Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 7 - Issue : 3 ; 473-481 N Z Rehman and Masrat Maqbool Division of Soil Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and techmology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India Abstract Soil quality is conceptualized as the major linkage between the strategies for agricultural conservation management practices and achievement of the major goals of sustainable agriculture. Soil biological properties respond quickly and have been suggested better indicators than soil physical and chemical properties which alter only after drastic change in soil quality. Soil biological components occupy only 0.5% volume of soil and usually constitute up to 10% of soil organic matter (SOM). Strategies for improvement in soil biological properties requires understanding of numerous interactions among soil biological community and diversity, climate, soil type, plant species and soil management practices. Organic matter through crop residues at the soil surface, root and cover crops, animal manure, green manure, compost and other sources, improve biological properties of soil. Tillage enhances bacterial growth in the short-term by aerating the soil and by thoroughly mixing the organic matter with bacteria and soil. A single tillage event is generally inconsequential to microorganisms, but repeated tillage eventually reduces the amount of soil organic matter that fuels the soil food web. Cropping systems and crop rotation influence the microbial biomass by putting a different food source into the soil each year. Cover crops extend the growing season and increase the amount of roots and above-ground growth that becomes part of soil. As with other crops, the rhizosphere of a cover crop provides food for bacteria when food sources would otherwise be scarce. Balanced fertilization is in general, promotes the soil microbial counts and biological properties. Inoculation with soil beneficial organisms, such as nitrogen fixing bacteria, blue green algae and mycorrhiza in general have shown to enhance the soil health, plant nutrient uptake, aggregation, soil structure and porosity and heavy metal tolerance. Soil organisms require some specific soil conditions for their growth and functioning e g pH.