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Volume - 6 - May - June 2015
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 473-477
Damini Thawait, S K Dwivedi and Srishti Pandey and Amit Kumar Patel
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The optimum seedlings per hill ensure the plants to grow in their both aerial and underground parts through efficient utilization of solar radiation, water and nutrients. When the planting densities exceed the optimum level, competition among plants becomes severe and consequently the plant growth slows down and the grain yield decreases. As the tiller production in scented rice is comparatively low and most of them are low yielding. So, it is essential to determine suitable seedling densities per hill to maximize their yield. A thick population crop may have limitations in the maximum availability of these factors. It is, therefore, necessary to determine the optimum density of plant population per unit area for obtaining maximum yields.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 478-485
Shaista Nazir and Mushtaq A Wani
Division of Soil Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Kinetic studies on soil potassium release can contribute to a better understanding of K availability to plants. Soils vary in their non-exchangeable potassium (K+) content and their ability to supply K+ to crops. The rate of non-exchangeable K+ release from soils can significantly influence K+ fertility of soils. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of spatial variability of K+ release in the soils in Kashmir. The kinetics of K+ release by successive extractions with 0.01 M oxalic acid was studied on seven surface soils in triplicate. The kinetics of K+ release from soils consisted of two phases and was best described by elovich, parabolic diffusion and power function models. In these soils the release of K+ from non-exchangeable sources appears to be important and needs to be considered as part of the recommendation procedure. Geostatistical analyses indicated a moderate degree of spatial dependence in extractable K (EK) and the initial rate of K+ release (intercept) of parabolic diffusion model. By contrast, the release rate (slope) of parabolic diffusion equation showed random and pure nugget variance indicating no spatial correlation at this scale of observation. The spatial distributions of the EK prior to K+ application and the initial rate of K+ release can be used for variable rate application to maintain an adequate K+ status for crop production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 486-490
S Jyothsna, A Appala Swamy and M Lal Ahamed
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Naira - 532185, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A study was conducted to analyze the genotype × environment interaction effect on yield and its components in roselle grown in three environments (dates of sowing) by using AMMI analysis. The mean square were significant for genotypes, environments for the characters viz plant height, basal stem diameter, green plant weight, and fibre yield per plant. Among the environments, sowing on third week of June was found to most suitable for plant height, basal stem diameter, green plant weight and fibre yield per plant as indicated by high mean value of IPCA 1 and low value of IPCA 2. The genotypes namely ER-1, R-93, AS-80-31 and AHS-160 recorded high mean but low interaction effects found to be adaptable for all environments for most of the characters. Whereas, the genotypes CRIJAFR-2 and JRRM-9-1 exhibited high interaction effect and are suitable for specific environments. As per AMMI stability values (ASV), the genotypes HS-4288, AMV-4 and CRIJAFR-2 were found to be stable for fibre yield whereas the genotype HS-4288 found to be stable for plant height and green plant weight also.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 491-494
H C Swathi, R N Bhaskar and Chikkalingaiah
Depertment of Sericulture, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Flacherie is a complicated disease in silkworm caused either by different types of bacteria or viruses or due to their mixed infection. These pathogens prevail in the infected silkworm and rearing environment during all the seasons. Bacterial disease of silkworm causes significant reduction of silk production leading to huge economic loss. In this study the flacherie diseased samples of Bombyx mori were collected and the pathogenic bacteria which caused flacherie disease were isolated and cultured in nutrient agar plates. As per the results total of 40 major types of isolates were successfully collected from the surface, mid gut and haemolymph of the fourth and fifth instar silkworm larvae. Among 40, four identified as Pseudomonas fluorescence, seven as Bacillus cereus, five Bacillus subtilis, six Staphylococous aureus, six as Streptococcus pneumonia, ten Providencia rettgeri and two Klbsiella cloacae based on the morphological and biochemical characterization. Out of 40 identified groups 30 isolates were showed positive response to glucose fragmentation followed by gram staining and motility (26) and remaining isolates were also found positive to the other biochemical tests conducted for identification of bacteria.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 495-498
Mekala Srikanth, S G Bharad, N R Potdukhe and B Ravinayak
Depertment of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 001, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
495-498
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 499-501
T Thilagavathi, S Kanchana, P Banumathi, G Hemalatha, C Vanniarajan*, M Sundar** and M Ilamaran
Depertment of Food Science and Nutrition, *Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, **Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Home Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
This study was carried out to determine the antioxidant activities, neutraceutical properties of selected millets (kodo millet, little millet, pearl millet, proso millet) and pulses (horse gram and soybean). Among the millets and pulses, little millet contained (373.67 mg GAE/100 g) higher content of polyphenols than kodo millet, proso millet, pearl millet (368.77, 361.87 and 333.63 mg GAE/100 g). Soybean and horse gram contained 171.54 and 143.46 mg GAE/100 g, respectively. Antioxidant activity was high in pearl millet 83.2 mg/100g) followed by kodo millet, little millet, proso millet (70.82, 67.63 and 65.74 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activity of soybean and horse gram was 35.14 and 33.27 mg/100 g, respectively. The tannin content was high in proso millet and soybean (22.67 and 34.47 mg TAE/100 g) than kodo millet, little millet, pearl millet, horse gram (22.53, 17.62 and 13.45 and 16.12 mg TAE/100 g). The phytate content was maximum in kodo millet and soybean and the values were 35.17 and 36.58 mg/100 g, respectively whereas pearl millet, proso millet, little millet and horse gram contained 33.42, 27.17, 24.42 and 10.23 mg/100 g, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 502-504
Hitendra Kumar, S N Dikshit, Bhavesh Patel and Phanindra Kumar Patel
Depertment of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out during the year 2012-13 in rainy season at Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four replication and eleven treatments. One year old shoots of cultivar “Allahabad Safeda” about 60 cm length having pencil thickness, were selected for the experiment. Air-layering was done with eleven treatments viz T0 (Control, No IBA treatment), T1 (IBA 1500 ppm as powder form), T2 (IBA 2000 ppm as powder form), T3 (IBA 2500 ppm as powder form), T4 (IBA 3000 ppm as powder form), T5 (IBA 3500 ppm as powder form), T6 (IBA 1500 ppm as Lanolin paste, T7 (IBA 2000 ppm as Lanolin paste), T8 (IBA 2500 ppm as Lanolin paste), T9 (IBA 3000 ppm as Lanolin paste), T10 (IBA 3500 ppm as Lanolin paste). Plant growth regulator (IBA) and method of application promoted rooting of air-layers. Treatment T9 (IBA 3000 ppm as Lanolin paste) stimulated maximum root growth and development. This treatment also increased the number of primary branches, length of primary branches, diameter of primary branches and number of leaves and also increased survival percentage of guava air-layers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 505-507
S P Prajna and V D Gasti
Depertment of Vegetable Science, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi - 591 218, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Forty five okra genotypes evaluated in randomized complete block design with two replications. Fourteen morphological characters were measured on randomly selected plants for the analysis of path analysis. Fruit yield per plant showed indirect positive effect via plant height at 45 days after sowing (DAS) and internodal length at 90 DAS. Fruit yield per plant it also showed significant and negative indirect effect via number of fruits per plant and number of leaves per plant at 45 DAS.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 508-512
C M Balai, T C Balai, R K Bairwa*, P C Regar and Mani Ram**
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (MPUAT), Badal Mahal, Shashtri Colony, Dungarpur - 314 001, Rajasthan, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra (MPUAT), Nainwa Road Bundi, Rajasthan, India **Krishi Vigyan Kendra (MPUAT), Dhoinda, Rajsamand, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Dungarpur is one of the most backward district of Rajasthan (India) having 69.5% of area as rainfed. Black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper), gram (Cicer arietinum Linn) and summer green gram (Vigna radiata) are the three major pulse crops grown in the district. Farm Science Centre known as Krishi Vigyan Kendra laid down Front Line Demonstrations on these three pulse crops under RKVY project by introducing some new varieties and applying scientific package of practices in their cultivation. The productivity and economic returns of black gram, gram and summer green gram in improved technologies were calculated and compared with the corresponding farmer's practices (local checks). All the three pulse crops recorded higher gross returns, net return and benefit cost ratio in improved technologies as compared to the plots where farmers were using traditional practices in their cultivation. It is suggested that location-specific integrated approaches would be needed to bridge the productivity gap of the pulse crops grown in the district.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 513-516
Srikanth Thippani, K B Eswari, P Madhukar and K Gopala Krishna Murthy
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agriculture University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
Genetic divergence is an efficient tool for the selection of parents used in hybridization programme. In the present study, sixty greengram genotypes were raised at college farm, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agriculture University during kharif 2012 to identify diverse genotypes. These were evaluated for eleven yield and yield attributing characters using D2 analysis, to study the diversity pattern among the genotypes. Based on the analysis, the genotypes were grouped into eight clusters. Cluster I had maximum number of 21 genotypes followed by clusters II and IV with 15 genotypes each. Cluster V had five genotypes, while cluster III, VI, VII and VIII had single genotype each. Maximum inter cluster D2 value was observed between cluster VII and VIII (459.86) followed by cluster VI and VII (398.84). The greater the distance between the two clusters indicates wider the genetic diversity between genotypes. Hence, TMV-37 genotype of cluster VII had wider diversity with variety LGG-479 in cluster VIII. The intra cluster distance was maximum in cluster IV (81.91) followed by cluster IV (75.50) indicates hybridization involving genotypes within the same clusters may result in good cross combinations. Among the eleven traits studied maximum contribution towards genetic divergence was exhibited by seed yield per plant (50.00%), number of pods per plant (19.44%), 100-seed weight (17.63%) followed by number of primary branches per plant (5.03), number of clusters per plant (2.66) and plant height (2.03). Hence, seed yield per plant, number of pods per plant and 100-seed weight together contribute 87.07% towards total divergence. Therefore, these characters may be given importance during hybridization programme. The cluster VIII has high mean values for days to maturity, plant height, number of clusters per plant and seed yield per plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 517-520
B G Shekara, H C Lohithaswa, N M Chikkarugi, M R Krishnappa and N Manasa
All India Coordinated Research Project on Forage Crops, Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAS), V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Vishweswaraiah Canal Farm, Mandya (Karnataka), to know the potential of forage crops in rice fallows under varied nitrogen levels. The experiment consisted of 3 cropping system viz C1: Fodder maize + Cowpea, C2: Fodder sorghum + Cowpea, C3: Fodder pearl millet + Cowpea as main plot treatments and 3 levels of nitrogen viz N1: 50% RDN, N2: 75% RDN and N3: 100% RDN as subplot treatments. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Pooled data of four years revealed that, among cropping system fodder Maize + Cowpea (1:1) recorded significantly higher green fodder (388.32 q ha-1), dry matter (86.92 q ha-1) and crude protein yield (6.94 q ha-1) and fetched higher net monetary returns (17677 ` ha-1). Application of 100% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) to different forage crops recorded significantly higher green fodder (363.78 q ha-1), dry matter (86.46 q ha-1) and crude protein yield (7.55 q ha-1) and fetched higher net monetary returns (17119 ` ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (2.54). The maize + cowpea cropping system supplemented with 100% RDN produced significantly higher green fodder (465.16 q ha-1) and dry matter (113.51 q ha-1). The interaction found significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 521-524
A Ramachandran and N S Venkataraman
Depertment of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Allelopathic effects of Tagetes erectus species have been widely reported and considered as a natural way for sustainable weed management. However, in most of these reports the aqueous leaf extracts have been evaluated. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tagetes erectus leaves against Parthenium hysterophorus weed. Laboratory study was conducted to investigate allelopathic effects of aqueous leaf extract of Tagetes erectus on seed germination, seedling growth, fresh and dry mass production of Parthenium hysterophorus. Different levels of T. erectus aqueous leaf extracts concentrations (25%, 50% and 75%) were used to test its effect on the test species. Results revealed significant allelopathic effects of aqueous leaf extract of T. erectus on seed germination, roots and shoot length, shoot and root biomass and biochemical parameters viz protein and chlorophyll content of P. hysterophorus. Therefore, it is possible to use aqueous leaf extracts for control of P. hysterophorus weed and it can be considered in management program of weed control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 525-528
Virendra Kumar Painkra, M A Khan, S Narbaria, S K Pradha and M L Sharma
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh in the year 2013-14. Most of the respondent’s soil type were Entisols (Goda-tikra soil) practising 2 to 3 ploughing, majority of respondents use to complete the sowing of black gram between 15th July to 15th August. Most of respondents used seed rate of 15.1 to 30 kg/ha. Majority of respondents were using deshi (unknown/local) varieties without seed treatments and were practising broadcast method of seed sowing. Farmers were using 800 kg/ha manure without using nitrogen fertilizers. About 72 percent respondents were not using phosphorus fertilizers, maximum of respondents were not using potassium and were not practising any weed control measure during the entire crop duration. Majority of respondents were not adopting any insect-pest-disease control measure in black gram cultivation. 65 percent respondents had adopted seed drying before storage. Highest adoption was found in time of sowing and full technological gap were recorded in disease control and irrigation management. Overall technological gap was found 60.1 percent while considering all 13 practices of black gram cultivation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 529-533
Yashlok Singh, P K Singh, V N Pathak*, S C Gaur** and L B Gaur***
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad - 224 229, Uttar Pradesh, India *Shri Murli Manohar Town Degree College, Ballia - 277 001, Uttar Pradesh, India **Baba Raghav Das (P/G) College, Deoria - 274 001, Uttar Pradesh, India ***Institute of Agricultural Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study was done for twelve characters under analysis of variance for design of experiment and estimates of general combining ability effects. Among crosses, lowest days to 50% flowering (90.30 days) of NDRK 2011-16 x Gujrat 70 and highest (105.70 days) of CSR 36 x Gujrat 70. But for gca effect early flowering was desirable. The desirable negative and significant gca effects were exhibited by the lines, NDRK 2011-16 (-4.15), CSR 36 (-2.34), NDRK 2011-18 (-1.85), NDRK 2011-13 (-0.75) and Sarjoo 52 (-0.10). The testers, Gujrat 70 (-1.82) and Pusa Sugandha 4 (-1.43) have desirable positive and significant gca effect, while the tester CSR 43 (0.78) was found to be poor general combiner for days to 50% flowering. In crosses, the harvest index is varied from 36.76% (NDRK 2011-17 x Pusa Sugandha 4) to 44.12% (NDRK 2011-16 x Gujrat 70). But for gca effect Among male lines, Pusa Sugandha 4 (1.88) exhibited highly significant and positive gca effects, while among female lines NDRK 2011-8 (2.03), NDRK 2011-16 (1.92), NDRK 2011-9 (1.22) and CSR 36 (0.61), recorded highly significant and positive gca effects for harvest-index.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 534-538
C Yasmin, K Venkaiah, Venureddy Challa*, G Venugopal and Laxmi Kashyap**
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present experiment was carried out with groundnut in randomized block design with four replications carried out since 1981 (30 years). The experiment comprised of 11 different sources of inorganic and organic fertilizers. The effect of different treatments were observed and noted that lower bulk density, higher percent pore space values and water holding capacity of the soil were recorded in FYM treatment at surface and sub surface soil. The textural class of the experiment was recorded as sandy loam. NPK + ZnSO4 + gypsum (T11) treatment recorded the higher hydraulic conductivity at both surface and sub surface soil and infiltration rate (7 cm hr-1). The highest pod yield of groundnut was recorded with NPK + ZnSO4 + gypsum (T11) (828), which was comparable with FYM alone (T2) (774), NPK + gypsum (T9) (767), P alone treated (T4) (743), N alone (T3) (738), NPK + lime (T10) (733) and NPK (T8) (722). Latter was comparable with N + P (T7) (690), K alone (T5) (678), gypsum alone treated (T6) (657) and control (T1) (635). From the results of this experiment, it could be concluded that NPK + ZnSO4 + gypsum and farm yard manure treatments improved the physical properties, which may lead to achieving higher yields.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 539-541
P Sakthivel, P Karuppuchamy and T Srinivasan
Depertment of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Leaf dip bioassay were carried out to assess the efficacy of three fungal pathogens viz Beauveria bassiana (1 x 108 spores/ml), Metarhizium anisopliae (1 x 108 spores/ml) and Verticillium lecanii (1 x 108 spores/ml) along with a standard check (Dimethoate 0.03% conc.) and a untreated control against papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus under in vitro conditions. The results of the experiments revealed that, though all the three fungal pathogens were effective in expressing pathogenecity against P. marginatus, V. lecanii alone showed significant mortality (37.93%) against nymphs of P. marginatus at 72 hours after treatment. The mean percent mortality of nymphs after 72 hours of treatment in V. lecanii was (37.93%) high followed by B. bassiana (33.93%) and M. anisopliae (31.80%). The mean percent mortality of adults after 72 hours of treatment were significantly high in V. lecanii treatment (37.47%) compared to B. bassiana (29.00%) and M. anisopliae (25.20%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 542-544
Ravindra Chavan, Amrutha T Joshi, Suresh S Patil, G M Hiremath and G N Maraddi
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The analysis of transaction cost and constraint was used in economic studies to find out the trend of a particular variable. Transaction cost and constraint in availing of subsidized agriculture credit in Gulbarga district was estimated using the tabular and garret ranking test. The necessary primary data about transaction cost and constraint in availing subsidized agriculture credit were collected from farmers who had availed SAC. The contractual cost accounted the major share for both the categories of farmers as well as for both the institutions. The percentage of the total transaction cost to the loan amount borrowed was higher in case of small farmers as compared to large farmers. Farmers faced many problems in availing SAC from both commercial and cooperative banks. In case of commercial banks, high transaction cost was a major constraint with a mean score of 71.40 and 75.60 for small and large farmers respectively. While in case of cooperative banks, insufficient credit limit was the major constraint with a mean score of 63.20 and 56.80 in small and large farmers followed by lengthy procedure involved in opening of bank account, collateral security, loan not available on time and high transaction cost are the other constraints.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 545-549
Shaivalini Chauhan, R K Bajpai, V N Mishra, L K Srivastava and Vedhika Sahu
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Field studies on target yield equation (TYE)-based integrated nutrient management in rice (Oryza sativa) was conducted to investigate its value in achieving target yields, improving nutrient utilization and soil nutrient status. Response of rice to fourteen selected treatment combinations of seven level of N, P, K and two levels of FYM. The fertilizer adjustment equations evolved during previous season for the Karma Mahsuri variety of rice in Vertisols was tested and fertilizer application with organic source (FYM) based on soil nutrients were nearly achieved with in exceptable limit of ± 10% variation. However, further refinement of the equations was tried using nutrients omission plot technique and basic parameters required for the formulation of the fertilizer equations were confirmed. Using basic data, fertilizer prescription equations and ready reckoner were developed for range of soil test values and desired yield targets for NPS alone and IPNS (NPS with FYM). Based on yield target, fertilizer adjustment equations for situation and site-specific fertilizer recommendations for rice have been evolved. The reproducibility of these recommendations has been verified by undertaking follow-up trials under farmers' field conditions. The results showed that fertilizer application based on yield target gave higher yields, net benefit and B:C ratio over the farmers' practice. The target yield approach was also found superior to fertilizer doses prescribed by the soil testing laboratories.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 550-553
S N Sabale, P V Mahatale and S S Tonchar
Depertment of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A field experiment entitled effect of post-emergence herbicide in kharif groundnut was conducted at Oilseed Research Unit Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (Maharashtra) during kharif season 2013-2014 to study the effect of different post emergence herbicides on weed management and yield of groundnut. With nine treatments of different post emergence herbicides. Therefore application of post emergence herbicide propaquizafop 10 EC @ 100 g a.i ha-1 recorded maximum weed control efficiency, lower weed count, lower dry matter and recorded highest number of pod plant-1, dry pod plot-1 (g), pod yield (kg ha-1), dry weight of haulm plot-1 (g), haulm yield (kg ha-1) and higher yield of kharif groundnut.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 554-556
Sainath Nagula, Biju Joseph, R Gladis and P Venkata Ramana*
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 522, Kerala, India *Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 654, Kerala, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Padannakkad, Kasaragod, Kerala, India during 2013-2014 to study the effect of silicon and boron fertilization on yield, nutrient uptake and economics of rice. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design replicated thrice with different sources of silicon and boron as soil and foliar application. Rice variety Aishwarya was used as the test crop. Foliar application of silicon and boron as potassium silicate 0.5% spray and borax 0.5% spray was more efficient on improving the content and uptake of silicon and boron compared to soil application of calcium silicate and borax. The combined application of potassium silicate 0.5% spray + borax 0.5% spray was significantly superior with respect to yield (grain and straw) and yield attributes of rice. The same treatment recorded the maximum net return and B:C ratio.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 557-562
G Venugopal, S H K Sharma, Aziz Qureshi*, Venureddy Challa** and Laxmi Kashyap**
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India *Directorate of Oil Seed Research (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India **Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, IGKV, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Impact of long term continuous fertilization and manuring on the practices in sorghum-sunflower cropping system on enzyme activity and organic carbon fraction in an Alfisol was studied by monitoring the long term fertilizer experiment on sorghum-sunflower cropping system at the research farm of Directorate of Oilseed Research in its 15th cropping cycle. The soil is sandy loam in texture and at the initiation of the experiment in 1999 was slightly alkaline, non saline and medium in organic carbon content. Treatments consist of different combinations of nutrients Control, N (60-0-0), NP (60-30-0), 100% NPK (60-30-30), 50% NPK (30-15-15), 150% NPK (90-45-45), NPK + FYM (5 t ha-1), NPK + CR (Crop residues of sunflower), NPK (S @ 20 kg ha-1 through gypsum application in rabi), NPK (B @ 1 kg ha-1 through borax applied in rabi in alternate years), NPK (Zn @ 5 kg ha-1 through ZnO applied in rabi), NPK (S + B + Zn) in randomized block design with 3 replications. Integrated nutrient management practice by applying FYM or crop residues along with optimum NPK fertilizers (NPK + FYM and NPK + CR) increased the enzyme (urease, dehydrogenase and phosphatise) activity showed an increasing trend with the age of the crop till flowering stage and exhibited highest activity at flowering. There after the activity decreased towards maturity. The highest enzyme activity was recorded in the treatment of NPK + FYM and NPK + CR at all the stages which increased the activity significantly over that in 100% NPK. Among the graded levels of NPK, super optimal dose of NPK recorded significantly higher enzyme activity than lower levels. The super optimal dose of fertilizer treatment (150% NPK) recorded lower activity of enzymes than manure treatments (NPK + FYM, NPK + CR). Optimum balanced application of nutrients (100% NPK) resulted in significant increase in enzyme activity over imbalanced fertilization (N, NP treatments). Integrated nutrient management by incorporation of crop residues along with 100% NPK also followed the NPK + FYM in improving the soil properties, nutrient uptake and crop yield and it was significantly superior to application of only fertilizers (100% NPK).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 563-566
Akkabathula Nithish, Bhupesh Joshi, Jayaram C S and Kariyanna B
Depertment of Agricultural Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted at the Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during kharif season 2013-2014. The bio-efficacy of eight newer insecticidal molecules, acetamiprid 20SP @ 20 g a.i/ha, indoxacarb 14.5SC @ 50g a.i/ha, acephate 75SP @ 750g a.i/ha, spinosad 45SC @ 73g a.i/ha, emamectin benzoate 5WSG @ 9.5g a.i/ha, flubendiamide 20WG @ 50g a.i/ha, rynaxipyr 18.5SC @ 30g a.i/ha and thiamethoxam 25WG @ 75g a.i/ha each at two sprays against gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera in pigeonpea were evaluated under field conditions including control as check. Management of gram pod borer by newer insecticides, spinosad maintained its lethal effect with least pod damage of 6.00% which was at par with indoxacarb (6.14%), whereas maximum pod damage of 10.03% was recorded with flubendiamide. Pod damage in untreated control was 11.30%. Among the treatments, the minimum grain damage of 2.10% was recorded with spinosad and indoxacarb treated plots, which were at par with emamectin benzoate (2.63%), whereas the maximum grain damage of 4.26% was recorded in flubendiamide. Grain damage in untreated control was 5.40%. The highest grain yield (1360.54 kg/ha) was recorded in spinosad 45SC which was at par with indoxacarb 14.5SC (1207.48 kg/ha) emamectin benzoate 5WSG (1139.44 kg/ha) and acetamiprid 20SP (1122.44 kg/ha), while the lowest grain yield (1037.41 kg/ha) was recorded in flubendiamide 20WG and the untreated control resulted least (816.32 kg/ha) grain yield in comparison to newer insecticides treated plots.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 567-570
Netravati, Girish T Limbikai*, Bhaganna Haralayya and M Y Ullasa**
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, **Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga - 577 225, Karnataka, India *Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Significant heterotic effects in positive direction were expressed for all the eight yield and yield contributing characters. Most of the high heterotic combination was between diverse parents. Both crosses 9 x 5 and 8 x 7 exhibited desirable negative and significant heterotic effects for the characters, days to 50% tasseling and days to 50% silking. Cross 14 x 10 and 8 x 4 recorded positive heterosis over MP, BP and SH for the character plant height and ear length, respectively and crosses 9 x 5, 10 x 7, 4 x 3 for number of kernels per row and 8 x 7 for number of rows per ear and crosses like 4 x 3 and 9 x 4 recorded significant positive heterosis in desirable direction over MP, BP, and SH. The crosses, 9 x 5, 10 x 7, 4 x 3, 8 x 7 and 14 x 10 had exhibited highest significant heterosis over MP, BP and SH for grain yield per hectare.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 571-572
Anand G Patil, Sayeed Almas R Mulla and Mohammed Farooq
Depertment of Horticulture, College of Horticulture (UHS Bagalkot), Halladakeri Farm, Bidar - 585 403, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Bidar during rabi season consequently for three years (2009-2011) to the impact of integrated nutrient management on carrot yield. The application of 50% RDF + 25% N through FYM + 25% N through vermicompost resulted significantly higher root yield of carrot. The only application of 100% RDF adversely affects the soil heath, instead of using inorganic fertilizers alone, combined usage of organic manure with inorganic fertilizers not only help to improve the yield of carrot but also help in conserving the soil health. The increased uses of organic inputs are helpful not only for human health but also for plant and soil health.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 573-575
Raj Narain Singh and Ranjan Kumar Singh*
Bihar Agricultural Management and Training Institute, Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Bihar, P/O B. V. College, Jagdeo Path, Patna - 800 014, Bihar, India *Netarhat Residential School, Netarhat, Latehar - 835 218, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
Vegetable based crop rotation was carried out during 2009-2011 at Rafiganj block of Aurangabad district of Bihar on 6 year old Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) cv. NA-7, to find out suitable vegetable based crop rotation and its impact on plant growth (plant height, plant spread, trunk girth), fruit yield and quality of fruits. Maximum plant growth was significantly high in crop rotation T2 (okra + pea + onion) followed by T1 (brinjal + cabbage + bottle guard) and T3 (paddy + potato + cucumber). The maximum quality attributes of fruits viz. TSS, ascorbic acid, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar were recorded with T2 (okra + pea + onion) followed by T1 (brinjal + cabbage + bottle guard) , T3 (paddy + potato + cucumber) and sole crop of Aonla.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 576-578
C Deepika, N Amruta, G Sarika, Anita Pitagi* and Latha C Naik
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, *Department of Crop Physiology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Navile, Shimoga during kharif 2013 and Laboratory studies were conducted in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, UAS, Bangalore. The four levels of nutrients N1: 75:40:40 NPK kg ha-1 N2: RDF + ZnSo4 @10 kg ha-1 N3: RDF + Borax 0.1% spray at bud initiation stage N4: RDF + ZnSo4 @ 10 kg ha-1 + Borax (0.1%) spray at bud initiation stage. The combination of RDF + ZnSo4 @ 10 kg ha-1 + Borax 0.1% spray at bud initiation stage was effective in maximum plant height (33.80 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (34.30) at bud initiation stage, length of inflorescence (93.80 cm), number of siliqua plant-1 (363), siliqua weight plant-1 (26.30g), siliqua length (5.34 cm), No. of seeds siliqua-1 (5.67), seed recovery percent (92.87), seed yield (199.93 kg ha-1), germination percent (92.20), seedling vigour index I & II (2100 and 467) compared to control with (30.09 cm, 26.60, 81.70 cm, 13.80 g, 4.63 cm, 4.59, 80.38%, 138.75 kg ha-1, 83.70%, 1243 and 357, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 579-582
B O Kiran, A Amaregouda and R P Patil
Depertment of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted on a deep black soil of North Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka during rainy seasons of 2013 to compare the performance of popular rice (Oryza sativa L) varieties, viz ‘BPT-5204’, ‘Gangavathi sona’ and ‘JKPH 3333’ under transplanted and direct seeded methods and their response to varied nitrogen (N) levels viz 75, 100 and 125% RDN (Recommended dose of nitrogen). Cultivation of rice with direct seeded method (42.92 q/ha) resulted in 33.33% yield reduction compared with transplanted method (56.29 q/ha). Among the yield attributes, number of spikelets/panicle was significantly affected under aerobic method, while test weight and harvest index were not influenced by the method of water management. Among the varieties the ‘JKPH 3333’ recorded highest grain yield under direct seeded field (52.21 q/ha) with the least yield reduction (16.79%) compared to transplanted method, followed by Gangavathi Sona and BPT-5204. There was an increase in yield levels with increase in N doses. Among the varied N levels, JKPH 3333 responded better to 125% RDN as compared to other N levels. The grain nitrogen content was maximum (1.45%) in direct seeded condition as compared to transplanted rice (1.08%) at harvest, indicated that there was less loss of nitrogen through volatilization, once the nitrogen had been incorporated in direct seeded condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 583-585
T Baby Rani and J Dilip Babu
Depertment of Horticulture, College of Horticulture, Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India
Abstract
A study was undertaken during rabi 2011 at Post Harvest Technology Laboratory, College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, to prepare value added products of guava blended with Aloe vera and to assess their storage behavior and acceptability. By following a standardized protocol, squash blends of guava and aloe were prepared, preserved by pasteurization and addition of preservative and packed in 200ml glass bottles. Products were stored for a period of three months at 10 ± 1°C and analyzed for physico chemical quality and overall acceptability at monthly intervals. Results depict that there was slight increase in total soluble solids, considerable increase in reducing sugars but, there was considerable decrease in ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity during storage of 90 days. In any blend, as the storage period increased, ascorbic acid content and percent inhibition of peroxidation i e antioxidant activity declined but there was minimum decrease noticed in G:A at 60:40 which was more shelf stable. All the blends were acceptable at all the storage intervals. However, blending guava:aloe at 70:30 was found highly acceptable with higher sensory score.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 586-589
Thaneshwar Kumar, K Tedia, R G Goswami, A K Singh and Venureddy Challa
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Field experiment were conducted in farmer field around National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) Sipat, Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh) during kharif season 2013 to evaluate different doses of fly ash (20, 40, 60 t ha-1) combination with and without organic fertilizer on physico-chemical properties of soil. The results generated showed that fly ash integrated with recommended fertilizers and FYM imprinted significant positive effect on major nutrient availability in soil. Higher soil organic carbon content of soil recorded in fly ash applied with organic fertilizer. Application of increasing doses fly ash with and without FYM was found to increase water holding capacity and the highest recorded under application of 75% GRD + 60 t ha-1 fly ash + 5 t FYM ha-1 and tended to marginal decrease bulk density and particle density of soil and their effect was non-significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 590-592
R P Patil and B Rajan
Depertment of Crop Physiology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India *Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Main Research Station, UAS, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted during 2013-14 at MARS, UAS Raichur, Karnataka with thirty different safflower genotypes to understand the genotypic differences for dry matter production as influenced by solar radiation and leaf area index and an attempt was made to develop the light extinction coefficient (k) which was used to simulate the light transmission in safflower plant canopy. Radiation use efficiency is an important character in understanding and modeling the relationship between plant growth and the physical environment. Plant dry matter accumulation depends on the total carbon fixed during photosynthesis and the fraction of carbon converted into dry matter. The thirty genotypes were used for the study. The light interception, leaf area index were measured during anthesis time. Light extinction coefficient was calculated. Dry matter production and yield were recorded at the time of harvesting. Results showed the genotypic differences for all the characters studied. Among the thirty genotypes, the genotype GMU 2894 (68.0 g/plant) followed GMU 7317 (68.0) showed high yield. The genotype GMU 7317 also recorded high RUE, more LEC, while GMU 2894 also recorded more RUE, LEC and LAI. So these two genotypes are high yielding contributed by these physiological characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 593-595
N Srividya Rani, T Lakshmi, S V Prasad and G Mohan Naidu
Depertment of Agricultural Extension and Statistics and Mathematics, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study was taken up to find out the constraints and suggestions perceived by the farm women in performing the managerial role in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. The data was collected from a sample of 120 randomly selected farm women by random sampling method. The study revealed that majority of the farm women faced the constraints. Regarding constraints expressed by farm women in the managerial role, lack of knowledge on latest technology (85.83%), male dominated families and societies (83.33%), non-availability of time due to heavy house hold work (81.66%), prescribed role of women (79.16%), were the major ones. Suggestions expressed by the respondents to overcome the constraints in the managerial role of farm women were, organizing training programmes on latest technology (81.66%), followed by due importance must be given to women in their managerial role (76.66%), making women aware of time management in home and farm activities (73.33%), transformation of society through awareness programmes on gender issues (71.16%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 596-598
H K Deshmukh, D H Paithankar, Polu Parameshwar, Ram Kumar Dewangan
Depertment of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to regulate Hasta bahar in acid lime using plant growth regulators viz GA3 50 ppm June + cycocel 1000 and 2000 ppm and paclobutrazol 2.5 g a.i. and 3.5 a.i./tree and 1000 and 2000 ppm in September nutrients viz KNO3, zinc and boron on yield and quality of acid lime at College of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with seven different treatments. The study revealed that application of GA3 50 ppm in June + cycocel 2000 ppm in September + KNO3 (0.2%), zinc (0.3%) and boron (0.1%) in October showed better performance in respect of fruit yield (32.29 kg/plant i e 8.90 t/ ha) fruit juice (48.95%), TSS (8.13 °B), acidity (6.94%), ascorbic acid content (30.62 mg/100 ml) and weight of fruit (42.49 g) in acid lime.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 599-602
Bharat Lal, Venureddy Challa, K Tedia and Laxmi Kashyap
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur – 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field study was carried out on a sandy loam soil at the Krishi Vigyan Kendra Farm of Janjgir Champa, Chhattisgarh to study the effect of enriched fly ash (FA) on rice and soil characteristics of inceptisol during kharif 2013-14. The test crop was rice variety MTU-1010. The application of different treatment fly ash combinations increased paddy yield compared to 100% GRD. However, the control treatment failed to produce the yield in degraded land. Among the treatments, the 75% GRD + 60 t fly ash ha-1 + 5 t FYM ha-1 gave highest paddy yield (42.6 q ha-1) than all other treatments. The straw yield was not significantly influenced by fly ash treatments, but the beneficial effect of enriched fly ash on higher rice straw yield was observed. The application of 75% GRD + 60 t fly ash ha-1 + 5 t FYM ha-1 (T8) produced significantly highest number of total tiller (8.07) and effective tiller (7.53) but 75% GRD + 40 t fly ash ha-1 + 5 t FYM ha-1 (T7) produced maximum panicle length (21.12 cm) and filled grain (81.67) and higher test weight in 100% GRD (25.85g). The highest decrease in bulk density was observed in the 75% GRD + 60 t fly ash ha-1 applied with and without FYM (1.49 Mg m-3). Application of 75% GRD + 60 t fly ash ha-1 + 5 t FYM ha-1 (T8) in rice showed the maximum water holding capacity (43.42%) and porosity (42.07%) but particle density was not significantly influenced by different combination of FYM, fly ash and fertilizers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 603-606
P S Dhananjaya Swamy and B Chinnappa*
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *University of Agriculture and Horticultural Sciences, Navule, Shivmoga - 577 216, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A study was undertaken to analyze the transaction cost and determinants of farmers’ access to credit from Institutional Source in Karnataka. The multi-stage randomized technique was used for the selection of sample. The study found that, transaction costs in Mandya are lower than Chitradurga district irrespective of sources of credit, since the Mandya district is blessed with good irrigation facilities, branch network and marketing tie-up. In Mandya district, farmers incurred about 34 percent of total transaction cost (₹ 9,467) towards document in commercial banks as against 41 percent in RRBs. In Chitradurga district, among the different costs, documentation cost was highest for commercial bank (₹ 3,926) and RRBs (₹ 2,587) while it was the opportunity cost of time spent in the case of co-operative societies (₹ 1,134). The results of the multiple regression revealed that, one unit increase in the interest rate was brought about ₹ 78.77 decreases in transaction cost. Having a savings bank account had reduced the transaction cost by ₹ 525.00.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 607-609
Randeep Kumar Kushwaha, Gajendra Kumar Chandrakar and Vijay Kumar Koshta
Depertment of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The bio-efficacy of different newer insecticides against brown plant hopper by conducting the study on second instar nymph were released on the potted TN-1 plant under the green house condition at the Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). Mortality percent i e 99.77% was achieved by PII-504 followed by Imidacloprid i e 99.00%, Monocrotophos ranked III position in order of efficacy against BPH and only 62.75% percent mortality and IV rank may be given to the Buprofenzin. On the basis of total mortality percent achieved up to 10 day the treated insecticides may be arranged in the following manner PII-504 > Imidacloprid > Monocrotophos > Buprofenzin.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 610-612
Amol Babar, Amit Bhatnagar, Rajeew Kumar and Gurvinder Singh
Depertment of Agronomy, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
An investigation carried to examine the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles on germination and vigour of maize (Zea mays L.) under control condition. In view of the widespread cultivation of maize in India and in other parts of the globe and the potential influence of Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano particles on its growth, this plant was chosen as the model system. Three concentrations (0.01, 0.03 and 0.05%) of ZnO and TiO2 nano-particles were used to treat maize seeds along with control treatment i e without nano particles. Results revealed that seed treatment with ZnO and TiO2 nano particles at low concentration improved germination and vigour parameter but negative effect was realized when concentration increased to 0.05%. Germination percentage did not affect significantly amongst the various treatments. Maize seedling under ZnO and TiO2 nano particles recorded significantly higher root length, shoot length, dry weight of shoot and root, vigour index I, vigour index II and speed of germination over control. Mean germination time was also recorded significantly lower under nano particles treatment than control. The inhibitory effect with higher concentration indicated the need for judicious usage of these particles in such applications.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 613-617
P Madhukar, Ch S Raju*, T Srikanth and S Narender Reddy**
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, **Depertment of Crop Physiology, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agriculture University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India *Plant Breeding, Rice Research Station, ARI (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted with eighteen rice hybrids to evaluate for standard heterosis on popular checks for important yield components and quality traits in 3 representative locations of Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh. Magnitude of standard heterosis for these traits was highly variable depending on environments and the check varieties and expression of heterosis for grain yield was high at one location (Kampasagar). Number of heterotic hybrids and values of standard heterosis were low, when estimates were made on best high yielding checks, DRRH-3 and MTU-1010. Standard heterosis for kernel length, L/B ratio and elongation ratio was less, when the long slender grain varieties, MTU-1010 was used as check. Among the pre-release hybrids, VNR-204 for yield potential and NK-5251 for both yield and quality were identified as better ones.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 618-620
Anand G Patil, Mohammed Farooq, Pandith Rathod* and S R Mulla
Depertment of Horticulture, College of Horticulture (UHS Bagalkot), Halladakeri Farm, Bidar - 585 403, Karnataka, India *Depertment of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to assess the performance of different pulses as an intercrops in mango orchards in the rain fed areas of Bidar with protected irrigation during kharief 2010-11 and 2011-12. The intercrops influenced the growth of main plants, days to germination, germination percentage, canopy cover of the mango and it was found maximum with French bean followed by field bean intercrops. However, the significantly more canopy cover (127.5 cm2) noticed in cowpea intercrops and it is observed that the under canopy intercrops performed poor compared to open field. Mango fruit yield (6083 kg/ha), intercrop yield (3021 kg/ha) and mango equivalent yield (9122 kg/ha) were highest in French bean intercropping than other treatments. The maximum gross return, net return and B:C ratio were obtained from intercrop French bean.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 621-627
Saikat Maji, Surya Rathore and Shantanu Rakshit
Depertment of Agricultural Communication, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Natural resource management aimed at the reversing the trend of resource deterioration, maintaining the ecological balance and sustainable economic development. Short as well as long term success in it can only be ensured by taking into consideration specific needs of beneficiaries by ensuring their participation at all stages of decision making and project implementation, through appropriate mix of modern technologies with indigenous technical knowledge and by setting up local institution for planning, implementing and monitoring of whole project and beyond. In West Bengal, one of the most severely affected states by soil erosion, Integrated Wastelands Development Programme was initiated in 2004 to counter the natural resource depletion challenges. This investigation presents a detailed analysis of the programme from sustainability perspective which was measured by considering three dimensions namely social, ecological and institutional separately. Social sustainability was at medium level with index score 49.17, measured by considering people’s participation in overall activities of project management, equity for providing benefit and decision making process. Activities were low in participation in planning, post implementation and monitoring evaluation stage. Ecological sustainability score 55.75, measured by analyzing technological intervention, environmental effect and increased vegetation in project area, was to some extent higher than social one. Institutional sustainability measured by adequacy and performance of local institutions. In case of village committee and user group, ratio of institution per 100 households was 0.37 for both types of institutions and in case of Self Help Groups, it was 2.46. The representation per 100 families in the institution was highest in case of Self Help Groups (61.36%). Bank was found to be the mostly contacted institution followed by co-operative.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 628-631
Shripad Bhat, Shaikh Mohd Mouzam, K P Naveena and Murtuza Khan
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
As the vegetables are perishable nature, if marketed under the Model Act due to shortage of storage facility there is high level of volatility in arrivals and prices. The GOI advised the states to delist fruits and vegetables from the Model WTO amended APMC Act 2003. During the first week of July, 2014, the government of New Delhi has officially delisted fruits and vegetables from the Act. By delisting fruits and vegetables, a new supply chain can be created to guarantee faster supply of these products to consumers by liberalizing trade at the farm gate. This study tries to find out the impact of delisting of vegetables from above Act on market arrivals and prices. To find out the impact of delisting on market arrivals and prices of vegetables in the markets of New Delhi, homogeneity tests were employed. Under, these homogeneity tests, there are many techniques; however Pettitt's test and Buishand’s test were used in this study. There was a significant negative shift in arrivals of major vegetables to the markets of New Delhi, while there was rapid increase in prices of vegetables during July to December, 2013 later on started declining. After June, 2014, prices of major vegetables have shown the upward trend. As arrivals have declined significantly and prices have not shown any significant changes, this implies that delisting has impacted the arrivals of vegetables in the markets of New Delhi.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 632-636
Shubhangi Jagatap and C V Mali
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani - 413 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken with 100 soil samples (0-15 cm) collected from twenty villages (5 samples from each village) in Chakur tehsil of Latur district. The samples were analyzed for physico-chemical properties, available N, P, K and available Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The results indicated that the soils were neutral to alkaline in reaction, non-calcareous to highly calcareous in nature and low to high in organic carbon content. All the soil samples were low to medium in available N and P and low to high in available K. The DTPA extractable Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were in the range of 0.72 to 17.69, 0.12 to 3.63, 0.23 to 5.48 and 0.68 to 4.94 mg kg-1, respectively. Available Fe and Zn was recorded deficient in 26 and 74 percent samples while deficiency of Cu and Mn was recorded in 06 and 51 percent soil samples, respectively. The soil pH showed negative significant correlation with available N and Fe. While, it was positively significant with available K and Mn in soil. Similarly, EC was positively and significantly correlated with available K. The calcium carbonate showed negative significant correlation with available N. The organic carbon showed positively significant correlation with available K, Cu and Zn and negatively relationship with available P.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 637-640
M Sujatha and D S Uppar
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2013-14 at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad, to study the effect of seed hardening, nipping and foliar spray of cycocel on growth and seed yield in Chickpea. The experiment consisted of twelve treatments with three replications laid out in randomized block design. The results revealed that the seed hardening with CaCl2 (2%) + foliar spray of cycocel (500 ppm) at 45 DAS recorded lesser plant height (38.45 cm), more number of branches per plant (26.10), number of pods per plant (38.84), number of seeds per pod (1.48), 100 seed weight (25.042 g), seed yield per plot (1.38 kg) and per hectare (1274.31 kg) as compared to other treatments. The seed quality parameters such as germination (99.33%), root length (21.50 cm), shoot length (12.70 cm), vigour index (3273) and dry weight of seedlings were significantly higher in the treatment of seed hardening with CaCl2 (2%) + foliar spray of cycocel (500 ppm) at 45 DAS (395.90 g).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 641-644
Th Kenio Singh, Daya Ram and M K Singh
Depertment of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India
Abstract
The development of any nation depends primarily on the important role played by entrepreneurs. Hence, the part played by entrepreneurs is of vital importance in a developing country like India. Thus in all economic development activities more attention is being given to entrepreneurship development. An entrepreneur is primarily concerned with changes in the formula of production over which he has full control. Further, it is commonly believed that an entrepreneur is basically an intelligent person and has a definite ability to create something new to prove its worthiness. Imphal-East district of Manipur was selected purposively for present study. Ex-post facto research design was employed. There are three blocks under Imphal-East district. Based on the maximum area cultivated under potato growers, Sawombung block was selected purposively. Three villages were selected randomly in the block for present study. A Sample of potato growers comprising 100 respondents was selected from each village of the block based on stratified random sampling with proportional allocation method. Majority 52 percent of the respondents belonged to medium entrepreneurial behavior category. Whereas, 25 percent were in low entrepreneurial behavior category and 23 percent were in high entrepreneurial behavior category. The result shows that due to the constraint of getting adequate knowledge and skills are to take up their entrepreneurial activities. Family size, education, total annual income, cropping intensity was to be positively and significantly correlated to assessment of entrepreneurial Behaviour of potato growers at 0.01 and 0.05 level of probability. The calculated F value (119.804) was also found significant at 1 percent level of significant. This indicates the significant effectiveness of these variables in prediction with the assessment of entrepreneurial behaviour of potato growers when all the independent variables were operational jointly.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 645-647
Dileepkumar Masuthi, Shivayogi Ryavalad and Ashok Surwenshi*
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkote - 587 103, Karnataka, India *Depertment of Crop Physiology, Collage of Horticulture (UHS Bagalkote), Munirabad - 583 233, Karnataka, India
Abstract
High germination seed lots of cluster bean were evaluated for laboratory germination following different priming techniques. The seed germination under control ranged up to 83%, where treatments enhanced up to an average of 90.5% germination. We have observed 94.7% seed germination seeds treated with ginger extract five percent and 93.8% seed germination with treatment of garlic extracts and extracts of turmeric showed 91% germination and shoot length (21.64 cm) and seedling vigour index (4941) was significantly superior in treatment of ginger, followed by garlic, respectively. Compared to non-treated seeds, botanical priming with ginger extract or garlic extracts increased early (3-day) germination percentage at 25oC and improved total (10-day) germination percentage of low-germination seed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 648-650
Shivakumar, V Srinivas, S K Nataraj, K M Shivayya and G B Ketana
Depertment of Horticulture, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga - 577 216, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) is one of the most important loose and cut flowers in India. It belongs to the family Asteraceae and native of Mexico. Genotype Nilakkotai local orange shown good growth and yield under hill zone conditions compared to other genotypes. Growth parameters such as the plant height (104.20 cm), number of secondary branches per plant (29.27), number of leaves per plant (392.47), stem girth (17.43), internodal length (7.53) and yield parameters such as number of flower per plant (59.40), flower yield (529.33 g/plant), flower yield (19.60 t/ha) and petal meal yield (122.00 g/kg) were recorded in Nilakkotai local orange genotype.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 651-655
G Annie Diana Grace, Ishtiaq Ahad and V K Dubey
Depertment of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) is an important pest of rice (Oryza Sativa) in Asia. The main approach for the management of this pest has been through the development of resistant varieties. Out of the 95 entries screened for resistance against rice gall midge, nineteen entries viz R 979-67-2-44-1, R 1124-75-1, IGBR 47, R1052-54-2-32-1, R 1217-539-1-262-1, Mahamaya, R 1251-1563-6-1, IGSR-3-1-2A, IGSR-3-1-40, IGSR-3-1-42, IGSR-3-1-46, R 1033-2559-1-1, R 975-897-1-1, R 1138-110-2-145-1, R 1182-164-2-153-1, R 1182-167-2-157-1, R 1207-257-5-274-1 and Indira Sugandhit dhan-1 were found to be resistant and R-1241-1265-1 and IGSR-2-1-6 were also found resistant with a minimum infestation of 0.86 percent of silver shoots. Twelve entries were found to be moderately resistant with an infestation between 5-10 percent of silver shoots (SS). Thirty-seven varieties were found with an infestation of 11-25 percent silver shoots. R-1238-182-1 with an infestation of 25 percent SS and R 1250-1557-1-1895-1 with an infestation of 28.2 percent SS was found to be susceptible. TN1 used as a check was recorded with an infestation of 46.2 percent SS.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 656-658
A Anand, G S Sahu and N Mishra
Depertment of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted in CRD with three replication to study ten varieties of cashew apple namely BPP-8, NRCC-2, Jagannath, Balabhadra, H-303, H-320, BBSR-1, H-11, H-1608 and V-4 during 2011-2012 in the Post graduate laboratory of Department of Post Harvest Management, College of Agriculture, Bhubaneswar to study the physico-chemical properties of cashew apple and nuts. The weight of cashew apple varied from 34.08g(V-4) to 75.44g(Jagannath), specific gravity from 0.93 (H-11) to 1.221 (Jagannath), girth at widest point 5.66 cm (H-11) to 14.29 cm (Jagannath), girth at narrowest point 4.65 cm (H-11) to 13.59 cm (BPP-8), length 3.46 cm (H-11) to 6.04 cm (Jagannath), juice content varied from 63.03% (H-303) to 84.49%(BPP-8). The ascorbic acid content ranged from (194.89 mg/100g to 275.37mg/100g), TSS (10.30% to 12.33%), pH (4.34 to 4.90), titrable acidity (0.34% to 0.52%), non-reducing sugar (0.72% to 1.91%), reducing sugar (8.23% to 10.86%) and total sugar (9.38% to 11.73%) also varied widely in all the varieties.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 659-661
Harikanth Porika, R M Vijayakumar, M Jagadeesha, C Deepika and Dinesh Nagar
Depertment of Fruit Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Effect of pruning intensity on quality of red globe grapes in summer season were studied at Horticulture Orchard, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2012-2013. The vines were pruned at four different levels in a randomized block design with five replications. TSS, TSS/acid ratio, titrable acidity, sugar-acid ratio, reducing, non-reducing and total sugars for quality parameters were determined. Results revealed that, all the vines which were pruned at 2 bud level for summer season crop registered highest TSS (17.82 °Brix), TSS/acid ratio (35.95), lower titrable acidity (0.49%), whereas, the maximum reducing sugar (15.65%), total sugars (17.24%) and sugar-acid ratio (34.17) was observed in vines pruned to 50 percent of the canes for vegetative growth and 50 percent of the canes for crop yield in summer season and it was found to be better performed among different pruning intensities.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 662-665
Mukesh Kumar, Jancy Gupta, Minu Singh and Aparna Radhakrisnan
Dairy Extension Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to identify and prioritize the constraints faced by tribal farmers in generating livelihood from livestock production systems. The present study was purposely taken up in Jharkhand state. Two blocks Ormanjhi and Govindpur each from Ranchi and Dhanbad district respectively was selected randomly. A total of 120 tribal farmers were selected as respondents, 30 respondents from each village. Further, one block was selected randomly from each district and from each block two villages were selected randomly from four selected villages, 30 farmers were selected from each village. Thus, total 120 respondents were selected for the present study. The study was conducted through personal interviews of the selected respondents in the villages selected by random sampling technique. Data for the study was collected by interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i e transect walk, key informant interview, focus group discussion. The major constraints faced by the respondents included in cattle and buffalo production includes decreasing common grazing land and pig production includes high vulnerability of piglets to diseases and deaths and goat production include high mortality during monsoon and poultry production includes high level of vulnerability due to diseases.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 666-668
M M Deshmukh and S Vanitha
Depertment of Sericulture, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Healthy and infected leaves were collected from bottom, middle and top portions of the plants for the analysis of phenols, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. The quantity of total sugars, reducing sugars, non reducing sugars and phenols were less in top, middle and bottom healthy leaves than in the diseased leaves. The infection of M. phaseolina increased the total sugars, reducing sugars, non reducing sugars and phenols in top leaves by 4.80, 10.2, 3.68 and 5.35 percent over healthy leaves respectively. Similarly in middle leaves, the total sugars, reducing sugars, non reducing sugars and phenols were increased by 14.17, 19.58, 12.02 and 12.40 percent, respectively. However, lower content of sugars and phenols were recorded only in bottom infected leaves. In the infected root, the epidermal cells and cortical parenchyma were collapsed and disturbed. Black coloured inter and intra cellular mycelium was present. The xylem vessels were thickened and both proto and metaxylem was plugged with mycelium.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 669-672
K C Bhanu Murthy, P Prashanth, R Chandrasekhar and N Suresh
Depertment of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, (Dr. YSR Horticultural University), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different essential oils on extension of vase life of cut gerbera cv. Savannah under ambient condition. All the cut gerberas were precooled at 5oC for 6 hours followed by pulsing with sucrose at 20% and sodium hypochlorite at 50 ppm for 12 hours and then held in essential oil solutions i e palmarosa, lemon grass, geranium, rosemary and citronella oil at different concentrations. Rosemary oil at 5% maintained better water relations and recorded lowest scape bending curvature (6.06 degrees). Flowers held in distilled water (control) were registered highest scape bending curvature (25.00 degrees). Optical density was lowest in rosemary oil at 5% (0.062) whereas control recorded highest optical density (0.090) which was attributed with highest microbial count (9.24 × 106 cfu/ml) than rosemary oil at 5% (4.94 × 105 cfu/ml). The cut gerberas which were held in rosemary oil at 5 percent recorded highest vase life (8.64 days) compared to control (4.46 days).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 673-675
Gowdra Nagamma, Muhammad Saifulla*, S Pavithra and S R Suresh**
Depertment of Plant Pathology, AICRP on Chickpea ZARS, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Depertment of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
To find out the best sources of nutrients for the fungal growth, different solid media were tested. Maximum radial growth was recorded on PDA and Czapek’s agar with mean colony diameter of 90mm and on par with each other compared to other media tested. Carrot agar recorded maximum number of sclerotial production (48 per microscopic field) followed by PDA (46 per microscopic field) and the minimum sclerotial production was observed in Czapek’s agar (39.33 per microscopic field). PDA and carrot media supported good mycelial growth and sclerotia production. The maximum sclerotial size was observed in PDA (0.5 × 0.4 µm) whereas Czapek’s agar recorded minimum size of sclerotia (0.3 × 0.2 µm). Ellipsoidal shape of sclerotia was observed in Czapek’s agar whereas irregular shaped sclerotia were observed in other media. Maximum dry mycelial weight was recorded eighth day of incubation (150 mg).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 676-679
Rashid Khan and Y V Singh
Depertment of Vegetable Science, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 236 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Genetic divergence in brinjal was studied through non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis. The results showed the presence of sufficient amount of genetic diversity as all the 192 test genotypes were grouped into five different clusters. Estimates of intra-cluster distances ranged from 0.00-2.99. It was maximum in cluster I and minimum in cluster V. The maximum inter-cluster value (18.031) was obtained between cluster II and V. Minimum diversity was observed between cluster I and III (2.869) which suggested that members of these two clusters are genetically very close. The genotypes of heterogeneous origin are grouped together in some of the major clusters which showed that there was no parallelism between geographical and genetic diversity suggesting thereby that parents should be selected on the basis of total divergence for future breeding programme which may produce new recombinants with desired traits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 680-683
M Suresh, D Balaguravaiah, G Jayasree and B Naveen Kumar
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil during kharif season of 2012 with a view to study the LCC and SPAD based nitrogen management in rice on and grain yield, N concentration in leaf and Nutrients uptake. The leaf colour chart (LCC) and SPAD based N management can be used to optimize N application with crop demand or to improve existing fixed split N recommendations. We conducted a field experiment to determine the LCC and SPAD critical value for N application in irrigated rice. Treatments included 3 LCC based and 3 SPAD based N management contained the combination of three critical levels of LCC shade values (4, 4.5, 5) and three critical levels of SPAD (37, 39 and 41) values with different levels of N application were compared with recommended fertilizer dose (RFD) and soil test crop response (STCR) equation based fertilizer application. Nitrogen was applied in the form of urea as per treatment schedule and the SPAD and LCC assessed at 10 days intervals starting from 15 DAT. Result showed a considerable opportunity to increase yield, N concentration in leaf and Nutrients uptake through improved N management with LCC and SPAD values. The critical SPAD value of 41 with 30 kg N ha-1 and critical LCC value of 4.5 with 30 kg N ha-1 were found to be suitable for guiding N application to achieve the highest grain yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 684-688
Pallab Debnath, Ram Singh and Monika Aheibam
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, College of Post-Graduate Studies (Central Agricultural University), Umiam-793 103, Meghalaya, India
Abstract
The study examines the performance of grapes in India’s export trade with respect to production, export volume and export value with the help of data collected from secondary sources where appropriate functional and tabular analyses have been applied to analyze the data. It is revealed form the study that on an average, Maharashtra was the leading grapes producing state (1272.60 MT) in India during the last 10 years (i e 2003-04 to 2012-13) of study period. On the contrary, during the 20 years of study period (i e 1993-2012) the growth rate of export of grapes from India was found highest in case of Netherlands in terms of both volume exported and value received. Hence, Netherlands was the major export destination of grapes from India during the study period. The study also indicated that the export performance of grapes is taking place in desired direction. It can be suggested from the study that there is scope for improving the export performance of grapes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 689-692
K C Bhanu Murthy, R Chandrasekhar and P Prashanth
Depertment of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, (Dr. YSR Horticultural University), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different locally available floral preservatives on extension of vase life of cut gerbera cv. Savannah under cold storage conditions. All the cut gerberas were precooled at 5oC for 6 hrs followed by pulsing with sucrose at 20% and sodium hypochlorite at 50 ppm for 12 hours and then held in locally available floral preservative solutions i e sugar, vinegar, lime juice, commercial bleach and neem extract at different concentrations in cool chamber at 5oC. Neem extract at 1% recorded lowest scape bending curvature (2.43 degrees) due to maintenance of better water relations and flowers held in distilled water (control) registered highest scape bending curvature (8.88 degrees). Total soluble solids in flower stalk (10.59 oBrix), anthocyanin content in ligules (6.11 mg Congo Red/g f wt) were also highest in neem extract at 1%. The cut gerberas which were held in neem extract at 1% recorded highest vase life (28.11 days) than control (18.21 days). Lowest microbial count was recorded in neem extract at 1% (3.92 × 105 cfu/ml) whereas control recorded highest microbial count (8.94 × 106 cfu/ml).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 693-696
G Jyothi, S Basavaraj, M Bhagyashree, B M Ravikumara and K T Rangaswamy
Depertment of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Compositae, Helianthae) is an exotic invasive weed occurring widely in India, Ethiopia and Australia. Phyllody disease in parthenium caused by phytoplasma has been gaining importance in the recent years. Phyllody infected plants were characterized by excessive branching, reduced plant height, leaf size and transformation of floral structures in to leaf-like structures that lead to sterility. In the present investigation, Fluorescent microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were standardized for the detection of parthenium phyllody phytoplasma. Fluorescent microscopic technique using 4-6, diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stain revealed the association of phytoplasma with bright fluorescent spots in the phloem region of infected stem sections, but no such spots were observed in the phloem region of healthy stem sections. Annealing temperature of 55 and 56oC for one minute consistently amplified the phytoplasma specific products of 1800 and 1250bp using P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2 universal primers respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 697-699
S Naveen Kumar, G Uma Devi, R Jagadeeshwar* and D Ladhalakshmi**
Depertment of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India *Agricultural Research Institute, AICRP on Rice, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India **Directorate of Rice Research, Department of Plant Pathology, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, India
Abstract
The effect of temperature, pH conditions on the mycelium growth of Ustilaginoidea virens (Cke.) Tak the pathogenic fungus causing rice false smut disease were studied. The results showed that the temperature range of 22°C to 30°C was suitable for mycelial growth of fungus. The optimum temperature for the growth of the fungus was 26°C and which showed growth rate of 0.077 cm/day. Low temperature and high temperature inhibited the growth of colony of the fungus. The pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens was grown in pH range of 4.0-8.5. The maximum growth of the fungus was observed at pH 5.5-6.0 with a highest growth rate 0.070 cm/day when compared to other pH conditions. Viability studies under different storage conditions indicated that viability of pseudomorphs decreased with prolonged storage period. The percentage of isolation declined from 84.6 to 14.65% and 78.3 to 0.0% when stored in refrigerator and normal room conditions, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 700-702
Upendra K Nag, C P Khare and P K Tiwari
Depertment of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during 2013-14 at Horticulture Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Raipur to study the effect of different spraying of chemicals and other eco-friendly products on powdery mildew of pea disease severity and yield of pea. The treatment of various chemicals and other eco-friendly products indicated treatment T1 (Sulfex 80% WP @ 3.0 g/lit spray) and followed by T4 (Sodium bicarbonate 5.0 g/lit) with PDI of 31.09% and 33.18% were most effective in reducing severity of the disease and increasing fruit yield over control. The maximum marketable yield was obtained in T1 (1.11 t ha-1) followed by T5 and T4 (1.06 t ha-1and 0.96 t ha-1), respectively. The minimum yield was obtained in T7 (Control) 0.56 t ha-1. The numbers of pod/plant (Average of 10 plants) was significantly increased in all the chemicals and other eco-friendly products of treatments as compared to the control, indicating their positive effect on yield increase of pea. The maximum number of pod/plant was obtained (9.07) with spray of Sulfex 80% WP (3.0 g/litre) followed by Neem oil 5.0 ml/litre (8.47), sodium bicarbonate 5.0 g/litre (8.00).The number of pod/plant (Average of 10 plants) in control was lowest (6.93).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 703-704
Vijay Laxmi Rai and Poonam Srivastava
Department of Entomology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
No fruit borer damage was found in dropped fruits till first fortnight of May in all treatments while, gradually increased in remaining period of May and maximum fruit borer damage was found on fruits at maturity stage. The lowest fruit infestation (16.33 and 2.33%) and highest yield (51.33 and 78 kg/tree) was obtained under Endosulfan 0.07% application. Among biopesticides, lower fruit damage (18.00 and 5.00%) and higher yield (42 and 65 kg/tree) was obtained in B.t. kurstaki-Neem based formulation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 705-706
Raj Narain Singh and Ranjan Kumar Singh*
Bihar Agricultural Management and Training Institute, Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Bihar, P/O B. V. College, Jagdeo Path, Patna - 800 014, Bihar, India *Netarhat Residential School, Netarhat, Latehar - 835 218, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
Vegetable based crop rotation was carried out during 2009-2011 at Rafiganj block of Aurangabad district of Bihar on 6 year old Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) cv. NA-7, to find out suitable vegetable based crop rotation and its impact on improvement of soil fertility status. Maximum reduction in bulk density was recorded with crop rotation T2 (okra + pea + onion) followed by T3 (paddy + potato + cucumber) and T1 (brinjal + cabbage + bottle guard). While, maximum particle density, soil porosity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, organic matter and minimum soil pH were recorded with T2 (okra + pea + onion) followed by T1 (brinjal + cabbage + bottle guard), T3 (paddy + potato + cucumber) and T4 (sole crop of aonla). The study showed that cropping system based intercrops did not exert adverse effect on the growth and productivity of aonla. Intercropping in aonla was effective in bringing improvement in the soil fertility, leading to a sustainable production system.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 3 ; 707-708
A D G Grace, U Venkateswarlu, G Penchala Raju, D Aparna and M V Reddy
District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Centre, ANGRAU, Machilipatnam, Krishna District - 521 002, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
On farm demonstrations of integrated management of gram pod borer, Helocoverpa armigera on pigeonpea were carried out during 2005-06 and 2006-07 at Dupad village of Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. From the investigation it could be revealed that the percent pod damage was lower in integrated pest management (IPM) plots (4.62%) compared to non-IPM plots (14.74%).


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