *Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore – 560 065, Karnataka, India **Division of Environmental Science, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa – 110 012, New Delhi, India
Abstract
A study was carried out to know the effect of dairy effluent (DEF) at different concentrations and treated effluent on seed germination, seedling growth, leaf area, dry matter production and biochemical parameter like chlorophyll content in cowpea variety Nithyashri under field conditions (pot experiment). The dairy effluent was used in different concentrations and also the treated effluent samples were used by treating the effluent by using different ameliorative techniques like physical filters (sand, clay and sand cum clay filters), chemical coagulation and combination of different treatments. Cowpea seeds were raised in pots irrigated with different concentrations of dairy effluent [0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%] and treated effluent. The effluent samples (treated and untreated) were used to irrigate poly bags containing cowpea seeds. At lower dilutions and in treated effluent samples, Cowpea showed favorable effects on seed germination, seedling growth and other growth parameters. Among them 75 and 100% concentrations and raw effluent caused inhibitory effects. The study suggests that the effluent can be used safely for irrigation of Cowpea, only after proper treatment and dilutions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 077-079
Nagesh and S V Halakatti
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study carried out in Bagalkot district of Karnataka regarding entrepreneurial behaviour of pomegranate growers, revealed that chunk (70.83%) of the respondents belonged to medium entrepreneurial behaviour category. It was further revealed that majority of the respondents had middle age (48.33%), educated up to high school (25.83%), dependence on agricultural (60.00%), medium land holding (66.66%), medium income group (73.33%) and medium mass media participation category (60.00%), medium extension contact (54.16%), medium extension participation (65.83%) and medium scientific orientation (58.33%). The sources of market information to these growers was primarily from other growers, who visited the market (46.66%), while few respondents also gathered information through personal visits (45.83%), radio (43.33%) and newspaper (14.16%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 080-083
Anirban Biswas, Alok Chandra Samal and Subhas Chandra Santra
Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Kalyani -741 235, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Arsenic concentrations in irrigation water, field soil and in different parts of grown crops have been assessed to show the bioaccumulation level of arsenic in food chain. Arsenic in irrigated water ranges from 0.23 to 0.73 mg L-1 and 3.58 to 8.50 mg Kg -1 of dry weight in irrigated soil. Inorganic arsenic concentration in various edible and useful parts of rice plants in our experiment are in the order of 2.52 1 to 5.97 mg Kg -1 of dry weight in straw; 0.71 to 1.79 mg Kg-1 of dry weight in husk and 0.10 to 0.81mg Kg-1 of dry weight in rice grain. Higher range of arsenic is assessed in the rabi season vegetables like in spinach 0.96 to 1.63 mg Kg-1 of dry weight, 0.051 to 1.14 mg Kg-1 of dry weight in tomato fruit, and 1.45 to 3.24 mg Kg-1 of dry weight in Bengal gram which are also positively correlated with their protein content. Ground water arsenic content, soil arsenic and edible parts of crops and vegetables relationship have been assessed. Positively correlated concentration factor and enrichment factor with protein content indicates towards the potential risk of human health due to dietary arsenic transfer in to human.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 084-088
Ranjeet Jadhav, N Krishnamurthy, Mohan Chavan*, H M Jayadeva and S Shridhar**
Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore – 560 065, Karnataka, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Raichur, Karnataka, India, ** College of Agriculture, Shivmoga, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Study on sustainable productivity of maize - soybean cropping sequence through integrated nutrient management practices under irrigated condition in alfisol was conducted at Agricultural College (GKVK) Bangalore. The results revealed that, application of 100 per cent RDF + EC recorded significantly highest maize grain yield (64.85 and 51.06q ha-1during kharif and summer, respectively) over the rest of the treatment except 100%t RDF + FYM (60.51 and 48.38q ha-1during kharif and summer, respectively) and significantly lowest maize grain yield was observed in control (18.40 and 16.47q ha-1 during kharif and summer, respectively). During rabi, at 100% RDF given to soybean, the seed yield of soybean succeeding maize was significantly higher in plots which received 1100% RDF + VC (19.56q ha-1) than that received 100% RDF + EC or FYM to preceding maize (19.04 and 18.92q ha-1). The seed yield due to residual effect of above treatments was significantly higher than that of rest of the treatments. The residual effect on terms of mean soybean yield was in the order of 100% RDF + Organics (VC> EC> FYM) followed by fertilizers at 50% RDF + EC or VC + Azospirillum and 50% RDF + VC which was followed by 100% RDF alone and 50% RDF + EC at 100% RDF level to soybean and similar trend was followed during kharif.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 089-093
Aftab A Shabnam, R K Fotadar, Anil Dhar and A H Bhat
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Pampore - 192 121, Pulwama, Kashmir (J & K), India
Abstract
Mulberry breeders encounter the problem of how to choose suitable breeding material and moreover, there is little purpose in assembling the material unless it is effectively used and preserved. Therefore, a need was felt to develop a catalogue on evaluation of gene pool comprising 58 genotypes involving 33 and 25 genotypes of temperate and tropical origin. The 58 genotypes involved five species of mulberry namely Morus alba, Morus indica, Morus maulticaulis, Morus bombycis, and Morus Kayayama. Visual observation namely growth and branching nature, young and matured shoot colour, phyllotaxy, lenticel density and shape, bud shape, leaf apex, shape, margin, base, surface, texture, nature, lobation, colour, glossiness were recorded. The visual observations can be of immense help in selection of mulberry genotype through breeding procedure suited as a feed to silkworm. In the present investigation performance of M. multicaulis was found to be superior in most of the metric traits except in root ability. Maximum root ability was recorded in M. alba. Comparative evaluation of M. alba and M. indica revealed the superiority of former in most of the economic traits except in internodal distance. A comparison on the pooled data of 58 genotypes revealed the superiority of temperate mulberry genotypes in most of the characters studied except root ability. Comparative analysis of 5 species of mulberry on incidence of common diseases and pests namely powdery mildew, leaf spot and margaronia, belonging to temperate regions revealed percentage disease index of 9.84, 30.09, 3.67 and 15.77, 28.09, 3.49 in tropical genotypes respectively. The information generated indicates that tropical genotypes are more susceptible to powdery mildew when grown under temperate ecosystem. Behaviour of 5 species of mulberry indicated superiority of M. multicaulis with regard to incidence of diseases and pests. M. bombycis in general has shown the greatest cold hardiness and resistance to die-back which is of prime importance for taking up crop improvement studies under temperate ecosystem. Sexuality of 58 genotypes belonging to 5 species of mulberry from diverse origin revealed 72.70, and 76.00 are dioecious, in temperate and tropical genotypes, respectively. The appearance of bisexual flowers was found to be occasional.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 094-097
Aparajita Majumder, Tapas Biswas* and S C Kole*
NAIP on Arsenic in food chain: Cause, Effect and Mitigation, *Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia -741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
An arsenite-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from arsenic contaminated rice fields of Nadia district, West Bengal by enrichment culture in selective media supplemented with arsenic. The pH of the soil was neutral (6.8) in reaction and the total and available arsenic concentration of the soil was 6.9 mg kg-1 of soil and 2.33 mg kg-1 of soil. A highly arsenic resistance bacteria were isolated arsenite oxidizing capacity of this strain was assessed by using KMnO4 and AgNO3. The bacterium was found to tolerate 175 ppm arsenite and 5000 ppm arsenate. Growth kinetics study of the strain in presence of 175 ppm of arsenite was carried out and the optimum growth was observed between 36-54 hours. The strain was gram positive, endospore forming, long rod shaped bacterium. It could utilize glucose, fructose, mannitol, nitrate, hydrolyze starch and was catalase, oxidase, urease and gelatinase positive but indole, MR and VP negative. The isolate also showed acidic reaction on TSI agar slant. Molecular characterization of the strain based on sequencing of 16 SrDNA and subsequent comparison with existing databases the organism was identified as Geobacillus stearothermophilus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 098-100
S Vijayachandra Reddy, V A Shinde and T N Sachinkumar
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study attempts to examine the contractual management aspects in Gherkin under contract farming in Bangalore rural District and Kunigal areas of Tumkur district in Karnataka state, India. Primary data for the study were collected through a sample of 90 gherkin growing farmers in 10 villages; multistage random sampling producer was used in collecting data. The findings of the study reveals that the per hectare gross income received from rabi gherkin observed to be Rs. 116942, Rs. 115942 and Rs. 116718 in small, medium and large size groups of gherkin growers, large size group has obtained more gross income followed by medium and small size group of gherkin growers, respectively. The overall per hectare profit Rs. 80045.53 at Cost ‘A’ indicated increasing trend with increase in its acreage under gherkin. The most common problem for the contractor is that they are unable to maintain their monopoly in the market and other buyers appear and offer a better price. The key problems were non-availability of seeds, ignorance of potentiality of the crop, lack of irrigation facilities, very severe prevalence of pests and disease, lack of labour, no domestic marketing facilities in India and non availability of storage facilities such as refrigerated rooms and high rejection rate. The greater part of farmers convey that company should offer better price to their produce and it is very indispensable to provide technical advice to control pest and disease in due course of time. The farmers also put forward that reliability in the payment for produce and government intervention is must to impose strict laws to make authorized contracts.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 101-102
Ajit J Ingle, B Sathyanarayana Reddy, Kapil Patil and Balaji S Kulkarni
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Horticulture, Mudigere - 577 132, Chikamagalur, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out at Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi during April-May 2009 to estimate xanthophylls contents from flower petals of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L). Moreover, the effect of different stages of harvest, size of flowers (grading) and genotypes on xanthophyll content recovery was also investigated including dry matter and moisture content. The dry matter content was more in genotype AMC-13 (27.56%) at half bloom stage and small size flower of the same genotype yielded highest dry matter content (19.54%). Whereas, the moisture content was more in genotype AMC-12 at all stages of harvest and grades. The xanthophyll content recovered maximum in the half bloom flowers of genotype AMC-3 (19.46 mg/g) and large size flowers (17.50 mg/g) of the same genotype.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 103-106
R Islam, S Mondal and P C Gupta
Department of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted in the laboratory and net house under the Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, during the year 2009-2010 to study the effect of paclobutrazol on uptake of nutrient in hydroponically grown mango seedlings in half Hoagland solution. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design with 5 treatment combinations in three replications. The highest nitrogen uptake was recorded in case of treatment P1N (491.19mg) that gradually decline with increase in paclobutrazol concentration. In case of phosphorus, that lowest uptake was recorded in the control P0N (63.17mg) and highest in P100N (89.49mg). Potassium uptake was highest in the control P0N (575.59mg) and declined significantly almost in all concentrations of paclobutrazol. Calcium uptake was also the highest in the control P0N (236.65mg) and gradually decline in the mango seedlings treated with increasing concentration of paclobutrazol and no substantial effect in case of magnesium uptake. The uptake of micronutrients in the study did not vary significantly. It indicated no substantial effect of paclobutrazol on uptake of microelements viz Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe by mango seedlings.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 107-110
Anoop A Shetty and M K Rana
Department of Vegetable Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2007-08 to find out the optimum concentration of gibberellic acid and optimum stage of application for getting higher seed yield. Four different gibberellic acid concentrations including control were sprayed at four different stages of crop growth. Gibberellic acid application showed significant improvement in all the growth and yield attributes over control. The best results for plant height, number of branches per plant, average node length, days to 50 per cent flowering, number of umbellets per umbel, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbellet, number of seeds per umbel, seed yield, biological yield, dry weight per plant and stover yield were recorded with the application of gibberellic acid at 100 ppm concentration. Stages of gibberellic acid application also had a significant influence on growth attributes, yield attributes and yield. The maximum values for the above parameters were recorded with the application of gibberellic acid at juvenile stage. Interaction of gibberellic acid 100 ppm applied as foliar spray at juvenile stage was found to be the best with respect to all growth and yield parameters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 111-116
Ankit Sharma, Avinash Singh Tomar and Atul Sikarwar
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture (RVSKVV), Gwalior – 474 002 Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Present investigation was carried out during rabi season 2009-10 at the Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications each replication accommodated 16 treatments. The results revealed that the uptake of nitrogen by mustard seed showed a significant increase in different treatments as compared to control. Maximum uptake (63.88 kg/ha) obtained in T16, was at par with 100% NPKS + FYM + Azotobacter (T15). Minimum uptake (31.12 kg/ha) was recorded in control. Phosphorus uptake by mustard indicated a significant increase in different treatments except 100% N alone (T7), compared to the control. Maximum P uptake (14.05 kg/ha) in T16 was significantly more than all the other treatments except T15, T12 and T6. The K-uptake by seed indicated a significant increase due to all the treatments over control. Maximum K-uptake (13.53 kg/ha) was noticed under 100% NPKS + FYM + Azotobacter + PSB (T16), was at par with T15 ¬ and T5. Sulphur uptake by mustard seed indicated a significant increase in different treatments, as compared to control. Maximum uptake (21.64 kg/ha) observed under T16 was at par with 150% NPKS level. The uptake of N, P, K and S was the lowest in the plants which received no fertilizer or manure treatment (T1). The investigation further revealed that straw yield varied from 40.32-76.59 q/ha and increase in straw yield was to the tune of 34.32-89.95% over control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 117-119
R C Deshmukh, Ashok Surwenshi, Biradar Gayatri and Jadhav Balaji
National Agricultural Innovation Project, Component-3, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bidar, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An ICAR sponsored project on livelihood security through resource and entrepreneurship management in Bidar district awarded to KVK Bidar under component-3 of NAIP (2008-12). The project is being implemented by the consortium with KVK on lead centre in the Bidar district. The project selected four talukas of Bidar district and six villages in each taluka based on the degree of backwardness. It covered 1200 families during the project period. The base line survey was carried out in 2008-09. The result indicated that Majority of the families were having 5 members with a major occupation of farming and more than 70 per cent of respondents were having thatched house and did not possesses any farm machinery. Thirty three percent of the respondents were illiterate and 51 per cent had an education up to 10th standard. Thirty six percent farming families fell under small farmer, 31 per cent under landless, 22 per cent under marginal farmer, 9 per cent under medium farmer and 3 per cent under large farmer category. 40 per cent respondents participated in social activity .Average annual family income is Rs. 28587 and twelve percent of the total respondents are migrating in search of employment for a period 3-6 months seasonally.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 120-123
Atanu Nanda and *Rajib Kundu
Department of Agricultural Extension, *Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741 252, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out in the block Phansidewa of Darjeeling district. 50 pineapple growers were selected as respondents. From this study it was found that most of the farmers were agree with some disadvantages aspect as about all were agree with that the farmers can’t bargain properly for prices offered by the company and the company does their processing procedures by machines so farmers will get less employment opportunity. 96 percent of pineapple cultivators were agree to that the company pay low price to the farmer but they sale processed product in high rate. 84 percent of pineapple cultivators were agrees about prevailing weak legal protection. Regarding disagree, about 82 percent of the pineapple cultivators were disagree about that contract farming will disturb biodiversity. Most of the pineapple cultivators agree with the advantages of contract farming like free technical advice, providing several inputs like seed, fertilizer etc. 86 percent of the pineapple cultivators were agree with the advantages like free technical advice offered by sponsoring company and 96 percent of the cultivators were agree about the supply of several inputs like seed, fertilizer and pesticide to them. Nobody agree with the item like providing of agricultural implements to the cultivator by sponsoring company. 72 percent of the pineapple cultivators were disagrees about the fact that by adopting contract farming the farmer can boost their production with the help of world class mechanized agro technology.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 124-126
Jayashree Ugalat, Chandrashekhar Haradari* and S Shivashankar**
Department of Plant Biotechnology, *Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, IIHR, Hessarghatta Lake Post, Bangalore – 560 089, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In sapota two varieties viz cricket ball and kallipatti have been recommended for cultivation in India. Highest area is under cv. Cricket Ball. However, this popular variety is facing a very high incidence of corky tissue as compared to other varieties. Corky tissue incidence is estimated to vary from 20 to 35 per cent in cricket Ball, while in other varieties like kallipatti it is up to 5 per cent. Looking to the problem of corky tissue in sapota production the present investigation was undertaken. The result showed that in rainfed treatment as the soil moisture decreased from 13.5% to 8%, from November 2009 to March 2010 the incidence of corky tissue also showed a proportionate increase (0 to 51%) during the same period, soil moisture stress is one of the factors inducing corky tissue incidence in sapota. In rainfed treatment recorded a higher corky tissue incidence (51%) as compared to irrigated (27%), data indicated that atmospheric stress in summer month could have a role in the occurrence of corky tissue.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 127-129
A M Benki, S L Patil and Basavaraj Hulugur
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Raichur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Television channels, private and government channels were easily accessible for the farming community. The present study was conducted to study the utilization and credibility pattern of information sources and channels by the Bengal gram farmers of Raichur district in Karnataka state. The 250 Bengal gram growers from two taluk’s of Raichur district were interviewed. The study reported that personal localite sources like neighbours, friends, progressive farmers and opinion leaders were playing important role in transfer of Bengal gram technologies to the fellow farmers. These sources with high credibility were widely used by majority of the respondents. The most revealing findings of the study in those VLW’s or Agriculture supervisors had lost their credibility among the farmers while the input dealers and agents of commercial seed., fertilizers, plant protection etc., played a critical role in information network net work of Bengal gram growing farmers. However, their credibility is low. It was important to know that scientist and agricultural officers were accessible to the farmers. Further, the increasing literacy rate and easy accessibility of the mass media channels resulted in increased utilization of their media by the Bengal gram growing farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 130-134
Kulsoom Jan, Prabjeet Singh and M H Samoon
Faculty of Fisheries, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, (J & K), India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to explore and assess the growth performance of exotic carps under semi-intensive polyculture practices under temperate climatic conditions of Kashmir. Three treatments having three replicates each with stocking density of one lakh fry of Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmicthys molitrix ha-1 in the ratio of 1:1:1 were run for a period of 90 days. During a culture period of 90 days, maximum net fish yield of 1816.55 kg ha-1 was achieved in treatment T3 (SM+SF) followed by 1015.06 kg ha-1 and 852.55 kg ha-1 in treatment T1 (SM) and treatment T2 (SF), respectively. Pond fertilization with sheep manure enabled higher plankton density (1059 individuals’ litre-1) and had no effect on the water quality as all the physico-chemical parameters were found to be within the range for fish culture practices. Among the three candidate species, best performance was shown by common carp in treatment T3 (SM+SF) followed by silver carp and grass carp. In treatments T2 (SF) and treatment T1 (SM), silver carp showed best performance over the other two species.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 135-137
Rajib Kundu, Aparajita Majumder* and S Pal
ICAR Niche Area of Excellence, *NAIP on Arsenic in food chain: Cause, Effect and Mitigation, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani - 741 235, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present investigation has been undertaken to study the arsenic accumulation in potato tuber and the varietal tolerance vis-à-vis yield by selected cultivars at framers’ fields of two different sites at village Nonaghata, Haringhata block in Nadia district of West Bengal during winter season of 2007-08. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) replicated thrice, having nine selected popular potato cultivars. The arsenic accumulation of potato tuber was estimated by using AAS, Perkin Elmer AAnalyst-200 coupled with FIAS-400. Results revealed that, different cultivars potato accumulated different amount of arsenic at different sites of arsenic endemic areas. Regarding varietal effect, the cultivar Asoka and S-Punjab recorded maximum as accumulation, while the least as recovery was noted from the cultivar Kufri Chandramukhi at both the sites among all cultivars. The yields of different cultivars of potato were significantly different from each other.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 138-142
Raj Narain Singh and Ranjan Kumar Singh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Shramabharati, Khadigram, Jamui - 811 313, Bihar, India
Abstract
The present experiment was carried out in split plot design with age of seedlings (10, 20 and 30 days old) in main plot and number of seedlings hill-1 (one, two and three) and fertility level (125, 100, 75 and 50% recommended level of NPK) in sub-plots at agronomical research farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jamui during rainy season of 2009 and 2010. Experiment was comprised with thirty six treatments replicated three times with following seed rate 5 for one seedling hill-1, 10 for two seedling hill-1 and 15 kg ha-1 for three seedling hill-1. 10 days old seedling being at par with 20 days old seedling recorded maximum grain yield (66.28 q/ha) and straw yield (90.24 q/ha), NPK uptake (127.27, 24.51 and 152.95 kg/ha, respectively). 125% recommended level of NPK being at par with 100% recommended level of NPK recorded maximum grain yield (73.84 q/ha) and straw yield (99.65 q/ha), NPK% in rice grain (1.274, 0.260 and 0.634%, respectively) and in straw (0.492, 0.099 and 1.389%, respectively), NPK uptake (143.35, 29.07 and 185.63 kg/ha, respectively). Similarly, 10 days old seedlings with two seedlings/hill recorded maximum grain yield (69.17 q/ha) and straw yield (93.85 q/ha), NPK uptake by rice plant (132.98, 25.72 and 160.18 kg/ha, respectively).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 143-145
S Geetha, S S Prakash, R V Beladhadi* and K Narayan Rao
Department of Soil Science, *Department of Bio-chemistry, College of Agriculture, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Litterfall is an important factor of nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem. The nutrient cycled through litterfall represents a major process for transferring nutrients between vegetation and soil. The quantification of litter production, nutrient content in litter and their turnover potential under different vegetation types was studied in both high rainfall area and low rainfall area of Northern Karnataka. The litter production under all vegetation and plantation was higher (8.53 ± 1.2 t ha-1 – 1.03 ± 0.15 t ha-1) in high rainfall area compared to that of low rainfall area (2.57 + 1.46 t ha-1 – 0.43 + 0.06 t ha-1). The concentration of litters of different vegetation under high rainfall area followed the order; N > K > P > S > Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn and Cu. While it was in the order K > N > P > S > Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu in low rainfall area. The return of nutrients through litter was highest under evergreen vegetation type compared to other vegetations.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 146-149
R Sheeba Jasmine and S Kuttalam*
Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Melalathur - 635 806, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 3, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Relative toxicities of abamectin along with spinosad, cypermethrin and endosulfan currently used in cotton fields to control bollworms on the general predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at egg, larvae and adult stages were evaluated under laboratory conditions in Tamil Nadu, India. The insecticide concentrations studied were equivalent to those prescribed for field application inclusive of various doses for abamectin. The results revealed that there was no significant adverse effect on hatchability of C. carnea caused by abamectin 1.9 EC. However, the fecundity and longevity of adults were significantly reduced at higher concentrations (2 and 2.4 ml l-1) of abamectin. The larva upon direct exposure to insecticides recorded a maximum 40.0 per cent mortality at the highest dose of abamectin (2.4 ml l-1). When the larva were fed with the insecticides treated eggs at 2.4 ml l-1, the larval mortality was 36.7 per cent and the pupation and adult emergence were 68.4 and 61.5 per cent, respectively. Abamectin at lower doses had caused very little impact upon C. carnea. All the doses of abamectin were comparatively safer than endosulfan and cypermethrin. Thus, abamectin is found harmless to C. carnea and can provide selectivity in an integrated control programme for cotton bollworms.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 150-152
Siddaya, B R Atteri* and Prabhuling Tevari
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Bheemarayanagudi - 585 287, Yadgir, Karnataka, India *Division of Agricultural Economics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa - 110 012, New Delhi, India
Abstract
Export performance of fruits, vegetables and processed horticultural commodities was showing positive in post WTO period compared to pre WTO period in terms quantity as well as value. In case of tomato ketchup the quantity of export and also value of export is negative. It lags behind many countries both in value of export as well as in quantity. The export scenario of fruits, vegetables and processed products in India has undergone a considerable change over the years. The export of fruits and vegetables had grown visibly owing to the recent growth in demand in the international market in the post WTO regime. A comparative analysis of the growth of exports of the fruits, vegetables and processed products in the pre WTO and the post WTO period gives a clear picture of the changes in export performance of these commodities. The production and export of horticultural products have in the recent year’s evoked keen interest of the policy makers and agricultural planners in India. As a result of this the contribution of traditional and non-traditional horticultural exports as well as employment in horticulture sector are likely to be high and significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 153-155
C R Vijay, P A Katarki and V A Ramachandra
Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was carried out in the sacred groves under two-vegetation type of the Western Ghats located in the Virajpet taluk of Kodagu district to know the influence of ecological factors on growth of RET medicinal plants. Among the climatic and topographic factors correlation of species girth at breast height, tree height, total volume and basal area, most of them showed statistically non significant results, which is perhaps a fall out of the lower number of sample points as well as the geographical nearness of study locality. The same results have been obtained in case of chi-square test. Here also except rainfall, latitude, longitude other factors do not increases the density of RET medicinal plants. In general, disturbance levels increased densities almost every disturbance parameter had positive and significant association with density of RET medicinal plants.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 156-158
Binayak Chakraborty, P N Singh, A K Singh and Vikas Yadav
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
A pot experiment was carried out with three iron deficient low-chill peach cultivars viz Saharanpur Prabhat, Shan-e-Punjab and Pratap in order to establish relationships between various physiological activities of the plants with SPAD meter when treated with 0.5% Fe (II) sulphate and 0.5% Fe (III) citrate. The results of the study indicated that SPAD meter could be use to predict physiological activities of the plants like photosynthetic rate (53-63%), stomatal conductance (62-64%), intercellular CO2 conc. (52-54%) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm [variable fluorescence : maximum fluorescence] (81-82%) very effectively. However, SPAD meter failed to develop significant relationship with the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/F0 (variable fluorescence:initial fluorescence) in both 0.5% Fe (II) sulphate and 0.5% Fe (III) citrate treated plants. The simple correlation and regression analysis showed a better relationship among SPAD meter with all the physiological parameters in the 0.5% Fe (II) sulphate treated plants as compared to plants treated with 0.5% Fe (III) citrate except the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm (variable fluorescence : maximum fluorescence).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 159-162
N Bishworjit, T Basanta Singh and K C Saha
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur – 741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The study of microbiological population was undertaken with the collection of fifteen soils samples from three blocks viz Haorang, Wangoi and Sawombung in some rice cultivated soils of Manipur (pH 4.96 to 6.37). The oxidizable organic carbon of these soils was found to be fairly good and ranged from 6.00 to 18.1g kg-1. The correlation between the pH values and the oxidizable organic carbon contents of these soils exhibit a significant negative correlation (r = -0.654**). The regression equation between the oxidizable organic carbon and pH of the soil indicated that, the attainable pH was 6.12 and drop by 0.0683 for every unit increase in pH. The Colony Forming Unit (CFU) of total viable bacteria (105) g-1 soil, actinomycetes (104) g-1 soil and fungi (103) g-1 soil were found to vary from 98 to 192, 70 to 161 and 54 to 99, respectively. The pH of the soil was found to be positively correlated with CFU of total viable bacteria (r = 0.376*). Correlation coefficient between pH and CFU actinomycetes were significantly correlated (r = 0.462**). The pH of the soil was found to be negatively correlated with CFU fungi (r = -0.413**). The cyanobacteria population in all the soil was found to be much less and their colonies and were unable to count even at 102 dilutions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 163-165
T N Sachinkumar, Y S Arunkumar* and S Vijaychandra Reddy
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore-560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Marketing of agriculture commodities has assumed a greater importance with gradual switching over from subsistence farming to commercial farming. Stable farm prices, better returns and attractive terms of trade can motivate farmers to produce more and market larger proportion of their produce. Against this background, the study was undertaken in Belgaum district of Karnataka, with an overall objective of assessing jaggery marketing. Out of three marketing channels identified channel-II (Producer->Wholesaler->Retailer->Consumer), was most popular channel, about 72.25% the producers sold bulk of their produce through this channel. The marketing cost incurred per quintal by producer in channel-I was higher (Rs. 81) than that in channel-II (Rs. 12). Whereas, the cost incurred by wholesalers was more in channel-II (Rs. 108) compared to that in channel-I (Rs. 82). There was no difference in the marketing cost incurred by retailer in both the channels. The price spread was relatively more in channel-I compared to that in channel-II. The producer share in consumer rupee was more in channel-II. Perhaps, this was the reason why majority of the producers disposed bulk of their produce through this channel.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 166-168
Avinalappa H Hotti, Rudra Naik V, V S Kubsad, R K Patil and Pushpa Bharti
Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A study was conducted to assess the magnitude of heterosis for seed yield and its components and protein content over mid parent (MP), better parent (BP) and standard variety, HA3 in field bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) through line x tester analysis. The present study comprised of 6 lines and 3 testers. The resultant 18 hybrids along with their 9 parents were evaluated during kharif, 2009-10 in a randomized block design with two replications at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad. The analysis of variance indicated significant amount of variability among the genotypes for all the 13 traits studied. Significant and standard heterosis in desirable direction was recorded by majority (7) of the crosses for seed yield per plant. The cross combinations DA-8 x DA-14, DA-11 x DA-15, DA-12 x DA-14 and DA-12 x DA-15 were found to be promising for seed yield as they had high positive standard heterosis.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 169-172
Kalmesh Managanvi, M S Khan and Poonam Srivastava
Department of Entomology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar – 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Foraging activity of three colonies of Trigona laeviceps were observed daily. The number of foragers (incoming + outgoing) was counted for 5 min at hourly intervals from 9.00 AM to 6.00 PM for six months (November-April), at Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. Peak foraging activities of outgoing and incoming bees were observed at 11.00 AM with 44.4 foragers/5 min and 43.8 foragers/5 min. Then afterwards the number of incoming foragers was gradually declining till 6.00 PM. Maximum number of pollen foragers was noticed in morning hours at 10.00 AM with 19.6 foragers/5 min. The maximum nectar foragers were observed during mid day at 1.00 PM with 26.2 foragers/5 min. This behavior may be due to the decreasing amounts of pollen and the increasing sugar concentration of nectar in flowers during the daytime. Monthly data revealed that the foraging activity was high during November and then onwards it was declining drastically. The lowest activity i.e. zero was observed during January due to low temperature. The peak activity was observed during April month.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 173-176
A Hari Krishna and M Reddi Kumar
Department of Plant Pathology, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati – 517 502, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Among 14 isolates of Trichoderma spp. NT2, NT4 and NT6 were characterized as very fast growing, while NT5, NT7, NT9 and CT13 are fast growing and remaining isolates as moderate growing. In dual culture technique, the isolates NT2, NT6 and NT4 have shown maximum inhibition of 81.57%, 78.68% and 75.10% against the test pathogen Fusarium solani while the least inhibition (56.97%) was observed in the isolate CT14. Among various substrates tested for mass multiplication, wheat bran-vermiculite supported maximum growth followed by molasses-yeast medium. The shelf life period was high in talc based formulation when it was stored both at room and refrigerator temperature.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 177-179
Atul Singh, Avinash Singh Tomar and Ankit Sharma
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture (RVSKVV), Gwalior – 474 002, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The electrical conductivity value varied from 0.03- 1.26 and 0.03-1.13 dS/m under different treatments of Entisols and Inceptisols, however, highest value of electrical conductivity in soil solution was observed with 12EC and 16 SAR (T¬12¬) treatments in Entisols and Inceptisols, respectively the soil salinity (EC) significantly increased with irrigation of higher saline water (12EC) as compared to lower level saline water increase in EC with only two irrigation were in safe limit and well below to its critical limit (4.0 EC) but increase in its value gives indication that salinity may increase further with increasing numbers of irrigation. Under normal water, SAR value was recorded 4.01 and 2.33 me/lit in Entisols and Inceptisols. Whereas, different qualities of waters irrigated treatments showed SAR value in the range of 4.90-11.28 and 4.80-11.41 me/lit under Entisols and Inceptisols, respectively and maximum value being at 4EC and 16 SAR levels (T¬4¬) in both orders. The application of irrigation water with highest level of SAR (16) along with different levels of EC resulted significant higher value of SAR in soil solution as compared to respective lower levels (4 and 8) of SAR. The value of SAR was able to touch its critical level just after only two irrigation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 180-182
G B Durande, D S Tayade, C B Latpate and S S Shetgar
Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Latur – 413 512, (Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani), Maharashtra, India
Abstract
All the economic traits of silkworm viz larval weight (39.10g), larval duration (22.83 days), pupal duration (10.22 days), single cocoon weight (1.80g), single shell weight (0.372g), shell ratio (20.70) per cent, disease incidence 2.83 per cent, cocoon yield (17.35kg), filament length (872m), filament weight (0.26g) and moth emergence percentage (95.33) were found to be superior in case of those larvae which were reared on 100% leaves of V-1, S-1635 and mixed feed of 50% leaves of V-1 and 50% leaves of S-1635. They were at par with each other hence the varieties V-1 and S-1635 are used for increasing silk yield and improving all the economic characters of mulberry silkworm. While all the economic traits of silkworm viz larval weight (34.83g), larval duration (28.46 days), pupal duration (11.35 days), single cocoon weight (1.32g), single shell weight (0.334g), shell ratio (18.23) per cent, higher disease incidence 5.02%, cocoon yield (13.60 kg), filament length (688m), filament weight (0.22g) and moth emergence (84.66) per cent were found to be inferior in case of those larvae which were reared on 100% leaves of M-5. So that the variety M-5 is found unsuitable for increasing silk yield and improving all the economic characters of mulberry silkworm then rest of the varieties tested.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 183-185
Akoijam Somorjit Singh and P S Nath
Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur – 741 252, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Studies were conducted on the population of whitefly and incidence of tomato leaf curl virus disease at different nutrient treatments at Regional Research Station, Gayeshpur, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Nadia, West Bengal for two consecutive seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009). Population of whitefly was very low in control plots in both the years’ i e, 23 and 28 in 2007 and 2008, with lowest disease incidence of 25.00% and 21.29%, respectively, where no fertilizers were applied. The highest number of whitefly, 63 and 77 and maximum disease incidence, 33.33% and 54.25%, respectively were found in F3OM2 treated Plots.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 186-188
B S Badhala, L S Bareth* and Hanuman Lal
Department of Extension Education, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner – 303 329, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India *Department of Extension Education College of Agriculture, Bikaner – 334 006, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in purposely selected Bikaner district. Four Panchyat Samities viz Bikaner, Nokha, Kolayat and Dungargarh were selected; 17 villages and 80 beneficiary respondents where the FLDs conducted by KVK, Bikaner were included in the study sample. Likewise 17 another village and 80 non-beneficiary respondents on whose farm’s FLD were not conducted within the distance 5 to 15 km were also selected randomly and included in the study as control group. Thus the total study sample comprised of 160 respondents (80 beneficiaries and 80 non-beneficiaries). Majority of respondents (51.25%) were found in the low adoption category. Significant difference was observed between adoption of beneficiary and non-beneficiary mothbean growers in the study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 189-191
Roshan Lal Sahu and Devendra Upadhyay
Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted in Horticulture Research Farm, IGKV Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during rabi 2007-08. The experiment was planted in randomized block design (RBD) with the three replications. There were fifteen treatments comprising of different bio-fertilizers with inorganic fertilizers (NPK). Plant height, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, days taken of 50% flowering, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbellet, number of seeds per umbel, total number of seeds per plant and seed yield per plant (g) are the important growth and yield contributing characters taken under investigation. The results indicated that vegetative growth contributing characters (plant height, number of primary and secondary branches and leaf area per plant) were influenced by combination of 100% K and 75% NP along with Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB. Yield contributing characters was found maximum in by combination of 100% K and 75% NP along with Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB were given better performance respectively over all the treatments. The treatment 75% NP + 100% K + Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB was found economically best (higher yield) than all the treatments studied in this investigation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 192-194
Hariom Sah, P N Rai and S P Preetham
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out during the year 2007-08 at Horticulture Research Centre (HRC), Pattarchatta, Department of Horticulture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. Ten year old pear trees were treated with different doses of N, P and K and their combinations along with untreated control. The combined treatments taken for comparison include control, N, P, K, NP, NK, PK and NPK. N, P and K being applied @ 600:400:400g tree-1 along with uniform application of 50kg FYM to each treatment. Findings revealed that application of N alone resulted in highest tree height increment (39.28%), trunk diameter (20.68%) and trees spread (34.80%) over control. Increase in shoot growth, flowering (15.00), per cent fruit set (24.17%), fruit yield (23.51kg tree-1) and physico-chemical quality of fruits was found highest in combined NPK treatment compared to control. The lowest fruit yield was recorded in P, PK and control trees. Treatment with N, P and K alone as well as in combinations (NPK) recorded a significant increase in leaf N (%), P (%) and K (%) content.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 195-199
P J Devaraju, K Vishwanath, K S Nagaraju and K P R Prasanna
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Rice hybrids procured from private and public sectors were assessed for seed quality as well as field and storage fungi. Most of the hybrids performed well for seed quality attributes. 11 field and five storage fungi were detected by the blotter paper method. Among the seed mycoflora of rice hybrids namely, Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizopus, Alternaria Bipolaris oryzae, Curvularia sp. Dreschlera oryzae, Epiccum sp. Nigrospora sp. Phoma sp. Rhizoctonia oryzae, Trichinosis padwikii, Aspergillus sp. Cladosporim sp. Penicillium sp. and Fusarium were found to associated with seed externally as well as internally and acts as a source of infection. The prevalence of these fungi varied with respect to public and private sectors hybrids procured. In conclusion the hybrids on the whole recorded slight to highest percentage incidence of seed-borne mycoflora. The greater incidence in the level of seed-borne fungi resulted from seed production by different sources in varied agro-climatic conditions, thus differed for seed quality and frequency of mycoflora occurrence.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 200-203
Gaurav Mishra, Narendra Kumar, Ab Shakoor Khanday and Pramod Kumar Dubey
Department of Soil Science, Govind Balla Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
In order to study the impact of seed treatment with different fungicides and bioagents, on nodulation and yield of soybean (Glycine max L.), an experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2009 at N. E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar Uttarakhand, (Latitude 29° N, longitude 79o 30' E and altitude of 243.84 m above msl). Seed was treated with Thiram (T1), Thiram + Carbendazin (T2), Carboxin (T3), Vitavax (T4), Trichoderma viride (T5), Pseudomonas (T6), Thiomethaxam (T7) and Control (T8). The maximum number of nodules was recorded by seed treatment with thiram @ 3g kg-1 at 30 DAS while at 60 and 90 DAS Pseudomonas @ 3g kg-1 gave the maximum number of nodules plant-1. The vitavax @ 2g kg-1 gave significantly less number of nodules plant-1. The fungicides and bioagents did not have negative effect on root nodulation. The highest and significantly more nodule dry weight of 78.5 and 79.4 percent over control treatment at 60 and 90 DAS, respectively was recorded with carboxin @ 2g kg-1. The highest plant dry weight of 37.96, 40.87 and 34.20 percent at 30, 60 and 90 DAS, respectively, over control treatment was obtained with thiomethaxam @ 3 g kg-1. Grain and straw yields were significantly higher than control by all the treatments. The highest straw yield (3241 kg ha-1) was recorded with Pseudomonas @ 3g kg-1 while highest grain yield (1446 kg ha-1) was recorded with carboxin @ 2 g/kg followed by Pseudomonas @ 3g kg-1 (1439 kg ha-1). Carboxin @2 g kg-1 indicated significant increase in grain yield of 16.18 percent. The highest 100-seed weight of 23 percent over control treatment was obtained by Pseudomonas @ 3 g kg-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 204-208
G Nilesh, P Chakrborti, A K Rai, P C Gupta*
Department of Seed Science and Technology, *Department of Plant Physiology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur – 741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present work was done with a view to study the effect of some common sulphydryl bioregulators on different yield and yield attributing characters. A significant disparity within three (3) unlike doses (high, medium and low) and slight variations within three bioregulators (thiourea, TGA and cystein) were noticed in respect to yield and yield attributing characters as an direct effect on the crop and evaluation of biochemical characters for the upcoming effect of foliar treated seed. The top concentration of all chemicals bear out best relationship where thiourea shows the excellent condition in all cases predominantly in reproductive stages of crop under different yield and yield attributing characters. TGA is more dynamic in earlier stages of crop where cystein shows an equilibrium situation in most cases. The water spray is also reactive than control and it continues the response as similar in other up to next sowing. The outcome of water spray is prominent in EC (Electrical Conductivity) with some other seedling parameters. In cereals, the sink uniqueness of the grain can limit the yield in acute environmental situations like high solar radiation and temperature. The foliar application of sulphydryl chemicals on late sown cultivar possessed better capacity for assimilates particularly to grain which result in successful quality seed production. Lastly, the Thiourea is better in contrast to other due to its trouble-free availability to the farmers within a rational value.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 209-213
Ranjeet Jadhav, N Krishnamurthy, Mohan Chavan*, H M Jayadeva and S Shridhar**
Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore – 560 065, Karnataka, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Raichur, Karnataka, India, ** College of Agriculture, Shivmoga, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Present study was conducted at Agricultural College (GKVK) Bangalore. The results revealed that, application of 100% RDF + EC recorded significantly highest maize grain yield (64.85 and 51.06q ha-1 during kharif and summer, respectively) over the rest of the treatment except 100% RDF + FYM (60.51 and 48.38q ha-1 during kharif and summer, respectively) and significantly lowest maize grain yield was observed in control 18.40 and 16.47q ha-1 during kharif and summer, respectively). Total N uptake (154.95 and 132.89kg ha-1) by the crop was recorded with the use of 100% RDF + FYM in kharif and 100% RDF + EC in summer, respectively which were significantly higher over the rest of the treatments. The total N uptake in maize was significantly higher with residual treatment effect of soybean with 100% RDF (104.18kg ha-1) as compared to the 50% RDF (88.61kg ha-1) during the summer and interaction effect was non-significant. P and K uptake were also followed the similar trend as that of N uptake. During rabi at 100% RDF given to soybean, the seed yield of soybean succeeding maize was significantly higher in plots which received 100% RDF + VC (19.56q ha-1) than that received 100% RDF EC or FYM to preceding maize (19.04 and 18.92q ha-1). The seed yield due to residual effect of above treatments was significantly higher than that of rest of the treatments. The residual effect in terms of mean soybean yield was in the order of 100% RDF + organics (VC> EC> FYM) followed by fertilizers at 50% RDF + EC or VC + Azospirillum and 50% RDF + VC which was followed by 100% RDF alone and 50% RDF + EC at 100% RDF level to soybean and similar trend was followed during kharif. Total N uptake (kg ha-1) in both the years, rabi and kharif was highest (181.24 and 240.00kg ha-1) with residual effect of 100% RDF + VC followed by 100% RDF + EC or FYM which were applied to preceding maize at 100% RDF given to soybean. There was higher N uptake at 100% RDF than 50% RDF given to soybean. P and K uptake were also followed the similar trend as that of N uptake.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 214-216
Renuka, B T Pujari, B G Koppalkar and K Basavaraj
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Raichur, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College Farm, Raichur during rabi season under irrigated condition to study the possibilities for maximizing yields of sunflower. Phosphorus application @ 90 kg and 60 kg ha-1 significantly influenced the growth, yield and nutrient uptake compared to the application of 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 and control. Sulphur application @ 40 kg ha-1 significantly influenced the growth, yield and nutrient uptake compared to sulphur application @ 20 kg ha-1 and control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 217-221
D T Santosh, Umeshkumar Sanjeev*, M S Madhusudhan**, Syed Mazar Ali***, N Shashidhard**** and U Satishkumar**
Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur - 721 302, West Bengal, India Biosystematics Laboratory, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects (NBAII), Bangaluru, Karnataka, India **Soil Water Conservation Engineering Department, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India ***SRM University, Chennai, India ****Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore – 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
State is endowed with limited water resources that are stressed and depleting. Hence, now a day’s farmer in many parts of state are facing the repercussion of over exploitation of groundwater which clearly depicts the gap between groundwater recharge and ground water usage or pumping rates. Hence the present study is endeavor, to identify such area and to help in guiding the sustainable use of ground water resources. Micro irrigation which includes drip and micro sprinklers is an effective tool for better and scientific management of water resources. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the technical impact of water management practices adopted by groundwater users in the Gamanagatti (1002 ha) micro watershed is located at a distance of 12 Km from Hubli city of Dharwad district. The individual farmer adopted different package of water management practices on their own depending upon the requirement and availability of resources. The performance of irrigation methods and practices adopted by sample farmers using groundwater source was taken up. This helps to know the status of ground water use and the extent of recharge that takes place during monsoon. For the purpose of investigation, different farms with different combinations of water management practices were randomly selected from Gamanagatti micro watershed. The evaluation of water management practice methods are being carried out in terms of technical, social and economic aspects. The standard procedure was adopted to assess the efficiencies of water use.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 222-224
Sudhanshu Kumar Mishra, Sunil Kumar*, S S Tuteja and Sandeep Bhoi
Department of Agronomy, Indhira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur – 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India *S. K. College of Agriculture and Research Station, Kabirdham, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted at Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.) during the rabi season of 2005 to study the effect of various irrigation scheduling, source and levels of nutrients on hybrid sunflower crop. The experiment consisted of 24 treatments, which were replicated three times under split plot design. The experiment was laid out in different four irrigation schedule with six nutrient management treatments. The result revealed that the irrigation schedule based on critical stages highest seed yield, harvest index, net return and B:C ratio found in among the various irrigation schedule treatments. Whereas, in various nutrient management treatments 90:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 (40% organic, 60% inorganic) + 5 kg sulphur (P by SSP) treatment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 225-227
K Suresh, S M Mundinamani and Basavaraj R Jamakhandi
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore-560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study has examined the socio economic conditions of rural women dairy entrepreneurs who availed micro finance. The study is based on primary data collected from 30 rural women in the tank command area of Haveri and Bellary districts of North Karnataka in the year 2008. Most of the beneficiaries (70%) followed both agriculture and dairy as their main occupation and rest of the beneficiaries (30.00%) followed both wage earning and dairy as their main occupation. The results of impact of microfinance on economic status of rural women dairy entrepreneurs showed that there was significant difference in employment, income, asset position, savings and milk consumption before and after micro finance provided for dairy enterprise. Finally conclusion drawn was micro finance for dairy enterprise helped the rural dairy entrepreneurs for their empowerment by increasing income, employment and milk consumption pattern.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 228-232
C Murthy, N Ashoka and Somanagouda I Patil
Department of Agribusiness Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The wide range of climate and Physio-geographical conditions of India and as such is most suitable for growing various kinds of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, nuts, spices and plantation crops. The average quantity of mango exports was highest to Bangladesh and the value of mango export was highest in U. A. E. While in case of grape the quantity and value of exports were increasing continuously during the period 2003-04 to 2007-08 and reached all time high till 2007-08. The average quantity and average value of grapes export was highest in Bangladesh and in Netherland, respectively, whereas in case of pomegranate the quantity and value of exports were increasing continuously during the period 2004-05 to 2007-08. The SPS stipulation of mango, grape and pomegranate in different countries such as United States of America, European Economic Co-operation, Germany, Israel and Japan were having high health conscious and maintaining high SPS standards when compared to developing countries like India.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 233-235
R Ghorai and N Chaudhuri*
Department of Agricultural Entomology, *Regional Research Station, Terai Zone, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar – 736 165, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Studies were conducted to assess the role of life fecundity table to foresee the oviposition potential and rearing performance of Antheraea assama Ww. on Machilus bombycina in terai region of West Bengal, India. The higher potential fecundity value in September-October (98.83) and October-November (92.42) resulted in higher rate of egg laying during October-November. The higher net reproductive rate (R0) of females (11.6051), innate capacity for increase in number (0.0483) and hypothetical F2 female (134.6783) as recorded during September-October suggested higher population build-up from October. The minimum values of R0 and hypothetical F2 females in May-June generation (5.907 and 34.893) resulted in declination of population after June. The survival value was recorder higher in March-April (0.29) suggested higher rearing performance. Therefore, October-November can be considered as the favourable season for egg production and March-April for rearing.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 236-238
Dhirendra Singh Bhadaouria and Avinash Singh Tomar
Department of College of Agriculture (RVSKVV), Gwalior – 474 002, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present studies were carried out during winter season at college of Agriculture, Gwalior to investigate the epidemiology of Alternaria blight of marigold. The per cent disease intensity of leaf spot in the surveyed localities of Gwalior, Morena and Bhind districts was in the range of 20.2 (Ghatigaon) to 40.6 (Akbarpur), 20.4 (Porsa) to 30.2 (Joura) and 10.8 (Roan), 27.4% (Mehgaon), respectively. The intensity of flower blight per cent in the locations of above three districts was in the range of 23.3 (Utila) to 44.0 (Akbarpur) 26.6 (Ambah) to 32.2 (Joura) and 13.2 (Roan) to 20.0% (Atter). The maximum intensity of leaf spot was recorded in Gwalior district (28.65%) followed by Morena (25.31%) and Bhind (16.85%). Similar to leaf spot the maximum intensity of flower blight was also recorded in Gwalior (31.61%) followed by Morena (29.26%) and Bhind (17.01%). The oil extracts of Neem and Eucalyptus @ 5% and leaf extracts of Neem and Eucalyptus @20% were found very effective against A. tagetica under in vitro condition. Regression study reveals that with one per cent increase in the intensity of flower blight, the corresponding losses in seed yield would increase by 0.965 per cent. Regression study also reveals the 52.65 per cent seed germination under disease free condition and thereafter it decreases by 0.638 per cent with unit increase (1% each) in the intensity of flower blight.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 239-241
Jajati Mandal, Kunal Ghosh and Pallab Saha
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata - 700 019, West Bengal, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2009 to investigate and compare the effect of polyphosphate based slow release micronutrient and soluble micronutrient fertilizer on the yield of Lentil (Lens culinaris) at the farmers field at Bahiragahi, Nadia. The variety used was Asha. The treatments consisted of control (C) having normal doses of NPK in form of Urea DAP and MOP, slow-release polyphosphate, (P1, P2, P3) and soluble (S1, S2, S3) micronutrient fertilizers having Zn, Fe, Mn and Mo micronutrients in different doses along with normal NPK doses. Soluble micronutrient fertilizers used were FeSO4, 7H2O for Fe; ZnSO4; 7H2O for Zn; MnSO4; H2O for Mn and (NH4)6 Mo7)24, 2H2O for Mo. The experiment was laid out in a RBD having seven treatments on 9.03.2010. Proper management of the crop was done throughout the growing period. After harvesting the total weight of the seeds from each treatment was analyzed statistically at 5% and 1% level of significance. The yield of lentil having the treatment of P1, P2, P3, was found to be higher with respect to control. Moreover it was also found that the yields from P1, P2, P3 treatments were significantly different at 1% level of significance with respect to soluble fertilizer doses S1, S2, S3.Treatment P2 have given the highest yield of 1680 Kg/ha. Among all the treatments P1, P2, P3 were found effective in increasing the yield of lentil in comparison to the soluble and control treatment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 242-244
Birendra Kumar, Ranvir Kumar and Suman Kalyani
Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur - 813 210, Bihar, India
Abstract
Cost of cultivation, gross return and net return were the lowest under weedy condition (T1). The cost of cultivation of sugarcane varied due to different types and rates of inputs in different weed control treatments. It ranged between Rs. 19811/ha under weedy check (T1) to Rs. 24879/ha in hand weeding twice (T3). Higher cost of cultivation in T3 incurred due to higher labour wages. In weedy check condition only general cost of cultivation had been computed hence, the cost of cultivation was the lowest. The gross return and net return were influenced significantly due to weed control practices. Maximum gross return (Rs. 58850/ha) was recorded under T3 (Hand weeding twice) which was followed by T8 (Pre-emergence Metribuzin @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha + Post-emergence 2,4-D @ 1 kg a.e./ha) for Rs. 57560/ha, T4-Atrazine @ 2 kg a.i./ha(Pre-emergence) + 2,4-D@1kg a.e./ha) (Post-emergence) (Rs. 55719/ha) and T5 (Rs. 53578/ha) for Pre-emergence Metribuzin @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha). All of them were significantly superior to T1. The lowest gross return (Rs. 40188/ha) was obtained under the weedy check (T1) and this was due to severe weed infestation causing minimum cane yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 245-246
Jayashree Ugalat, Chandrashekhar Haradari* and S Shivashankar**
Department of Plant Biotechnology, *Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, IIHR, Hessarghatta Lake Post, Bangalore – 560 089, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Seeds from corky tissue affected fruits and healthy fruits were tested for their viability, by conducting the germination experiment. The seeds from corky tissue affected fruits showed less germination percentage (50%), as well as less germination rate (120 days for 50% germination) as compared to the seeds from healthy fruits were showed higher germination percentage (87%) and rate of germination also (120 days for 87% germination). Total Dehydrogenase enzyme activity (0.199 OD/100mg) and moisture percent (35.75%) of seeds of corky tissue affected fruits were also significantly differed from the seeds of healthy fruits (0.426 OD/100mg and 46%, respectively). In external appearance seeds from corky tissue affected fruits were smaller in size as compared to healthy fruit seeds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 247-248
R R Tembhurne and S P Nanir
Sangola College, Sangola, Solapur – 413 307, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
During the floristic study of the myxomycetes of this region author come across a number of myxomycetous species. In the eighth paper of this study five species of myxomycetes are being discussed. Physarum Pers are being discussed with five species each. All species are being reported for the first time from this region.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 249-253
C R Vijay, P A Katarki and V A Ramachandra
Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Sacred groves are unique landscapes and rely of original vegetation being preserved under community conservation concept. The assessment of population pattern of RET species was carried out in the sacred groves of Kodagu district. Among the several RET tree species four dominant species were selected to study the spatial pattern. The pattern of the species detected by using discreet distribution models. It was found that among the four species Canarium Strictuum followed clumped pattern, the species like Artocapus hirsutus, Cinnamamum macrocarpum and Hydnocarpus pentendra follows neither clumping nor random pattern.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 254-256
V Shashidhara, N Jayaprakash, V N Shivanandam and V Nache Gowda
Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in the eastern dry zone of Karnataka at Agricultural Research Station, Balajigapade, Kolar district. Six varieties and nine hybrids were evaluated for their growth, flowering and yield pattern for two years. Arka Anmol, Baneshan and Mallika recorded higher values for growth parameters. Amrapalli showed maximum length and breadth of the panicle. However, the total number of flowers per panicle varied from 950.30 in Aishwarya to a maximum of 2153.71 in Arka Anmol. The sex ratio (male to hermaphrodite) was maximum in Aishwarya (1.86:1) and minimum in Baneshan (44.3:1), Mallika, Arka Anmol and Amrapalli were found to be superior in fruit yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 257-258
Mahesh M Junagond, L B Hugar, Siddaya, Amrutha T Joshi, Vinod R Naik and K R Netrayini
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The data was collected from five wholesalers, 30 retailers and 30 producer-sellers on awareness on market information, frequency and source of market information collection, contentment of flow of market information. All the wholesalers and retailers are well aware of the price and arrivals of different vegetables in local market. About 53 percent of the producer-sellers were able to get market information every day, out of the remaining producer-sellers 33 percent availed market information once in a week while 13 percent availed once in fortnight from the local market. Almost all wholesalers sourced their market information from other wholesalers. Similarly, other retailers (100%) and wholesalers (30%) were the main source of market information for retailers in the vegetable market. Study revealed that all the market functionaries and producer-sellers were presently satisfied with flow of market information in the local market. However, majority of the respondents were of the opinion that the information available to them is not authenticated hence, they cannot rely on it completely. Therefore, it is suggested to develop the marketing database on vegetables under institutional setup.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 259-261
Samaya Gairhe and S Vijayachandra Reddy
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was taken up to analyze the growth in area, production, productivity of coffee in India and its export value in international market. The secondary data on area, production, productivity and its quantity, value and realized unit value from the export of coffee were collected for a period of 1990-91 to 2009-10. The country-wise export of coffee from India was collected from 1995-96 to 2009-10 from various journals, newsletters, other online information sites. The compound growth rate was calculated to know the growth rate of quantity export, value received and unit price realized. The trade directions of commodities exports were analyzed using the first order Markov chain approach. The study reveals that the growth in area and production were growing at 2.92 and 2.81% per annum, respectively. The quantity exported from India was growing at a compound growth rate of 3.80 per annum due to the demand of Indian coffee in the international market. The value export from India increased at a high growth rate of 8.41% per annum during the study period due to increase in price of coffee over the years in international market and the unit price realized showed a growth rate of 4.45% per annum. The quantity exported from India, value of export and the unit price realized all are growing at significant level which shows the wide scope of coffee export to the global market in future.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 262-267
P S Patra, S Bandyopadhyay and A Choudhury
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal-736 165, India
Abstract
Production of phosphocompost (PC) was done with four doses of rock phosphate (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5%) with or without microbial inoculation, in three replications. Results revealed that % of TOC, total N, total K and C: N ratio significantly and consistently decreased, whereas % of total P and pH increased with the increase in RP levels. Microbial Inoculations significantly increased total N, P and OC of the compost. The evaluation of PC on groundnut was conducted at research farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal during 2007-2008 with thirteen treatments and replicated thrice. Application of 150% P through PC grade-I (T7) recorded highest values of all the growth and yield attributes of groundnut. T7 also improved the pod yield by 15.46% over 100% recommended dose of P through SSP due to higher values of Soil pH, available P and P uptake corresponding to T7.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 268-269
Umeshkumar Sanjeev, P S Jagadish*, R Mahendra, D T Santosh** and N Shashidhara***
Biosystematics Laboratory, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects (NBAII), Bangaluru, Karnataka, India *AICRP on Small Millets, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, UAS (GKVK) Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Department of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur - 721 302, India ***AICRP on Sunflower, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, UAS (GKVK) Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to determine the biochemical basis of resistance to shoot fly (Atherigona atripalpis) in foxtail millet revealed that shoot fly do not prefer the foxtail millet (Setaria itlica L.) genotypes possessing lower nitrogen and phosphorus for its oviposition and dead heart infestation. However, percent potassium contents appeared to play no role in conferring tolerance to shoot fly.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 270-271
S I Harlapur, C P Mallapur and R A Balikai
Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Studies were conducted for two consecutive years in kharif season of 2007 and 2008 at the Agricultural Research Station, Arabhavi, Karnataka under irrigated condition in paired row planting system. Two treatments viz IPM treatment and normal practice (Non-IPM) were imposed on three commercially cultivated genotypes viz Arjun, DMH-2 and Renuka. The results revealed that, the IPM package comprising of disease tolerant genotype (Arjun), seed treatment with Azospirillum (ACD 15 and ACD 20 strains) @ 25 g/kg seed and Trichoderma hazrianum (SKV-1 strain) @ 6 g/kg seed, release of Trichogramma chilonis egg parasitoids @ 1,25,000 per hectare on 12 and 20th days after sowing (DAS), one foliar spray of Mancozeb 75 WP @ 0.25 per cent and Hexaconazole 5 EC @ 0.1 per cent on 40 and 50 DAS, respectively proved effective and economically viable option which resulted in sustainable production of maize.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 272-273
V Shashidhara, N Jayaprakash, V N Shivanandam and V Nache Gowda
Division of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Fifteen mango varieties and hybrids maintained at ARS, Balajigapade, Kolar, were evaluated for physico-chemical characteristics of their fruits. Mallika, Baneshan and Ratna were found to have high fruit weight, volume, length and width of the fruit. Similarly high pulp percentage, low skin and stone percentage were observed in Sindhu, Mallika and Baneshan. Highest TSS (22.23°B) was noticed in Ratna, followed by Mallika (21.86°B), Dashehari recorded higher total sugars (16.60%), non-reducing sugars (12.56%) and sugar acid ratio (51.8:1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 274-275
S K Nag, S B Nahtakar and Praveen Kumar Verma
Department of Agricultural Economics, Shahid Gundadhur College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagadalpur-494 005 Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted to assess the extent and nature of post-harvest losses of chickpea at different stages of handling and to examine the factors responsible growers for post-harvest losses of chickpea at producer level. The primary data was collected from 100 randomly selected chickpea growers of six purposively selected chickpea growing villages of Sehore block, Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh. Chickpea growers were divided into small (below 2 ha), medium (2-5 ha) and large (above 5 ha) growers according to their size of farms. The data was collected through personnel interview by survey method. The study reveals that the major losses occurred in transportation (12.62%), threshing (31.70%), winnowing (33.71%) and storage (21.95%). On an average, the total loss was 6.97 kg/q.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 276-277
R Mahendra, C S Jagadeesh Babu*, Umeshkumar Sanjeev, D T Santosh** and Shashidhara***
Biosystematics Laboratory, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects (NBAII), Bangaluru, Karnataka, India *AICRP on Pigeon pea, ***AICRP on Sunflower, ZARS, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK) Bangaluru, India **Department of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The natural enemies of H. armigera recorded during the experiment period in chick pea ecosystem at the Department of Entomology and Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore during Kharif. The experiment site is situated in Southeastern dry zone of Karnataka state and has semi arid climate. The station is located at an altitude of 920 mts above MSL and latitude 12.97° N, longitude of 77.56° E. The results revealed that parasitoid of H. armigera observed under Chick pea ecosystem includes Campoletis chlorideae which was larval parasitoid. A predator includes Cheilomenes sexmaculata, Coccinella septempunctata, Mantis religiosa, Chrysoperla carnea and Pantala flavescens.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 278-279
S I Harlapur and S G Raju
Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted in kharif season of 2009 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, to study the efficacy of newly developed fungicides along with recommended fungicide against late blight of tomato. Two foliar sprays at 15 days interval starting from when the plants were forty five days old with Mandipropamid 250 SC @ 0.1 per cent and Mandipropamid 250 SC @ 0.08 per cent proved highly effective in reducing the disease index to the tune of 27.77 and 28.11 per cent, respectively as compared to untreated check (47.18%). Lowest per cent fruit infection was recorded in treatment with Mandipropamid 250 SC @ 0.1 per cent (11.39%) followed by Mandipropamid 250 SC @ 0.08 per cent (11.83%) as compared to untreated check (30.59%) and the above fungicidal treatments were on par with each other. Maximum fruit yield was obtained from the plots which received two sprays of Mandipropamid 250 SC @ 0.1 per cent (201.88 q/ha) and remained statistically on par with two sprays of Mandipropamid 250 SC @ 0.08 per cent (198.72 q/ha). Thus it can be concluded that two sprays with Mandipropamid 250 SC @ 01 per cent effectively reduced both per cent disease index and fruit infection and recorded significantly higher fruit yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 280-281
Umeshkumar Sanjeev, P S Jagadish*, R Mahendra, D T Santosh** and N Shashidhara***
Biosystematics Laboratory, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects (NBAII), Bangaluru, Karnataka, India *AICRP on Small Millets, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, UAS (GKVK) Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Department of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur - 721 302, West Bengal, India ***AICRP on Sunflower, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, UAS (GKVK) Bangaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Present investigation was undertaken in Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, University of agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. The lay-out was of randomized block design with three replications. The study revealed that morphological characters in some selected genotypes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) indicated that the susceptible genotypes were more vigorous than tolerant ones.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 282-283
Rubi Kumari and B P Singh
Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour, Bhagalpur – 800 001, Bihar, India
Abstract
Experiment was conducted in the Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour to locate the sources of resistance of Alternaria porri. 45 days old seedlings were inoculated by spraying the spore suspension (1 × 106 spores/ml) of Alternaria porri. Seedlings in pots were subjected to humid chamber for about 24 hours before and after inoculation. The variety Arka Kalyan appeared most resistant recording the least disease intensity (5.53 percent only), although being statistically at par with Arka Niketan and Agri. Foundation Dark Red recording 6.36 percent and 6.33 percent disease intensity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 284-285
R N Jagtap, C B Latpate, R G Gade and S S Shetgar
Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The studies on ten different pure multivoltine races viz Pure Mysore, Hosa Mysore, Mysore Princes, Kolar Gold, C. Nichi, G Race, P2D1, CB5, OS 616 and Nistari on mulberry variety S-1635 for larval duration, larval weight, disease mortality, cocoon weight, moth emergence percent and fecundity after meeting were undertaken during 2009. The study shows that G race found superior for larval duration (20.83 days), Kolar Gold found superior for larval weight (22.50g) and moth emergence percent (95.66%), Pure Mysore found superior for lowest disease mortality (1.52%) and fecundity (509.00) whereas P2D1 found superior for single cocoon weight (0.977g).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 286-287
R Mahendra, C S Jagadeesh Babu*, Umeshkumar Sanjeev, D T Santosh** and Shashidhara***
Biosystematics Laboratory, National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects (NBAII), Bangaluru, Karnataka, India *AICRP on Pigeon pea, ***AICRP on Sunflower, ZARS, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK) Bangaluru, India **Department of Agricultural Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The investigations carried out to study the impact of new insecticide molecules on parasitoids of H. armigera in pigeon pea ecosystem were conducted at the Department of Entomology and Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore during Kharif. The experiment site is situated in Southeastern dry zone of Karnataka state and has semi arid climate. The study revealed that new chemicals were tested for their effect on activity of parasitoid of H. armigera in pigeon pea, emamectin benzoate and flubendiamide recorded the highest per cent parasitization followed by novaluron, spinosad and indoxacarb as compared to endosulfan.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 288-292
Somanagouda I Patil, Chidanand Patil, Ganeshagouda I Patil and Vijaychandra Reddy
Division of Agri-Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In India inflation is actually measured by the Y-o-Y variation in the wholesale price index. It helps in understanding the movement of prices relating to bulk transactions of purchases, usually for further sale. The inflation can be controlled through certain control measures like monetary measures, Fiscal measures, Physical or non monetary measures and the consumers should follow seven tips to tackle inflation i e buy in bulk and store products whose prices are likely to go up, consumers should take advantage of attractive offers at discount chains, start cutting down on discretionary consumption, do comparison shopping, downgrade if your favorite brand is a premium one and the category doesn’t have much differentiation, control your consumption of high-priced items, use substitutes and postpone consumption of certain items. While, government has undertaken suitable measures such as ban on export of essential commodities and bank has varied reserve ratios such as CRR (6%) Repo rate (6.50%) SLR (24%), even the saving bank deposit’s rate of interest has been hiked to overcome problem of inflation. But still inflation is not under control, there is a full scope for combating it for greater extent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 293-295
Y C Sale, B T Kamble and K R Waykar
Integrated Farming Systems Research Project, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
With more than half of its land being degraded, India has very bleak prospects of sustaining even the existing crop yield rates in the coming decades, if necessary measures to arrest this trend and restore the degraded lands are not taken up on a sufficiently large scale. Future increase in productivity should be based on a better controlled application of water and agro-chemicals, as well as on more extensive use of organic manures, non-chemical means of pest control and renewable sources of energy. As such, organic farming holds key role for agricultural development. Organic farming is an agriculture production system which avoids or largely excludes the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and growth regulators. The traditional organic farming system relies upon crop rotation with leguminous crops, addition of crop residues, animal manures and green manuring. Practicing exclusively organic farming will have the limitation of being a low input-low output system but when integrated with bio-inputs like bio-fertilizer, bio-pesticides and effective micro-organism the higher yield level could be obtained. Present paper examines status and scope of organic farming covering the aspects viz demand and supply of organic foods, yield enhancing potential of bio-inputs like bio-fertilizers, effective microorganism (EM) and bio-pesticides as well as scope of organic farming in the process of agricultural development.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 296-301
Chidanand Patil, Ganeshagouda I Patil, Somanagouda I Patil and Basavaraj S Lakkundi
Division of Agri-Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Globalization has its impact in revolutionizing the concept of property and it has also played a significant role in promoting private property rights. New ideas and inventions which keep on emerging in every conceivable field of science and technology are the outcome of manipulation of human mental faculty. IPR refers to the category of intangible rights protecting commercially valuable products of the human intellect. IPR includes patents, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, copyrights, layout designs of integrated circuits and plant breeder’s rights. It is not only in the interest of the individual but country and society at large that scientific inventions, new technologies and achievements are protected so that the respective innovators, designers and other professionals can gain rewards which they deserve. Knowledge and information, economically exploited as intellectual property are replacing the more traditional, material elements of production as the primary engine of economic growth. It is influenced by the ingenuity, creativity, and innovative ability of a nation. Converting these resources into tangible economic assets requires an effective and efficient intellectual property system.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 302-306
Gurupad B Balol, M V Shilpa Kumari*, M Raaghavendra** and B L Divya*
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India *Department of Plant Pathology, **Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore–560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The use of mycorrhizal fungi for biocontrol of plant pathogens is relatively new and is a non-chemical method of disease control. The combination of bio control agents -VA mycorrhizal fungi may be applied to plants as dual inoculum to accomplish the dual purpose of increased plant growth and health and has even become essential for the survival of certain types of plants. Avocados, bamboos, bananas, cassava, coconuts, coffee, mahogany, mangoes, palms, papayas, soybeans, and sweet potatoes are just a few examples of plants that benefit from mycorrhizae. There is evidence that VAM are effective in suppression of root disease, particularly those caused by nemetodes, fungi and bacteria.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 3 - Issue : 1 ; 307-308
Tsewang Tamchos and Anwar Hussain
S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, (J & K), India
Abstract
Turnip (Brassica rapa L.), an important vegetable crop mostly grown for its enlarged roots in large part of the country. It is highly nutritious particularly the leaves which is laden with important vitamins and minerals. However, the people of Ladakh knowingly or unknowingly about its nutritional facts, used to grow the crop separately both for its root and leaves from time immemorial. The leaves are eaten as green vegetables both fresh or in dried form, and are also an important ingredient of many traditional dishes; moreover the farmer earns a good return within short growing period.


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