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Volume - 6 - July - August 2015
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 716-719
K A Gaikwad, R A Durgude* and P B Parkhe*
Depertment of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India *Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, District Ahmednagar - 413 722, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Plant disease is one of the major biotic stresses affecting crop yield substantially. Due to development of new varieties and agricultural practices minor diseases in the past become important these days. Though genetic makeup controls interaction between pathogen and host, the environment affects it to a great extent. Use of a single method is not enough to control disease effectively. As all methods have their own drawbacks, combining two or more method minimizes the drawbacks. Combination of chemical and genetic control method proved to be more effective and long lasting in controlling many plant diseases.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 720-723
B S Vinutha and M B Patil
Depertment of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The survey of pigeonpea growing areas in different taluks of Vijayapur district, Karnataka was under taken during kharif 2014 to study the weed flora and their density associated with pigeonpea. The survey work includes roving survey of different weed species in pigeonpea cultivated lands and also studied the surveillance of weeds in pigeonpea growing areas. The results of the study reveals that, the weed density per m2 with respect to different weed species at vegetative stage of the crop was higher in Indi (19.84 m-2), Sindagi (19.63 m-2) and Vijayapur taluks (19.18 m-2), respectively. The lower density of weeds per m2 was recorded in Basavana Bagevadi taluk (15.97 m-2) as compared to other taluks of Vijayapur district. The result of surveillance of weeds in pigeonpea growing areas reveals that, weed species like Digera arvensis (17.66), Pennesetum cladertinum (15.33) and Cynotis cuculata (13.66) were found in higher densities at seedling stage of crop and the density of these weeds at vegetative stage was also found higher (18.00, 19.33 and 18.00, respectively). But the density of majority of weeds was drastically decreased at reproductive stage of the crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 724-727
Romendra Kumar, S K Taunk*, G K Shrivastava and M K Sharma
Depertment of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India *College of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jagdalpur - 494 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of pellet fertilizer on growth, yield and economics of rice under system of rice intensification (SRI) during the kharif season of 2013 at Research cum Instructional Farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments consist of different conventional and pelleted integrated nutrient management, having a total twelve treatments including; seven of pellet fertilizer, four of conventional fertilizer and a control with no fertilizer. Various growth, yield and economics parameters were recorded and analysed. Application of pellet fertilizer significantly enhanced the growth and yield of rice. The highest grain yield (5.75 t ha-1), straw yield, plant height, effective tillers hill-1, test weight, number of filled grains panicle-1 and harvest index was recorded with application of pelleted 80:50:30 kg N:P:K + 1 t PM ha-1 (T8) followed by pelleted 80:50:30 kg N:P:K + 2.5 t FYM ha-1 (T10) and pelleted 100:60:40 kg N:P:K ha-1 (T5). The highest net return (₹ 56977.66 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.25) were also found under pelleted 80:50:30 kg N:P:K + 1 t PM ha-1 (T8). The use of pellet fertilizer is therefore a better alternative to conventional fertilizer due to its slow and continuous nutrient release for plant uptake at different stages of its growth.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 728-731
Tilak Singh Kushwaha, Anil Kulshrestha and Y K Singh
Depertment of Agricultural Extension Education, Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidhyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna - 485 334, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in two reservoirs namely Dahod and Pahuj located in Raisen and Jhansi districts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It was found that majority of the fish farmers had the medium level of knowledge regarding scientific fish culture practices. Majority of fish farmers were middle aged and old age group category. Overall education level is medium that is, primary and middle school level. Majority of fish farmers possessed low to medium level of experience in fish farming. Most of the farmers belonged to low level of credit orientation. Majority of fish farmers exhibited medium level of mass media participation extension agency contact while their cosmopoliteness was low. It is necessary to increase innovative proneness, extension agency contact and mass media participation by the means of organizing awareness campaigns, field days, demonstrations, exhibitions, kishan gosti, kishan mela etc enabling farmers to accrue latest knowledge on scientific fish culture practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 732-734
Azmeera Vaishnu, V M Prasad and Devi Singh
Depertment of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) on flowering and shelf life of African Marigold cv Pusabasanti was under taken at Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad (UP) during the year 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 13 treatments replicated thrice. The treatments comprised of FYM, vermicompost, poultry manure and bio-fertilizer (Azotobactor) with 25% RDF, 50% RDF and 75% RDF in different combinations including control (RDF). The results revealed that application of 75% RDF + 25% vermicompost (T2) produced significantly earliest in days to first flower bud initiation (50.07), days to first flowering (58.07) and days to 50% flowering (62.87), also number of flowers per plant (44.07), flower diameter (6.96 cm), flowering duration (54 days), average flower weight (8.52 g) as compared to control and with application of 50% RDF + 50% vermicompost (T6) showed maximum shelf life (6.70 days) of flowers at room temperature.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 735-737
S R Dalal, V S Gonge, S R Bhople and A F Bhogave
Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out at Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra (India) during four years (2010-11 to 2013-14). The cultivar PDKV Ragini (AK-CHR-MUT-05-02) was developed through mutation (2.0 KR dose of gamma rays) from Akola Local. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design consisting five treatments (mutants/varieties) with four replications. The experiment was undertaken to study growth, flowering, yield and quality performance of PDKV Ragini (AK-CHR-MUT-05-02) and other chrysanthemum mutants and varieties. The results of the four years pooled data indicated that, the PDKV Ragini (AK-CHR-MUT-05-02) found significantly superior with respect to plant height (73.41 cm), plant spread (55.16 cm), branches per plant (8.61), leaf area (50.80 cm2) and flower heads per plant (122.29) than the other mutants. However, maximum flower yield per plant and per hectare was reported in Akola local which was at par with PDKV Ragini (AK-CHR-MUT-05-02). Among the gamma rays induced mutants, significantly maximum weight of flower head (5.29 g), flower head diameter (6.55 cm) and vase life (11.28 days) were registered with the PDKV Ragini (AK-CHR-MUT-05-02) which was significantly superior over rest of the mutants.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 738-741
V Thimmappa, M Srinivasa Reddy, U Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy, P Uma Maheswari and P V Ramesh Babu
Depertment of Agronomy, Agricultural College, Mahanandi - 518 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season, 2012 to study the influence of different levels of nitrogen and plant densities on growth, yield parameters, yield and economics of maize. Among different N levels, taller plants were produced by 200 kg N ha-1 which was statistically at par with the other two treatments of 150 and 250 kg N ha-1. Progressive increase in LAI and drymatter production (g m-2) and yield attributes like cob weight (9492 kg ha-1), number of rows per cob (14.21), number of kernals per row (34.38) and 100-kernal weight (30.61 g) was observed due to increased nitrogen levels from 150 to 250 kg ha-1 and shelling percentage (64.79%) was recorded at 200 kg N ha-1. Application of 250 kg N ha-1 produced higher grain and stover yields and also higher net returns than other levels (150 and 200 kg N ha-1) but net returns were comparable with 200 kg N ha-1. Growth parameters were inconsistent with different spacings. The highest plant height was recorded at a spacing of 75 × 20 cm (66,667 plants ha-1), maximum leaf area index was recorded at 45 × 20 cm (1, 11,111 plants ha-1) and drymatter production was higher at 60 × 15 cm (1, 11,111 plants ha-1). However with regard to yield parameters, yield and net returns were the higher obtained at a spacing of 75 × 15 cm (88,889 plants ha-1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 742-746
Y P S Nirala, G Chandrakar, S Sharma and Vikas Singh
Depertment of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at research farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur during kharif season 2013-14 using two midland normal transplanted and midland SRI rice ecosystem. The results of field experiments revealed that the maximum incidence of green leaf hopper, Nephotettix spp. observed during 41 SMW and 42 SMW in month of October with 76.25 and 143.00 nymph/adult/25 sweeps, respectively in midland normal transplanted rice ecosystem (MNT) and midland SRI rice ecosystem (MSR). The maximum incidence of zigzag leaf hopper, Recilia dorsalis recorded during 45 SMW of November with 8.00 nymph/adult/25 sweeps in MNT whereas in MSR during 45 SMW of November with 19.50 nymph/adult/25 sweeps. In this experiment maximum incidence of green leaf hopper and zigzag leaf hopper observed in MSR with (26.95) and (2.45) as compare to MNT with (20.58) and (1.23) nymph/adult/25 sweeps seasonal mean, respectively during the kharif season. The correlation studies made on zigzag leaf hopper, Recilia dorsalis revealed significant positive correlation with sun shine hours and significant negative correlation with minimum temperature, average temperature, evening relative humidity and average relative humidity in both MNT and MSR. Population of green leaf hopper, Nephotettix spp. showed significant negative correlation with morning relative humidity only MNT not MSR at 5 and 1 percent level of significance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 747-750
Shaik Javed and S M A S Rahman
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The loss caused by pulse beetle to the pulses has been estimated to 40% to 50% in storage which accounted to be billions of rupees every year. The insects damage that much amount of food which could have fed millions of people for a year. Thus insects are in neck to neck competition with man. Hence for survival of man to control the agricultural and food grain pest by using safer methods has become important. To control the pulse beetle several management methods are present in which chemicals occupy the major portion which is harmful for the beneficial insects and several side effects on the environment and human beings. So, there is a need of eco-friendly methods to manage the storage pests. Among different bio pesticide formulations evaluated for the per cent adult mortality of pulse beetle at different hours after treatment and by comparing the number of eggs laid and percent ovipositional difference (POD) of pulse beetle, C. chinensis at 7 days after treatment. In which WP formulation of B. thuringiensis shows the highest percent adult mortality (41.67), lowest fecundity (34.67) and highest POD (86.95) followed by others.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 751-753
A Srijan, S Sudheer Kumar, Ch Damodar Raju and R Jagadeeshwar
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
A study was conducted for identification of maintainers and restorers for their utilization in hybridization programme as the parental lines. Twenty three rice genotypes of diverse source of origin were test crossed with cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line IR 58025A for the evaluation of the genotypes in order to identify potential restorers and maintainers. The F1’s (crossed between genotypes and CMS line) expressed different fertility reactions. Among the tested cytoplasmic male sterile genotypes, 12 genotypes expressed restorer (R) reaction. Out of the remaining lines 8 lines were identified as partial restorers and 3 lines as partial maintainers. The present study has a pivotal role in hybrid rice development.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 754-758
Rajeshwar Kumar Kekti, Vijay Kumar Suryawanshi, Samaptika Kar and Satish K Verma
Depertment of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted at the Horticultural Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during rabi 2011-2012. The results revealed that parameter of potato plant height, number of shoots, number of leaves and yield attributes viz number of tuber plant-1, marketable yield were recorded higher under sole cropping (T1- potato sole (60 × 20 cm)) of potato. Among all intercropping system plant height, number of shoots, number of leaves and number of tuber plant-1 were observed higher under treatment number 7 potato + knol khol (1:1) intercropping system. In cluster bean, cabbage and knol khol all the growth parameter and yield attributes were relatively higher under sole cropping (T1- Potato sole, 60 × 20 cm) of each crops with ultimately the higher green pod, head and knob yield as compared to intercropping treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 759-762
Fakeerappa Arabhanvi and K Murali*
Depertment of Agronomy, *Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to study the integrated agro-techniques on productivity and economics of pigeonpea during kharif 2013 at Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru. Among the integrated agro-techniques, the combined application of integrated nutrient management (INM) + integrated weed management (IWM) + integrated pest management (IPM) practices recorded significantly higher number of pods per plant (147.87), grain weight per plant (48.97 g), grain yield (1822 kg ha-1) and stalk yield (4087 kg ha-1) as compared to other integrated agro-techniques. Similarly, at 60 DAS, significantly higher number of nodules per plant (30.5) was recorded with INM + IPM, which was on par with INM + IWM (30.3 plant-1), INM (29.9 plant-1) and INM + IWM + IPM (29.5 plant-1). Significantly lower number of nodule per plant (20.1) was recorded with farmer’s practice. Similarly higher gross returns (₹ 74,923 ha-1), net returns (₹ 48,913 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio of (2.88) was observed with combined application of INM, IWM and IPM practices as compared to farmer’s practice (₹ 44,148 ha-1, ₹ 25,648 ha-1 and ₹ 2.38 respectively).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 763-766
N V Mohan Kumar, S Gangaprasd and M G Sunil
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agriculture and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga - 577 204, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The success of most crop improvement programs depends upon the genetic variability and heritability of desirable traits. The magnitude and type of genetic variability helps the breeder to determine the selection criteria and breeding schemes to be used for improvement purposes. The genetic variability and heritability have been studied in forty nine cowpea lines and showed that there were significant variations among the lines for yield and yield attributing traits. Plant height, number of secondary branches, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant and 100 seed weight could be considered for selection to improve the yield as they had high genotypic coefficient of variation, phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance over mean (GAM). This information showed that there is sufficient genetic variability to justify selection for improvement in the cowpea. This result will be of immense practical uses for plant breeders to choose parent of interest to meet different breeding objectives.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 767-769
S R Dalal, V S Gonge, S R Bhople and A F Bhogave
Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present experiment was carried out at Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola; Maharashtra (India) during four years 2010-11 to 2013-14. The hybrid PDKV Roshni (AK-GL-04-06-A) was developed through hybridization which is a cross between Darshan and White Friendship. To assess the performance of new hybrid the experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with eight treatments (varieties) and replicated four times. The four years pooled results of the present investigation indicated that, the hybrid PDKV Roshni (AK-GL-04-06-A) comes early to flower; produced maximum number of spikes per plant (1.73) and spikes per hectare (2.57 lakhs). The spike of PDKV Roshni (AK-GL-04-06-A) was long (105.26 cm) and straight with more number of florets per spike (16.45) having more rachis length (47.99 cm). In addition, this hybrid had good corm and cormel production potential (2.13 and 55.54 per plant respectively) with significantly higher (94.24%) consumer preference and longer vase life (10.23 days).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 770-772
M G Sable and D K Rana
Depertment of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The survey was conducted to study the occurrence status and insecticide resistance in BPH during kharif 2014. Two BPH prone districts were selected for the study. Insect starts to appear in the field during first fortnight of September. BPH population was found to be at peak level in second fortnight of October. The population fluctuates from 0.01 to 11.73 insects/plant among the locations. Maximum average number of insects was recorded at Dhamatari block while minimum at Arang block. Among different population tested for insecticide resistance monitoring Dhamatari population was found to be 6.16 fold resistant to Imidacloprid and 3.13 fold resistant to Acetamiprid than glasshouse population.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 773-775
M Satishkumar, T N Prakash Kammardi, H K Pavithra and K S Aditya
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Jowar is also known as camel of desert for its ability to withstand drought. Because of this reason it is an integral component of many dryland cropping systems. In India, Karnataka state is the second largest jowar producer after Maharashtra. It accounts for around 20 percent of the total area and 21 percent of the total production of jowar in the country. Jowar being an important crop of dry land region, it is important to analyze the labour use dynamics, which could have an impact on its remunerativeness. This paper is an endeavor to estimate the labour use and labour cost dynamics in jowar cultivation in Karnataka using secondary data from 1997-98 to 2010-11. The results showed that the labour use and cost of human and machine labour has increased significantly over the year. Technological changes in crop production have favoured an increase in the human labour use and machine use. Negative trend was observed in use of animal labour in production of jowar crop. With increase in wage rate, higher share of labour cost affects remunerativeness of the crop adversely and might even induce farmer to switch over to other less labour intensive crops. Efforts in increasing the extent of mechanization in cultivation of the crop need to be intensified.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 776-780
V Lavanya, Udaykumar Nidoni and H Amarananjundeshwara*
Depertment of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India *Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Kolar, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In the present study, the chemical and morphological status of jasmine flower (Jasminum sambac) with a range of flower colors and total phenolics during storage was investigated. From the ethanolic extracts of jasmine petals collected from flowers packed in different packaging material, several phenolic compounds were identified mass spectrometry. Colorimetric parameters were also measured. During flower development from bud to senescent stage, a significant trend was detected; lightness (L*) decreased, b* decreased and a* increased. However, the lowest content of total phenolics was measured in buds and partially opened flowers, respectively. The amount of total phenols had an increasing trend with progressing stages.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 781-784
Arvinder Kumar, Berjesh Ajrawat* and Ajay Kumar*
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST - Jammu), Reasi, Jammu and Kashmir, India Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST - Jammu), Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in Agra district of Uttar Pradesh. Out of 15 blocks in the district one block Fatehpur Sikari was selected for the present study. In total 50 farmers were selected randomly to get the required information. The findings of the study reveals that majority of respondents belongs middle age group, literate and possessed medium family. The data also reveals that V.D.O and Kissan Sahak were the important field functionaries for the farmers to provide the latest information in case of formal sources and Radio was most important mass media sources in rural areas utilized by majority of farmers. It is also concluded from the present study that the combination is the basic step affecting change in any aspect of clientele system. It is being said that the greater the number of information sources sought the greater the adoption. Information sources play important role in communication of agricultural technology.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 785-790
Tania Das, Mamta Meena* and Y M Shukla
Depertment of Biochemistry, Anand Agriculture University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India *Department of Agronomy, Junagadh Agriculture University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Five rice varieties viz GR-7, GR-11, GR-12, Dandi and Gurjari were grown in Petri plates at 100 and 200 mM NaCl, 4 and 8 µM BL concentrations with water as control and solution of BL supplemented with salinity levels for 10 and 15 DAG time intervals studied for molecular characterizations. Protein profiling was done by using SDS-PAGE and isoenzymic pattern of antioxidant enzymes e g esterase (EST) and amylase. The Study on changes in isoenzyme banding pattern of antioxidant enzymes showed differences based on the appearance in all the varieties under different treatment levels. The protein profile by SDS-PAGE observed the presence of more number of stress proteins under brassinolide supplemented treatments than at high salinity level. The study revealed that among the different treatment levels, the lesser concentration of brassinolide, 4 µM had less alleviating effects as compared to 8 µM concentration which was optimum to ameliorate the salinity stress in all the varieties. It was found to be more pronounced in sensitive varieties.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 791-794
R A Kurane, G R Pawar*, K T Madane** and S B Murumkar*
College of Agriculture (MPKV), Shahupuri, Kolhapur - 416 004, Maharashtra, India *Lokmangal College of Agriculture (MPKV), Wadala, Taluka North Solapur - 413 222, Maharashtra, India **Shriram College of Agriculture (MPKV), Paniv - 413 113, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted in factorial randomized block design with three replications during summer 2011 at the College of Agriculture, Kolhapur (Maharashtra). The treatments were comprised of twelve combinations with three fertilizer levels viz 75% RDF (90:45:30 kg NPK ha-1), 100% RDF (120:60:40 kg NPK ha-1) and 125% RDF (150:75:50 kg NPK ha-1) and four plant spacing levels viz 60 cm × 15 cm, 60 cm × 20 cm, 75 cm × 15 cm and 75 cm × 20 cm. Each experimental unit was replicated thrice with the plot size of 7.2 m × 6.0 m and 6.0 m × 3.0 m as the gross and net plot, respectively. The results revealed that application of 125% RDF and plant density 75 cm × 20 cm (66,666 plants ha-1) recorded the maximum growth and yield contributing characters as compared to 100% RDF (120:60:40 kg NPK ha-1) and 75% RDF (90:45:30 kg NPK ha-1). Hence, it is advisable to fertilize the sweet corn with 125% RDF (150:75:50 kg NPK ha-1) with spacing 75 cm × 20 cm during summer season.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 795-798
Jagati Yadagiri, N K Gupta, Muthineni Mahesh and Gyanesh Kumar
Depertment of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Indore - 452 001, M. P., India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Vegetable Research Farm, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (M.P.) during the kharif season in the year 2012-13. The present investigation was undertaken with 20 genotypes of bitter gourd for evaluating their performance for various horticultural characters. There was a great deal of significant correlation for all the characters among the genotypes. Correlation analysis revealed that Length of vine (0.640), number of branches per vine (0.577), number of male flowers per vine (0.594), number of female flowers per vine (0.529), number of fruits per vine (0.649), length of fruit (0.724), weight of fruit (0.961), number of seeds fruit (0.360), seed weight per fruit (0.380) had significant positive correlation for yield. Further, path coefficient analysis partitioned the correlation into direct and indirect effects. Yield was found to be directly correlated with crop duration (0.004), length of vine (0.030), number of seeds per fruit (0.045) and length of fruit (0.094) hence selection based on these characters would be more rewarding.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 799-802
Ravi Shrey and S H Kamble
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Socio-economic status is a combined measurement of economic and social position of an entity compared to others in society. It influences the accessibility to the resources, livelihood pattern, food and nutritional security etc. It often predicts the psychological and behavioral components of a sample. Present study tried to investigate socio-economic profile of famers pursuing crop- dairy mixed farming on small farms in Parbhani district of Marathwada region. For the study, multi stage stratified sampling method was adopted, then after the total sample of 60 farmers was randomly selected by giving proportionate weightage to small farmers. The data were collected in the month of November- December 2012 from selected farmers by personal interview method. The analysis of data revealed that the majority of the respondents were middle aged (39.05 years), educated upto sixth or seventh standard and family size was 4.73 members per family of which 2.78 members were working on farm. The average size of land holding was 1.65 ha and thus, belonged to medium socio-economic status. The cropping pattern of selected farms was dominated by kharif crops (1.47 ha) followed by rabi crop (0.43 ha). However some perennial crops like sugarcane and Napier were also observed. Thus the total cropped area was 2.08 ha with cropping intensity of 126.06 percent. In case of livestock per farm total bovine population was 5.05 animals. On an average per sample farm, inventory of implement and machinery was estimated to ₹ 67,346.66. Out of total value of inventory, machinery contributes 93.40 percent value followed by implements, hand tools and dairy equipment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 803-806
H R Savitha and C A Srinivasamurthy
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of different dilutions of distillery spentwash {undiluted, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8, 1:9, 1:10 and control (tap water)} on seed germination (%), speed of germination, shoot length, root length, and seedling vigour of cowpea, sunflower and tomato. The distillery spentwash did not show any inhibitory effect on seed germination and speed of germination at higher dilution except in tomato. Irrespective of the crop species, at higher concentrations (undiluted and <1:5) low germination per cent or complete failure of germination was observed. The root, shoot length and vigour index values also followed a similar trend. It was found that a concentration of 1:5 dilution was ideal for germination of cowpea and sunflower seeds, and 1:8 dilution was ideal for tomato seed. Based on the observation, the tolerance of the crops to distillery spentwash has been arranged in the order: cowpea >sunflower >tomato. It can be concluded that the effect of the distillery spentwash is crop-specific and due care should be taken before using it for seed treatment and pre-sowing irrigation purposes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 807-810
C S Avinash and B S Reddy
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An estimation of cost and returns in modern and traditional redgram processing unit in Gulbarga district of Karnataka indicated that the variable cost (₹ 4,623.76/qtl) in modern dal mills, formed a substantial component (97.51%) of the total cost of processing. Whereas, total fixed cost bear ₹ 117.97 per quintal, accounted only 2.49 percent of the total cost of processing. In case of traditional dal mills the total variable cost and fixed cost were ₹ 4,609.18 (98.58%) and ₹ 66.63 (1.42%) per quintal, respectively. Similar trends of fixed and variable cost were observed in small, medium and large size dal mills. The gross returns per quintal of output was (₹ 5,112/qtl) comparatively higher in case of modern dal mills in comparison with traditional dal mills (₹ 4,875/qtl). Similarly, the net returns were also significantly higher in case of modern dal mills (₹ 368.52/qtl) compared to traditional dal mills (₹ 197.78/qtl). Among the traditional dal mills, the net returns was comparatively high in large size dal mills (₹ 189.70/qtl) compared to small (₹ 156.11/qtl) and medium (₹ 127.53/qtl).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 811-813
S S Talekar, S R Dodake and S P Patil
Depertment of Animal and Dairy Science, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Amongst the traditional milk product khoa, is an important indigenous heat coagulated, partially dehydrated milk product which is very popular in large section of population throughout the country. In this study attempt has been made to standardize a formulation for the preparation of khoa burfi blended with coconut (Cocos nucifera). Burfi was prepared from buffalo milk blended with coconut paste @ 10, 15 and 20% by weight and compared with traditional burfi for chemical properties. Increase in coconut paste content was observed to increase in the fat content and decrease in protein, ash, carbohydrate and total solid content of burfi.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 814-816
Harishankar, V Bharati, D M Ransing*, N K Banchhor** and T Suryavanshi*
Depertment of Agronomy, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur - 848 125, Bihar, India *Depertment of Agronomy, **Depertment of Agricultural Meteorology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Centre, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar) during kharif season of 2012 to study the effect of moisture regimes and organic manures on growth, yield and economics of direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). The treatments combination of 3 levels of moisture regimes based on 1, 3 and 5 DAD (days after disappearance of ponded water) on main plot and six levels of organic manures F1: (100% recommended dose of fertilizer) F2: (100% RDF + brown manuring), F3: (100% RDF + FYM @ 10 t ha-1), F4: (100% RDF + vermi-compost @ 0.75 t ha-1) F5: (100% RDF + vermi-compost @ 1.5 t ha-1) and F6: (100% RDF + vermi-compost @ 3 t ha-1) in sub-plot was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Results revealed that bulk density, pH, EC, organic carbon and available NPK was obtained non-significant under moisture regimes but in grain yield was obtained significant difference. Application of organic manures was found non-significant in pH, EC and available N but bulk density, organic carbon, available P, K and yield was found significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 817-819
Dileepkumar Masuthi, B S Vyakarnahal and V K Deshpande
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Traditionally varietal identification has involved visual inspection of morphological characters of plants with the help of a reference manual, listing systematic description of national set of varieties. The phenol colour test, out of 32 genotypes, 12 genotypes showed no colour change, 15 genotypes were light brown, 8 genotypes were brown and six genotypes were dark brown in colour. For the modified phenol test with CuSO4, 10 genotypes were found with no colour change, 9 genotypes were light brown, 9 genotypes were brown, 9 genotypes were dark brown in colour and four genotypes were black (IET-18393, Kalanamak, Kagi sali and Huggi bhatta) in colour. Based on the colour development of the decanted solution by sodium hydroxide, 3 genotypes showed no colour change (Sindagi local, IET-21046 and Huggi bhatta), 14 genotypes were yellow and 24 genotypes were light yellow in colour. In case of potassium hydroxide 8 genotypes were shown no colour change, 14 genotypes were light yellow, 13 genotypes were dark yellow and six genotypes were having reddish brown (Sindagi Local, Parimala Kalavi, Kalanamak, Kagi sali, Huggi bhatta and Kari basmati) in colour. Response to KI test, 16 genotypes were bluish brown colour and remaining 25 genotypes were reddish brown in colour group.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 820-822
Arvinder Kumar, Ajay Kumar*, Berjesh Ajrawat* and Sudhakar Dwivedi**
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST- Jammu), Reasi, Jammu and Kashmir, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST- Jammu), Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir, India **Division of Agricultural Economic, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Chatha - 180 009, Jammu, J & K, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken in Agra district of Uttar Pradesh. Out of fifteen blocks in Agra district one block namely Fatepur Sikri was randomly selected. The two villages Lal Darwaja and Nagar Sikari Char Hissa were selected for the purpose of investigation. The study reveals that majority of respondents possessed medium level of knowledge regarding improved wheat production technology. In extent of knowledge on different agricultural practices by the respondent ploughing was ranked at 1st place as far as the knowledge possessed by the farmers. In case of correlation between Information utilization patterns with different variables, the education, income and land holding were significantly correlated with information utilization pattern.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 823-826
G Panigrahi, C A Srinivasamurthy, Ramakrishna V R Parama, S S Prakash and M Padmanabhan
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An incubation experiment was conducted under green house conditions at University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru, Karnataka and a field experiment conducted at farmer’s field, Somsettyhalli, Doddballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural district to study the effect of human urine enriched biochar on growth and yield of French bean crop during summer 2013. The incubation experiment was conducted for preparation of nutrient enriched biochar through human urine at different ratios (1:0.75, 1:1, 1:1.25, 1:1.5, 1:1.75 and 1:2). The increase in nutrient composition of coconut shell biochar was observed due to addition of human urine by preventing the loss of ammonia during incubation with H2SO4 treatment. The field experiment was prepared with nine treatments and three replications. Application of enriched biochar 1(1:2) T4 has resulted in better plant growth and nutrient uptake by crop and also the vegetable yield of French bean. The findings of this study clearly showed that application of nutrient enriched biochar through human urine has resulted in highest crop growth and yield of French bean, reflecting and confirming the improved nutrient availability in soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 827-829
S P Patil, S S Talekar and P V Padghan
Depertment of Animal and Dairy Science, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
An attempt has made to increase sensory properties of gulabjamun by supplementation of starch rich sweet corn milk @ 20%, 30%, 40% and control. The sensory characteristics of food and materials are based on perception of human senses i e senses of sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing. The score for colour and appearance attribute ranges between 8.50 to 8.37, flavour attribute ranges between 8.87 to 8.12, flavour attribute ranges between 8.87 to 8.37, score for sweetness attribute ranges between 8.75 to 8. Overall score of acceptability of gulabjamun from sweet corn milk blended with buffalo milk for the treatments T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 8.84, 8.31, 8.59 and 8.24, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 830-833
K G Shilpashree, C T Subbarayappa and S Doreswamy
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted with victory 1 variety of mulberry to know the effect of soil application of micronutrients on quality of mulberry and cocoon production. Five micronutrients viz Fe, Zn, Mn Cu and B were applied at two levels (10 and 20 kg/ha of FeSO4, ZnSO4 and MnSO4, 5 and 10 kg/ha of CuSO4 and 1.25 and 2.5 kg/ha Borax) and in combination. Among different treatments applied, combined application of micronutrients (T11: T1 + FeSO4 @ 10 kg/ha + ZnSO4 @ 10 kg/ha + MnSO4 @ 10 kg/ha + CuSO4 @ 5 kg/ha + Borax @ 2.5 kg/ha as soil application) showed significant increase in chlorophyll (2.813 mg/g), total sugars (16.423%), total soluble proteins (13.867%) and crude fibre (14.830%) as compared to control. Among different micronutrients applied individually, application of borax @ 2.5 kg/ha recorded higher contents of total sugars (15.867%), total soluble proteins (12.650%) and crude fibre (14.283%) and MnSO4 @ 20 kg/ha recorded higher chlorophyll content (2.627 mg/g). Combined application of micronutrients (T11) resulted in significantly higher cocoon weight, shell weight and shell ratio as compared to control. Similarly, longest filament length was obtained with the combined application micronutrients. But the denier values were not influenced by the application of micronutrients.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 834-837
S Poonguzhali and S Kanagarasu*
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, *Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Studies were undertaken at the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore using blackgram cv. VBN 5 seed lots which is having different germination percentage and varying vigour status (unknown seed lot), with a view to elicit information on identification of reliable vigour test and their relation with field emergence for delineation. Experiments results revealed that highly significant and positive correlation was observed for the vigour tests viz accelerated ageing and CSVT negative correlation for controlled deterioration test. Comparing the correlation values, accelerated ageing test had maximum correlation (lot 1 r = 0.715, lot 2 r = 0.945, lot 3 r = 0.712, lot 4 r = 0.712) association.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 838-841
C Mamatha, Mangesh Dange* and K Priyanka
Depertment of Agri Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 085, Karnataka, India *Department of Horticultural Sciences, College of Horticulture (UHS), Bidar - 585 403, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Cultivation of plantation crops in India has a rich diversity and varied history with each crop having its own distinct historical and economic context of development. For this study the secondary data on coffee area, production and productivity and seasonal rainfall were collected for the period of 1992-93 to 2012-13. The study revealed that, the area (2.61% /annum) and production (2.34% /annum) under coffee in the country showed positive and significant growth whereas, productivity (-0.25% /annum) is showing negative growth. The rainfall during monsoon season, post monsoon season, winter season and pre-monsoon season of India showed negative growth rate of -0.43, -1.5, -0.31 and 0.004 percent per annum respectively. Coffee showed instability of 5.27 percent due to expansion in the area under coffee production over the year, production showed instability of 9.85 percent. Coffee productivity showed instability to the extent of 7.34 percent and total rain fall showed instability of 7.60 percent at national level. The coefficients of multiple determination (R2) was 0.8190, indicated that the variables included in the function had explained 81.90 percent of variation in the output of coffee.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 842-844
Dileepkumar Masuthi, B S Vyakarnahal and V K Deshpande
Depertment of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted at the Agriculture Research Station (ARS) Mugad Farm of the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka during kharif season; the varieties were collected from the farmers field of northern Karnataka as scented rice genotypes. Most of the characters taken for categorization based on key are again depend on environmental and biotic and abiotic stress and also influenced by the practices followed by the farmers. But based on the external morphology and pigmentation on the seed, plant and their reactions to various chemicals the genotypes can be grouped. The scented rice genotypes which are collected from the different places of northern Karnataka are grouped and studied the distribution based on the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Right (Act 2007).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 845-847
S Sujay Kumar, V L Madhu Prasad and H M Vinayakumar
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Cauvery Command Area of Karnataka during 2012 to know participation of rural youth in organic sugarcane cultivation. The investigation included 60 rural youth practicing organic sugarcane cultivation from each three taluks of Mandya and Mysore districts which were selected based on maximum number of Savayava Krushi Sangas/ Parivaras (SKS/P). The results revealed that majority of rural youth practicing organic sugarcane cultivation participated in harvesting (80.00%), application of organic manures (78.33%), gap filling (78.33%) and weed management (75.00%). Majority (66.66%) of rural youth expressed equally marketing of produce and ability to meet the export demand as their major constraints. The study was shown that majority of rural youth had medium level of participation in organic sugarcane cultivation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 848-853
Bhaskar Rao Bheemisetti, Katam Nirosha, J Dilip Babu and M Srinivas
Post Harvest Technology Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 580 005, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted at Post Harvest Technology Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar to study the effect of gamma irradiation treatments (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 KGy) on shelf life and quality of pomegranate cv. Bhagwa with a pretreatment of waxol (12%) and calcium chloride (4%) at ambient temperature and in combination with cold storage (6°C and 8°C). Among the irradiation treatments, the fruits treated with 0.30 KGy resulted in increased shelf life of 6 days over the control at ambient temperature and the fruits treated with 0.30 KGy and stored at 8°C extended the shelf life by 18 days compared to that of the fruits stored at 8°C without irradiation treatment. Among the irradiation treatments, the fruits treated with 0.20 KGy followed by 0.30 KGy recorded lower physiological loss in weight, spoilage, firmness, internal fruit temperature and high total soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins and thereby recorded higher shelf life (28 and 30 days) over control (24 days). The total soluble solids, titrable acidity, sugars, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins were found to be less as the irradiation dose was increased. In combination treatments, the fruits treated with 0.30 KGy and stored at 8°C recorded higher shelf life (104.78 days) compared to that of the fruits stored at 8°C (86 days) without irradiation treatment. In all the combination treatments, the total soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid, anthocyanins were found to be higher when compared to control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 854-856
Deepti Giri, Usha Ravindra and Sunanda Sharan
Depertment of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Present study was undertaken to develop nutra-flour and analyze its nutritional and fatty acid profile. Nutraceutical flour (nutra-flour) was developed from millets, legumes, oil seed, spices and herbs by different processes. The result revealed that nutra flour is a rich source of protein (26.25%), fat (14.11%) and crude fiber (6.73%). It is also a good source of calcium (240.40 mg/100g), iron (14.84 mg/100g), phosphorus (204.09 mg/100g) and potassium (207.06 mg/100g) and very rich source of essential fatty acid omega-3 (linolenic acid-5.53%), omega-6 (linoleic acid-45.72%) and oleic acid (28.47%). This nutra flour can be used for the preparation of traditional as well as novel food products such as dosa, roti, dumpling, idli, gruel, vermicelli, pasta etc.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 857-859
Ajay Kumar Singh, Ruchi Rani Gangwar, Supriya and Shweta Arora
Depertment of Agricultural Economics, Govind Ballab Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The economic study of goat farming from different herd size groups (Small, medium and large) of barbari and local breed has been conducted. The study was undertaken in randomly selected villages of Mohana, Sujau, Rani gaon, Dhanpoo and Purani Kalsi, Chakrata and Kalsi Block of Dehradun District of Uttarakhand during 2014. The goat keepers (household) of selected villages were divided into two groups maintaining barbari and local breeds. The study revealed that the net income derived from different herd size groups of goats were much higher among barbari breed group than local breed group. The study clearly shows large herd size group of goat keepers achieved higher profits than small and medium herd size groups in both breed of goats. The overall net annual income per goat was worked out to be ₹ 1026.57 in barbari breed and ₹ 960.54 in local breed of goats. The annual income of barbari breed of different herd size groups was higher in comparison to local breed of goats. This shows that the improved breed of barbari goats have positive impact on the income of goat keepers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 860-863
Raghuveer Singh Meena, Kalyan Ghadei and Pramod Kumar Prajapati
Depertment of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A study was conducted on “Uses of e-resources by students of Extension Education” in the year 2013 in which a total of 53 students (as only 53 students were registered in the year 2013 in both the programmes) from M. Sc. and Ph. D. from Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) were taken as respondents. The findings revealed that majority (88.68%) of respondents had medium uses of e-resources while 7.55 percent of the respondents had high uses of e-resources and only 3.77 percent of the respondents had low uses of e-resources.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 864-866
T P Kalbhor, V R Joshi and R A Durgude
Depertment of Horticulture, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, District Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken at Instructional cum Research Orchard of Arid Zone Fruit Project, Department of Horticulture, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri during the year 2011-12 on 17 years old plants, spaced at 5 x 5 m2 in factorial randomized block design. It involved five pruning intensities viz without pruning (I1), pruning of previous season’s shoots to 15% (I2), 25% (I3), 50% (I4) and 75% (I5). The pruning was commenced 30 days after harvesting of previous year fruits (T1) that is on 2nd January, 2012 and continued at 45 days (T2), 60 days (T3), 75 days (T4) and 90 (T5) days after harvesting. The results revealed that number of shoots per branch increased during early days of pruning and significantly increased in treatment T3I3 (i e 60 days after previous harvest with 25% pruning). The percent flowered shoots and number of flowers per branch were maximum in treatment T4I3 (i e 75 days after previous harvest with 25% pruning). The highest yield was recorded in treatment T4I3 (i e 75 days after previous harvest with 25% pruning) and average number of fruits were recorded in treatment T4I3 (i.e. 75 days after previous harvest with 25% pruning). The maximum average weight of fruit was found in treatment T4I3 (i e 75 days after previous harvest with 25% pruning). Pruning of custard apple trees in the first week of April (75 days after previous harvest) with 25 percent intensity enhance the plant growth and yield significantly.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 867-870
Syed Wali Jalalzai and V R Ramakrishna Parama
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A pot experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru, Karnataka using the low P soil (Alfisol, Oxic Haplaustalf) by providing a combination of inorganic fertilizer (urea, single super phosphate and muriate of potash) and P solubilizing microorganisms in a maize - cowpea cropping sequence. The results revealed that there was positive impact of PSB and VAM on maize grain and stover yield (69.80 and 81.34 g plant-1 respectively) on addition (T6) recommended NPK + FYM + PSB + VAM followed by T13 50% P + PSB + VAM + recommended NK and FYM (68.19 and 80.82 g plant-1 grain and stover yield respectively) similar results were recorded in case of cowpea. A build-up in available phosphorus was recorded in all treatments after harvest of crop compared to initial (11.81 kg P2O5 ha-1). The study indicated that soil using P solubilizer and application of required quantity of inorganic and organic phosphorus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 871-873
P Radhika
Agricultural Research Station, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Anantapur - 515 001, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Experiments were conducted for the first time to explore the feasibility of employing mass trapping technique for the management of groundnut leaf miner over small land holdings. These trials were conducted with six treatments viz 1 ha, 3 ha, 5 ha, 10 ha and 20 ha pheromone treated area along with farmers practice (FP) with four replications. The pooled data over two years revealed that the lowest damage (8.41%) and highest yield (949.13 kg/ha) was recorded in 20 ha pheromone treated area and significantly superior to all the other treatments. The above data indicated that groundnut leaf miner damage could be reduced by 2 to 3 times with increased yield where pheromone mediated mass trapping is followed over larger areas.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 874-877
Sunil Narbaria, M L Sharma, M A Khan and V K Painkra
Depertment of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The psychological characters of individual play a vital role in the collection of information and adoption of advanced technology. An attempt has been made to know the farmers psychology towards SRI and their knowledge of system of rice intensification technology (SRI). The present study was conducted in ten villages of Kurud block in the Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh. The study revealed that the majority of respondents (50%) had high level of attitude towards SRI method of rice cultivation; most of the respondents (97.61%) had high scientific orientation towards SRI, 74.61 percent of them had high level of risk orientation, most of the respondents (89.61%) had low cosmopoliteness, most of the respondents (77.78%) cultivated rice for selling and domestic use and 69.84 percent of them sold in local market and most of the respondents (89.69%) had high knowledge regarding transplanting management, intercultural operation and harvesting and storage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 878-883
B Nethravathi, R C Gowda**, Netravati* and C N Nalina**
Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agriculture and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga - 577 204, Karnataka, India **Depertment of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during the Kharif season of 2010 at MRS, Hebbal UAS, Bangalore, Karnataka, India to study the influence of the effect of water hyacinth and Alligator weed compost on soil chemical properties and nutrient uptake by maize. The matured compost was evaluated under field condition by using maize as a test crop. There were 15 treatments comprising of recommended dose of fertilizers, FYM, compost @ 5t and 10 t ha-1 applied individually and in combinations. Application of different sources of nutrients significantly influenced soil nutrient status and other chemical properties. Maximum nutrient uptake was recorded in 100% RDF + FYM @ 10 t ha-1 followed by 100% RDF + water hyacinth compost @ 10 t ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 884-887
Ganeshgouda I Patil and S B Mahajanashetti
Depertment of Agri-Business Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The paper aims to investigate the quality of sugarcane and sugar losses in different by-products in selected sugar factories of Karnataka state for the year 2000-01 to 2012-13. The study considered 10 sugar factories, of which four each were from private and co-operative sector and two were from public sectors and further they were sub divided into above and below average based on their performance relating to installation capacity, cane crushed, sugar produced and sugar recovery percent. The quality of sugarcane judged based on the recovery percent of sugar and its byproducts viz fibre percent, molasses percent, bagasse percent and filter cake percent in the cane. The recovery percent of sugar was found highest in the case of co-operative sugar factories (11.25%) followed by private sugar factories (10.23%) and public sugar factories (8.68%) and with respect to the recovery percent of by-products, the public sector sugar factories reported higher recovery rate (fibre: 14.15%, bagasse: 32.20%, filter cake: 3.60% and molasses: 5.15%), followed by co-operative sugar factories and private sugar factories. The analysis of sugar loss was revealed that, highest was in the case of public sector sugar factories (2.65%) than the private (2.21%) and co-operative sugar factories (2.12%). Similarly, the analysis relating to percent of sugar losses in different byproducts, public sugar factories reported the highest losses of sugar in bagasse (0.97%), filter cake (0.11%), molasses (1.44%) and undetermined losses (0.14%) in comparison with other two sectors of sugar factories. This difference in sugar recovery was due to variability in climatic factors between the factories located in southern and northern part of the state. Likewise, the difference in recovery percent of by-products of sugarcane was attributed to existence of poor quality of cane due to improper procurement management and processing of cane at the factory. Further, this sugar losses in different by-products attributed to inefficient performance of sugar mill due to cleaning and mechanical problems of machineries, crushing of extraneous cane (i e immature and mud accumulated cane).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 888-891
Sreeram V, S V Prasad and T Lakshmi
Dairy Extension Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The word entrepreneurship has become the synonym to empowerment among the development agencies since a few years. Given the fact that the poor has only few resources to mobilize to take part in remunerative production activities which will ultimately help them to come out of poverty, lack of skills and resources were acting as the stumbling blocks. In the case of women the problem is more severe as they neither have the capacity for change nor have the resources. The Kudumbashree initiative in Kerala rightly identified these problems and gave opportunities for rural women to take up entrepreneurial activities. The study on the socio economic and psychological characteristics of these women entrepreneurs revealed that majority of the NHG members were middle aged, educated up to the secondary level with medium income level, social participation, mass media exposure, training undergone, extension contact, marketing facilities, management orientation, value orientation and credit orientation. In terms of entrepreneurial behaviour most of the entrepreneurs were found to be under the medium level category. Hence it can be concluded that there is further scope for improving their critical capabilities to strengthen their entrepreneurial behaviour.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 892-895
A Srijan, S Sudheer Kumar, R Jagadeeshwar and Ch Damodar Raju
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Abstract
To identify the better parents and hybrids for blast resistance, the present investigation was carried out at Rice Research Centre, Rajendranagar during rabi 2014-15. In this study, 15 parents, 36 hybrids along with suitable checks for blast disease viz IR 64 (resistant check) and TN 1 (susceptible check) were screened by adopting UBN (Uniform Blast Nursery) method and genotypes were scored using 0-9 Standard Evaluation System (SES) scale. Accordingly, based on the disease scoring, the genotypes are categorized as resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible types. It was found that 22 hybrids and 5 parents were resistant to screening reaction; 14 hybrids and 7 parents were moderately susceptible; and 3 parents are highly susceptible to the blast disease.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 896-899
Gajendra Kumar Chandrakar, Randeep Kumar Kushwaha, Vikas Singh and Hemkant Chandravanshi
Depertment of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Evaluation of insecticides against sucking pest like BPH in rice crop was conducted Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur during kharif 2011-12 and 2012-13. During kharif 2011-12, the lowest BPH population was recorded 0.70/hill against treatment T4 and highest in T1 (2.60/hill) within fourteen day of spraying was significantly low as compared to control. The BPH population was also exihibited lowest 0.70 per hill in T4 whereas treatment T6 was observed highest BPH population (3.30/hill) during kharif 2012-13. Average of two years, the spraying of insecticidal treatments against BPH population ranged from 1.10 to 3.47/hill. The lowest 1.10 and 2.25/hill BPH population was noticed in dose 3000 ml/ha of CPL2005 (T4) followed by (T3) CPL2005 @ 2000 i e 1.42 and 2.48/hill in second and first spraying, respectively. Whereas, highest in T6 2.64 and 3.47/hill was significantly low as compared to control. During this period CPL 2005 @ 3000 ml/ha was found to be the best effective treatment and minimized the BPH population, whereas Fenobucarb 50EC @ 1500 ml/ha was recorded the least effective treatment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 900-903
Ganeshgouda I Patil and S B Mahajanashetti
Depertment of Agri-Business Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The paper aims to investigate the capacity utilization and working efficiency of sugar factories in Karnataka State for the year 2000-2013. The study considered 10 sugar factories, of which four each were from private and co-operative sector and two were from public sectors and further they were sub divided into above and below average based on their performance relating to installation capacity, cane crushed, sugar produced and sugar recovery percent. The findings of the study revealed that among the sectors of sugar factories, the overall co-operative and private sugar factories were able to utilize only three fourth of installed capacity of the factory. The public sector sugar factories were able to utilize only 56 percent of total installed capacity. As a result, at overall level the utilization of installed capacity was only 68 percent. However, to mitigate the hours lost in mechanical problem across the sectors of sugar factories, the management must implement the programme of modernization immediately because during the season itself, the stand by unit must keep in perfect order every time so that they can be immediately taken up in to the operation and thus down time is avoided, proper painting and use of lubricants increases the life time of plant and machinery. Hence the study suggest that above average and below average performing sugar factories revealed that the above average public sugar factories have utilized less than the half of the installed capacity (44.00 %). Thus, management must thrive for efficient and maximum utilization of capacity whatever is available with some modification addition or alteration. The efforts can be channelized section wise such as cane management, maintenance, overhauling and preventive maintenance, reduction in down time, crushing as much above capacity as possible, keeping the stream and process house in good condition, efficient labor management and proper co-ordination among various sections and department, proper understanding of the problems of sections and their subsequent solution may result in maximum utilization of the capacity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 904-906
Analysis on Growth, Instability and Shift in Area of Cultivation of Major Oilseed Crops of Karnataka
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (UAS Dharwad), Kumta, Karnataka, India *Depertment of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The agrarian economy of Karnataka comprises of many valuable enterprises. Agricultural change can be identified with change of population in rural areas as well as the changes that are being implemented with the changing cropping pattern of different agricultural crops. Oilseeds contribute a significant portion to the agriculture economy. Among the studied ones except soybean all other crops showed a negative trend in the growth of area, production and productivity. The highest instability was depicted in soybean in the study period. The changing cropping pattern was estimated by obtaining the transitional probability matrices for the area under each pulse crops for the period 2000 to 2013. Sunflower, ground nut and soybean were the major crops grown in the study period with high retention of the shares. Necessary strategies have to be implemented by the government for the crops which are losing demand as well as the area for cultivation for many reasons.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 907-912
D P Nikam, S G Bhave*, A G Iratkar* and V S Kakade*
Plant Biotechnology Centre, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli - 415 712, District Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India Vivekanand Agriculture College (Dr. PDKV Akola), Hiwara Bk., Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A total of 35 SSR primer pairs were polymorphic and generated 184 alleles with an average of 5.26 alleles per primer pair. The number of alleles amplified for each primer pair ranged from 2 to 8. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values of each primer pair ranged from 0.23 to 0.78 with an average of 0.58. The UPGMA grouped 23 rice varieties into two main clusters which were further divided into two sub-clusters. The first major cluster consists of seven released rice varieties and 16 varieties form second major cluster. Most of the closely related cultivars were identified with the fingerprinting based on the polymorphic SSR primer pairs. The results could be useful for resolving the problem that arises in seed certification programme as well as the determination of genetic diversity of the rice varieties very quickly.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 913-916
S B Shama, M Madhavi and A Kiran Kumar
Depertment of Hoticulture, College of Hoticulture, Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh, India to find out the effect of time and method of propagation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Baneshan where the pretreated scion sticks were subjected to graftage during different months viz 1st fortnight August (M1), 2nd fortnight August (M2), 1st fortnight September (M3), 2nd fortnight September (M4), 1st fortnight October (M5), 2nd fortnight October (M6), 1st fortnight November (M7), 2nd fortnight November (M8). This study revealed that among the methods of propagation, T-budding is a complete failure in mango but it can be successfully propagated through veneer grafting with monsoon period found to have a profound effect on better graft growth with high success rate.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 917-920
M M Deshmukh and S Vanitha
Depertment of Sericulture, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Three key defence enzymes viz peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were estimated in mulberry crop treated with plant extracts, nutrients and organic amendments. Murraya koenigii L. (10%) and calcium nitrate (0.1%) had recorded peroxidase activity of 6.19 and 5.97 unit/min/g respectively of fresh leaf on 0th day. It increased gradually up to 5th day of inoculation after which there was reduction in the peroxidase activity. Murraya koenigii significantly induced polyphenol oxidase (PPO) to a tune of 3.27 unit/min/g of fresh leaf tissue as against the healthy control. The maximum PAL activity was recorded in Coleus forskohlii (10%) treated plants which recorded 0.45 n/mol transcinnamic acid/mg of leaf tissue on 3rd day after inoculation as against the initial PAL activity of 0.32 n/mol transcinnamic acid/mg of leaf tissue. PAL activity declined after 3rd day of inoculation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 921-923
K K Behera, S Srichandan A K Das, T Badjena and D Panda
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (OUAT), Larkipalli, Bolangir - 767 002, Odisha, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in 5 blocks namely Bolangir, Patnagarh, Puintala, Saintala and Deogaon of Bolangir district. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the farm women were in the age group of 31-40 years (66.6%), completed primary education level and belongs to SC category followed by ST and OBC. None of the farm women were following the practices like land preparation, puddling, applying FYM and fertilizer application, irrigation management, plant protection chemical and marketing of produce because of high drudgery and some extent social barrier but the practices like transplanting, weeding and harvesting the farm women participated 100% followed by uprooting seedling and shifting to main field (93.3%), carrying harvested paddy to threshing floor (86.6%), threshing, winnowing and bagging (53%), raising nursery bed (20%) and the least observation was involved in direct sowing (10%). The study also revealed that the factors affected by the farm women were social barrier (93.3%), followed by more drudgery prone working condition (86.6%), gender bias (83.3%), Illeteracy (80%), poor or lack of skill (78.6%), health condition (73.3%), household activities (60%) and the least factors was observed that low wages in comparison to male. So it was observed from the study that farm women were responsible for carrying at the greater part of the paddy cultivation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 924-927
A Asha Kumari, K Madhavi and P V Rao
Depertment of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India
Abstract
Experiment on effect of plant growth regulators and chemicals on panicle emergence and yield of late sown rice was carried out during kharif 2013 at Agricultural Research Institute, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, under the Southern Telangana agro-climatic zone of Andhra Pradesh. Application of GA3 @ 135 g ha-1 + Boron 0.1% showed highest panicle exsertion percent which was on par with GA3 @ 90 g ha-1 + KH2PO4 0.2% + Boron 0.1% and seed set percent was maximum with application of BIOBRASS @ 0.6 l ha-1. In late sown rice (BPT-5204) foliar spray of BIOBRASS @ 0.6 l ha-1 at 1st, 3rd and 5th day of 5% panicle emergence resulted higher yield (4255 kg ha-1) with more number of panicles m-2, maximum panicle exsertion percentage and highest seed set percentage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 928-932
K Kannan
Depertment of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
To overcome the leaf spot problem of Aloe vera, three types of bio agents, eight different types of plant oils and oil cakes were evaluated against the mycelial growth of the pathogen under laboratory condition. Promising antifungal biocides along with biocontrol agents were tested against the pathogen under glass house conditions. Among all the treatments tested combination of mahua cake extract with Pseudomonas fluorescens reducing the disease incidence upto 71.95% compared to control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 933-936
Preeti Singh, Mayuri Sahu and Gunjan Singh
Depertment of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012 Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Genetic divergence was assessed among set of 52 potato genotypes using Mahalanobis’s D2 statistic for fourteen yield attributing characters. Based on the D2 analysis, all the fifty two genotypes were grouped into six diverse clusters. The maximum number of genotypes were included in cluster IV (15) followed by cluster V (12), cluster VI (12), cluster III (7), cluster I (4) and the lowest in cluster II (2). Results of divergence analysis revealed that the highest intra cluster distance was observed for cluster III (2.716). The highest inter-cluster distance was measured in between the cluster II and III (11.327). Thus, it is clear from the components of the characters that cluster II possessed high mean for most of the traits, hence, may be utilized in future breeding programme.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 937-938
Padmesh Kundan Sharma and Randeep Kumar Kushwah
Department of Entomology, Jawaharlal Nehru Agriculture University, Jabalpur - 492 008, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The population dynamics of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was conducted during rabi season at Department of Entomology, Jawaharlal Nehru Agriculture University, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. The leaf miner infestation was observed during the 2nd week of December and continued up to maturity of the crop. The highest leaf infestation (24.54%) was observed during the 2nd week of February i e 6th standard week (05 Feb to 11 Feb) when maximum and minimum temperature were 23°C and 9.1°C, respectively with 84% and 45% morning and evening relative humidity respectively and 4.4 mm rainfall. Correlation studies revealed that percentage morning relative humidity showed significant negative correlation (r = -0.73) with percentage leaf miner infestation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 939-940
Deepa Chandravanshi, Dewendra Kumar and Manisha Deshmukh
Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A solar cooker is a device which uses the energy of direct sunlight to heat and cook food. It has an important domestic thermal application of cooking. A low cost portable solar cooker was developed with overall dimensions of 500 × 500 × 500 mm, weight 5.24 kg. It consists three plywood pieces attached with latches. On the inner surface an aluminum foil of 11µ thickness in pasted. This triangular structure is enclosed by a polyethylene sheet. The cooking vessel is aluminum box of size height of 150 mm and diameter 18mm. It is painted black temperature around 83°C can be easily attained with 2 hour in bright sunny days. The developed solar cooker was tested by heating water (pasteurizing) and preparing coffee, tea, rice and kheer. Preparation time for water heating (pasteurizing) was 40 minute, tea and coffee was 45 minute, rice was 2 hour and kheer was 3½ hour. Cost of solar cooker was found to be ₹ 1365 and cost of operation was found to be ₹ 64.20/hour. The developed solar cooker was tested by preparing different types of foods. Developed low cost portable solar cooker was tested by heating water and preparing rice, tea, coffee, and kheer. The maximum temperature attained in cooking chamber was 75°C and cooking vessel 86°C in three and half an hours. It depends on brightness and sunshine hours and differ day to day. The total cost of unit is ₹ 1365/ and cost of operation is ₹ 64.20/hour is analyzed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 941-942
Ajay Kumar, P Dubey and Mridubhashini Patanwar
Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Present experiment was conducted at the Horticultural Research cum Instructional Farm of the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur during 2010-2011. Earlier first bud appearance was observed in Pompon Rosy Pink and the maximum flowering duration was taken by the genotype Decorative Reddish Yellow however maximum vase life in room temperature was observed in genotype Jayanti. Days to first bud appearance take shorter time period in varieties with shorter height then taller cultivars.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 943-944
Ajay Kumar, P Dubey and Mridubhashini Patanwar
Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at the Horticultural Research cum Instructional Farm of the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during 2010-2011. From the results it was found that the maximum yield was observed in genotype Decorative White Maximum hence leads to maximum benefit cost ratio (B:C) and minimum profit was observed in Nagpur White with maximum mortality.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 6 - Issue : 4 ; 709-715
Masrat Maqbool and N Z Rehman
Division of Soil Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Composting is the biological decomposition and stabilization of organic matter derived from plants, animals or humans through the action of diverse microorganisms under aerobic conditions. Rapid compositing is same as compositing but requires less time, takes only 3-4 weeks to produce well decomposed humus with high amount of nutrients as compared to traditional method which takes months and produces less nutritive compost. Resources for compositing include agricultural wastes of plant and animal origin. Various techniques used for rapid compositing of organic wastes include Berkley rapid compositing, North Dakota state university hot compositing, use of effective micro-organisms, use of cellulytic culture and use of forced aeration. Berkley rapid compositing includes shredding and frequent turning. Longer the interval between turning the longer it will take for the composting to finish. North Dakota state university hot compositing is based on use of mineral nitrogen activator. In the method of, use of effective micro-organisms (EM), the EM solution functioning as accelerator reduces the composting period from three months to one month. It is found that groundnut shells were found extremely suitable as carrier material for fungal inoculum comprising species of the cellulolytic genus Chaetomium. Use of cellulytic culture composting technology involves inoculating the plant substrates used for composting with cultures of Trichoderma harzianum, a cellulose decomposer fungus. In case of mungbean it is seen that compost inoculated with 0.5% azatobacter + 0.5% T. harzianum spp. is more effective than using the compost inoculated individually with 0.5% azatobacter or 0.5% T. harzianum spp. Use of forced aeration involves forced aeration and mechanical turning techniques to speed up the composting process. It involves in vessel and vermicompositing. Forced aeration system was more advantageous for the growth of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms, higher cellulase activity and nicotine degradation. An increased fresh and dry matter content of cowpea was obtained by using vermicompost as compared to application of slurry. It is found that the average yield (kg/ha) of fresh vegetation of Trigonella was highest by using vermicompost followed by NADEP, Bangalore, inorganic NPK and lowest in control. Thus from an environmental perspective, rapid composting not only reduces the problems associated with landfills and incinerators, but the finished compost adds beneficial humus and nutrients to soil. Composting is a waste management solution, which can benefit municipalities, increase the productivity of land and benefit the environment at the same time.


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