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Volume - 7 - March - April 2016
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 237-240
Gade Priyanka, M Sujatha, *P Senguttuvel and D Subramanyam
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *Indian Institute of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
Combining ability analysis was carried out with three lines and eight testers to estimate gene action for grain yield and its component traits in aerobic rice cultivars. The gca and sca effects were significant for all the characters indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive genetic components. There was predominance of non-additive genetic components for expression of different traits in the present set of material except for days to 50% flowering and harvest index. Amongst the parental lines, APMS6A, RPBIO4918-205, HHZ12-SAL2-Y3-Y2-1 and HHZ17-Y16-Y3-Y1 were best general combiners for grain yield along with other traits. The most specific combiners for grain yield and other traits were APMS6A × HHZ12-Y4-DT1-Y3, APMS6A × HHZ12-SAL2-Y3-Y2-1 and IR79156A × RPBIO4918-205.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 241-244
P V Ramana, R Gladis and Sainath Nagula
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Padannakkad, Kasaragod - 671 314, Kerala, India
Abstract
A pot culture experiment conducted at College of Agriculture, Padannakkad to study the effect of magnesium and boron application on the availability of nutrients, yield and quality of black pepper in laterite soils. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design replicated thrice with nine treatments using Panniyur-1 as the test variety. The results revealed that the application 40g MgSO4 and 4g borax received highest available potassium content (198.6 kg ha-1) in soil. Application of 40g MgSO4 and 4g borax was superior to all other treatments. Similar trend of results were also obtained for Mg content in soil and plant of pepper leaves. The yield parameters like number of spikes per vine (49.33), spike yield (528 g vine-1) , berries per spikes (129.9), 100 berry weight (6.14g), spike yield (176 g vine-1) and berry yield (163.8g) were increased by application of Mg and B with the highest value in the treatment receiving 40 g MgSO4 + 4g borax. The highest oleoresin (11.66%) and piperine (6.72 %) content were obtained by magnesium and boron application.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 245-249
Mamatha B Salimath and *R Onkarappa
Department of Microbiology, Dr. C. D. Sagar Research Center for Life Sciences, Dayananda Sagar Institutions, Kumarswamy Layout, Bengaluru - 560 078, Karnataka, India *Department of Studies and Research in Microbiology, Sahyadri Science College (Autonomous), Kuvempu University, Shivamogga - 577 203, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The Western Ghats of the Indian peninsula constitute one of the 34 global biodiversity hotspots. Biodiversity of Western Ghats has been richly explored in the form of fauna and flora but has not been much explored for its microbial population. The present study has been under taken to isolate and characterize a Streptomyces species from Shettyhalli forest region of Western Ghats, Karnataka and to determine its antimicrobial potential. The Streptomyces species isolated from the soil sample by serial dilution plating method employing Starch Casein Nitrate Agar and identified based on morphological, biochemical and physiological characterization and isolate was designated as MSR-V21. The culture was found to be aerobic, gram positive, non-acid fast, branched with light pink colored velvety colony. The ethyl acetate extract of the isolate exhibited broad spectrum antibiotic activity, inhibiting 25 of the 30 test organisms comprising 15 bacteria, 03 yeast and 07 filamentous fungi. The antibiotic was effective against both human and plant pathogens. The UV absorption studies indicated the polyene nature of metabolite. Further studies on molecular characterization of isolate and isolation and structural determination of the bioactive compounds are under investigation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 250-255
Blessy Sagar Seelam, Aparna Kuna, Kavitha C and M Vinaya Kumari
College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
Antioxidant activity of acerola on processing has been screened in vitro by using different methods (DPPH radical scavenging, super oxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, TBARS, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content). On processing of acerola has a powerful antioxidant activity. Raw acerola, blanched and squash from acerola are 89.117 ± 0.420, 88.023 ± 0.135 and 88.180 ± 0.145 respectively % DPPH radical scavenging activities. Moreover, the blanched and squash extracts of acerola had effective reducing power and super oxide anion radical scavenging. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to raw acerola. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid on processing were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent (PE), and as rutin equivalent (RE), respectively. The strong relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidative activities of processed acerola extracts suggest that these compounds play important role in antioxidant activity. The present study shows that acerola on processing demonstrated a strong antioxidant activity and can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 256-259
Jubin Chauhan, *D H Paithankar, Pushpendra Khichi, Vikas Ramteke, Jogdhande Srinivas and Murli Manohar Baghel
Department of Horticulture, *AICRP on Tropical Fruits (Citrus), Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Krishi Nagar, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out during 2013-14 to evaluate the effect of various sources of nutrient including organic, inorganic, biofertilizers and its combinations on growth, yield and protein content of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cv. Pusa Komol. As regards the growth parameters the maximum plant height (56.66 cm), number of leaves (70.06), branches (12.73), inter-nodal length (3.26 cm) and leaf area (6.53 cm2) per plant were reported by application of (75%) RDF + biofertilizers (Rhizobium + PSB). In respect of yield per hectare and over all yield contributing factors, such as number of cluster per plant (5.40), pods per cluster (4.60), pod diameter (0.7 cm), length of pods (20.66 cm), pod yield (102.96 q/ha) and seeds per pod (15.00) recorded significantly higher in the treatment of (50%) RDF + (50%) vermicompost + biofertilizers (Rhizobium + PSB). Protein content (25.20%) was found significantly maximum with the treatment vermicompost + neem cake + mustard cake + biofertilizers (Rhizobium and PSB).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 260-263
Bharati Sahu
Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out during Kharif 2013-2014 at the Instructional cum Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture. The soil was neutral in pH low in low in nitrogen, medium in phosphorus and potassium content. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design, comprising three replications and twelve treatments. The results revealed that hand weeding at 25 and 45 DAT registered maximum growth characters of rice like plant height, dry matter, number of tillers hill-1, grain and straw yield. It was followed by treatments bispyribac-Na + (chlorimuron-ethyl + metsulfuron-methyl) @ 20 + 4 g ha-1 at 25 DAT (T5) and bispyribac-Na + ethoxysulfuron @ 25 + 18.75 g ha-1 at 25 DAT (T4).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 264-269
P Tanuja and D Thippesha
Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture (UAHS), Mudigere - 577 132, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted on the interaction effect of curing of scion and age of scion on success rate of grafts in sapota with 18 treatments replicated thrice adopting factorial randomized block design from 2014 to 2015 at the College Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture (UAHS), Mudigere, Karnataka. The interaction effect on the age and curing of scion revealed that minimum number of days for sprout initiation (9.33 days), 50% sprouting (19.677 days) and 100% (30.677) sprouting occurred when 3 months age old with 10 days cured scions were grafted. The same interaction also recorded maximum sprouts at 30 (1.60), 60 (2.23) and 90 (2.43) days after grafting, maximum number of leaves and leaf area index was observed at 60 (5.13 and 2.13) and 90 (5.50 and 2.70) days after grafting and maximum length and breadth of leaves was observed at 60 (5.52 cm and 3.68 cm) and 90 (6.17cm and 3.88 cm) days after grafting. The maximum height of the graft at 30 (36.67 cm), 60 (36.77 cm) and 90 (37.11 cm) days after grafting, maximum scion girth at 60 (4.72mm), maximum per cent graft success at 30 (66.66%), 60 (65.33%) and 90 (64.00%) days after grafting and maximum survival percentage (80.88) was registered with 3 months age old scion, which was cured for 10 days. The 10 days cured scion with 3 months age old scion resulted in maximum net income (₹ 22, 250 per 1000 grafts) and maximum cost: benefit ratio (2.06). This high benefit ratio is mainly because of interaction effect i e, by using the 3 months age old scion with 10 days curing which helped in giving the higher success rate because of their actively growing stage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 270-273
Shiv Kumar Bhuarya, J L Chaudhary and N Manikandan
Department of Agrometeorology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Major kharif season crops of Chhattisgarh state is rice, maize, soybean and pigeonpea based on their area and production. State geographical area is approximately 137.90 lakh ha from which rice covers highest area 37.63 lakh ha during kharif season, maize 99 thousand ha, soybean 51.8 thousand ha and pigeonpea 51 thousand ha respectively. In this study 16 parent districts of Chhattisgarh state has been categorized under the different productivity zones based on their area and yield for above crops. State average rice production is found 4973 thousand tonnes. Raipur district has the highest area and production of 508 thousand ha and 651 thousand tones. State average maize production during kharif seasons found 142 thousand tonnes. Surguja district covers largest area 37 thousand ha for the maize cultivation with 50 thousand tonnes production. Average production of soybean during kharif season found approximetely 51.8 thousand tonnes. Highest area 19.41 thousand ha with 21.21 thousand tonnes production found at Kawardha district. For pigeonpea Surguja district has found highest area 14.5 thousand ha and average production found 8.1 thousand tonnes. Bastar district is found to be high productivity district with 675 kg/ha but Dhamtari district is found as low productivity district with 363 kg/ha.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 274-277
S R Swami and S Yadav
Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa - 110 012, New Delhi, India
Abstract
Seed storability is an essential aspect of seed quality. Decrease in seed vigour in storage is a common feature and governed by various factors such both seed and storage environment etc. Use of controlled deterioration test to assess the seed storability in advance is well known and widely used in mustard seeds. Indian mustard occupies prime position in domestic oilseed production in India. Varying in testa colour from yellow black the former has advantage of higher oil content and lower fiber content. Development of single zero and double zero has reduced the anti-nutritional compounds erucic acid and glucosinolates from conventional mustard seeds. Report over storability assessment using controlled deterioration test in conventional and quality mustard are limited. Therefore present investigation was carried out with four varieties of Indian mustard having yellow testa of which two genotypes each were of conventional and quality types. Imbibitional studies coupled with electrical conductivity of seed leachate and seed vigour showed that seeds with slower imbibition were more resistant to controlled deterioration and had better vigour. Few yellow seeded cultivars showed resistance to such deterioration and thus could be used in improvement programme in Brassica.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 278-281
Venkatesh Panasa, M H V Bhave, K Supriya and *G Sathish
Department of Statistics and Mathematics, College of Agriculture, Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *Department of Agricultural Statistics, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The main objectives of the study are to examine the trends in area, production and productivity of cotton crop in Andhra Pradesh over a period of 1970-71 to 2009-10. Linear and compound growth rates were calculated for this purpose. Ten growth models were fitted to the area, production and productivity of cotton crop and the best fitted model for future projection was chosen based upon least Residual Mean Square (RMS) and significant Adj. R2. Besides, the important assumption of randomness of residuals was tested using one sample run test. The results revealed that area, production and productivity of cotton crop in Andhra Pradesh marked significantly increasing trend during the study period of 1970-71 to 2009-10.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 282-284
Deepa Chandrawanshi, M P Tripathi, Deepika Chandrawanshi, Karnika Diwedi and Yatnesh Bisen
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
One year field experiment on summer maize was carried out at Research Farm of IGKV, Raipur during the years 2014, with two main treatments of conservation i e paddy straw mulch and without mulch and five sub treatments i e T1 (application of water in each row), T2 (application of water in alternate row), T3 (application of water in skipped pair row), T4 (application of water in pair row) and T5 (application of water in reverse skipped pair row). These treatments were replicated three times. Split plot design was adopted by considering the moisture conservation as main plot and system of furrow irrigation as subplot with plot size of 5 × 5 m2. The result of analysis of variance for different treatments showed that there was significant difference among all the treatments. The interaction effect of paddy straw mulch with application of water in paired row performed batter as significant higher yield (43.02 q/ha) of maize was recorded followed by paddy straw mulch with application of water in alternate row (42.50 q/ha), however, highest water use efficiency was found in case of paddy straw mulch with application of water in alternate rows (8.53 kg/ha-mm) followed by paddy straw mulch with application of water in paired row (8.31 kg/ha-mm) and the result of cob diameter, cob length and grain weight per cob showed significant difference during both the year. Cumulative yield and growth parameters data revealed that there was significant reduction in the yield of maize after application of water in reverse skipped pair row. On the basis of results of two consequatve year trial it can be conducted that the water requirement of summer maize was about 42.30 cm which can be full fill with nine numbers of irrigations. The depth of irrigation in each irrigation can be about 40 mm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 285-287
Shazia Mirza, P K Jain, S K Pandey, L P S Rajput, A S Gontia and H L Sharma
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The Research work was conducted to study the influence of fertilizers bio-fertilizers sources of nutrients on physico-chemical properties of Pomegranate orchard soil at Imalia, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.). The treatment combination of fertilizers and biofertilizes on nutrient were tested in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results of research work reveals that the fertilizers, biofertilizers sources of nutrient increased phosphorus and potassium in port harvest from the base value that these sources did not differed significantly in soil pH and electrical conductivity even when plant received nutrient either in the form of chemical fertilizer or biofertilizers. The interaction of different sources of nutrient in pomegranate orchard soil did not showed any significant effect on physico-chemical property of soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 288-290
G Pavani, P Chandrasekhar Rao and G Padmaja
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Prof Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The enzyme L-glutaminase (L-glutamine amido hydrolase E.C. 3.5.1.2) cause the hydrolysis of L-glutamine to ammonia, L-glutamic acid, thus it makes the amide form of nitrogen available to the plants. The aim of this research work was to determine the activity of L-glutaminase in different soil samples and correlate its activity with the physico- chemical, chemical parameters of soils. An evaluation of the activity of the enzyme was made in soils of Rangareddy district, Telengana state in the year 2014. Results showed that the pH of soils ranged from 5.35 to 8.35, electrical conductivity ranged from 0.11 to 0.42 dSm-1and organic carbon ranged from 0.27 to 1.7%. The available N ranged from 125 to 940 kg ha-1. The available P2O5 status in soils varied from 10.7 to 64.1 kg ha-1. The available K2O ranged from 151 to 834 kg ha-1. L-Glutaminase activities of surface soils expressed as µg of NH4+ released g-1 soil 2h-1 and the highest activity of L-glutaminase was observed in pH 8 soil samples compared to pH 10. The L-glutaminase activity was positively significantly correlated with organic carbon (0.86).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 291-295
Sameena Khathoon, T Anjaiah, I Y L N Murthy and T Prabhakar Reddy
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Prof Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar - 560 065, Hyderabad, Telanaga, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted at Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research during kharif 2014 with sunflower hybrid DRSH-1 as a test crop on Alfisols. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and ten treatments. The experiment included three different sources and levels of zinc on quality and yield of sunflower. Seed and stover yield increased significantly up to 20 kg ZnSO4 H2O ha-1 application. The maximum seed (1680 kg ha-1) and stover (3541 kg ha-1) yield at 20 kg ZnSO4 H2O ha-1 was 49% and 72% higher as compared to control (90:60:30). There was increase in the content of oil with increasing levels of zinc from 0 kg ha-1 to 20 kg ha-1 irrespective of the zinc sources. The oil content showed an increase from control (41.7%) to (43.9%) in T7 (RDF + ZnSO4 H2O @ 20 kg ha-1). Increase in levels of Zn increased significantly seed yield and stover yield but zinc sources had no significant effect on oil content. Based on the results of investigation it can be concluded that among zinc sources and levels, application of 20 kg ZnSO4 H2O is sufficient for obtaining optimum yields and good quality of sunflower when grown on light texured Alfisols
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 296-299
P Tanuja, D Thippesha and K M Asha
Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture (UAHS), Mudigere - 577 132, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out at College of Horticulture, Mudigere, Chikmagalur district, Karnataka state to know the effect of age of scion on success of soft wood grafting in Sapota. The different age groups viz 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months scions of sapota were used for grafting with 4 treatments and 5 replications. It is very evident from the study that out of four different age groups the relatively younger scions of 3 months old have taken minimum number of days for sprout initiation (9.80 days), 50% sprouting (16.20 days) and 100% sprouting (24.80 days). Three months aged scions also recorded maximum number of sprouts at 30 (1.17), 60 (1.20) and 90 (2.10) days after grafting (DAG), maximum number of leaves and leaf area index on 60 (6.16 and 2.07) and 90 (7.10 and 2.47) days after grafting, maximum length and breadth of leaves at 60 (6.70 cm and 3.57cm) and 90 (7.20cm and 4.10cm) days after grafting, maximum height of the graft at 30 (35.66cm), 60 (36.30 cm) and 90 (37.60 cm) days after grafting, scion girth at 60 (4.70mm) days after grafting, graft index at 30 (2423.50), 60 (2373.25) and 90 (2029.25) days after grafting, per cent graft success at 30 (50%), 60 (42.50%) and 90 (37.50%) days after grafting and maximum survival percentage (87.00%). Among different aged scions, 3 months age old scion resulted in maximum net income (₹ 18, 500 per 1000 grafts) and maximum cost: benefit ratio (1.76). Compared to the older scions (9.0 to 12.0 months) grafted on khirni root stocks.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 300-303
K Ramakrishna, K B Suneetha Devi, K P Vani and V Sailaja
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Prof Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India e-mail: ramagronomy@gmail.com
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during kharif season, 2014 at College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to study the effect of four organic manures (phosphorus enriched vermicompost with rock phosphate 3 percent, vermicompost prepared with mushroom spent substrate, vermicompost and FYM) at two levels of nitrogen (100 per cent RDN 30 kg ha-1 and 75 per cent RDN 22.5 kg ha-1) along with control (No NPK but gypsum @ 500 kg ha-1 at flower initiation) and absolute control (no NPK and gypsum) on growth, yield and evapotranspiration of organically grown table purpose groundnut. The results showed that the growth parameters (plant height, leaf area index, dry matter production), yield attributes and pod yield of groundnut were higher with application of 100 per cent RDN through vermicompost enriched with rock phosphate 3 per cent and was at par with 100 per cent RDN mushroom spent substrate based vermicompost and 75 per cent recommended dose of nutrients (RDN) through phosphorus enriched vermicompost. Evapotranspiration of crop also followed similar trend as that of pod yield and lowest evapotranspiration was observed with absolute control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 304-307
A G Ghadge, U S Shinde and Y D Mehetre
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Kolhapur - 416 004, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A field experiment on okra taking the variety Phule Utkarsha with four spacing (30 x 15 cm, 30 x 30 cm, 45 x 30, and 60 x 30 cm) and five levels of picking (No green fruit picking, one green picking, two green fruit picking, and three green fruit picking, four green fruit picking) was conducted at Horticulture Sectional Farm, College of Agriculture, Kolhapur to find out the optimum spacing and suitable number of green fruit picking during the summer season of 2013. The plants were grown for both vegetable and seed production. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The maximum number of branches per plant and highest seed yield per plant increased significantly with increase in plant spacing. The maximum number of branches (2.60), number of internodes (22.80),fruit diameter (1.97 cm), fruit weight (13.78 g), fruit length (13.25 cm), number of green fruitsper plant (4.58), were recorded at widest spacing (60 × 30 cm) and significantly reduced internodal length. The highest plant height (170.41 cm), were recorded with closest spacing (30 × 15 cm). The significantly highest plant height (168.20 cm), recordedin four green fruit pickings. The interaction effect between different spacing and number of green fruit picking was non significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 308-313
Rashtrarakshak, D G Satihal, Suresh S Patil and B S Reddy
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
This paper examines comparative economics of different IFS modules being practiced by farmers against conventional crop cultivation in North Eastern Region of Karnataka. It also assesses the impact on livelihood security of farm households. Specially, it has estimated the impact of IFS at farm level in terms of resource use and profitability of IFS with different components such as crop, dairy, horticulture, sericulture, vermicompost, sheep and goat rearing besides examining its impact on employment generation and livelihood security. The data was collected from 60 IFS and 60 Non-IFS sample farmers from three districts of NEK region. The tabular analysis is used for cost and returns calculation and for comparing financial feasibility and overall performance of IFS modules discounting measures are used. It is observed that the practice of IFS found to be more profitable in terms of productivity, employment generation and nutritional security as compared to conventional crop cultivation of Non-IFS practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 314-316
Akanksha Pandey, M L Sharma and P K Pandey
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Present study was undertaken in 8 villages of 4 blocks in two selected district of Surguja division comes under the Northern hills agro-climatic zone of Chhattisgarh state with purpose to know the communicational characteristics of tribal farmers regarding the seed management practice. Total 120 tribal farmers were considered as respondents for study purpose. The study revealed that majority of respondents were belonged to middle age group (36 to 55 years), educated up to primary school level and had medium family size with 6 to 10 members. Most of the respondents were have the membership of one organization, medium farming experience (16-30 years). As regards to extension participation, majority of respondents (57.5%) were having contact with extension agents. The study was recorded that about 86.67 per cent or 64.17 per cent of respondents obtained information about seed management from the rural agriculture extension officer (RAEO’s) and radio respectively. Majority of the respondents (60.83%) used more than 5 sources of information.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 317-323
T C Sridhar, B M Dushyantha Kumar, B R Mani* and G K Nishanth
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga - 577 216, Karnataka, India *University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Sixty four traditional rice genotypes collected from the different places of Southern Transitional Zone of Karnataka, were characterized according to DUS test guidelines of PPV&FR ac 2001, at University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga. The qualitative characters viz basal leaf sheath color, culm attitude, curvature of panicle, panicle weight and leaf senescence were highly distinct across the genotypes. Among the quantitative characters studied, time of heading varied from early (L-61, L-51 & L-54) to very late (L-25 & L-23) similarly, stem length, very short (L-52, L-55, L-57 & L-5) to long (L-8 & L-32). Numbers of spikelets per panicle were ranged from very low (L-54, L-51 & L-52) to very high (L-56, L-53, L-42 & L-38). Grain characters showed polymorphism with respect to, hulled and non hulled grain length, width and color. Characterization has confirmed the existence of Distinctness, uniqueness and stability for the traits studied as given in the guidelines. Based on this study highly distinguish and high yielding traditional rice genotypes (Sanna mundaga, Kasse bai and champakali) would be suitable for registration as farmers variety and such genotypes can also be utilized in crop improvement programme in terms both quality traits and high yield even as source or breeding material for pest and disease resistance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 324-329
C Anju, R Rabindran, R Velazhahan and R Ravikesavan
Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to study the response of four different genotypes of finger millet, i e CO 15, Co (Ra) 14, GPU 45 and K 252 to tissue culture. Mature seeds were placed on MS medium containing different concentrations of 2,4-D with BAP or Kinetin for callusing. Overall the frequency of callusing varied among the different genotypes used in this study according to different concentration of the auxin and combination of cytokinin. The maximum frequency of callusing (64.93%) was observed for Co (Ra) 14, on explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mgl-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mgl-1 BAP followed by CO 15 (62.02%) explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 5 mgl-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mgl-1 Kinetin. MS medium without any growth regulators and MS medium containing GA3 was used for regeneration. The percentage of plant regeneration varied among genotypes from 49.25% to 61.38%. The highest per cent regeneration was observed for cv. CO 15 (61.38%), which also showed significantly high number of shoots and roots in the GA3 supplemented media than any other cultivar. Significant differences were observed among the different genotypes of finger millet in callusing and plant regeneration when mature seeds were used as explants in this study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 330-335
Anil Kumar Godara and Vikas Kumar Sharma
Department of Horticulture, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of different growing systems on roots of strawberry at Hi-tech green-house of CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar (Haryana) during the year 2014-15. The results indicate that plants grown in small sized earthen pot with S1 (cocopeat + perlite + vermicompost, 3:1:1) produce maximum root density (2961.27 g/m3), root length density (35.04 km/m3) while, maximum average number of secondary root/ primary root (38.67), average length of primary root (20.30 cm) and length of secondary roots (7.73 cm) observed from the strawberry plants grown in large earthen pot with S1 substrate. Maximum root surface area (2.21) was recorded from the interaction of large sized earthen pot and large sized PVC pot in S5substrate. In future, these experimental results will prove very useful for vegetative and root growth of strawberry.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 336-338
Pradeep Korishettar, S N Vasudevan, N M Shakuntala and S R Doddagoudar
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Pigeonpea is an important pulse crop, predominantly cultivated throughout the world. It is a protein rich legume, supplies a major share of protein requirement of vegetarian population in the country. Polymer coating is the application of polymer alone or with chemicals in a thin layer on the surface of seeds. This serves as exterior shell over the seeds and helps in quick absorption of water that leads to the enhanced germination. It's also helps in precise and uniform application of fungicides, insecticides and other additives. Experiment was conducted to standardize the polymer dosage for pigeonpea cv. TS-3R at Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur. The seeds were treated with polymer at different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ml /kg) with untreated seeds as control. The results revealed that the polymer coating at 6 ml kg-1 of seeds was most ideal and economical for polymer coating pigeonpea seeds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 339-343
B L Dinesha, Udaykumar Nidoni, C T Ramachandra and Nagaraj Naik
Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The moringa seed kernel oil contains all the main fatty acids found in olive oil and therefore, can be used as a possible substitute to the expensive olive oil after some modifications. The characteristics of M. oleiferaseed kernel oil can be highly desirable especially with the current trend of replacing polyunsaturated vegetable oils with those containing high amounts of monounsaturated acids. In the present investigation moringa (PKM-1 and KDM-1) seed kernel oil was extracted by using soxhlet and supercritical fluid extraction process. The extracts were subjected to GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS analysis for identifying the bioactive compounds. The important bioactive compounds namely Veridiflorol, 1-Hexacosanol, Octadecenoic acid, 2.3-Dimorpholin, Octadecane and 9-Octadecenoic acid were found in GC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts. LC-MS/MS analysis detected α-tocopherol with concentration of 165.05 and 137.05 ppb in PKM-1 and KDM-1 seed kernel oil, respectively. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was found to be more selective than the soxhlet extraction as the number bioactive compounds in essential oil extracted by SFE were more than that ofsoxhlet method.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 344-348
Ashwarya L Tandon, *V S Thrimurty, *N Khare and *S D Chaliganjewar
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Research Station, Janjgir, Champa - 495 668, Chhattisgarh, India *Department of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
In the present studies response of resistance genes identified against BB is studied under Chhattisgarh condition. Twenty nine genotypes, with resistance genes mentioned in parenthesis i e IRBB-1, IRBB-3, IRBB-4, IRBB-5, IRBB-7, IRBB-8, IRBB-10, IRBB-11, IRBB-14, IRBB-50, IRBB-51, IRBB-52, IRBB-53, IRBB-54, IRBB-55, IRBB-56, IRBB-57, IRBB-58, IRBB-59, IRBB-60, IRBB-21, Zenith, BJ-1, IR-20, Jawa-14, Tetep,TKM-6, RP Bio-226 and TN-1 were evaluated under 5 stress conditions [dry, wet/saturated water, alternate wet and dry (24 hours wet and 24 hours dry), low humidity and high humidity conditions] in pot studies during kharif and rabi seasons. After artificial inoculations with the bacterial suspension of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal organism of BB, observations for disease development were recorded at 7, 14 and 21st days. The genotypes IR-20 (with Xa 4) and RP- Bio 226 recorded least percent severity in all the stress conditions during the three observations recorded at 7 days intervals. Confirming that the resistance factor in these genotypes are expressive under the stress susceptible TN-1 and Tetep (Xa 1 + Xa 2 + Xa 12); IRBB-10 (Xa 10); IRBB-11(Xa 11); IRBB-14 (Xa 14) and IRBB-50 (Xa 4 + xa 5) showed susceptibility in all the stress conditions after 21st day, the most accepted resistance evaluation period under artificial inoculated conditions. The genotypes IRBB-56 (Xa 4 + xa 5 + xa 13); IRBB-55 (Xa 13 + Xa 21); IRBB-59 (Xa-5 + xa-13 + Xa-21) and IRBB-21 (Xa 21) also showed resistance all the stress conditions. Non significant interaction between the genotype and different stress conditions were recorded for percent disease severity at 7 days observation. However, 14th and 21st day observation there were interactions were significant between the stress condition and genotype clearly indicating the cumulative influence of G x E on resistance expression and percent disease appearance. The genotypes TN-1 and Tetep (Xa 1 + Xa 2 + Xa 12); TKM-6, IRBB-10 (Xa 10); IRBB-11 (Xa 11); IRBB-14 (Xa 14) and IRBB-50 (Xa 4 + xa 5) showed moderately resistance to susceptibility score.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 349-351
Pintu Roy Vattakunnel and T Sajitharani
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, (Kerala Agricultural University), Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 522, Kerala, India
Abstract
A field study was conducted in polyhouse and open field at Instructional farm, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananathapuram, Kerala during March to September 2013 to study the effect of varying growing conditions, fertigation and varieties (Vellayani Athulya, Anugraha and Jwalamukhi) on root growth and nutrient uptake of chilli. Chilli plants grown under poly house showed better root characteristics with higher nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake. Plants under open field condition showed higher root shoot ratio. The variety, ‘Vellayani Athulya’ grown with fertigation, recorded maximum tap root length, root spread and nitrogen uptake. Chilli variety, Anugraha also showed higher nitrogen uptake.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 352-354
Rupesh Kumar Gajbhiye, Yogesh Kumar Sidar and Gajendra Chandrakar
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Gn) attained the status of major pest during the last few years in major rice growing areas of the world. To search for possible sources of resistance against leaf folder, an experiment comprising 3 species of wild rice (Oryza sp.) was carried out at the research farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur during 2014-15. Wild species and the three cultivated varieties showed susceptibility to leaf folder. Leaf folder infestation under field condition ranged from 0 to 10.76 per cent. Under field condition, seventeen accessions namely O. latifolia, MS:32, VS:40, VS:48, VS:52, VS:62, VS:98, VSR:14, VSR:16, VSR:33, VSR:58, D:24, D:13, D:34, D:37 and VSR:47 showed maximum resistance. Leaf folder infestation under laboratory ranged from 0.67 per cent to 13.83 per cent. The use of these resistant wild species via hybridization program is, therefore, suggested to incorporate resistance genes to cultivated rice and to develop rice cultivars resistant to this major insect pest.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 355-360
Bandla Srinivas, Beena Thomas and Palli Rajashekar
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture (KAU), Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 522, Kerala, India
Abstract
The correlation and path coefficient analysis were studied in 10 genotypes of bird chilli for different characters. High positive correlation was recorded for fruit yield per plant with individual fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, plant height, number of secondary branches, average fruit width, number of primary branches, fruit length and number of days to first flowering while it was significantly negative with incidence of leaf curl disease and number of mites per leaf. Path analysis revealed that, number of primary branches and incidence of leaf curl disease had negative direct effect on yield, while the other characters viz., number of days to first flowering, number of secondary branches, number of fruits per plant, average fruit length, average fruit width, individual fruit weight and plant height had positive direct effect, emphasizing the importance of these characters in bird chilli improvement.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 361-367
B V Pagire and S V Bhujbal
Department of Agricultural Economics, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, District Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In mechanized group, at overall level, farmers carrying out subsidiary occupations in all were 182 in numbers. Average capital investment was ₹ 322668 with average working capital of ₹ 47748. Average employment generated through these enterprises was 596.17 days/year and 51404 days/year for family and hired, respectively. The total income generated from subsidiary enterprises was ₹ 197935. Annual period is classified in three seasons as kharif, rabi and summer. Overall use on own farm revealed that total hours of work were 143.10. Out of 143.10 hours, 27.16 per cent were of kharif season, 38.61 per cent were of rabi season and 34.23 per cent of summer season. Maximum working was observed in rabi season. The overall total hiring out observed to be 148.33 hours. Out of this, 21.65 per cent were of kharif season, 35.75 per cent of rabi season and 42.60 per cent of summer season. At overall level, the income received per year worked out to ₹ 46700. Out of this, 20.08 per cent was from kharif season, 37.13 per cent from rabi season, 42.79 per cent from summer season. According to PUI group, the highest income was of HM group (₹ 62250) followed by MM group (₹ 45206) and the lowest being in LM group (₹ 19048). Per hour income worked out to ₹ 314.84. This showed that good amount of income was received by tractor owners from hiring out. The results multiple regression analysis of overall group (mechanized) depicted that, of the five independent variables, four variables viz grossed cropped area, proportion of irrigated area in GCA, income from subsidiary enterprises and number of farm and machines were individually contributing to gross income significantly (at one per cent level). The variable number of working family members also contributed to gross income but with less significance (at 10% level). The magnitude of co-efficient of multiple determination (R²) of the function was 79.46. This indicated that identification of independent variables proved to be good. In mechanized group, at overall level, gross value was ₹ 1154294 and input costs were ₹ 445678 leaving a net income of ₹ 708615. The per family total income from subsidiary enterprises amounted to ₹ 197934 resulting into total income of ₹ 906550. In different PUI groups, the per family total income was ₹ 1684664, in LM group, it was ₹ 1033505 in MM group and ₹ 327094 in HM group.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 368-371
Mallareddy, *M N Thimmegowda and Narayan Hebbal
Department of Agronomy, *AICRP for Dryland Agriculture, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different moisture conservation practices on plant water status and soil moisture dynamics in finger millet + pigeonpea intercropping system under dry land conditions at AICRP on Dryland Agriculture field unit, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bangalore during 2013. Moisture conservation practices increased the plant water status and soil moisture content compare to recommended practice (Control). Higher relative leaf water content was recorded in green leaf manure with maize residue mulch treatment (75.88%) followed by tank silt application with repeated inter-cultivation (72.18%). Lower relative leaf water content was recorded in control (61.19%). During dry period higher moisture were noticed in green leaf manure with maize residue treatment (6.14 %) followed by green leaf manuring with repeated inter-cultivation (5.74%). Lower moisture content was recorded in control (2.60%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 372-374
Ujjwal Kumar, Bikash Sarkar, Ravikant Chaubey and B P Bhatt
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Indian Council of Agricultural Research Parisar, P/O: B. V. College, Patna - 800 014, Bihar, India
Abstract
Agricultural vulnerability is dependent upon climatic, biological, social and infrastructural factors. Agricultural vulnerability index is a tool for assessing vulnerability to a particular factor and is helpful in formulation of adaptation strategies to cope up with adverse impact of biological and physical factors. The study was conducted in Madhubani, a disadvantaged district of Bihar. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) technique has been adopted for getting information related to impact of biotic and abiotic factors. Total 30 FGDs consisting of male, female and mix group were conducted in 5 villages. Agricultural vulnerability index was analyzed low (0.31) in one village. Agricultural vulnerability index in rest four villages varied from 0.36 to 0.48 that revealed medium vulnerability.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 375-377
R S Pavithra, D M Preethi, Kedarnath and B M R Reddy
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A pot culture experiment was conducted in the glasshouse with seven cucumber cultivars viz Green long, Sambar cucumber, Hassan local, Green short, White long, Portobello and Poinsette were tested for their response to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita by inoculating with 2000 second stage juveniles. All cultivars behaved differently regarding formation of galls and egg masses per plant. It was found that none of the tested cultivars were found immune or resistance to root-knot nematode and two cultivars like poinsette and sambar cucumber cultivars were susceptible to root-knot nematode having 79.60 to 95.40 galls per plant (at 60 days and at harvest respectively) with lower gall index of 4.0 at 60 days after sowing and at the time of harvest respectively and Green long, white long, Hassan local, Portobello and green shot cultivars were found highly susceptible to root-knot nematode recording maximum number of galls per plant (94.67 to 221.67 at 60 days and at harvest respectively) with gall index of 5.0 at 60 days after sowing and at harvest indicating its high susceptibility to M. incognita.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 378-381
Sunil Narbaria, M L Sharma and M A Khan
Department Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The adoption of the technology depends upon the available resources and availability of the technological inputs at the farmer’s level. An attempt has been made to know the level of adoption of system of rice intensification technology (SRI). The present study was conducted in ten villages of Kurud block in the Dhamtari district of Chhattisgarh. The study revealed that the majority of respondents (75.40%) had high level of adoption followed by 24.60 per cent respondents who have medium level of adoption. There were no any single respondents who have not adopted the SRI technology. Out of total eighteen recommended practices of SRI technology, maximum adoption level was found towards transplanting to be done at field saturation condition and minimum level of adoption found towards drainage channels to be dug for every 2 meters in the main field and weedicides not to be applied for weeding.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 382-389
Poonam Tiwari, Puja Singh, Rakesh Kumar Prajapat, *B C Sabata and Rekha Kansal
ICAR-National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Pusa Campus, New Delhi - 110 012, India *Mewar University, NH - 79, Gangrar, Chittorgarh - 312 901, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Brassica juncea (Czern & Coss. L) is one of the most important sources of edible oil in India. Lipaphiserysimi (Kalt) is the serious pest affecting the crop’s yield. To reduce the infestation, chemical pesticides are used which are toxics and their persistence bears a higher degree of negative impact on human health and environment. Therefore genetically engineered plants provide one of an alternative way to deal with problem. Protease inhibitors are proteins that breakdown dietary proteins in the mid gut of insects, affecting the digestive activity and resulting in protein deficiency. This significantly affects insect development and survival. Therefore, full length protease inhibitor gene from Vigna mungo was isolated, sequenced and directionally cloned under phloem specific rolC promoter in a binary vector. The gene construct was mobilized to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and used to transform Brassica juncea cv. Varuna using hypocotyls as explants. Molecular analysis was done to show integration of transgene. The integration of protease inhibitor gene and marker gene was confirmed by molecular analysis. The developed transgenic Brassica juncea will have more resistance to Aphids and increasing the production from reduced losses.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 390-394
M Lakshmi Durga, M Jawaharlal and *K Arulmozhiselvan
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Horticultural College and Research Institute, *Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of micronutrients on soil available pools and micronutrient uptake of carnation under protected conditions at Niligiris, Ooty in Tamil Nadu during 2012-2013. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with nine treatments replicated thrice. The treatments containing ZnSO4, FeSO4, CuSO4, Borax and chelated micronutrient EDTA mix (MN-EDTA) were given in different combinations through fertigation and/or foliar application. Results of the pooled data of two flushes revealed that fertigation of 0.4% MN-EDTA + foliar application of 0.2% MN-EDTA at monthly intervals from one month after planting upto harvesting stage recorded significantly higher levels of available iron (344.3, 280.5 and 261.1 ppm), boron (0.89, 0.76 and 0.67 ppm), zinc (25.1, 43.4 and 46.1 ppm), copper (12.8, 13.2 and 12.35 ppm) and manganese (199.2, 158.2 and 133.1 ppm) at critical stages viz peak vegetative, bud appearance and flowering stages respectively. The uptake of iron (388.4, 382.6 and 350.5 mg/m2), boron (15.5, 21 and 32 mg/m2), zinc (90.27, 110.83 and 120.11 mg/m2), copper (13.45, 17.1 and 23.2 mg/m2) and manganese (90.30, 110.83 and 120.11 mg/m2) at critical stages indicates that higher amount of micronutrients are required during bud appearance and flowering stages.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 395-398
Ajay Puri Goswami and *Karuna Vishunavat
Department of Seed Science and Technology, *Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The seed of soybean variety PS 1347 collected from Breeder Seed Production Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand was used for storage studies. The initial percent moisture content of seeds was maintained 9.05%. With the increase in storage period the seed moisture content increases in cloth bags while less fluctuation in seed moisture content was observed in stored seeds in (700 gauge) polythene bags. Germination percent, seedling length (cm), vigour index-I and seed viability decreases with an increase in storage periods. Cloth bag is not found safe for longer storage of soybean under ambient storage conditions at Pantnagar. Out of all chemical treatments used flowable thiram @ 2.4 ml/kg (T2) and polymer + vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg seed (T5) were found effective over other treatments and maintained seed germination and other quality related parameters. The seed treated with polymer coating was worst treatment and reduced seedling growth as compared to control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 399-401
M P Pavan, E Gangappa and Sheshaiah
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out using 561 maize inbred lines which were estimated for their seed nutrients contents using NIR facility and the inbred lines were classified into seed morphological traits such as seed type (semi-flint, flint and dent), seed shape (toothed, round and shrunken) and seed color (light orange, orange, yellow and white) classes. The 100-seed weight and the seed quality traits such as crude protein and essential amino acids contents among the inbred lines included in each of the classified groups were computed. The seed shape and seed color classes were significantly associated with 100 seed weight. Toothed and round seeds were heaver than shrunken seeds indicating that the endosperm of shrunken seeds store less starch and contain higher sucrose content. Light orange, white and orange seeds were heavier than yellow seeds. The crude protein content of the inbred lines grouped under different categories based on seed type and seed shape differed significantly and inbred lines grouped under seed color showed non-significant difference for crude protein content. The lysine, methionine and tryptophan contents of inbred lines grouped under different categories based on seed color differed significantly.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 402-405
B O Kiran and R P Patil
Department of Crop Physiology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
As semi-aquatic plant rice prefers wet lands, but also grown as direct seeded rice under scarcity of water. Direct-seeded rice (DSR) method is an emerging cultivation system with the advantage of easier and faster planting. The objective of this study was to characterize the morphology, root growth and nitrogen dynamics of rice grown as direct seeded cultivation. The study involves the three verities (JHPH 3333, Gangavati sona and BPT-5204) subjected to three graded nitrogen (N) levels of fertilizer dose (75% RDN, 100% RDN and 125% RDN). Significant differences were observes in morphological parameters including plant height, leaf number, senescence leaf number, tiller number and leaf area. The biomass accumulation was recorded was recorded higher in JKPH 3333 under 125% RDN compared to 75% and 100% RDN. Root length and root dry matter differed significantly with respective to varieties and N levels. JKPH3333 recorded significantly higher root dry matter (28.29 g) under 1225% RDN compared to, Gangavati sona and BPT-5204 (23.00 g and 19.11 g respectively). The root length increased with increasing N levels. 125% RDN recorded significantly higher root length (43.61 cm) compared to Gangavati sona and BPT-5204 (39.83 cm and 37.03 cm respectively). The variety JKPH3333 recorded higher root length (44.89 cm) compared to other two varieties. The leaf and stem N content showed increased trend with 125% RDN compared to 75% and 100%. Higher accumulation of leaf and stem N content in JKPH indicated better plant architecture and higher mobilization on nutrients. These results suggest the role of vigorous root growth in soil water uptake and hence, in maintaining transpiration in direct seeded rice culture.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 406-408
S Kirankumar, M S Nagaraja, R Suma and P R Kalpana
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot - 587 103, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An extensive survey was carried out in typical black soils of Northern Karnataka (Mudhol Taluka/Block, Bagalkot District) to study the level of soil salinity (ECe) and chloride toxicity level. The soil ECe (1:2.5) and chloride (Cl-) ion varied greatly up on different sources of irrigation water and it was found in the order lift irrigation > lift plus borewell > canal plus borewell > borewell > dryland. Among different irrigation water sources higher amount of salt present in stream water compared to canal and borewell water. Variation in the concentration of ECe and Cl in soils with or without irrigation could be attributed due to quality and quantity of water used for irrigation and solubility nature of anion. While, the irrigation practices increases the salinity and chloride level in soils of Mudhol block.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 409-411
Reena Kumari, *B L Meena and S P Singh
Department of Horticulture, Sri Karan Narendra College of Agriculture, Jobner - 303 329, Rajasthan, India *ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Centre, Lembucherra - 799 210, Agartala, India
Abstract
The present experiment was carried out on bottle gourd cv. Pusa summer prolific long during kharif season 2012 to know the effect of plant growth regulators and thiourae on growth, yield and quality of bottle gourd. The results showed that ethrel 450 ppm significantly increased female flower (22.65), fruit length (61.50 cm), fruit set (67.11%), fruit retention (50.20%), fruit weight (1.311 kg) fruit yield per vine (7.55 kg) and per hectare (549.84 g), net return (₹ 212120 ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.38).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 412-416
B Gowramma
Department of Botany, Vijayanagara Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Ballari - 583 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study demonstrates an effect of plant growth regulators on shoot and root morphogenesis from cotyledonary explants of mulberry (Morus indica L). The morphogenetic responses from cotyledons of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv. M-5) derived from 10 day-old germinated seedlings were evaluated by culture on MS medium supplemented with different growth regulators. In addition, in vitro fruit ripening and seed set was evaluated by culturing the female catkins immediately after fertilization, and after 20 days after fertilization on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l (Thidiazuron) TDZ. Hence, this standardized protocol can be effectively used for further in vitro mass propagation of Morus indica L.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 417-420
Hadassah Chinthagunti, D A Sarnaik, Dhananjay Sharma and *M Lakshmi Durga
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India *Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted at Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidhyalaya, Raipur, during rabi 2012-13 to study the correlation of characters with yield in brinjal. The character association studies revealed that yield is positively and significantly correlated to plant height, number of branches per plant and pericarp thickness while yield is negatively and significantly correlated to days to first flower, days to 50% flowering and number of flowers per cluster. Number of fruits per cluster expressed highly positive direct effect on yield per hectare followed by marketable yield per hectare and plant height. Moderate effects were exhibited by days to first flowering, days to first picking, fruit girth and yield per plant. Number of branches per plant followed by number of flowers per cluster, percent fruit set, fruit length, days to 50% flowering expressed negative direct effect on yield per hectare.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 421-424
SNCVL Pushpavalli
Agricultural Research Station (PJTSAU), Tandur - 501 141, Telangana, India
Abstract
The study was carried out using forty three pigeonpea genotypes during kharif 2014-15. The genetic parameters like divergence, variability, coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance were studied along with correlation coefficient for seed yield and its component traits. Genotypes were grouped into seven clusters based on Mahalonobis D2 statistics. Seed yield/plant contributed to maximum genetic divergence followed by no. of pods/plant. Genotypes in cluster II recorded highest mean values for number of primary branches/plant and number of pods/plant while genotypes in cluster recorded more no. of secondary branches/plant and seed yield/plant. Broad sense heritability estimates were highest for seed yield/plant followed by days to 50% flowering. Significant and positive genotypic correlation was observed between seed yield/plant and number of pods/plant. The range of GCV observed 9.06 to 33.25% for the traits under study which provides information regarding the extent of variability present among the pigeonpea genotypes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 425-427
B G Shekara, H C Lohithaswa, N M Chikkarugi and N Manasa
AICRP on Forage Crops and Utilization, Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAS), Vishweswaraiah Canal Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Vishweswaraiah Canal Farm, Mandya, Karnataka to study fodder production potential of maize grown for different purposes. The experiment consisted of 10 treatments combinations were comprised of different maize based cropping system. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design and replicated thrice. The pooled data of three years revealed that, Napier Bajra hybrid + cowpea (Kharif) - Lucerne (Rabi) recorded higher green forage yield (1488.30 q/ha/yr), dry matter yield (330.30 q/ha/yr) and crude protein yield (30.0 q/ha) and Cultivation of maize for green cob + cowpea (fodder) round the year recorded higher net monetary returns (1,58,715 ₹/ha/yr).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 428-432
K P Pavithra, Rajesh S Patil, Yallappa Harijan and G K Nishanth
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In order to determine the relationships among yield and yield components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) an experiment was carried out on an augmented design at Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri, UAS, Dharwad during rabi 2011-12. One hundred and fifty safflower germplasm accessions were evaluated to study the correlation and path coefficients for 15 quantitative traits. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlation between seed yield per plant and other characters like plant height, capitula per plant, number of seeds per capitulum, biological yield and harvest index and significant negatively with rosette period, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. Path analysis revealed that all significantly correlated traits exhibited positive direct effect on seed yield except days to maturity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 433-436
M Abdul Jawad and P B Mali
Department of Computer Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 007, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The application of wireless sensor network (WSN) for a water quality monitoring comprises of number of sensor nodes with a networking capability that can be deployed for an adhoc or continuous monitoring purpose. The parameters involved in the water quality determination such as the pH level, turbidity and temperature is measured in the real time by the sensors that send the data to the base station or control/monitoring room. The use of wireless system for monitoring purpose will not only reduce the overall monitoring system cost in term of facilities setup and labor cost, but will also provide flexibility in term of distance or location. In this paper, the fundamental design and implementation of WSN featuring a high power transmission ZigBee based technology together with the IEEE 802.15.4 compatible transceiver is proposed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 437-441
T Ramanjali, T V K Singh and C Narendra Reddy
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
A laboratory study was conducted to know the effect of eleven BG-II cotton hybrids (viz Ankur-3034, Ajeet-155, Chetak, ATM, Bhakti, Brahma, Denim, Rasi-665, Rasi-668, Sudarshan, Yuva) plant parts (viz leaves, squares and bolls) on the mortality of third and fourth instar tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura and compared with non Bt plant parts at 60, 75, 90 and 125 days after sowing of the crop. The highest mortality of third and fourth instar larvae of S. litura was recorded as 78.33, 21.67 per cent on leaves, 86.67, 26.67 per cent on squares, 60.00, 13.33 percent on bolls of BG-II cotton hybrids from 60-125 DAS, respectively. On an average leaves and squares recorded highest percent of mortality than the bolls. Within the instars also there was a significant difference in the mortality of third instar larvae on all plant parts than the fourth instar larvae. Among the eleven BG-II cotton hybrids Rasi-665 recorded highest per cent of mortality of S. litura larvae.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 442-445
Shreeram Narasimha Hegde, Balakrishna Gowda, C Haleshi, *Navin Sharma and *Babita Bohra
Biofuel Park (University of Agricultural Sciences), Madenur, Hassan - 573 225, Karnataka, India *World Agroforestry Centre, United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, Nairobi - 00100, Kenya
Abstract
Effect of different oilcakes obtained from de oiling various non edible tree borne oilseeds were evaluated on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; variety- Arka vikas) yield at Bio-fuel Park, Madenur, Hassan during rabi season of 2014-15. Experiment consisted of eight treatments with combination of vermicompost, FYM, different oil cakes like Pongamia, Neem, Mahua, Simarouba, Calophyllum and chemical fertilizers with three replications laid in randomized complete block design. Treatment received calophyllum cake at 20% N equivalent + 80% N through fertilizers (T8) showed significantly higher fruit yield per plant (4.18 kg), yield per hectare (77.4 t/ha) and number of fruits per plant (80.6), with 15.79% enhancement in yield over control. But the results on yield were on par with the treatment T5, which received neem cake at 20% N equivalent (75.09 t/ha) and T4 which received Pongamia cake at 20% N equivalent (70.06 t/ha). Combined soil application of organic and inorganic nutrients results in improvement in yield; hence these de-oiled cakes can be utilized as potential source of tailored organic fertilizers effectively, as are placement of chemical fertilizers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 446-449
M G Sunil, H D Mohan Kumar and *N V Mohan Kumar
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Collage of Agriculture, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga - 577 204, Karnataka, India *University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Fifty nine genotypes of chewing tobacco were evaluated for seed and oil yield and other seventeen parameters at the experimental field of Zonal Agriculture and Horticultural Research Station Shimoga, Karnataka during 2013-14 for study the genetic diversity. The fifty nine genotypes felt into eleven distinct clusters. The intra-cluster distances in all the eleven clusters were more or less similar (closely related), than genotypes belongs to inter cluster. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster IV and cluster IX and the lowest between the cluster III and VIII. Among 11 clusters, cluster I was biggest with 29 genotypes followed by cluster II, VI, IV with 12, 8, 3 genotypes respectively and remaining clusters were solitary. Cluster X showed the highest mean values for seed yield. Chlorophyll content, capsules per plant and seed yield per plant showed maximum contribution towards total divergence among different characters. Based on medium to high inter-cluster distances, the genotypes found to be most divergent belongs to cluster VIII, cluster X and cluster I.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 450-453
D Anitha, A V Nagavani and V Chandrika
Department of Agronomy, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at the Department of Agronomy, S. V. Agriculture College, Tirupathi during rabi 2014-15 to find out the tillering pattern, light interception percentage and yield of finger millet as influenced crop geometry and age of seedlings. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and replicated thrice. It was revealed that the number of tillers per unit area was higher due to planting of 25 days old seedlings at 15 cm × 10 cm with double seedlings hill-1. Light interception percentage was higher in transplanting of 15 days old seedlings at 20 cm × 20 cm and also closer spacing intercepted the more light than wider spacing. The transplanting of 15 days old seedlings at 20 cm × 20 cm (T5) gave higher grain yield than compared to T2, T8, T1 treatments respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 454-457
N V Mohan Kumar, S Gangaprasd, M C Anjali, M G Sunil and *L B Nagaraja
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Collage of Agriculture, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga - 577 204, Karnataka, India *University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted in the kharif 2013 to estimate correlation and path co-efficient analysis studies for yield and yield component traits in cowpea. Forty nine cowpea genotypes were sown in simple lattice design with two replications and evaluated for twelve morphological traits viz days to 50 percent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches, number of secondary branches, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pods per cluster, pod length, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Among the studied yield contributing traits number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, number of clusters per plant and number of pods per plant showing significantly higher correlation coefficient to seed yield per plant i e 0.381, 0.770, 0.754 and 0.575 respectively. The number of pods per plant showing heist direct effect (0.889) to yield followed by number of secondary branches per plant (0.479). The number of clusters per plant showing highest indirect effect to yield through number of pods per plant (0.785), followed by number of secondary branches per plant through number of pods per plant (0.357), number of primary branches through number of seeds per plant (0.347). This character association study helps to know the contribution of different characters to total yield; this information helps breeders to improve the yield through directly or indirectly improving yield contributing traits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 458-459
Srinivas Mamindla and V M Prasad
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Present investigation was undertaken during 2012-2013 at Central Field of Guava Orchard, Department of Horticulture, SHIATS, Allahabad. The result of the experiment revealed that integration of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers was more effective in increasing in yield and quality of guava than the inorganic fertilizers alone. Among the various treatment combinations 50% recommended dose of NPK + 15 kg FYM + 3kg neem cake + micronutrients (B and Zn) was founded the best over most of the treatments in respect of yield per tree (62.01 kg/tree) and yield per hectare (9.67 t/ha), gross returns (₹ 930.15/plant), net returns (₹ 660.44/plant) and highest B:C ratio (3.44).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 460-461
Suman Raj Meena, Seema Magalraj Pande and Bhagwan Sahaya Gurjar
Department of Plant Pathology, Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
To identify resistant source among frequently used varieties of castor in the Telangana region seventeen varieties were selected on the basis of agronomical characters and screened against native pathogen isolates which were collected from the diseased fields of farmers of the region. The experiment conducted at Indian Institute of Oil Seed Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad under greenhouse conditions and pathogen was inoculated by agar bit inoculation method. Six varieties viz PCH-222, GCH-2, GCH-4, GCH-6, GCH-7 and 3216-R were found resistant to test pathogen. Eleven varieties viz DCS-107, DCH-177, DCS-519, Kranti, Haritha, Kiran, PCH-111, JP-65, SH-72, DCS-78 and 48-1 were found susceptible to the interact isolate.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 462-463
Ramya Rathod, *M Bharathi, **V Ravindra Babu and D Srinivasa Chary
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, **Department of Statistics and Mathematics, College of Agriculture (PJTSAU), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *Indian institute of rice research, Rajendranagar, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to know the extent of genetic variability present in the rice genotypes during kharif, 2014 at Indian institute of Rice Research Farm, Hyderabad. Fifty six rice genotypes were considered for the study and analysis of variance found a significant difference for all the traits studied. High genotypic coefficient of variation and phenotypic coefficient of variation values were observed for number of filled grains per panicle, number of productive tillers per plant, grain yield per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for plant height, number of productive tillers per plant, number of filled grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield per plant and grain iron and zinc concentration indicating that these traits were controlled by additive type of gene action. The remaining traits were mostly under the influence of non-additive gene effects as they recorded low to moderate estimates of genetic advance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 464-465
S K Tiwari, N Khare, Umesh Sahu and Akshat Pandey
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The antifungal effect of aqueous extracts of locally available plant species have been investigated in-vitro conditions against Fusarum udum, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of pigeonpea. The plant extracts were screened against mycelial growth and sporulation of F. udum at 20% concentration using poisoned food technique and cavity slide method. Among the tested plants higher inhibition was noticed in Allium sativum, Datura sp., Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica. The remaining plants extract produced less inhibitory effect. Among them A. sativum at 20% recorded 29.11% inhibition of mycelial growth and 67.51% in sporulation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 466-467
N Nagendra Babu, G Sivanarayana, T Gopikrishna and K Umadevi
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted to assess the impact of VAP on farmer’s knowledge and adoption levels of crop production technology in Guntur district. Two villages namely appikatla (adopted) and bharthipudi (non-adopted) of bapatla mandal with total 120 respondents 60 from each village were selected. The results indicated that the respondents of adopted village had gained more knowledge and adoption of modern technologies, cultivation practices of different crops like rice, maize, blackgram and greengram. Therefore, in adopted village, the VAP had a positive impact on increase in knowledge and adoption levels as compare to non-adopted village. Therefore more number of demonstrations, long and short duration training programmes should be provided through VAP for maximum benefit of the farmers in the villages.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 468
H R Jadav, M V Tiwari, A D Raj and J H Rathod
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Navsari Agricultural University), Dediapada, Narmada, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Mushroom cultivation is the best way of entrepreneurship development on the basis of this cultivation farmer can achieve good growth in economic sector by the use of less economy. Therefore, mushroom cultivation is not only of economic importance but also has important role to play in integrated rural development programme by increasing income and self employment opportunities for village youths, women folk and housewives to make them financially independent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 469-470
P J Krishnapriya, K Umamaheswaran and P J Harikrishnan
College of Agriculture, Vellayani - 695 522, Kerala, India
Abstract
Papaya ring spot disease caused by Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) has been identified as a seriousthreat to papaya in Indian subcontinent. Diagnostic symptoms of disease include mosaic and ringspot symptoms on papaya leaves. However little is known about the plant virus interaction. Study was conducted to find out the biochemical changes of papaya in response to Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) infection. Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE) was carried out for isozyme analysis using healthy as well as PRSV infected samples for peroxidase (PO) enzyme. Isoperoxidases with Rm values of 0.08 and 0.23 were unique for Pusa Nanha. However no specific isozyme was observed in local variety of papaya. The identified isoforms of peroxidases can be used as biochemical markers to identify resistance and susceptibility in papaya plants.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 2 ; 471-472
Rupesh Kumar Gajbhiye, Yogesh Kumar Sidar and Gajendra Chandrakar
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The screening of rice against brown plant hopper was investigated during kharif season 2014-15 at the Experimental Field of Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. The study evaluated the nature of brown plant hopper resistance in 51 wild rice accessions of O. nivara accessions collected from Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics IGKV Raipur. All these accessions had shown different reactions to BPH population, the PTB 33 showed minimum average plant damage score (0) followed by Oryza nivara MS:21 (0.2) and Oryza nivara VS:39 (0.58). Maximum average plant damage score against brown plant hopper was observed in Oryza nivara and TN1 was categorized as highly susceptible. It is suggested that further experiments should be carried out with markers for already identified brown plant hopper resistant genes to detect whether that the resistance observed in O. nivara accessions is due to existing resistant genes or new genes to avoid genetic uniformity of brown plant hopper resistance in cultivated rice in future.


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