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Volume - 6 - March - April 2015
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 237-244
S N Kirmani, K M Bhat, M M Mir, Kousar Javaid and Umar Iqbal
Division of Fruit Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Plant growth regulators are organic compounds other than nutrients that in small amounts, promote, inhibit or otherwise modify any physiological processes in plants. Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinin, Abscisic acid and Ethylene are five well established categories of classical phytohormones. Recently, several other compounds that regulate various physiological processes of growth and development in plants have been found which include Oligosaccharins, Brassinosteroids, Jasmonates, Salicylates and Polyamines. PGR’s play very important role in commercial fruit production. Some of the physiological processes where the PGR’s play very important role in commercial fruit production are promotion of feathering and branching, increase and inhibition of flower bud formation, thinning by promotion of flower/fruit abscission, vegetative growth control, increase fruit set, retard pre-harvest drop, advance and delay in fruit ripening, enhanced rooting, improving stress tolerance. PGR does also play a very important role in tissue culture. The availability of sophisticated methods for identification and quantitative measurement of PGR, hormone mutants and powerful tools of molecular biology has greatly enhanced the understanding of the regulatory role of PGR’s in plant growth and development. Receptors for many of the hormone classes have been identified leading to existing new models of hormone perception. In view of growing environmental concerns, the investment in research and development and the registration of new PGR’s has faced difficulties restricting the vast potential of the effective use of PGR’s for enhancing production efficiency of world’s major horticultural crops. Through this review an attempt has been made to summarize the recent advancements in the research done in the field of PGR’s in pome fruit crop production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 245-249
Damini Thawait, S K Dwivedi, Amit Kumar Patel and Srishti Pandey
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An unsuitable population crop may have limitation in the maximum availability of these factors. It is, therefore necessary to determine the optimum density of plant population per unit area for obtaining maximum yield. Wider spacing had linearly increasing effect on the performance of individual plants. The plants grown with wider spacing had more solar radiation to absorb for better photosynthetic process and hence performed better as individual. The optimum planting geometry ensures the plants to grow in their both aerial and underground parts through efficient utilization of solar radiation, water and nutrients. When the planting densities exceed the optimum level, competition among plants becomes severe and consequently the plant growth slows and the grain yield decreases, it also favours the attack of incest pest and diseases. It leads the farmers to use chemicals to protect their crops. The excessive use of pesticides, insecticides etc causes water pollution and human health hazards. So, it is essential to determine suitable spacing to maximize their yield. Presently, the world’s population continues to increase, although at lower growth rates. On the other hand global production is confronting issues such as climate change and the scarcity of water, land and energy resources. There is need to improved and promising technologies that could be employed to boost farmers’ production and to increase their incomes, while ensuring environmental conservation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 250-254
M K Meena and M B Chetti
Depertment of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Studies were carried out to find out the influence of packaging and storage conditions on seed quality of onion. Onion seeds were stored in different packaging materials viz cloth bags, aluminum bags and vacuum packed bags stored at room temperature (25 ± 2º C) and cold storage (4 ± 1º C) for a period of 18 months. The seed quality parameters on germination percent, root length, shoot length and seedling vigour index decreased with an advancement of storage period, but electrical conductivity increased with an increase in storage period. Among the containers, the seeds stored in vacuum packed bags maintained the quality with least deterioration compared to seeds stored in aluminum and cloth bags. The rate of absorbance of moisture content is more in aluminum bags and cloth bags because these are not air tight container while vacuum packed bags maintained constant moisture content. It was observed that the samples stored in vacuum packed bags maintained the seed quality with least deterioration in all the quality parameters compared to samples stored in aluminum and cloth bags.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 255-258
Chavan Narendrasing Rameshsingh, Shreeram Narasimha Hegde* and M Vasundhara**
Depertment of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, , Chhattisgarh, India *Department of PSMA, ** Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), also known as sweet leaf or sugar leaf is a perennial herb of the Asteraceae family and is native to Paraguay. Leaves of stevia contain around 10 sweetening glycosides, of which Stevioside, Rebaudiside-A are the major steviol glycoside. These glycosides are 300 times sweeter than sucrose and hence there is greater interest in this plant as a natural alternative to artificial sweeteners like saccharin, aspartame, asulfam-K etc. In the present study, polyploids of Stevia rebaudianawere developed in 2012 at the Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka using colchicine. Polyploids plants with different levels of ploidy ranging from diploids, triploids, tetraploids and mixaploids, were observed. The treated plants were propagated through stem cuttings and were evaluated for their field performance. Morphological characters of the Stevia plants like plant height, number of branches, internodal length, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content and stem thickness were recorded, and the in vitro propagation was carried out using nodal explants on MS media containing different combinations of BAP and kinetin.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 259-262
Sheetal Tatpurkar and V V Gabhane
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Oilseed Research Unit, Dr. Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. Pod and haulm yield of groundnut was significantly affected by different treatments over control maximum pod and haulm yield (20.95 and 37.87 q ha-1) was recorded by the 150% RDF (37.5:75:37.5 NPK kg ha-1) followed by integrated use of 5t FYM ha-1 + 50% RDF + Neem cake 500 kg ha-1 + Biofertilizer (18.79 and 37.03 kg ha-1) and lowest being control (10.98 and 27.46 kg ha-1). Similar trend was also observed in B:C ratio. Soil fertility measured in terms of available N, P and K content improved after groundnut crop over the initial values. Application of 10 t FYM ha-1 increased actual gain of N with similar magnitude as compared to control at harvest of groundnut. Actual gain of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in 150% RDF followed by 5t FYM ha-1 + 50% RDF + Neem cake 500 kg ha-1 + Biofertilizer.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 263-265
M Padmanabhan, M Hanumanthappa, K N Kalanamurthy and Vijaymahantesh
Depertment of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2012 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS) Brahmavar, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, to study the effect of different organic manures on yield and economics of transplanted rice. The results revealed that application of 50 percent recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through goat manure + 50 percent N through bio-digested liquid manure (BDLM) increased grain yield (5110 kg ha-1), straw yield (6105 kg ha-1) and yield parameters viz number of productive tillers per hill (34.69), panicle length (27.4 cm), panicle weight (5.75 g), thousand grain weight (25.70 g), number of filled grains per panicle (141.12) and also registered higher net returns (` 58376 ha-1). Whereas lower grain yield (3901 kg ha-1), straw yield (4426 kg ha-1), and net returns (` 41177 ha-1) was recorded with application of 50 percent RDN through eupatorium + 50 percent N through cattle urine.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 266-269
Veeranki Venkatesh, K N Ganesan and N Manivannan
Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Forty maize hybrids along with their parental lines were grown in a randomized complete block design with two replications to assess the genetic correlation among 15 quantitative traits. A Positive correlation of oil yield per plant with Plant height, days to 50% tasseling, days to maturity, number of kernel rows per cob, cob height, cob length, cob girth and hundred kernel weight were observed. Shelling percentage (-0.015) was negatively correlated to oil yield. Oil content has exhibited highest and significant correlation (0.906) followed by cob weight, grain yield, days to 50% silking, and number of kernels per row with oil yield per plant. A strong positive inter correlation was observed among the traits viz days to 50% silking, number of kernels per row, grain yield, cob weight, oil content and oil yield indicating that selection of these characters can help to improve grain yield and oil yield in maize.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 270-274
Venureddy Challa, Laxmi Kashyap, Alok Tiwari, G Venugopal, Thaneshwar Devangan and V Bachkaiya
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study conducted under All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on long-term fertilizer experiment was aimed on the effect of inorganic fertilizers, with or without organic manure on gravimetric and volumetric moisture content, total porosity, nutrient content in grain and straw, nutrient uptake in grain and straw and yield after 14 years of rice-wheat sequence during 2013-2014. The treatments selected for the study were control, 50% NPK, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + Zn, 100% NP, 100% N, 100% NPK+FYM, 50% NPK + BGA and 50% NPK + GM. The investigations revealed that crop yields were lowest in the control where neither fertilizers nor manures were applied for the last fourteen years and highest in 150% NPK. The total porosity, gravimetric and volumetric moisture content of the soil is higher values recorded in 100% NPK + FYM, 50% NPK + BGA and 50% NPK + GM treatments compare to other treatments. The total uptake of nutrients is recorded better values in the integrated nutrient treatments as compare to inorganic treatments and control. Integrated use of organics and inorganics has sustained the crop yields and improves the soil health.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 275-278
V Anusheela, K Ganesamurthy and S Ganeshram
Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Mungbean is one of the food legume in worldwide, making it an important target for novel approaches of genetic analysis. This study evaluated the use of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) for the generation of a mutant population for targeted induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) in mungbean. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that uses a large mutant population for identification of mutants in loci of interest. Based on kill curve analysis 50 mM EMS was found to be an appropriate concentration for the generation of a mutant population in mungbean variety Co 7. Based on TILLING results from other species, a population of 5600 lines is estimated to be sufficient for saturation of the mungbean genome.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 279-281
Rajashekhar Kalagi and R V Koti
Depertment of Crop Physiology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Present study was conducted at College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with three genotypes and three different sources of phosphorus. In the present investigation the seed yield of the genotype KHSb-2 did not differ due to different P sources and thus it was proved to be superior in acquiring and utilizing P from the soil. In addition, significantly higher number of pods per plant and hundred seed weight lead to maximum seed yield in KHSb-2. Another interesting finding of the present investigation was that the seed yield under different sources of P did not differ significantly, but was significantly superior to control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 282-285
M M Venkatesha, N Krishnamurthy, G B Tuppad and K T Venkatesh
Depertment of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during kharif season in farmers field at Marakadadoddi village, Maddur taluk, Mandya district (Karnataka). Results revealed that sole cropping exhibited superiority growth parameters like more plant height (95.70 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (140.86), leaf area hill-1 (3607.9 cm2) leaf area index (4.01), leaf area duration (96.01 days), tillers plant-1 (38.03), dry matter distribution (95.53 g plant-1) and absolute growth rate (1.33 g plant-1 day-1). Among the intercropping systems, rice + amaranthus recorded higher growth parameters such as plant height (89.37 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (130.80), leaf area hill-1 (3364.60 cm2) leaf area index (3.74), leaf area duration (89.39 days), tillers plant-1 (35.35), dry matter distribution (88.03 g plant-1) and absolute growth rate (1.22 g plant-1 day-1) as compared to other intercropping systems. The total dry matter production is a result of cumulative and complimentary effect of plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf area duration.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 286-290
Bhupesh Joshi, Navneet Rana and Akkabathula Nithish
Depertment of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Field investigations were conducted during kharif season 2013 at the experimental field of Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India to the effect of abiotic factor viz minimum temperature, maximum temperature, morning relative humidity, evening relative humidity, wind velocity and sunshine hours on major insect pests in pigeonpea cultivar Asha. Five insect species viz spotted pod borer (Maruca vitrata), tur pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera), plume moth (Exelastis atomosa), podfly (Melanagromyza obtusa) and tur pod bug (Clavigralla gibbosa) were observed as the major insect pests. The period of maximum activity of spotted pod borer (3.90 per plant) and tur pod bore population (3.00 per plant) were noticed during first week of January. The density of plume moth, tur pod bug and pod fly increased gradually with peak population 3.10, 3.8 and 3.2 per plant were observed during second, third and fourth week of January, respectively. The spotted pod borer, tur pod borer, plume moth and tur pod bug population had positive correlation with minimum temperature, morning relative humidity (except pod fly), and evening relative humidity (except pod fly) but in case of maximum temperature, wind velocity (except tur pod bug and pod fly) and sunshine hours had negative correlation with population build up.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 291-293
Deepmala Kindo and P K Tiwari
Depertment of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Rice sheath rot caused by Sarocladium oryzae to be a major constraint in rice production. Since the existing chemical control measures being costly and may favour development of resistance in pathogens. The potential alternative methods have been explored in the present studies. The effect of thirteen botanical plant leaf extracts of Arjun, Aak, Dhatura, Jarayan, Neem, Nilgiri, Chhota neem, Mehndi, Bel, Sinduri, Karanj, Seetaphal and Ratanjot against sheath rot of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae, were investigated in vitro by poisoned food technique. All the botanical plant extracts showed significant reduction in mycelial growth over the control. The maximum inhibition in mycelial growth was recorded in the Nilgiri leaf extracts (88.79%) and the minimum inhibition was recorded in Bel (22.56%) extracts only. The mycelial growth of S. oryzae in the botanical leaf extracts were ranged between 3.8 mm to 25.4 mm and the minimum mycelial growth was also recorded under Nilgiri extract (3.8 mm).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 294-296
Dharmpal Kerketta, Ramesh Singh Yadav* and M Raghuraman*
Depertment of Entomology, *Depertment of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Pest problem is one of the major constraints for achieving higher production in vegetable crops. In the present study different pests of cabbage crop were studied. During the study in the season of rabi 2009 and rabi 2010 from two different localities of farmers’ fields of cabbage in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, 23 different insect-pests species with 7 different orders were recorded. Out of which maximum 31% insect-pests species of order Lepidoptera and minimum 5% insect-pests species of order Diptera and Isoptera were found in the investigation. Diamond back moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) and cabbage head borer, Hellula undalis Fab. were high in population. Among natural enemies, predators were rove beetle, Paederus sp. and lady bird beetle, Coccinella septumpunctata L.; parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae and Cotesia plutellae were recorded in good population also.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 297-299
Padmesh Kumar Sharma and Randeep Kumar Kushwaha
Depertment of Entomology, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University, Jabalpur - 492 008, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The population dynamics of major insect pests of French bean was conducted during rabi season at the Department of Entomology, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. The white fly, jassid and aphid found as major insect pests of French bean. White fly appeared in last week of November (48th SW) and continued up to last week of February (8th SW). The peak activity of adult whitefly/plant (8.46) was observed in last week of November (48th SW) and average of maximum and minimum temperature was 28.0ºC and 8.7ºC, respectively with 92 percent morning and 26 percent evening relative humidity. Morning RH was found to be positively significant correlation with white fly whereas, Jassid was shown during last week of November and population peaked (4.84 adult jassid/plant) during the 1st week of December. The maximum and minimum temperature was 25.7ºC and 8.5ºC, respectively with 92 percent morning and 42 percent evening RH and zero mm rainfall. Aphid appeared in last week of December (52nd SW) and remained active till crop was harvested. The peak activity (4.76 adult and nymph aphid/plant) during last week of January when the maximum and minimum temperature was 19.8ºC and 5.7ºC, respectively with 92 percent morning and 44 percent evening relative humidity and 1.2 mm rainfall.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 300-303
Chandra Shekhar Netam and A K Gupta
Depertment of Agricultural Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Shaheed Gundadhoor College of Agriculture and Research Station (IGKV), Jagdalpur (Chhattisgarh). Thirty genotypes were screened against leaf folder. On the basis of mean data, none of the genotype was free from the attack of leaf folder. Out of thirty genotypes, twenty six genotypes were registered under 1 damage score whereas; four genotypes received 3 damage score.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 304-305
G Mohan Naidu and M Srikala
Depertment of Statistics and Maths, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Potato wholesale prices of Chennai market were analyzed using univariate seasonal ARIMA model. Seasonal indices were observed that generally the prices were low from January to May and it raise from June, and reaches the maximum in November. Based on highest coefficient of multiple determination (R2) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), the estimated best model was Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) (1,1,1) (1,0,0)12 short term forecasts based on this model were close to the observed values.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 306-309
Sitaram Bishnoi and V K Rampal and H R Meena
Depertment Extension Education, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), is the flagship programme of the Government that directly touches lives of the poor and promotes inclusive growth. The study conducted in the Rajasthan and Punjab States has investigated the impact of MGNREGA on socio-economic status (SES) of the rural women in two districts (Bikaner and Ludhiana) from the selected two states respectively. Besides, demographic characteristic, the paper has investigated the differences in income and landholding size in the two districts by taking 120 farm families (60 beneficiaries and 60 non-beneficiaries) the impact of MGNREGA within the districts has also been studied in term of SES by seeking information from 30 beneficiaries and 30 non-beneficiaries households in MGNREGA works in each district. A significant difference has been found in the SES between both the categories in Bikaner district i e MGNREGA had helped the beneficiaries in raising SES in the community of Bikaner district as compared to Ludhiana district where it has not been shown any significant difference in SES between these two categories.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 310-312
S R Gireesh, B Rekha, J C Mathad and Sunanda Sanganal
Depertment of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season at the Floriculture Unit, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad (Karnataka) to find out the suitable plant population and nitrogen content on growth parameters and plant density of china aster. A factorial experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications comprising of 3 spacing’s S1 (30 x 15 cm), S2 (30 x 30 cm), S3 (30 x 45 cm) and five different N levels N0– 0:120:60, N1- 90:120:60, N2- 180:120:160, N3- 270:120:60 and N4- 360:120:60 kg/ha forming 15 treatment combinations. The spacing’s showed significant effect on dry matter accumulation. The maximum dry matter accumulation in leaf was observed at 270 kg nitrogen (N3) which was significantly superior over other levels of nitrogen at 30, 60 and 90 DAT but N4 was on par with N2 at 90 DAT. The interaction effects of nitrogen and spacing levels were significant only at 90 DAT. The crop planted at 30 x 45 cm spacing with 270 kg nitrogen recorded the highest dry matter accumulation in stem.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 313-315
Pritin P Sontakke, N S Radhika* and Pattapu Sreelakshmi
Depertment of Agriculture Entomology, *Department of Plant Pathology, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 522, Kerala, India
Abstract
Bitter gourd, Momordica charantia is one of the most popular vegetables in Southeast Asia which is infested by many insect pests. This work highlights the biological parameters of Diaphania indica Saunders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). It lays eggs small clusters on lower tender leaf of bitter gourd. The Complete life cycle from first larval instars to adult longevity in laboratory condition is relatively short and spanning required around 35.6 ± 4.77 days. Total larval period of the caterpillar is ranged from 8.20 ± 0.20 days, where as pupal stage lasted for 6.20 ± 0.37 days. Observations regarding larval period, pre-pupa, pupal period, measurements and weight of different growth stages and adult emergence was recorded along with the stage specific life table.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 316-318
Shankrayya, N M Shakuntala and M B Tejagouda
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The laboratory experiments were conducted in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka to find out the effect of organic seed treatments on seed quality of old seeds of sorghum with sixteen different concentrations of organics. All the quality parameters showed significant differences due to seed treatment with organics. The results revealed that seed treatment with custard apple leaf extract @ 3 percent recorded significantly higher germination percentage (83.00%), root length (13.75 cm), shoot length (10.08 cm), seedling length (24.40 cm), seedling vigour index-I (2004), seedling vigour index-II (29.06), seedling dry weight (334.76 mg), dehydrogenase enzyme activity (0.488 OD value) and lower electrical conductivity of seed lechates (0.397 dSm-1) followed by coconut water @ 50 percent and lowest was recorded in untreated control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 319-321
K Priyanka, R Joycy Dasari and C Mamatha*
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India *Depertment of Agri-business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Bidar district of Karnataka to know the constraints faced by the redgram farmers following line sowing and new technologies like dibbling and transplanting. The constraints faced by them are put under economic, technological, resource, social and institutional constraints. It was found that, fluctuation and uncertainty in the price of redgram is the major economical constraint expressed by the farmers of both transplanted (90%) and dibbled methods (93.33%). However, high marketing cost is the major economical constraint in case of line sown farmers (80%). Need of protective irrigation in time (63.33%), lack of electricity supply for irrigation (60%) and higher incidence of pest and diseases (90%) are the major technological and resource constraints faced by transplanted, dibbled and line sown farmers respectively. However, social status of farmers in the society was the major social and institutional constraints faced by transplanted (23.33%) and dibbled farmers (6.67%). Whereas, non adoption of transplanted method by majority of farmers in the village (33.33%) and non participation of family labour in farming (26.67%) were the constraints expressed only by line sown farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 322-325
S Manjula, A Vadivel and M Jayalakshmi*
Depertment of Soil Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad - 500 059, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment on sugarcane was conducted at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirapalli with the view to identify sodic tolerant variety and suitable amendment for sodic soil. Four sugarcane varieties viz Co Si (Sc) 6, Co C (Sc) 86032, Co C (Sc) 23 and Co G (Sc) 5 and three amendments viz pressmud @ 12.5 t ha -1, gypsum @ 4.8 t ha -1 and bottom slag @ 15 t ha-1 were studied along with the unamended control in the experiment were studied. The experiment was conducted in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The observations on germination percentage, tillers, plant height, leaf area index, number of internodes, internodal length, cane length, cane girth, single cane weight and number of millable canes, were recorded. The results revealed that sugarcane varieties Co G (Sc) 5 and Co C (Sc) 23 gave better growth characters as compared to the Co Si (Sc) 6 and Co C (Sc) 86032 under sodic soil. The sugarcane varieties namely Co G (Sc) 5 and Co C (Sc) 23 were found to be superior in respect of both germination percentage and number of millable canes, hence these might be considered suitable for growing under sodic soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 326-330
M Raghavendra Reddy
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted with rice variety ADT 43 during 2012 (June-October) of Wetland Farms of Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore to study the effect of varying doses of NPK on growth characters, yield attributes, yield of lowland rice and to reschedule the fertilizer recommendation for lowland rice. The treatments imposed comprised of four levels of nitrogen (0, 125, 150 and 175 kg N ha-1), four levels of phosphorus (0, 40, 50 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1) and four levels of potassium (0, 40, 50 and 60 kg K2O ha-1). Totally there were thirteen treatments replicated thrice in randomized blocks design. Nitrogen and Potash were applied in four equal splits (25% each at basal, active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering). Entire dose of phosphorus was applied basally. Both the grain and straw yields of rice were highest with the treatment combination of N150 P60 K60 (6690 and 12013 kg ha-1). In general, the treatment received N150 P60 K60 was superior in the growth characters (viz plant height, shoot numbers and dry matter accumulation), yield attributes and yield. In the light of above findings it can be concluded that among the various N, P2O5 and K2O levels, the combination of N150 P50 K50 kg ha-1 is beneficial for lowland rice (ADT-43).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 331-335
Navneet Kumar Mishra, Kamla Gandharv, Damini Thawait and Arti Guhey
Depertment of Plant Physiology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Among the breeding lines R-RF-90, Mahamaya and MTU-1010 ranked relatively superior regarding there morpho- physiological and yield traits. Least reduction in yield was noticed in R-RF-89 and Vandana in rainfed and transplanted (TSD) condition. The maximum flag leaf area of rice genotypes was noticed under irrigated condition (39.75 cm2) which was comparable with transplanted condition (37.95 cm2). Minimum flag leaf area was obtained in direct sown condition (34.78 cm2). Samleshwari (47.64 cm2) exhibited highest value of flag leaf area at flowering stage. Maximum leaf area index was observed under irrigated condition (6.16), however, it showed at par values or significantly similar to transplanted condition (6.01). IR-64 (8.58) exhibited highest value of LAI at flowering stage. R-RF-94 (592.6 cm2g-1) performed better and attained higher value of SLA than check Samleshwari (282.45 cm2g-1). Poornima (6.85 gcm-2) performed better and attained higher value of SLW than check Samleshwari (3.99 gcm-2). Among the breeding lines R-RF-90, Mahamaya and MTU-1010 ranked relatively superior regarding there morpho-physiological and yield traits. Least reduction in yield was noticed in R-RF-89 and Vandana in rainfed and transplanted (TSD) condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 336-338
Bhupesh Joshi, Navneet Rana and Akkabathula Nithish
Depertment of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An investigation was conducted during kharif season 2013 at the experimental field of Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. The larval population, pod damage and grain damage due to pod borer complex viz Maruca vitrata, Helicoverpa armigera, Exelastis atomosa and Melanagromyza obtusa in pigeonpea variety Asha were obtained separately to be minimum in protected as compared to unprotected condition. The minimum percent pod damage 17.42 percent and high grain yield 1473.95 kg/ha were recorded in protected condition. The yield losses were estimated 38.06 percent due to pod borer complex in pigeonpea. The results suggest that the pod borer complex more inflicting the grain yield in unprotected as compare to protected condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 339-343
T Padmavathi, R Sivasamy* and R Jagadeeswaran*
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *Depertment of Remote Sensing and GIS, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Accuracy and precision of nitrogen estimation can be improved by hyperspectral remote sensing that leads to effective management of nitrogen application in precision agriculture. The nondestructive determination of plant biomass is not possible; however, crop-canopy sensor has the potential to estimate living biomass, which is indicative of plant vigor and stress. A study was conducted during 2013 at TNAU, Tamil Nadu, to determine the relationship between leaf hyperspectral reflectance (350-1050 nm) and leaf N content in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in controlled condition under five nitrogen rates (0, 50, 75, 100 and 125% recommended level of nitrogen) was measured at key developmental stages. Canopy N status was varied by implementing five levels of N in Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Canopy reflectance measurements were made at five growth stages with a handheld spectroradiometer. The relationship between leaf N and spectral reflectance were computed by using three major indices namely NDVI, GNDVI and red edge. Among these, GNDVI was the most appropriate spectral indices for estimation of leaf N at vegetative stage followed by silking stages. The results revealed that there existed a strong correlation between leaf N and spectral reflectance at vegetative stage (R2 = 0.848**) followed by silking stage (R2 = 0.725**) by using GNDVI. It was observed that the red edge was also highly correlated with canopy N content at vegetative stage (R2 = 0.812**) and at silking stage (R2 = 0.710**). Whereas the index was found to be significantly correlated with canopy N at 5% level in the cob initiation stage (R2 = 0.588*). Normalized vegetation index was found to be significantly correlated with canopy N at 5% level in the vegetative stage (R2 = 0.685*). The results showed that leaf nitrogen status can be best predicted at vegetative stage and silking stages by using GNDVI. The study indicated that leaf spectral reflectance can be effectively used as nondestructive, quick, and reliable technique for real time monitoring of canopy nitrogen status in corn and important tool for N fertilizer management.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 344-347
Swati Kumari, K K Jha and Prashant Kumar
Depertment of Horticulture, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi - 834 006, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted in the year 2011-12 at Research Farm of Department of Horticulture, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi to find out effect of organic sources of nutrients on growth, yield and quality of cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L). The experiment comprised of 12 treatments consisting of different organic manures, biofertilizers, inorganic fertilizers and its combinations. Maximum plant height (99.20 cm), girth of plant (3.84 cm), spread of plant [N-S (120.37 cm and E-W (120.40 cm)], number of leaves per plant (448.93), number of branches per plant (12.33), average leaf area per plant (17154.03 cm2), average number of flowers per plant (4.6), number of fruits per plant (37.33). Fruit diameter (7.47 cm), weight of fruit (6.55g), juice percentage (70.71%) and phenol content (0.40ppm) were recorded with the application of Azotobacter + PSB @ 5 kg/ha in 1:1 ratio + 75% RDF. Days taken to first flowering (62.33 days) and for 50% flowering (72 days) were recorded in the treatment 100:60:60 kg NPK/ha through chemical fertilizer +15 tons/ha FYM. Maximum fruit set (81.94%) was obtained in vermicompost @ 8.5 t/ha however the retention (69.11%) was maximum in Azotobacter + PSB @ 5 kg/ha in 1:1 ratio + 50% RDF (69.11%). The treatment Azotobacter + PSB @ 5 kg/ha in 1:1 ratio + 75% RDF resulted in maximum yield i e 4.2 kg/plot, 4.67 t/ha and maximum net income (77594 `/ha). Specific gravity of fruit (1.30) was recorded maximum in poultry manure @ 7.5 t/ha. Fruit length (3.79 cm), volume of fruit (6.08 c.c.), TSS (16.53°B), total titrable acidity (3.84%), ascorbic acid (18.17 mg/100g) and B:C ratio (5.19) was maximum in treatment Azotobacter + PSB @ 5 kg/ha in 1:1 ratio +50% RDF.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 348-349
S Manjula, A Vadivel and M Jayalakshmi*
Depertment of Soil Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad - 500 059, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment on sugarcane was conducted at Anbil Dharma lingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirapalli with the view to identify sodic tolerant variety and suitable amendment for sodic soil. Four sugarcane varieties viz Co Si (Sc) 6, Co C (Sc) 86032, Co C (Sc) 23 and Co G (Sc) 5 and three amendments viz pressmud @ 12.5 t ha-1, gypsum @ 4.8 t ha-1 and bottom slag @ 15 t ha-1 were studied along with the unamended control in the experiment were studied. The results revealed that sugarcane varieties Co G (Sc) 5 and Co C (Sc) 23 gave higher K+: Na+ as compared to the Co Si (Sc) 6 and Co C (Sc) 86032 under sodic soil. The sugarcane varieties namely Co G (Sc) 5 and Co C (Sc) 23 were found to be superior for accumulating more K than the Na+, hence these might be considered suitable for growing under sodic soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 350-354
Kamla Gandharv, Navneet Kumar Mishra, Damint Thawait and N K Choubey
Depertment of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experimental was located at Instructional cum Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during kharif 2012. Results revealed that, FYM @ 5 t ha-1 (F1) has significant impact on dry matter accumulation of crop, total tillers m-2 and effective tillers m-2. Among weed management practices, hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS (W7) produced significantly highest plant height, dry matter accumulation, total number of tillers meter-2, leaf area, leaf area index, number of effective tillers meter-2, test weight (g), crop growth rate, absolute growth rate. Highest grain yield (4.21 t ha-1), straw yield (5.52 t ha-1) and harvest index (51.54%) was recorded under hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS (W7), followed by chemical weeding with bispyribac sodium @ 20 g ha-1 25 DAS (W1), gave grain yield (4.03 t ha-1), straw yield (5.25 t ha-1) and harvest index (51.37%). The lowest was recorded under unweeded check (W8). In the experimental field, Commelina benghalensis L., Cyanotis axillaris Schult F., Cyperus difformis L., Echinochloa colona (L.) Link, Monochoria vaginalis Kunth were dominant weeds. The lowest weed density, weed dry matter production and relative weed density were recorded under hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS (W7), followed by chemical weeding with bispyribac sodium @ 20 g ha-1 25 DAS (W1). The highest economic return in terms of gross income (` 42949.00) were obtained from hand weeding twice 25 and 45 DAS (W7), highest net income (` 26063.00) and B:C ratio (1.69) were obtained under chemical weeding with bispyribac sodium @ 20 g ha-1 25 DAS (W1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 355-360
S Raveesha, G Govindaraj*, Tanveer Ahmed** and Saikumar C Bharamappanavara***
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Depertment of Agricultural Economics, PDADMAS, Hebbal, Bangalore, Karnataka, India **Technical Officer to Hon’ble Vice Chancellor, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India ***Department of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences, Division of Resource Economics, Berlin Institute for Co-operative Studies, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
Abstract
The co-operatives play vitally in disbursing agriculture credit over the years. Its evaluation is essential for further improvement in its linkage and development of agriculture. Present study was on growth of primary co-operative agriculture and rural development banks (PCARDBs) undertaken in the year 2004-05 in five banks of Tumkur district (Karnataka). The 15 years time series data on various indicators were collected and Compound Growth Rate (CGR) analysis was applied. The gist inferred that growth of PCARDBs was reasonable and satisfactory in terms of total membership; increase in total share capital of PCARDBs was due to increased number of members and increase in per member share capital. Felt necessary to increase the loans amount advanced. However, the problem of overdue was acute and requires bilateral attention, on the part of government in implementing policies and greater skills on the part of management for loan recovery to provide sustainable services to the farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 361-364
S P Prajna and V D Gasti
Depertment of Vegetable Science, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi - 591 218, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Mahalanobis D2 statistics was used to study the nature and magnitude of genetic diversity among 45 genotypes of okra. The genotypes were grouped into ten clusters. It revealed that presence of morphological difference between the genotypes. The cluster I, had the highest genotypes (23) followed by cluster II (9). For intra cluster distance the genotypes falling in cluster III (5.72) had the maximum divergence which was closely followed by cluster II (4.88) and cluster I (4.72). The inter cluster distance ranged from 3.39 to 8.32 as exhibited between cluster IV and cluster VI and cluster VI and cluster VIII, respectively. In the present study, parental lines selected from cluster X for plant height, number of leaves per plant number of branches per plant, number of fruiting nodes per plant, fruit length, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. The characters viz fruit yield per plot and fruit yield per plant contributed maximum towards total genetic divergence. Hence, selection may be practiced for these characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 365-368
Koteshi Lamani and D S Uppar
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out during kharif 2012 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad to investigate the effect of organics, inorganic and biofertilizer seed treatment on seed quality of cowpea. It comprised of nine treatments with three replications laid out in randomized block design. The results revealed that, the application of 25:50:25 kg NPK ha-1 + VC @ 2 t ha-1 + seed treatment with Rhizobium 500 g ha-1 recorded best seed quality parameters viz 100 seed weight (10.33 g), germination percentage (97.33), shoot length (25.40 cm), root length (26.14 cm), seedling length (51.54 cm), seedling vigour index (5016), seedling dry weight (6.39 mg), protein content (24.99%) and lower electrical conductivity (0.194 dSm-1) and it was on par with 25:50:25 kg NPK ha-1 + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + seed treatment with Rhizobium 500 g ha-1 compared to control (25:50:25 kg NPK ha-1 + FYM @ 5 t ha-1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 369-371
A R Kamble, Polu Parameshwar, S R Patil and Ram Kumar Dewangan
Depertment of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted at Acid Lime Garden, College of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Agricultural University, Akola to explore the effect of different mulches on growth, yield and quality of acid lime during 2013-2014. The result were obtained for 18 characters viz length of shoot, number of new shoots per branch, leaf area, fruit set percentage, diameter of fruit, average weight of fruit, average volume of fruit, juice percentage, peel percentage, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, number of fruits per plant, yield per plant in kg and yield per hector in quintals. Result obtained in the present investigation revealed that, polythene mulches and organic mulches had influenced the growth, yield and quality of acid lime fruits. The black polythene mulch showed significantly more length of shoot (14.07 cm), number of new shoots per branch (6.39), leaf area (15.05 cm2), number of fruits tree-1 (683.62), weight of fruits tree-1 (36.09 kg), yield ha-1 (99.96 q), diameter of fruit (3.97 cm), average weight of fruit (52.80 g), average volume of fruit (31.69 cm3), juice percent (52.46%), TSS (8.43 °Brix), ascorbic acid (30.32 mg/100 ml), soil temperature (41.17 °C) and soil moisture (22.88%) followed by dry grass mulch. Significantly minimum fruit drop (85.14%), peel percent (17.93%) and weed count (3) was observed in black polythene mulch followed by dry grass mulch. Among the polythene mulches, black polythene mulch and among the organic mulches, dry grass mulch gave significant increase in all characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 372-375
Deepika Chandravanshi, Vijay Kumar, Pravin Sharma, Mridubhashini Patanwar and Chetna Banjare
Depertment of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted at Instructional cum Research Farm of Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during rabi season 2012-13. The result indicated that the advancement in seedling age from 60 days to 30 days significantly increased growth and yield attributes viz average bulb fresh weight (gm), average bulb dry weight (gm), ‘A Grade’, ‘B Grade’ bulbs, total bulb yield (q/ha), marketable yield (q/ha) and maturity. It was further observed that with the increase in interaction effect from 44 plant m-2 (15 × 15 cm) to 100 plant m-2 (10 × 10 cm), a significant decrease in average bulb fresh weight (gm), average bulb dry weight (gm), diameter: length ratio, bolting percentage and days to maturity was noticed under the present study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 376-379
Nirajkumar Jha, Sheery Rachel Jacob*, Sukumar Taria** and M B Arun Kumar
Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India *Division of Germplasm Conservation, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resource, New Delhi - 110 012, India **Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India
Abstract
Conventionally the genetic purity of hybrid seeds is accessed by Grow Out Test (GOT). However, GOT require one full season thus precluding the immediate cultivation of the hybrid seed production. In addition, locking up of the capital invested on hybrid seed production and additional expenditure incurred on storage of hybrid seed ultimately increases the hybrid seed cost. This limitations and the environmental dependency of the entire procedure can overcome effectively by employing the molecular marker technology. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to identify the SSR markers that could be used to test the genetic purity of popular brinjal hybrid PH-5. Among 89 SSR markers studied, two markers (emk02k24 and emb05F05) were found to be suitable for testing the hybrid purity. The analysis of plant-to-plant variation within the parental lines of the hybrid by using the identified markers, showed highly homogenous SSR profile, which further indicated the scope of application of these markers in maintenance and purity testing of hybrid and parental lines.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 380-382
Rahul Kumar Tiwari, S Chauhan* and Manish Kumar Sharma
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out at eight villages of Surguja and Surajpur district of Surguja division of Chhattisgarh State. Total 128 farmers were selected from the list of sugarcane growers as respondents and the data were collected through pretested interview scheduled and analyzed the data by using appropriate statistical tools and techniques. The findings of present study revealed that the overall extent of adoption of recommended production technology among respondents were found medium level (60.94%). Correlation coefficient between the selected attributes of the respondents with extent of adoption of recommended sugarcane production technology were observed as level of farming experience, knowledge of sugarcane production technology, annual income and contact with extension agency were found positive and significant. Remaining attributes of respondents’ i e age, occupation, cosmopolitans, education level, family size, land holding, scientific orientation and source of information had no significant relationship with extent of adoption. The multiple regression analysis confirmed the contribution of independent variable i e knowledge, farming experience and contact with extension agency were found significant to the extent of adoption of sugarcane production technology among tribal sugarcane growers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 383-386
S Manjula, A Vadivel and M Jayalakshmi*
Depertment of Soil Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad - 500 059, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment on sugarcane was conducted at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirapalli with the view to identify sodic tolerant variety and suitable amendment for sodic soil. Four sugarcane varieties viz Co Si (Sc) 6, Co C (Sc) 86032, Co C (Sc) 23 and Co G (Sc) 5 and three amendments viz pressmud @ 12.5 t ha-1, gypsum @ 4.8 t ha-1 and bottom slag @ 15 t ha-1 were studied along with the unamended control in the experiment were studied. The experiment was conducted in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The observations on cane yield, sugar yield and juice quality parameters were recorded. The results revealed that sugarcane varieties Co G (Sc) 5 and Co C (Sc) 23 gave better cane yield as compared to the Co Si (Sc) 6 and Co C (Sc) 86032 under sodic soil. The sugarcane varieties namely Co G (Sc) 5 and Co C (Sc) 23 were found to be superior in respect of both yield and sucrose content, hence these might be considered suitable for growing under sodic soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 387-391
M Rajasekar and V Swaminathan
Depertment of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai- 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of pre- harvest chemical spray on growth and yield characters of bitter gourd cv CO1, MAHY 101, US 6214, Palee and Roma. There were nine treatments with four chemicals, viz GA3 (250 ppm), GA3 (500 ppm), BA (50 ppm), BA (100 ppm), CaCl2 (0.25%), CaCl2 (0.50%), Ca (NO3)2 (0.50%), Ca (NO3)2 (1.0%), control (No spray) were sprayed two times starting at the time of flowering and after fruit set, replicated three times in a factorial randomized block design. Results revealed that, application of Gibberellic acid (500 ppm) shows significantly early flowering and CaCl2 - 0.50 percent increased fruit length, fruit girth, fruit weight, number of fruits and yield per vine.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 392-395
M Raghavendra Reddy and S Meena
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to assess the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash on nutrient contents and their uptake by lowland rice variety ADT 43 Wetland Farms of Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) during the period from June to October 2012. The soil of the experimental field is an Alfisol (Typic Haplustalf) belonging to Noyyal series. The experimental soil was low in available N (272 kg ha-1), medium in available P (20.1 kg ha-1) and high in available K (496 kg ha-1) status. The experiment comprised of four levels of N, P and K four levels of N were 0, 125, 150 and 175 kg ha-1 and four levels of P and K were 0, 40, 50 and 60 kg ha-1 respectively and laid out in a randomized block design with three replications with thirteen treatments. Significant variations were found both in nutrient contents and their uptake by grain and straw. The treatment which received N150P60K60 registered significantly higher N, P and K content in both straw and grain. There was an increasing trend in nutrient uptake during progress of crop growth towards maturity. The total uptake of N, P and K was significantly higher (uptake of both grain and straw) in N150P60K60 kg ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 396-402
Supriya, Shweta Arora, Ruchi R Gangwar and Ajay K Singh
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
This study was conducted in Uttarakhand state of the country by randomly selecting 28 seed growers of public seed agency and 28 seed growers of private seed agency to identify the discriminating characteristics between seed growers producing seed for public and private seed producing agencies. Private seed producing agencies were under taking only seed production of paddy, wheat and pea crops where as public seed producing agencies under taking seed production of many more crops. The average size of operational holding was 19.02 ha and 15.02 ha per farm in case of wheat seed growers of public and private seed producing agencies, respectively. Paddy, wheat and sugarcane were the three major crops adopted by the seed growers in which they put more than 80 percent of the total cropped area. It was found that the seed growers allocated all most all area of wheat cultivation to seed production and only about 2 percent of the total cropped area they allocated for commercial wheat cultivation in both groups of the seed growers. Only six socio-economic characteristics, namely, number of family members (X1), value of farm assets (X6), per hectare seed cost of wheat seed production (X9), per hectare total operational cost of wheat seed production (X11), preference for reliability of seed agency (X12) and preference for full payment in one installment (X16) were found to be the significant discriminators between the two groups of seed growers. Therefore to make public seed producing agencies more competitive, efforts should be made to regulate the price of the seed supplied to seed growers, to ensure full payment of raw seed supplied by wheat seed growers in one installment after its supply and monitoring of execution of recommended cultivation practices for wheat seed production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 403-406
S A Jayaprakash, S Mohan and M Kannan
Depertment of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The effect of Bt cotton on the proteins, carbohydrates and lipids level of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) was studied after allowing the larvae to feed for 24 and 48 hours on RCH 2 BG II (Bollgard II), RCH 2 BG I (Bollgard I) and RCH 2 non Bt cotton and semi-synthetic diet separately. The investigation revealed that the H. armigera larvae fed with RCH 2 BG II Bt cotton had lesser quantity of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids followed by the larvae fed with RCH 2 BG I and RCH 2 non Bt cotton. H. armigera larvae consumed semi-synthetic diet assimilated higher quantity of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 407-408
Virendra Singh Tanwar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Borkhera Baran Road, Kota - 324 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
An incubation study was carried out to investigate the release of nitrogen in soil. Three different types of organic manures with fertilizers and neem coated urea are used in laboratory incubation method. Mineralization in Poultry manure and neem coated urea were significantly better than other treatments. Both the forms of nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N) were increased up to 60 days then after it was decreased. The nitrogen release mainly depends on the soil pH, moisture content and environmental factor.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 409-415
M Raja Naik and K Ajith Kumar*
Horticultural Research Station (Dr. Y.S.R HU), Anantharajupet - 516 105, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Pomology and Floriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala, India
Abstract
The investigation was carried out to study the Influence of plant growth promoters and growing systems on growth, flowering and nutrient content of Dendrobium cv. Earsakul. Results revealed that, among growth parameters, plant height, number of shoots per plant, girth of shoot and internodal length was highest in the treatment (T3). Number of leaves per plant was highest in the treatment (T4) irrespective of the age of the plants. In T × S interaction, number of leaves per plant was the highest in the treatment combination (T4S2). Regarding flower characters, the treatment (T4) resulted in longer spike (31.34 cm), more number of flowers per spike (6.54) and longer vase life (30.00 days), whereas, the treatment (T6) was the best with respect to number of spikes per plant (2.62) in six month old plants. In three year old plants, the treatment (T4) was the best with respect to number of spikes (2.63) and vase life (28.26 days) whereas; length of the spike (30.46 cm) and number of flowers (5.08) were the highest in the treatment (T6). Regarding nutrient content, highest N, P and K contents in six month old plants were recorded in the treatment (T4). Whereas, (T3) recorded highest N and P contents in three year old plants. The interaction treatment (T4S2) recorded highest N, P and K contents in six month old plants. Among systems of growing, plants grown in top ventilated polyhouse (S2) had maximum influence on growth, flowering and nutrient.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 416-418
G Vinay Kumar and V Satya Priya Lalitha*
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh, India *Sugarcane Research Station (ANGRAU), Vuyyuru, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A total of eleven sugarcane clones along with two standard checks was tested during 2013-14 season in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Sugarcane Research Station, Vuyyuru, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, situated at an altitude of 6.0 mt above mean sea level, 16°22' N latitude and 80°50' E longitude, to study variability parameters for yield components, juice quality traits, cane yield and CCS yield. Observations were recorded on cane yield components namely; number of germinants at 35 DAP/plot, shoot population at 90 DAP/plot, shoot population at 120 DAP/plot, stalk population at 180 DAP/plot, stalk population at 240 DAP/plot, number of millable canes at harvest, length of millable cane at harvest, diameter of millable cane at harvest, single stalk weight at harvest, cane yield (kg/plot) and sugar yield (kg/plot). Percent Brix at 10th month, percent sucrose at 10th month, percent purity at 10th month, percent CCS at 10th month and percent fibres at 10th month were considered for observations on juice quality traits. Ranges of variability for different characters were also assessed. Wide range of variation was observed for cane yield, shoot population at 90 DAP, shoot population at 120 DAP, stalk population at 240 DAP and number of millable cane where as among juice quality traits and percent purity at 10th month had recorded maximum range of variation. Moderate genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were exhibited by CCS yield, cane yield, shoot population at 90 DAP, number of millable canes at harvest and single cane weight at harvest. Among quality characters lowest values for both coefficients were recorded by percent fiber at 10th month. Maximum values for heritability (%) along with high genetic advance (%) was recorded for shoot population at 90 DAP, number of millable canes at harvest, single cane weight at harvest, cane yield and CCS yield. Whereas percent fiber at 10th month showed the minimum values for both heritability and genetic advance, indicating the improvement of traits viz number of millable canes at harvest, single cane weight at harvest, cane yield and CCS yield by means of straight selection is possible whereas for percent fiber at 10th month the improvement of this character is difficult.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 419-421
Amit Dixit and Okesh Chandrakar
Depertment of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out to the studies on ompact of integrated nutrient management on the yield performance of summer okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) In northern hills of Chhattisgarh was conducted in summer season in a randomized block design with nine treatments, to assess the effect of (Azotobactor, Phosphobacteria) and chemical fertilizers along with vermicompost. The maximum plant height (148.14 cm), leaf area (429.18 cm2), number of nodes (38.32), fruit length (18.44 cm), fruit girth (1.61 cm), single fruit weight (18.70 g) and plant biomass-fresh weight (548.74 q ha-1), were observed in the treatment T7 receiving FYM @ 12 t ha-1 + RDF 75% + Vermicompost 25%. The maximum number of fruits per plant was recorded with (FYM @ 12 t ha-1 + RDF 75% + Azotobacter 25%). Application of higher dose of fertilizers increased the fruit yield of okra 228.38 q ha-1. The study led to a conclusion, that the maximum growth parameters, highest yield and yield attributing characters of okra could be achieved by integrated nutrient management.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 422-425
Kamla Gandharv, Navneet Kumar Mishra, Damint Thawait and N K Choubey
Depertment of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Results revealed that, FYM @ 5 t ha-1 (F1) has significant impact on dry matter accumulation of crop, total tillers m-2 and effective tillers m-2. Among weed management practices, hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS (W7) produced significantly highest plant height, dry matter accumulation, total number of tillers meter-2, leaf area, leaf area index, number of effective tillers meter-2, test weight (g), crop growth rate, absolute growth rate. Highest grain yield (4.21 t ha-1), straw yield (5.52 t ha-1) and harvest index (51.54%) was recorded under hand weeding twice at 25 and 45 DAS (W7), followed by chemical weeding with bispyribac sodium @ 20 g ha-1 25 DAS (W1), gave grain yield (4.03 t ha-1), straw yield (5.25 t ha-1) and harvest index (51.37%). The lowest was recorded under unweeded check (W8). The highest economic return in terms of gross income (` 42949.00) were obtained from hand weeding twice 25 and 45 DAS (W7), highest net income (` 26063.00) and B:C ratio (1.69) were obtained under chemical weeding with bispyribac sodium @ 20 g ha-1 25 DAS (W1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 426-429
Ch Ramasri, V Vijaya Lakshmi, B Vimala* and Ch Anil Kumar**
Post Graduate and Research Centre (ANGRAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 30, Telangana, India *College of Food Science and Technology (ANGRAU), Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh, India **Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SVVU), Lam Farm, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the proximate and sensory parameters of health mix on different treatments that viz T1 (ragi-80, green gram-20), T2 (ragi-60, foxtail-20, green gram-20), T3 (ragi-40, foxtail-40, green gram-20), T4 (ragi-40, foxtail-20, green gram-40) each replicated four times. Results shows that fat content was highest in T3 (2.14%) whereas lowest in T1 (0.76%). The protein content of health mix was increased from 9.57% (T1) to 16.72% (T4) where as in the case of carbohydrate content decreases from 80.56% (T1) to 73.56 (T4). Higher moisture was recorded in T1 (8.6%) followed by T3 (8.36%). But among the treatments (T3) shows highest score (4.1 ± 0.5) compared to T1 (3.9 ± 0.7), T2 (3.1 ± 0.87) T4 (3.9 ± 0.73) with respect to overall acceptability in sensory evaluation of health mix. Among the four treatments T3 has scored better due to its balanced composition that 40% ragi, 40% foxtail and 20% green gram. It has significantly effect on the fat, protein, moisture, carbohydrate, ash and crude fiber percentages. These factors were noticed as 2.14, 14.29, 0.46, 8.36, 74.99, 0.210 and 0.62, respectively. So among the treatment T3 has very effective and efficient balance treatment for the preparation of health mix and it is suitable to meet the nutrition requirements of all age groups especially to adolescent age group.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 430-435
Bhupesh Joshi, Navneet Rana and Akkabathula Nithish
Depertment of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Field investigations were conducted during kharif season 2013 at the experimental field of Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh to the screening of pigeonpea germplasm against the pod borer complex under field conditions exhibited that the medium duration pigeonpea germplasm were attacked by the Maruca vitrata, Helicoverpa armigera, Exelastis atomosa and Melanagromyza obtusa. However, infestation of Helicoverpa armigera was high in medium duration pigeonpea germplasm. On the basis of overall larval population, percent pod damage, percent grain damage, pest susceptibility rating and grain yield of pigeonpea germplasm, it was observed that the germplasm ICP 6996 showed minimum larval population, minimum pod damage, minimum grain damage, least pest susceptibility rating and gave maximum grain yield. This may be either due to the germplasm inheritance character of producing higher yield against pod borer complex or due to the capacity to tolerant damage, without showing any reduction in yield. The other germplasm in their increasing order of pod borer complex susceptibility over ICP 6996 were 6999, ICP 7391, Rajeevlochan, ICP 7374, ICPL 89117, ICP 7004, ICP 7005, ICP 6994, ICP 7405, ICP 7393, ICP 7379, ICP 7003, ICP 7398, ICP 7373 ICP 7387, ICP 7404, ICP 7406, ICP 7492 and ICP 7409
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 436-437
Anupama Xalxo, L K Srivastava, V N Mishra, D K Solanki and Madhulika Singh*
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *Depertment of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2012-13 in inceptisols of Surguja hills zone of Chhattisgarh to estimate the nutritional requirement, efficiencies of fertilizer, soil test and organic source (FYM) to estimate the fertilizer requirement for varying yield goals of potato crop based on soil test levels using INM approach. Potato crop required 0.42 kg N, 0.11 kg P and 0.45 kg K for one quintal tuber production. Fertilizer and soil test efficiencies estimated were 31.27 and 14.39 percent, respectively for N, 22.06 and 48.94 percent, respectively for P and 82.93 and 17.78 percent, respectively for K. The FYM contribution in terms of N, P and K were estimated 8.33, 3.50 and 19.60 percent, respectively. Based on these basic parameters, fertilizer adjustment equation for N, P and K were evolved for different yield targets of potato based on soil nutrients level using FYM as organic component in INM.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 438-442
Navneet Kumar Mishra, Kamla Gandharv, Damini Thawait and Arti Guhey
Depertment of Plant Physiology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experimental site was located at Instructional cum-Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh during kharif 2010. Among the breeding lines R-RF-90, Mahamaya and MTU-1010 ranked relatively superior regarding there morpho- physiological and yield traits. Least reduction in yield was noticed in R-RF-89 and Vandana in rainfed and transplanted (TSD) condition. R-RF-79 and Mahamaya showed stability in relative water content and membrane stability. R-RF-88 (38.75) followed by R-RF-93 (42.11) and R-RF-86 (41.44) exhibited highest SPAD value of chlorophyll content at flowering stage. Among the breeding lines R-RF-90, Mahamaya and MTU-1010 ranked relatively superior regarding there morpho- physiological and yield traits. Least reduction in yield was noticed in R-RF-89 and Vandana in rainfed and transplanted (TSD) condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 438-442
Navneet Kumar Mishra, Kamla Gandharv, Damini Thawait and Arti Guhey
Depertment of Plant Physiology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experimental site was located at Instructional cum-Research Farm, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh during kharif 2010. Among the breeding lines R-RF-90, Mahamaya and MTU-1010 ranked relatively superior regarding there morpho- physiological and yield traits. Least reduction in yield was noticed in R-RF-89 and Vandana in rainfed and transplanted (TSD) condition. R-RF-79 and Mahamaya showed stability in relative water content and membrane stability. R-RF-88 (38.75) followed by R-RF-93 (42.11) and R-RF-86 (41.44) exhibited highest SPAD value of chlorophyll content at flowering stage. Among the breeding lines R-RF-90, Mahamaya and MTU-1010 ranked relatively superior regarding there morpho- physiological and yield traits. Least reduction in yield was noticed in R-RF-89 and Vandana in rainfed and transplanted (TSD) condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 443-446
P Jalender, K Anitha*, Y Prasanthi* and Bharati N Bhat
Depertment of Plant Pathology, Prof. Jayashankar Telanaga State Agriculture University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is most devastating disease in tomato, as it can completely destroy the crop. Effect of CMV on yield depends on number of factors, including plant age at the time of infection and environmental conditions. In the present study thirty tomato genotypes/cultivars along with susceptible check Arka Vikas were screened for resistance to CMV by mechanical inoculation with purified CMV inoculum under green house conditions. Significant reduction in plant height, number of branches, numbers of flowers and number of fruits were noticed due to inoculation of CMV in most of the genotypes compared to control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 447-449
S Sandeep, M Bharathi, V Narsimha Reddy* and K B Eswari
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *Maize Research Centre, Agricultural Research Institute (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India
Abstract
In an attempt to asses the direct and indirect contribution of yield components to grain yield in certain inbreds of maize the present study was carried out at college farm, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif, 2013 with sixty inbreds lines of maize. Path coefficient analysis revealed that ear girth contributed maximum direct effect on grain yield per plant followed by days to 50% silking, ear height, shelling percentage, plant height, number of kernels per row, ear length, 100 seed weight, days to maturity, number of kernel rows per ear and days to 50% tasseling. The Highest indirect effects of ear length, number of kernel rows per ear, ear height, plant height, number of kernels per row and 100 seed weight were showed on grain yield via ear girth.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 450-453
Bindiya Painkra, L K Srivastava and V N Mishra
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidhyalya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
This experiment was carried out at the Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh in during 2013. This experiment was done as strip plot design based with three replications. Grain and straw yields were found significantly higher under rice genotypes (G1) CB-07-701-252 than all other rice genotypes. The total N, P and K uptake of rice genotype recorded highest in (G1) CB-07-701-252. Other genotypes were performed either sequentially decreased significantly or at par in the yield and N, P, K uptake. The effect of ZnSO4 application on yield and N, P, K uptake were found significant. It was maximum with the application of ZnSO4 20 kg ha-1 as basal dose + ZnSO4 0.25% as foliar (5 kg ha-1), which was at par with that of basal application of ZnSO4 (M1) as compared to control (M0).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 454-459
D Harshitha, Y M Gopala, K Nishitha and B Krishnamurthy
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in Bakery and Value Addition Centre, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, during the year 2013-2014. The results revealed that the mean score of the trainees before the test was 15.25 and after the test the mean score was 19.83 with an increase in mean score of 4.58 (18.00%). The chi-square value of 37.12 indicates the significant difference in the mean value of knowledge score during pre and post-test. It is observed that training, mass media exposure, risk orientation and empathy was found to be significantly related at five per cent level of significance with the knowledge gained by the trainees. Whereas, the variables such as age, information seeking behaviour, level of aspiration, entrepreneurial behaviour, achievement motivation, economic motivation and scientific orientation had significant relationship at one percent level with the knowledge gained by the trainees. The results revealed that 68.15 percent of the variation in the knowledge level of the trainees explained by all the 11 independent variables included in the study. Majority of the trainees (95.0%) expressed learning through Bakery and Value Addition Centre is equivalent to face to face interaction as the major advantage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 460-462
Chandu Lal Thakur, S N Khajanji, Lekh Ram Sahu and Dujeshwar
Depertment of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at the Instructional cum Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, (Chhattisgarh) during Kharif season 2013. The soil of experimental field was clay (Vertisols) in texture, locally known as “Kanhar” which was low, medium and high in available N, P2O5 and K2O, respectively. The experiment comprised four row spacing’s viz 45 cm × 5 cm, 30 cm × 5 cm, 30 cm × 7.5 cm, and 30 cm × 10 cm and three varieties namely, JS 97-52, JS 93-05 and JS 335. The trial was conducted in a split-plot design with crop geometry as a main-plot and variety in sub-plot. The treatments were replicated three times. The crop was supplied with the recommended dose of fertilizer @ 25 kg N, 80 kg P2O5, 50 K2O and 40 kg Sulfur. The result revealed that yield component such as number of pod plant-1, number of seed pod-1 and 100 seed weight were recorded highest with the treatment of 30 cm × 5 cm which ultimately gave the highest seed yield, net return and B: C ratio. However, it was found at par with 30 cm × 10 cm and 30 cm × 7.5 cm. Among the three varieties, JS 335 was found to produce significantly higher number of pod plant-1, number of seed pod-1, 100 seed weight, seed yield, net return and B:C ratio. However, it was recorded at par with variety JS 97-52. The interaction between crop geometry and varieties revealed that crop geometry 30 cm × 10 cm with JS 335 followed by 30 cm × 5 cm with JS 97-52 and 30 cm × 7.5 cm with variety JS 97-52 recorded significantly higher seed yield, net return and B:C ratio as compared to other treatment combination.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 463-465
T R Anuroopa, H P Sudeep, Shivakumar, B Divya and K S Shivaraj Patil
Depertment of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, Mudigere - 577 132, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was laid out to evaluate sun drying method for better quality of dried carnation var. Soto was carried out in the Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, Mudigere, Chickmagalore district, Karnataka during the year 2011-12. The flowers embedding in silica gel under shade drying + sun drying is best in retaining all the quality parameters of dried carnation flower var. Soto. The maximum fresh weight (7.15 g/flower) was recorded by flowers subjected to drying at shade + sun drying with black cotton cloth. While least fresh weight (4.33 g/flower) was noticed by the flowers subjected to sun drying + white cotton cloth. Maximum moisture loss (78.87%) was recorded by the flowers dried under sun drying + black cotton cloth; while minimum moisture loss (51.32%) was recorded by the flowers dried under sun drying + white cotton cloth. The flowers dried under shade + sun drying scored the highest sensory points of 3.00 and was significantly superior over other treatments. Whereas the flowers dried under sun drying + white cotton cloth showed poor acceptability (2.13).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 466-468
Omesh Thakur and G D Sahu
Depertment of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to estimate cost economics of tomato grown under fertigation with black polyethylene mulch at the Horticulture Instructional cum Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi vishwavidyalaya, Raipur during the year 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with five replications and four treatments allocating black mulching with different fertigation levels viz 80%, 100%, 120% RDF through fertigation. The results indicated that the growth character i e plant height, stem girth, number of branches per plant were found superior in 100% of RDF through fertigation. The yield-attributing character i e number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit diameter were recorded higher in 100 percent level of fertigation. Based on the economic analysis, application of 100 percent RDF through fertigation recorded the highest benefit:cost ratio than the other treatments and it was adjudged to be the best nutrient management practice for tomato crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 469-470
Damini Thawait, Sanjay Kumar Dwivedi, Srishti Pandey and Manish Kumar Sharma
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiment was carried out at Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur during 2012. The treatment (T2) planting of 2-3 seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 × 25cm in the age of 12 days recorded significantly highest i e root volume (94.67), root dry weight (24.67) along with highest grain yield (3.82) and straw yield (7.79).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 2 ; 471-472
Chandramani Sahu, Sanjay K Ghirtlahre, Yashpal Singh Nirala, Jayalaxmi Ganguli and R N Ganguli
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Studies on the biology of the leaf skipper butterfly on turmeric conducted under laboratory conditions at Raipur Chhattisgarh, revealed that the eggs were laid singly on upper surface or on the margin of young leaves. The eggs were pale brown in colour. The neonate larvae measured about 3.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm in width and after completing five instars length reached up to 40-45 mm and 4 to 4.5 mm width. Pre-pupal stage was noticed prior to pupation in which the full grown caterpillar stopped feeding and their body shortened, shrinked and a white waxy substance spread over the pupation site. Pre-pupal period lasted for 1-2 days. Chrysalis type of pupation took place inside the rolled leaf. The average pupal period was observed to be of 7-10 days. The adult butterfly was brownish black in colour with eight white spots on the fore wings and one large spot on the hind wings. The development from egg to adult was completed in about 28 to 30 days.


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