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Volume - 8 - March-April 2017
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 269-277
N L Kushwaha and *Abrar Yousuf
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India *Regional Research Station (Punjab Agriculture University), SBS Nagar - 144 521, Punjab, India
Abstract
Assessment of soil erosion risk, especially in hilly areas, is a challenging task mainly due tovariability in topography and non-availability or insufficiency of relevant data. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model is applied worldwide for prediction of soil loss. Although it is an empirical model, it not only predicts erosion rates of ungauged watersheds but also presents the spatial heterogeneity of soil erosion that is too feasible with reasonable costs and better accuracy in larger areas. Remote sensing (RS) technology plays an important role in mapping of soil erosion risk in agriculture, forest and degraded land. Its application in the soil erosion risk mapping introduces new opportunities for conservation planning and management. With the incorporation of Geographical Information System (GIS), it is possible to analyze satellite data, which gives required information like land use and cover, slope, distribution of rainfall, flow direction etc. of study watershed. The capabilities of these technologies even increase when they are integrated with empirical erosion prediction models like RUSLE. RS and GIS integrated erosion prediction models do not only estimate soil loss but also provide the spatial distributions of the erosion. Generating accurate erosion risk maps in GIS environment is very important to locate the areas with high erosion risks for prioritization and to develop adequate conservation techniques. Micro-watershed prioritization within a large watershed is considered as one of the most important aspects of planning and development for natural resources for soil and water conservation measures. This review article highlights the application of RUSLE, RS and GIS technology in the study of soil erosion and gives an insight of their valuable application in soil erosion risk mapping.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 278-285
M F Baqual and M A Mir
Temperate Sericulture Research Institute (SKUAST-Kashmir), Mirgund, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
The practice of rearing silkworms for raising cocoons to be reeled for silk yarn production and finally weaving of fabrics is in vogue in almost every state of India. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is also one of the traditional silk producing states where sericulture is well suited to elevate the agrarian economy and people of the state continue to augment their income through silkworm rearing. Although during the times gone by the rearing of silkworm was the only occupation available with the stake holders of the rural area, yet with the passage of time there has been a shift from sericulture to other ventures available to the farmers. The reasons of such shift could be on one hand attributed to availability of more lucrative avocations and on the other hand reduced productivity of cocoons which in turn could be attributed to non adoption of various technologies available in the field of sericulture. Such technologies if taken or adopted by the farmers would definitely result in fetching more revenue to them and thus could pave way for setting sericulture industry back on the path of sustenance. These technologies are available in various components of sericulture viz. mulberry cultivation where different propagation techniques, soil fertility management practices besides various protection technologies can be adopted by the farmers. Similarly chawkie rearing and adult age rearing technologies besides silkworm disease protection measures are also available for adoption by them. The present paper besides reviewing the impact of various technologies available in sericulture also highlights some of the constraints faced by the farmers and brings out reasons for non adoption of technologies by them.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 286-293
Neetu Soni, *P T Patel, **K Suresh and ***Vibha Tak
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, **Department of Plant Physiology, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506, Banaskanth, Gujarat, India *Seed Spices Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar, Jagudan, Gujarat, India ***Department of Agricultural Meteorology, Anand Agriculture University, Anand, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Heterosis is one of the most important phenomenon for breaking the yield barrier level of crops. Hence, an experiment was undertaken to identify the best heterotic combinations for exploitation of heterosis or hybrid vigour. In this context, five newly converted cytoplasmic male sterile lines were crossed with 6 fertility restorer lines in line × tester mating design during kharif 2014-15. Thus, the resultant 30 hybrids along with their parents and standard check variety (GT 101) were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications during kharif 2014-15. The results indicated that the manifestation of heterobeltiosis for seed yield per plant was significantly superior of twenty nine hybrids ranging from -2.33-171.67% and fifteen hybrids over standard variety ranging from -21.93 -82.28%. Most of the crosses which exhibited superiority over better parent or standard variety for seed yield also showed significant heterosis for number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, biological yield per plant, harvest index and leaf area. The best cross combinations in order of merit seed yield and other yield components CMS GT 603 A × GTR 52 (82.28%), CMS GT 603 A × GTR 23 (76.69%), CMS GT 288 A × GTR 95 (68.78%) and CMS GT 603 A × GTR 95 (53.76%), CMS GT 601 A × GTR 95 (49.41%), CMS GT 33 A × GTR 18 (47.69%), CMS GT 603 A × GTR 8 (46.81%), CMS GT 601 A × GTR 52 (37.30%),CMS GT 302 A × GTR 8 (33.39%) and CMS GT 301 A × GTR 95 (28.61%) were found to be more than 20% standard heterosis for seed yield recommended for commercial utilization.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 294-299
Navjot Kaur and Prabjeet Singh
Department of Fisheries Resource Management, College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
A study was carried out in river Sutlej around Ludhiana to assess the effect of pollution on the reproductive behaviour of some selected cyprinid fishes. Two different sites were selected for sampling of water and fish. The first site was before the confluence of Buddha Nallah near Rail/road Bridge at Ludhiana which is 86 km downstream from Ropar Head works over river Sutlej and second site was 22 km downstream from Site-1 after confluence of Buddha Nallah near village Walipur Kalan. The study was carried out for a period of six months from June to December, 2015. All the major physicochemical parameters of water i.e. temperature, pH, alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and organic pollution indicators i.e. dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were studied. Relatively higher values of all these parameters were recorded at S-2 as compared to S-1 however lower values of pH and dissolved oxygen were found at S-2. Besides, this all the biometric parameters of the cyprinid fishes were studied. Although all the fishes bred during the monsoon period but lower values of GSI were found at Site II as compared to Site I. The values of condition factor (K) were found to be low at Site-II indicating an effect of pollution on the well-being of fish.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 300-303
D M Ransing and G S Tomar
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16 at Research Cum Instructional Farm of the Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) to study the effect of different sources and levels of nutrients on productivity of wheat. Results revealed that among different nutrient sources, residual effect of poultry manure 2.5 t ha-1 significantly maximum plant height, number of tillers m-1 row length, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate, leaf area index plant-1, length of ear, weight of ear, grains earhead-1 and 1000 grains weight which subsequently highest grain and stover yield as well as harvest index during both the years in comparison to rest of the treatment. Among various nutrient levels, application of 100% RDF along with Zn 5 kg ha-1 significantly recorded maximum above said all parameters as compared to other levels of nutrients during both the years of investigation. Similar trend was observed in protein content and protein yield of wheat among the different sources and levels of nutrients during both the years of investigation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 304-307
Sri Birendra Kumar, *Ranvir Kumar and Suman Kalyani**
Department of Agronomy, Bihar Agricultural College, Sabour, Bhagalpur - 813 210, Bihar, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, **Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, B.P.S. Agricultural College, Purnea - 854 302, Bihar, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2012 and 2013 at Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, (Bihar) to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen levels and cultivars on yield of rice. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with 3 replications with treatments comprising three nitrogen levels viz. 50% RDN (Recommended dose of nitrogen), 100% RDN and 150% RDN in main plots and five different rice cultivars viz. RAU 724, RAU 759, Sita, Rajendra Sweta and Rajendra Mahsuri in sub-plots. The results revealed that maximum effective panicles/m2, No of grains per panicle, Leaf area index, chlorophyll content, 1000- grains weight, panicle length (cm) and grain yield (q/ha) were the highest value at 150% RDN. The highest grain yield was obtained with 150% RDN (49.0 q/ha) which was at par with 100% of RDN (48.41 q/ha) but significantly superior over 50% RDN (42.04 q/ha). Amongst the cultivars, Rajendra Mahsuri was found to be best and gave significantly more grain yield (72.52 q/ha) than other cultivars. The cultivars RAU 724 (52.22 q/ha), RAU759 (53.33 q/ha), and Rajendra Sweta (51.63 q/ha) were significantly at par with each other. Uptake of NPK was maximum with Rajendra Mahsuri. Maximum net return (₹ 41900 and ₹ 41774/ha, respectively) recorded with 150% RDN and 100% RDN. These treatments also recorded higher B:C ratio (1.56 and 1.60, respectively). Amongst cultivars, maximum net return and B:C ratio (₹ 75528 /ha and 2.90 respectively) was recorded with cultivar Rajendra Mahsuri.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 308-311
Sumit Biswas and Dillip K Dora
Department of Fruit Science and Horticulture Technology, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
Patakapoora, a landrace of Rasthali (Amrithpani) group of bananas are mostly grown in coastal tracts of Odisha, admired by one and all because of its pleasant aroma. However, availability of this variety of banana is limited and has a very poor shelf-life for which the fruits do not reach the distant destinations. Here, an attempt has been made to prepare pulp from the ripe fruits and preserve with KMS to give a better shelf life. The effect of KMS treatment with three different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) on quality attributes of banana pulp was studied. The result of the experiment showed slight increase in TTA and microbial load with a slight decrease in TSS, ascorbic acid, pH, texture and sugars over the 0-30 day’s period of storage in 9±1°C. Though the sensory evaluation rated maximum for the sample with 0.1% KMS. Addition of KMS as preservative and lower temperature storage at 9±1°C decreases the possibilities of higher microbial contamination. Thus, the present study indicated that the processed banana pulp remained in safe consumption level up to 30 days of storage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 312-315
Chetan Kumar Jangir and *D P Singh
Department of Soil Science, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India *Department of Soil Science, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at institutional farm, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, (Rajasthan) during kharif, 2014 on clay loam soil. The soil was medium in available nitrogen and phosphorus while high in potassium, and sufficient in DTPA extractable micronutrients. The experiment comprised four fertility levels of (control, 50% RDF, 75% RDF, and 100 % RDF) and four bio-fertiliizers levels (control, PSB, Rhizobium and Rhizobium + PSB) were applied to the black gram var. T-9. The interaction effect of fertility levels and bio-fertilizers on seed and straw yield was found to be significant. Highest significantly seed yield (1501.62 kg ha-1), straw yield (1760.92 kg ha-1) and biological yield (3262.54 kg ha-1) were obtained under treatment combination F3B3. Maximum Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn content and uptake by seed and straw was obtained with 100% RDF and PSB, Rhizobium or combination while, minimum with control. The application of fertility levels increase in Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn content and uptake by seed and straw with 100 % RDF treatment was found to be at par with 75% RDF treatment. The increase in Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn content in seed and straw with Rhizobium + PSB was statistically significant over Rhizobium as well as PSB inoculations.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 316-319
Ashutosh Gautam
Division of Crop Improvement, Indian Cardamom Research Institute, Idukki, Kerala - 685 553, India
Abstract
Small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is a major spice crop cultivated in India and mostly confined to Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. With varying degree of climate, disease and insect-pest infestation in last three decades, numerous challenges have been imposed on farmers for sustainable cultivation of small cardamom. Since 1990s environmental conservation has become a key issue in farming community. In this study, I have interacted with farming community and investigated the depth of interest of farmers toward IPM and attitude to adapt this practice. If timely technical/financial support is provided and farmers are made clear about the technology and its ease, it is eventually accepted by them.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 320-323
Amir Bashir Wani, *M Ashraf Bhat, Zubair Ahmad Mir, Niyaz Ahmad Dar and *P A Sofi
Division of Plant Biotechnology, *Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, J & K, India
Abstract
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important pulse crop in Kashmir. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is a seed-born disease that affects this crop and reduces its yield significantly in the country. The present study was conducted at Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology, Shalimar in growing season of 2014-2015. The aim of this study was to screen virus occurring in Kashmir using artificial inoculation. Kashmir cultivars (SR-1) was selected as susceptible host. Artificial screening from Sr-1 to 134 genotypes using chemical and red spider mites. 6 genotypes were observed as phonetypical resistant genotypes as these show no symptoms after inoculation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 324-328
Sarbjeet Kaur and Prabjeet Singh
Department of Fisheries Resource Management, College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
In order to assess the effect of pollution on physicochemical parameters of water a study was conducted at two different sites of river Sutlej around Ludhiana. The first site was before the confluence of Buddha Nallah near Rail/road Bridge at Ludhiana which is 86 km downstream from Ropar Head works over river Sutlej and second site was 22 km downstream from Site-1 after confluence of Buddha Nallah near village Walipur. The study was carried out for a period of six months from June to December, 2015. All the major physicochemical parameters of water i.e. temperature, pH, alkalinity, total hardness, turbidity, total dissolved solids, ammonia, nitrite and organic pollution indicators i.e. dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were estimated. Relatively higher values of alkalinity, total hardness, turbidity, total dissolved solids, ammonia, nitrite, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were recorded at S-2 as compared to S-1, however lower values of pH and dissolved oxygen were found at S-2. The results of the present study indicate that river Sutlej was found to be more polluted at Site-2 after the joining of Buddah Nallah with it. Besides this the water quality showed a seasonal variations and most of the parameters were in a higher range during monsoon period.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 329-332
Gaurav Dharwal, R S Khatri and R K Jain
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
In a population of 120 plants (HKR47 × BR4-10) a large variation was observed for all physio-morphological traits and Fe and Zn contents [Plant height (72.62-137.46cm); effective number of tillers/plant (8-14); panicle length (13.35-30.59 cm); grain yield/plant (9.84-24.51 g); 1000 grain weight (17.14-27.93 g); L/B ratio of grain (2.14-4.01); days to 50% flowering(85-109); grains/panicle (68-161); days to maturity (129-134); grain colour (1-4) Fe content (9.0-188.40 mg/kg); Zn content (19.80-96.10 mg/kg)]. In F3 and F4 population of HKR47 × BR4-10 four plants identified will be used for further progenies [Plant No. 64 (Fe 179.40 and Zn 95.50 mg/kg); 68 (Fe 180.80 and 68.30 mg/kg); 70 (Fe 183.10 mg/kg and 96.10 mg/kg); 71 (Fe 97.50 and 54.50 mg/kg); HKR47 (Fe 54.3 and Zn 25.4 mg/kg); BR4-10 (Fe 176.2 and Zn 23.2 mg/kg)]. A total of 18 polymorphic SSR markers distributed on 12 chromosomes were linked with mineral content in grains.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 333-338
Ravi Prakash, *B L Meena, Sunita Kumari, Reena Kumari and D Singh
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, S. K. N. College of Agriculture, Jobner - 303 329, Rajasthan, India *ICAR-Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Centre, Lembucherra - 799 210, Agartala, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out at Research Farm, S. K. N. College of Agriculture, Jobner, Rajasthan. 60 genotypes of fenugreek were evaluated under normal and limited moisture condition in randomized block design with 3 replications for seed yield and its component characters. Analysis of variance indicated significant genetic variability among the genotypes for all the characters in individuals as well as the pooled basis under both the environments. The association analysis revealed that seed yield per plant was significantly and positively correlated with branches per plant, pods per plant and seeds per pod in both the environment. Path coefficient analysis indicated that direct selection for pods per plant in both the environments, was the important character for selection of high yielding genotype as this exerted high positive direct effect as well as showed high and positive correlation with seed yield. Based on the present investigation it is suggested that in breeding programme major emphasis should be given to pods per plant in both the environmental conditions as it had positive correlation with seed yield per plant with high direct effect. On the other hand concerted efforts on evaluation of a larger number of genotypes are likely to identify genotypes worth exploitation in breeding programme to develop limited moisture stress tolerant varieties in fenugreek.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 339-342
N Praveen and I Sreenivasa Rao
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in the Adilabad, Khammam and Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh. The ex post - facto research design was followed for conduct of the study since different variables chosen for the study had already occurred. An effort was made to study the attributes of tribal farmers towards traditional agricultural practices. A structured schedule was framed, pre- tested and the data were collected from respondents whether the indigenous practices adopted by them are having the above attributes or not with yes or no response. Majority (67.1%) of them perceived as high relative advantage over modern technologies and 30.1 and 2.8 per cent of them were perceived as medium and low relative advantage, respectively. Majority (78.8%) of the tribal farmers perceived the ITKs as highly compatible, followed by 18.9 and 2.3 per cent were perceived as medium and low compatible respectively. Majority (80.5%) of tribal farmers perceived as low complexity of ITKs and 19.5 per cent of tribal farmers perceived ITKs as highly complex. With regard to trialability attribute of ITKs, majority (75.5%) of the respondents were perceived the ITKs as high and 24.5 per cent as low trialability. Nearly half of ITKs (46.7%) having high observable results, 29.2 and 24.1 per cent of them having medium and low observability respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 343-346
Arudra Srinivasa Rao, Pravallika, Siva Kumar and C Ramana
Department of Agro Energy, College of Agricultural Engineering, Madakasira, District Anantapur - 515 301, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
High levels of fluoride present in drinking water causes health problems like dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, risk to brain, thyroid gland etc. Among all water purification methods, Reverse Osmosis (RO) became a best process to remove fluorine. All RO systems runs on electrical power. Power supply in rural areas is a serious concern. Some of the remote villages are still not connected with power grid; hence there is no scope for using commercially available RO systems for water purification. A suitable Solar Photo Voltaic System was designed to run RO system. The designed Solar Photo Voltaic Reverse Osmosis (SPVRO) System comprises of Solar Panel, Storage batteries, Charge Controller, Water Booster Pump, Water purification membrane set. Newly developed SPVRO system can remove fluorine from 1.9 mg/lit to 0.18 mg/lit. The other chemicals such as Nitrate, Iron, Sulfate and Chloride were also reduced to safe limits with the purification process. The SPVRO system has capacity of 9.6-12.8 lit/h, an average capacity of 11.55 lit/h. The overall recovery % of pure water was 37.32 was observed. Less recovery % was due to presence of more chemicals and inorganic substances present in raw water.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 347-352
D Saida Naik and M B Chetti
D Saida Naik and M B Chetti
Abstract
The study was conducted to find out the Influence of packaging and storage conditions on seed quality of paddy. Paddy seeds were stored in different packaging materials viz vacuum packed bags (C1), polythene bags (C2) ,cloth bags (C3) and gunny bags (C4) stored at room temperature (25 ± 2° C) and cold storage (4 ± 1° C) for a period of 18 months. Mineral elements like zinc, copper, iron and manganese decreased with an advancement of storage period. Among the containers, the decrease in mineral content was very less in vacuum packed bags compared to polythene bags followed by gunny bags and cloth bags throughout the storage period under both ambient (S1) and cold storage (S2).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 353-356
Upasana Mohapatra, Tapas Ranjan Sahoo, Prangya P Sahoo and M Sangeetha
Department of Agricultural Economics, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswa - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
Mechanical harvesting and threshing of numerous crops in general and Tur in particular is getting popular among large as well as medium scale farmers of northern Karnataka in view of farmers facing acute shortage of labour and time during harvesting. Some of the large farmers made an effort to get machines from other states like Punjab and Haryana for harvesting but, their timely availability is not ensured. The situation calls for investment on these machines by local entrepreneurs. This study was conducted with an objective to analyze the financial feasibility of investment on combined harvesters in the northern part of Karnataka and to document major constraints faced by the owners of the combined harvesters. Financial feasibility analysis was used to analyze the data elicited by ten owners of combined harvesters in north Karnataka and Garrett ranking technique was used to document major problems faced by the owners. Life of the machine was considered as 15 years. Results of the study revealed that investment on combined harvesters in the study area is financially feasible with NPV, BCR, IRR and PBP of ₹ 4016980.42, 1.43, 24.17 per cent and 2.65 years. The major constraints faced by the owners of combined harvesters included fluctuations in area under the crop and quantity of output, high cost of maintenance of machines and workers and transportation problem due to bad roads. For easy availability of machines during requirement and maintenance of uniform rates, the cooperative model of custom hiring of agricultural machinery implemented in Punjab should be introduced in Tur growing regions of Karnataka.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 357-360
Mansoor Ahmad Rather, *Basavaraja Nagappa and **Romisa Gull
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST-Kashmir), Bandipora - 193 502, Jammu & Kashmir, India *College of Fisheries, (KVAFSU), Mangalore, Karnataka, India **Government Degree College, Bemina, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India
Abstract
The present paper deals with the growth behavior and sex ratio of Puntius sarana sarana in culture conditions. The experiment was conducted at College of Fisheries; farm Mangalore (12° 52' N. 74° 53' E) Karnataka. On the basis of observations it is concluded that the sex population of P. sarana sarana that female fishes are dominated, with 2.1 females against 1 male. During the overall investigation on the P. sarana sarana the deviation in population sex was observed significant (Chi-square test at 5% level). The study also revealed that weight of the females is slightly higher than its male counterparts of the same age.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 358-360
Ravi Shrey, V K Choudhary and Chandresh Kumar Dhurwey
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present paper attempts to examine constraints perceived by tribal forest dwellers in collection, processing and marketing of non timber forest products in Sarguja district of Chhattisgarh. The sample of 80 respondents was selected through multistage sampling technique from district and data collected during December 2015- January 2016. The constraints faced by forest dwellers were varied from area to area but the common perception of these forest dwellers about constrains of collection, processing and marketing were analyzed. The analysis revealed that Competition amongst collectors was the major constraints reported by 81.25 percent respondents in collection of NTFPs, whereas main constraints faced by tribal forest dwellers in processing of NTFPs was less quantity available or collected said by 53.75 percent respondents and in case of marketing of NTFPs majority of respondent i.e. 88.75 per cent was facing the constraints of improper pricing of raw produce as main constraint.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 364-369
Imtiyaz Qayoom and Feroz A Shah
Faculty of Fisheries, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Rangil, Ganderbal, J & K, India
Abstract
Present study was undertaken to assess the impact of eutrophication on the incidence of helminth parasites on native Schizothoracine fish species of Kashmir Valley. The study was done on 204 samples of schizothoracines fish species collected from Anchar Lake out of which 117 were found infested with helminth parasites (pr. = 57.35%). Adenoscolex was the most abundant parasite recorded (prevalence (pr.) = 68.63%, Mean Intensity (M.I.) = 1.71%, Relative Density (R.D.) = 1.17% and Index (ind.) = 164.02%) followed by Pomphorhyncus (pr. = 57.35%, M.I. = 1.79%, R.D. = 1.03% and ind. = 120.44%) and Neoechinorhyncus (pr. = 47.55%, M.I. = 2.22%, R.D. = 1.05% and ind. = 102.23%). Both male (pr. = 73.15%, M.I. = 1.506%, R.D. = 1.102% and ind. = 87.05%) and female (pr. = 63.54%, M.I. = 2.29%, R.D. = 1.46% and ind. = 88.95%) were found highly infested with Adenoscolex than Pomphorhyncus and Neoechinorhyncus spp. The study revealed that increase in the eutrophication of the lake over the period of time is the principle factor responsible for parasitic infestations in fishes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 370-374
D Saida Naik and M B Chetti
Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted to find out the influence of packaging and storage conditions on moisture content and fungal load on long term storage of paddy. Paddy seeds were stored in different packaging materials viz. vacuum packed bags (C1), polythene bags (C2), cloth bags (C3) and gunny bags (C4) stored at room temperature (25 ± 2º C) and cold storage (4 ± 1º C) for a period of 18 months. The moisture content of seeds stored in vacuum packed bag was not changed much while, seed moisture in gunny and cloth bags significantly increased with advancement of storage period and recorded higher moisture content of 11.9% at 18 month of storage in gunny bag. Fungal load decreased continuously during the storage in vacuum packed bags whereas, increased up to 12 months in gunny bag and slightly decreased thereafter. Mould growth was significantly higher (11.00 cfu/g, 104) in gunny bag at 12 month of storage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 375-378
Yuvaraj Singh Dhruw, D K Suryawanshi and Govind Prasad
Department of Agricultural Extension, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Dhamatri district of Chhattisgarh state during the year 2013-14. The results of this study depicted that maximum number of the respondents (56.94%) had middle age group, 32.64 per cent had primary level education and 86.11 per cent were having belong to other backward class. The majority of the respondents (66.67%) had medium size of family (4 to 7 members) and 75.00 per cent had no membership in any organization. Further it was revealed that most of the respondents (86.11%) were participation in labour activities. Most of the respondents (34.72%) had 1.1 to 2 ha of land holdings (small farmers) and 31.94 per cent of the respondents were having their annual income in range of ₹ 2, 00001 to ₹ 4, 00000. While, 74.31 per cent of the respondents had acquired credit for summer rice production technology. Great majority of them had medium use of information sources and extension contact. It is also revealed that significant percentage of respondents was found in medium categories of scientific orientation and level of knowledge regarding summer rice cultivation. The variables namely occupation, contact with extension personal and knowledge were found negative and significantly correlated only one variables social participation positive and significant correlated with adoption of summer rice production technology.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 379-381
Y Sandhya Rani, U Triveni, T S S K Patro and M Divya
Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Vizianagaram - 535 001, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Consumers have become more aware of safe food produced with low environmental impact in which organic agriculture is of particular interest in this respect. The possible differences between organic and conventional plant products are examined from the view of possible effects on human health. However there can be considerable risk that the avoidance of chemical inputs in organic farming will result in poor food production. Agriculture must meet the twin challenge of feeding a growing population, with rising demand of high calorie diets, while simultaneously minimizing its global environmental impacts. Organic farming is a system aimed at producing food with minimal harm to ecosystems, animals or humans which is often proposed as a solution. Keeping in view of sustained crop yields as well as soil health, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Vizianagaram, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh, during Kharif 2015-16 to study the effect of complete organic method of farming in comparison to conventional method on soil health, yield and quality of little millet crop. The organic inputs were supplied in the form of green manures (Sunhemp), farmyard manure, neem cake and biofertilizers (Azospirillum and Phosphorus Solubilising Bacteria) whereas the conventional method by application of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers (20-20-20 kg NPK/ha). The results revealed that significantly highest number of spikes/plant (14.1), grain yield (6.7 q/ha), straw yield (69.6 q/ha) and N uptake (62.1 kg/ha) and K uptake (33.48 kg/ha) were recorded in inorganic treated plot when compared to the organic plot (10.1, 5.0 q/ha, 58.6 q/ha, 50.2 kg/ha and 27.21 kg/ha respectively). Whereas the soil available macronutrients and micronutrients were found highest in the organic treated plot but there was no significant difference between the organic and conventional plots.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 382-385
V Govardhanrao, P Venkata Ramana, A Srinivas and K Ravikumar
SAU Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University), Pandirimamidi, Rampachodavaram, East Godavari - 533 288, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The paddy variety MTU-1075 was recorded higher plant height (98.1 cm), effective tillers hill-1 (21.5), length of panicle (24.1 cm), grains panicle-1 (248) and test weight (23.65 g) than the local check (RGL-2538). The same also recorded grain yield 50.87 q ha-1 which is 38.52% higher yield than local check (RGL-2538) with harvest index of 47.2% over the years of study. In spite of increase in yield of improved technology the technological gap, extension gap and technology index existed which was 5.43q ha-1, 19.55q ha-1 and 10%, respectively. The improved technology of paddy variety gave higher gross return of ₹ 75000 ha-1 with a benefit cost ratio of 3:1 and additional net return of ₹ 25277 ha-1 as compared to local check. Hence the existing medium duration paddy variety RGL-2538 (Vasundhara) can be replaced by medium duration paddy variety MTU-1075 (Pushyami) since it fits to the existing farming situation for higher productivity and income.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 386-391
Chandan Kumar Rai, Khajan Singh and *Arti
Dairy Extension Division, *Dairy Economics Statistics and Management Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
A large number of “Gujjars” tribe of Himachal Pradesh still stick to their ancestral profession of buffalo rearing and selling of milk and milk products. Dairying is the major occupation of “Gujjar” tribes of Himachal Pradesh which contribute to food, economic, environmental, institutional, health, educational, social, infrastructural, nutritional security and thus in total to the livelihood security of tribes by providing transport and on-farm power. In present study an attempt was made to reveal the socio-economic characteristics of tribal dairy farmer of Himachal Pradesh. Exploratory research design was followed and study was conducted in randomly selected blocks of Una and Sirmaur district. The data were collected through personal interview with the help of pre-tested interview schedule. It was administered on randomly selected 160 tribal dairy farmers (40 from each block). Study revealed that half (50.00%) of the farmers were having medium age group, 31.25 percent had primary level of education and 43.12 percent of respondent had medium family education status. 45.62 percent of the respondents were having low herd size, 40.00 percent of the respondent came under the medium category of the milk production and 42.50 percent of the respondents had low average animal productivity. 57.50 percent of respondents were belonged to medium category of income level. It was further revealed that 41.88 percent of the respondents were belonged to medium level of milk production. It was also found that 39.38 percent of respondents were belonged high level of milk sale.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 392-394
Sumit Deswal, T P Malik, S K Tehlan and Preeti Yadav
Department of Vegetable Science, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted with sixty genotypes of fennel for phenotypic characterization of different vegetative characters such as plant height, branches per plant, primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, umbels per plant, umbellate per plant, seeds per umbellate, seeds per umbel and seed yield. Variability observed for quantitative traits showed high range variation for plant height, umbels per plant, umbellate per plant, seeds per umbellate, seeds per umbel and seed yield. Characterization of germplasm based on morphological parameters signifies the extent of variability present in the population and also provides needful information for selection of desirable genotypes for varietal development and also genotypes which can be conserved for unique traits. The identification keys based on morphological characters are very useful for identification of genotypes and have a pivotal role to identify genotypes in the field without any use of costly chemicals and are fairly comparable with their results.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 395-398
Manish Kumar and R K Yadav
Division of Vegetable Science, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa Campus, New Delhi - 110 012, India
Abstract
In the present study 21 tomato genotypes were used for association analysis in twelve plant characters. Correlation studies explained that fruit yield had positive and highly significant correlation with relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and lycopene content at both phenotypic and genotypic level. Path-coefficient study at genotypic level revealed that RWC, chlorophyll ‘a’, proline, lycopene and acidity had high positive direct effect on yield whereas chlorophyll ‘b’, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a/b ratio, TSS and ascorbic acid had negative direct effect on yield. This showed the degree for development through direct selection for these characteristics and it might be very viable as these characters are less impacted by environment. Based on the physiological and biochemical parameters the genotypes Pusa Sadabahar, Balkan, TH-348-T2 and LP-2 were selected as superior thermo tolerant tomato genotypes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 399-403
M Banjare, V M Victor and S V Jogdand
Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, IGKV, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
In remote tribal areas of the country, still electrification is yet not reached. To overcome the problem of increasing cost of generating electricity by advanced method, some cheaper method is to be introduced in those areas. Keeping in view the above, rotary mode unit run by a pair of draught animal i.e. bullocks is the best option to generate electricity. Draught animals are used for 50-60 days for agricultural operations and the rest of the period is idle for them. Thus this will also increased the utilization of draught animal power in the country. During the study, walking speed of bullock, draught and power output developed by bullocks was observed at an interval of one hour for the span of seven hours of working. The rotary unit of size 74 × 48 × 38 cm having a set of spur and bevel-pinion gear was used through universal shaft and belt pulley arrangement. The average speed of bullocks during work was found to be 3.23 kmph and the power output developed by bullocks during electricity generation and battery charging was found to be 0.264 KW. The physiological responses of animal in terms of pulse rate, respiration rate and body temperature were recorded during the work increasing with advancing of working time. During seven hours of work the animal body temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate were increased up to 44oC, 51 blows/min and 68 bpm at load condition. The animal power output reduced with passage of time. Battery used for the experiment was 20 AH, 13 plates and 12 voltages, which was charged up to 11.5 volt and its specific gravity was observed 1250 during 7th hour of working. The total cost of electricity generation and battery charging was found ₹ 40.00.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 404-407
Manohar Lal Meghwal, S R Dalal, *Nirmal Kumar Meena and Shivaputra
Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India *Division of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, ICAR-Indian Agriculture Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012, India
Abstract
A study was undertaken for preparation of nectar using guava cv. Lalit during the year 2015-16 in Post Harvest Technology Laboratory, Section of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. Experiment was laid under FCRD statistical design having two factors viz. Factor A and factor B. Factor A consists of five different pulp concentrations viz. 14% guava pulp, 16% guava pulp, 18% guava pulp, 20% guava pulp, 22% guava pulp and factor B consists of storage conditions viz. refrigerated and ambient conditions. Changes in TSS, Acidity, Reducing sugars, Total sugars, and pH of guava nectar evaluated at Initial, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th days in refrigerated condition as well as ambient storage conditions. Considering above chemical constituents of product, both the treatments P3S1 (18% pulp + refrigerated storage) and treatments P4S1 (20% pulp + refrigerated storage) were found best for guava nectar.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 408-410
Rameshwar Kumar and N Khan
Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted at Durg block in Durg district of Chhattisgarh where banana is an important fruit crop. A sample of 60 respondents in the ratio of 20:20:20 was selected randomly. The respondents were classified into three groups viz. small (>2.00 hectares), medium (2.01-4.00 hectares) and large (4.01 hectares and above) farms. It was found that the problem faced by the sample farmers in the production and marketing of banana were problem in obtaining quality seed at reasonable price and higher prices for human labour and fertilizer inputs. Higher human labour input cost due to lack of management and high rate of human labour per days because constraint of human labour. And high fertilizer cost due to lack of market yard and reasonable price and also lack of credit facilities for securing crucial inputs at reasonable prices was not funded timely to banana growers through institutional financing agency. Some important constraints found in banana marketing such as price fluctuation in banana marketing lack of market information, lack of storage facilities, lack of processing industries based on fruit, lack of government facilities in marketing of banana.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 411-416
Partha Sarathi Patra, *Pabitra Adhikary, Shyamal Kheroar, *Amrit Tamang, Ashim Chandra Sinha and Debasis Mahato
Department of Agronomy, **Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar - 736 165, West Bengal, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ashoknagar, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present research was conducted to study the direct and residual effect of organics on groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) maize (Zea mays L.) crop sequence. Results demonstrate that combined application of poultry manures (PM), neem cake (NC), vermicompost (VC) and phosphocompost (PC) improved pod yield of groundnut by 0.20 and 0.14 t ha-1 over 100% RDF. Among the sole application of organic manures application of phosphocompost @ 5 t ha-1 proved its superiority in terms of yield attributes, quality and pod yield of groundnut. Combined application of PM @ 2.5 t ha-1 + NC @ 2.5 t ha-1 + VC @ 2.5t ha-1 + PC @ 2.5 t ha-1 to the preceding groundnut crop produced 138.41 and 139.18% more grain yield of maize than 100% chemically treated plot during both the years. Application of PM @ 2.5 t ha-1 + NC @ 2.5 t ha-1 + VC @ 2.5t ha-1 + PC @ 2.5 t ha-1 removed maximum nutrient by the cropping system and also leave highest amount of available N, P and K in the soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 417-422
B T Naveen Kumar and H B Babalad
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The field experiments were carried out on a fixed site of Conservation Agriculture Project at main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, during 2014-15 and 2015-16 on deep black clay soil to know the effect of conservation tillage, land configuration and crop residue management practices in pigeonpea and soybean intercropping system on growth, yield and economics under rainfed situations. The two years of experimental findings reveled that, conservation tillage with broad bed and furrow (BBF) and crop residue retained on the surface (CT1), conservation tillage with BBF and crop residue incorporation (CT2), conservation tillage with flatbed with incorporation of crop residue (CT4) and conservation tillage with flatbed with crop residue retained on the surface recorded significantly increased growth parameters of pigeonpea and soybean viz. plant height, number of branches, LAI and total dry matter production plant-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 423-425
Arti and Chandan Kumar Rai
Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, *Division of Dairy Extension, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
India is having varied climatic conditions. Different crops grew in different climatic conditions. India ranks second in production of Sugarcane. As we know that Uttar Pradesh is the leading state in the production of sugarcane and second in sugar production. Based on the importance of the crop present study was conducted to know the growth rate of area, production and yield of the sugarcane in Uttar Pradesh. Secondary data was used for the study. Simple statistical tools like compound annual growth rate, percentage change were used in this study. Time series data has been used in this study (1950-2015). This study revealed that compound annual growth rate for Sugarcane in case of area, production and yield showed positive sign. The positive sign shows that there was increasing growth rate of sugarcane production pattern. Sugarcane yield was stable in past sixty five years, whereas production and area increased at 2.25% and 1.96%, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 426-430
K Rama Krishna and *D V Sudhakar Rao
Division of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, ICAR-Indian Agriculture Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012, India *Division of Post Harvest Technology, ICAR-Indian IIHR, Bengaluru - 500 089, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Guava is known for its flavour and nutritional value. Being climacteric and soft in nature its storage and export to other countries is a difficult task. Chitosan is the major bi-product produced from crustaceans shell waste, which can be utilized for the purpose of extending storage life of horticultural produce. In this paper, we have studied the effect of chitosan coating on physiochemical properties of guava stored at critical low temperature (8°C). The fruits were either treated with chitosan (1% and 2%), Acetic acid 1% or untreated and various quality attributes were studied at successive intervals of storage. The chitosan 1% treated fruits showed delayed ripening, reduced respiration rate with retention of higher firmness and acidity. The physiological loss in weight and total soluble solids were recorded low in chitosan treated fruits when compared to other treatments. Thereby, Chitosan 1% was able to extend the storage life of guava up to 35 days when stored at 8°C and showed good quality even 2 days after shifting to room temperature.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 431-435
Mahboob, E Shashikanth, R Mulge, V D Gasti and G C Nagesh
Department of Vegetable Science, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi - 591 218, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted during 2012-13 at Vegetable Section, Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture Arabhavi, on combining ability studies in bitter gourd for quantitative characters by using six lines and four testers in a line × tester mating design. Except two characters (number of primary branches and fruit yield per vine) significant differences were observed for the characters under study. Variances due to SCA were higher than the corresponding GCA for all the characters except for vine length at 60 and 90 DAS, it indicates predominance of non additive gene action and there is a scope for heterosis breeding. Out of ten parents Panurthy, Coimbatore Long, Chidambaram Small and VRBT-100 were observed to be best general combiner as they have made significant contribution in yield contributing characters. Coimbatore Long × Panurthy exhibited high SCA effect for fruit yield per vine, node at first female flower appearance and days to first harvest, VRBT-100 × Panurthy is best for days to first male and female flower appearance, Coimbatore Long × Panurthy is best for sex ratio and number of seeds per fruit in desirable direction. Further these crosses can be tested for exploiting commercially.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 436-440
Jaya Sinha, J K Singh and Adarsh Kumar
Division of Agricultural Engineering, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012, India
Abstract
Comparative study of three types of manual weeder namely wheel hoe, crescent hoe and dry land weeder were ergonomically evaluated for women farm workers. The different physiological parameters like heart rate, oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and posture parameters like average twisting velocity, maximum sagittal flexion, maximum lateral velocity, body part discomfort and overall discomfort were evaluated for operator operating each weeder. The highest heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy expenditure of worker were observed in the operation of wheel hoe. Working with wheel hoe and dry land weeder were categorized as “heavy work” with heart rate 114 and 112 beats per minutes respectively. The subjective evaluation of body part discomfort and overall discomfort score for subjects operating wheel hoe were higher among all the weeder (31.01 and 2.51). The field capacity of wheel hoe was highest (150m2h-1). The ergonomic evaluation of wheel hoe, crescent hoe and dry land weeder were done and found that field capacity and energy expenditure were high; therefore there is need of modifying the existing weeder to make it compatible for women farm worker. Modifications in the existing weeder according to anthropometric and physiological parameters of female workers can reduced the energy consumption and body deviations between work and thus enhanced work output.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 441-444
Y Latika Devi and K Suhasini
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
Over the last three decades, N, P, K and total NPK and it’s per hectare consumption in AP observed an increasing trend. The absolute NPK consumption was increase by 3 times while per hectare consumption was increased by 2.5 times. The NPK per hectare consumption was 87 kg/ha during 1985-86 which increase to 226 kg/ha during 2014-15. The per hectare nitrogen consumption was more compared to phosphorous and potassic fertilizer in all the study years. The CAGR of total NPK consumption was 3.25 per cent for the period of 30 years (1985-2015). The coefficient of variation of per hectare consumption of total NPK consumption was 29.41 per cent for the study years. The CAGR and coefficient of variation overtime was more of K than N and P. The ratio of per hectare consumption of N:P:K was 7:3:1 1985-86 which reduce to 4:2:1 after 2000s. So, the per hectare fertilizer consumption in AP is in line with the recommended doses for efficient use of fertilizer.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 445-449
N Z Rehman, D Ram, J A Wani and Masrat Maqbool
Division of Soil Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Nine representative soil profiles at different locations were selected to study the soil properties in detail at 0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm depths. The results exhibited that Organic carbon content was confined more in surface horizons than in sub-surface horizons with a value ranging from 0.02 to 1.72 per cent in general. Soil reaction was neutral to alkaline (6.49 to 8.42) and the soluble salt concentration was very less. In general, the soil separate (clay) content ranged from 18.5 to 35.3 per cent which showed illuviation with the soil depth. Cation Exchange Capacity of the soils showed little activity with a variation in all the profiles and ranged from 7.23 to 10.5 cmol (p+) kg-1. The available nutrients N and K2O were low to medium, P2O5, available S and DTPA extractable Fe were low to high and DTPA extractable Zn, Cu and Mn were medium to high.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 450-453
Shruthi and R C Gowda
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted under loamy soil (Alfisols), during kharif 2013 at Doddabelavangala village of Doddaballapura (T), Bangalore Rural district, Karnataka to study the effect of reduced P and K level on P and K fractions in post-harvest soils of finger millet. The result revealed that, except soil pH all other nutrients increased with levels and sources of P and K. Soil pH recorded 7.37 compared to other treatments. Other parameters like EC, OC and major nutrients (N, P & K) also recorded higher content in chemical fertilizers, FYM and bio-fertilizers added treatments. All the P fractions recorded significantly higher values in treatments received fertilizers and FYM along with bio-fertilizers compared to only NPK added and control treatment. Among the different forms of phosphorus, Al-P (Aluminum-P) and Fe-P (Iron-P) was low compared to Ca-P (Calcium-P). The range Al-P, Fe-P and Ca-P was 13.48 to 33.39 mg kg-1, 15.16 to 38.37 mg ka-1 and 27.38 to 59.33 mg kg-1. Red-P (Reductant soluble-P) recorded higher compared to Occ-P (Occluded-P). The total P content of surface soil was higher in the treatment with higher level of phosphorus application than the treatment without phosphorus or reduced level of phosphorus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 454-458
C P Sankalpa, J Vishwanath and T M Shruthi
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2012 to study the effect of graded levels of nitrogen on micronutrient availability at different physiological stages of rice crop and residual micronutrient content in soil of rice crop at Agricultural Research Station, Gangavati. The experiment was conducted with five graded levels of nitrogen (RDN, 20% extra RDN, 40% extra RDN, 60% extra RDN and 80% extra RDN) and two different rice varieties (GGV-05-01 and BPT-5204) was taken and replicated trice. Application of different levels of nitrogen decreased the availability of micronutrients across growth stages rice crop (at tillering/ panicle initiation/ flowering stage) but among the treatment the availability zinc (Zn) increased with increased levels of nitrogen applied compared to other micronutrients like iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu). Effect on varieties and their interaction with nitrogen levels was non-significant on the availability of micro nutrients. After harvest of the crop, except Zn other micronutrients like Fe, Mn and Cu contents in soil decreased with increasing levels of N.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 459-465
T Bhagya Lakshmi, *C A Srinivasamurthy and **S Bhaskar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (UAS), V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571405, Karnataka, India *Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, **Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Distillery spentwash a wastewater discharged by distilleries can be utilized as a nutrient rich resource for crop production. In order to study the impact of different dilutions (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and 1:40) of spentwash application on growth and yield of paddy a pot experiment was conducted mainly to identify the best dilution for paddy crop. Results revealed that the growth parameters like plant height, number of tillers and number of panicles were highest with lower dilutions (1:1 and 1:5) of spentwash compared to higher dilutions (1:20 and 1:40). Yield parameters like number of filled grains per panicle was highest in higher dilution (1:40) and was on par with 1:20 dilution which decreased significantly with decrease in dilution levels. Application of distillery spentwash at 1:40 dilution recorded significantly higher yield (26.80 g pot-1) followed by 1:20 dilution (T4) 21.58 g pot-1. With respect to soil properties, significantly higher soil pH and Electrical conductivity was recorded in T1 (1:1 dilution) compared to initial values. Significantly highest organic carbon content was recorded in T1 (1:1dilution) but was on par with 1:5 times diluted spentwash. The available N, P and K content of soil increased with increase in the proportion of effluent confirming the fact that the effluent contained the above mentioned nutrients in sufficient amounts. The exchangeable sodium content was highest in treatment with lower dilutions and decreased with higher dilutions. The nutrients present in spentwash offer an excellent opportunity to use it as a liquid fertilizer along with irrigation water to achieve higher yields of crops.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 466-468
Ashish Pradhan, N Lakpale and N Khare
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Seed borne inoculums of some diseases can be detected by direct inspection of the dry seed or by examination under a low power binocular microscope. In order to detect the contamination of seed mycoflora with the five varieties of pigeonpea namely Rajeev Lochan, UPAS-120, JKM-189, ICPL-87119 and a variety collected from local farmer of Chhattisgarh were evaluated by two non-incubation method viz. dry seed examination and seed washing test. Inspection of dry seed can be applied to detect seed borne mycoflora when present in the seed. Dry seed examination revealed the status of healthy, discolored, damaged seed, weed seeds, plant parts, inert matter, fraction such as soil, sand and stones, malformations, fungal bodies like sclerotia, galls, acervuli, pycnidia, perithecia, hyphae, spore masses etc under stereoscopic binocular microscope. Highest healthy seeds was recorded in UPAS-120 (83.5%) followed by JKM-189 (81.25%), ICPL-87119 (77.25%), Rajeev Lochan (75.5%) and least in Farmer’s variety (55%). Maximum damaged seed (13.75%), discoloured seeds (8.75%), small/under sized seeds (13.25%), shrunken seeds (7.25%), inert matter (1.5%) and weed seeds (0.5%) were observed in farmer’s variety. While, seed washing test was used to detect and identify the spores and other fungal parts adhered on seed surface. After following the standard method for this purpose and examination under compound microscope, spores of Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus and hyphal strands of mycelia sterilia were detected in farmer’s variety and ICPL-87119. Spores of A. flavus, A. fumigatus and hyphal strands of mycelia sterilia in UPAS-120, A. flavus and A. niger in Rajeev Lochan and only A. flavus in JKM-189 was detected.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 469-472
K Shiva Kumar and J M Nidagundi
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Forty five intra-hirsutum hybrids derived by crossing 10 x 10 half diallel manner by involving Gossypium hirsutum L. genotypes. During kharif 2012-13 F1 hybrids and their parents were evaluated at Agricultural Research Station, Siruguppa. The heterobeltiosis for seed cotton yield ranged from -56.86 to 86.38 per cent with the best cross combination ARB 904 x H 1462. High heterosis was also recorded for lint yield (ARB 904 x H 1462%), number of bolls per plant (30.43%) and boll weight (30.06%), while very low heterobeltiosis was observed for ginning out-turn (18.98%) respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 473-477
Ashfauq Farooq Aga, Asha Dhawan, Meera D Ansal, Geeta Jasal and Vaneet I Kaur
Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences university, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in outdoor cemented ponds comprised of three factors i.e. two supplementary feeds (D1, routine diet vs. D2, diet supplemented with vitamin-mineral mixture @ 2%), two feeding rates (R1, 3% BW vs. R2 4% BW) and two feeding frequencies (F1, once-a-day vs. F2, twice-a-day feeding). Thus, there were 8 treatments combinations viz. T1: (D1, R1, F1), T2: (D1, R1, F2), T3: (D1, R2, F1), T4: (D1, R2, F2), T5: (D2, R1, F1), T6: (D2, R1, F2), T7: (D2, R2, F1) and T8: (D2, R2, F2). The diets were fed for a period of 8 months and the effect of different treatments on biochemical composition of flesh in terms of total proteins, total lipids, total carbohydrate, ash and moisture of fish from each treatment was analyzed during the pre-spawning (July) and post-spawning/resorption (September) period. During pre-spawning period, flesh protein content was maximum in T8 (12.78%) and minimum in T7 (11.71%), total lipid was maximum in T6 (1.53) and minimum in T5 (1.15), total carbohydrate was maximum in T8 (2.58%) and minimum in T1 (2.13%), moisture content was maximum in T8 (80.49%) and minimum in T1 (77.76%) and ash content was maximum in T1 (1.77%) and minimum in T8 (1.33%) and the difference among all the treatments were significant. During post-spawning/resorption period, the flesh protein content was maximum in T8 (13.10%) and minimum in T7 (12.12%), total lipid was maximum in T6 (1.81%) and minimum in T5 (1.35%), total carbohydrate was maximum in T4 (2.86%) and minimum in T7 (2.38%), moisture content was maximum in T7 (79.55%) and minimum in T1 (77.25%) and ash content was maximum in T1 (1.64%) and minimum in T8 (1.37%) and the difference among all treatments were significant. Not much difference was recorded in different parameters during pre-spawning and post-spawning period. In contrast, total carbohydrate content in fish increased with increase in feeding rate, feeding frequency as well as supplementation of vitamin mineral mixture in the diet. Similar trends were related in case of moisture content, while ash content decreased in fish fed twice with vitamin-mineral supplemented diet at both the feeding rates (3% and 4% BW). Overall results of vitamin-mineral supplementation of diets and feeding regimes was not found to have any positive effect on the flesh quality of fish.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 478-483
S Sajana, G R Munde and A H Shirsath
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture (V. N. Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth), Latur, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of plant growth regulators on seed germination and seedling growth of marking nut (Semecarpus anacardium L) at Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Latur (Maharashtra). The treatments comprised of GA3, NAA, Ethrel and Kinetin at three different concentrations (150 to 400 ppm). Seeds pre-soaked with 400 ppm GA3 for 24 hours significantly influenced the germination and growth attributes. Germination parameters like minimum days taken for initiation of germination (24.06), germination vigour index (0.54) and germination percentage (72.50) were recorded maximum in seeds pre-soaked with 400 ppm GA3 for 24 hours. The growth and biomass characters i.e. plant height (18.72cm) and leaf area (22.28 cm2) fresh and dry weight of shoot (9.60 and 2.86 g) root (31.34 and 6.96 g) with significantly higher shoot: root ratios (0.31 and 0.41 on fresh and dry weight basis) respectively, recorded in the same treatment. The seedlings characters like fresh weight of seedling (36.48 g), dry weight of seedling (15.20 g) and per cent survival (91.67) of seedlings found maximum in treatment consist of GA3 at 400 ppm, compared to non treated control. Thus, present study envisage that, pre-soaking of seeds with plant growth regulators can lead to better germination and further growth of seedlings in marking nut.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 484-486
Bhimeshwari Sahu and N Lakpale
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiments were conducted in the Plant Pathology Field and Glasshouse at Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur Chhattisgarh in the year 2014-2015 to study the effect of soil type, cropping sequence/crop rotation and intercropping on Albugo bliti incitant of white blisters of Amaranthus bicolor. This experiment was conducted to know the effect of soil type. Four major soil type found in the Chhattisgarh state were used in the present investigation, different soil type viz. Entisol (Bhata), Inceptisol (Matasi), Alfisols (Dorsa) and Vertisols (Kanhar) were taken. The pot experiment was conducted in glasshouse. Revealed maximum disease severity in Dorsa soil (12.14%) followed by Matasi (11.49%), Bhata (9.84%) and least in Kanhar (6.29%). Disease severity in Dorsa and Matasi soil was statistically at par while disease severity in Kanhar soil was significantly lower as compared to other soils. Cropping sequence with non-host crop decreases the disease severity significantly in comparison to that of control. Significantly lowest disease severity was recorded in Methi-Methi-Amaranthus but disease severity in Methi-Coriander-Amaranthus and Coriander-Coriander-Amaranthus was at par with each other. It also appears that disease severity was lower when Methi was included in the cropping sequence. Influence of intercropping on white blister disease severity of Amaranthus. Disease severity was recorded on 20 randomly selected plants twice - first 15 days after sowing and second before harvest (30 days after sowing). All the experiments were repeated thrice on same plots in same season. From the result, Amaranthus + Palak intercropping was found better among other intercropping combinations. This might be due to less secondary spread of inoculum in field conditions due to in presence of Palak foliage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 487-490
Yugal Kishor Sahu, A K Chaubey, *A S Rajput, S Harinkhere and V N Mishra
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture and Research Station, Janjgir-Champa, IGKV, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during kharif season of 2014 to study the influence of integrated nutrient management on soil fertility status and yield of rice in inceptisol. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replications comprising ten treatments. Results revealed that integrated nutrient management could not produce any significant difference in pH, EC and Organic carbon after rice harvest. Maximum and significantly higher values of available N, P and K was observed in the treatment STCR dose with 5 t FYM for YT 50 q ha-1 (T10) over control (T1). Whereas grain and straw yield of rice, significantly higher value was noted in treatment STCR dose with 5 t FYM for YT 50 q ha-1 (T10) as compared to rest of the treatments, however it was statistically similar to treatments 100% GRD (100:60:40) (T4), 100% GRD + 5 t FYM ha-1 (T5) and 100% GRD + 10 kg BGA ha-1 (T7). Integrated use of organic manures along with optimum doses of chemical fertilizers not only produced highest and sustainable crop yields but also enhanced the fertility status of the soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 491-495
Pragya Rawat, Mamta Bohra, Parul Punetha and B P Nautiyal
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Horticulture, V.C.S.G., Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Pauri Gharwal - 246 123, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to assess and standardized the plant spacing and pinching for improving qualitative and yield attributes traits of African marigold cv. Pusa Narangi Gainda at Floriculture and Landscaping Block of College of Horticulture, V C S G, U U H F, Bharsar during February to July 2016. The experiment consisted of three spacing (50 cm x 20 cm, 50 cm x 30 cm and 50 cm x 40 cm) and four pinching P0 (No pinching), P1, P2 and P3 (pinching at 15, 30 and 45 days after transplanting, respectively). Each treatment replicated thrice in factorial randomized block design. The results revealed among different plant spacing, maximum duration of flowering (33.07 days) and minimum days taken to bud initiation and flowering (63.03 and 83.37 days, respectively) were recorded from plants planted at spacing of 50 cm x 30 cm. The flower diameter and fresh weight did not exhibit significant differences among the different spacing levels. The highest number of flowers per plant (40.94 g) and flower yield per plant (377.79 g) were observed at a wider spacing (50 x 40 cm). However, maximum number of flower per plot (591.56) and flower yield per plot (5.14 kg) were recorded under S1 level of spacing (50 x 20 cm). With respect to pinching treatments, unpinched plants (P0) took earliness in bud initiation and flowering (54.19 days and 75.52 days, respectively) as well as maximum flower diameter and fresh weight of flowers (9.31 cm and 11.12 g) was observed in the same treatment. However, duration of flowering (33.05 days), number of flower per plant, per plot, flower yield per plant and per plot (46.49, 583.59, 371.79 g and 4.59 kg, respectively) were recorded in P3.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 496-499
Pintu Roy Vattakunnel, K R Sheela and T Sajitha Rani
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, (Kerala Agricultural University), Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 522, Kerala, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out during March 2015 to January 2016 at farmer’s field, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, to evaluate the economic feasibility of land management practices, time of lime application and fertigation in banana (var. Nendran) cultivation. The variation between land management practices for precision farming and conventional cultivation and different time of lime application did not impart any significant influence on banana yield and economic parameters viz. gross income, net income and B:C ratio. The different fertigation levels positively influenced the bunch weight plant-1, yield ha-1 and economics of production over soil application. In soil with medium N and K and high P levels, the fertigation levels of 100% and 60% recommended dose (RD) of N and K (300g N plant-1; 450g K plant-1 and 180g N plant-1; 270g K plant-1, respectively) applied at weekly interval along with soil application of P (86.25 g P plant-1) were observed to be on par and superior to 140% RD (420g N plant-1; 630g K plant-1) on yield and economics.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 500-502
Anand G Patil, Mangesh, N Srinivas and M Rajkumar
College of Horticulture (University of Horticultural Sciences), Bidar - 585 403, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at college of Horticulture, Bidar for two consecutive years to find out the efficient weed management in onion. Among the different weed management treatments weed free check recorded significantly lowest weed density, dry weight of weed and higher weed control efficiency compared to rest of the treatments. The growth and yield attributes viz. plant height, bulb weight and bulb diameters were recorded maximum in weed free check compared to rest for the treatments. Which was on par with pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1followed by oxyfluorfen 0.25 kg ha-1 at 25 DAT with one hand wedding at 40 DAS.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 503-505
Ajay Puri Goswami
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Soybean categorized as poor storer because a rapid loss in viability occur under warm and humid conditions. Under warm and humid condition oil seeds become susceptible to storage fungi. The seed of soybean varieties PS 1347, PS 1042, PK 472 and PK 262, obtained from Crop Research Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar were used for this study. All parameters taken under this study decreases as the accelerated ageing period increases but at varied level in different varieties of soybean. All characters were affected by accelerated ageing in all varieties. Less adverse effect of accelerated ageing was imposed in variety PS 1042 followed by PS 1347 while maximum in PK 472 and PK 262. This indicate that variety PS 1042 can tolerate the ageing conditions with less effect on studied parameters, thus can be stored for longer duration, variety PS 1347 considered as medium storer and PK 472 and PK 262 as poor storer.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 506-509
S R Pradhan, P R Dharmatti and *R Jena
Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India *College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam, India
Abstract
The local cucumber types of Northern Karnataka and hybrids produced using them were screened for downy mildew incidence using rating scale described by Jenkins and Wehner (1983). Parents DWD-2 and Hot Season were showing the best resistance pattern against downy mildew with scores of 2 and 3 respectively. Among the parents Hot Season (-1.875) and White Long (-1.104) were found to be the best general combiners for downy mildew resistance. Hybrid Hot Season × White Long showed significant negative heterosis over mid parent (-63.64%), better parent (-75%) and standard check (-60%) and was found to be the best among the lot, indicating the superiority of the hybrid itself against downy mildew. It also showed the best specific combining ability (-1.458) among all the crosses hence can be advanced for hybrid development against downy mildew.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 510-513
M W Rathod, A K Gore and S K Nayak
Department of Agronomy, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of year 2015 at the experimental farm of AICRP on Soybean, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Maharashtra. To find out the effect of plant spacing’s and different fertilizer levels on soybean. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with five plant spacing’s viz. S1 30 x 7.5 cm, S2 45 x 05 cm, S3 30 x 10 cm, S4 30 x 15 cm and S5 30 x 30 cm in main plot and three fertilizer levels viz. F1- 100% of RDF, F2- 125% of RDF and F3- 150% RDF in sub plot along with three replication. The result of experiment shown that, among the different plant spacing’s tested, 45 cm x 5 cm recorded more of growth, yield attributes and yield of soybean than other plant spacing’s. In case of application of fertilizer level 150% RDF recorded higher value of growth attributes, yield attributes and yield of soybean.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 514-517
Anand G Patil, *A S Halepyati and *B M Chittapur
College of Horticulture (University of Horticultural Sciences), Bidar - 585 403, Karnataka, India *Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Raichur, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Station, Janawada, Bidar during kharif seasons for two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) to study the efficacy of sequential application of herbicides on growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L.) in north eastern transitional zone of Karnataka. The result revealed that among the different herbicide treatments in soybean the application of pendimethalin 38.7 CS @ 700 g a.i. ha-1 fb imazethapyr 10 SL @ 75 g a.i. ha-1 in soybean crop recorded significantly higher seed yield (2456 kg ha-1) due to higher growth parameters viz. plant height (51.44 cm), number of green leaves (18.42), number of branches (4.19), leaf area index (2.81), leaf area duration (75.10 days) and yield parameters at harvest viz. number of pods (52.85), pod weight per plant (25.06 g), seed yield per plant (35.24 g) and test weight (10.71 g). This was mainly due to lower weed density 0.5 m-2 (3.88) compared to other herbicide treatments respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 518-521
Mukesh Kumar Seth, V K Choudhary, A K Koshta and Ravi Kumar Rathiya
Department of Agricultural Economics, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidalya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The study on economic analysis of maize cultivation was fulfilled with the specific objectives to estimate costs and return in maize cultivation and constraints faced by the farmers in cultivation of maize was conducted in Bastar plateau during the year 2014-2015. A representative 62 sample farmers were interviewed by using a well structured schedule. Formal survey method was used to augment data from sample of maize growers. The findings of the study revealed that the average farm size of sample farmers was registered to be 2.13 ha. Overall, cost of cultivation of maize was accounted ₹/ha 15449.47, which comprised of 44.76 percent of labour cost followed by input materials cost (38.49%), power used cost (15.33%) and fixed cost (1.42%), respectively. Overall, yield of maize was registered to be 30.25 q/ha as a main product and obtained by-product to be 96.91 q/ha. The gross return was obtained to be ₹/ha 42534.8 by sample maize growers in study area. Average net return came to ₹/ha 27085.33. The average cost on per quintal production of maize was ₹/q 510.73 and the average B:C ratio and input output ratio were 1.75 and 1:2.75 respectively, and both were maximum at marginal farms. The major constraints in the production of maize were the higher inputs costs i.e. reported by 82% farmers followed by seed quality (80%) and irrigation (78%) respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 522-524
Anil Kumar Sahu, M R Chandrakar and K N S Banafar
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Present study deals with the cost and return of sugarcane in Balod district of Chhattisgarh. 150 sugarcane growers were selected randomly from 5 blocks and were categorized into marginal, small, medium and large farmers based on their holding size. The primary data were collected for the year 2014-2015. The study observed that the average size of farm was 2.80 hectares. The tube well was observed as major source of irrigation as irrigated area was found to be 46.72 per cent. On an average, the cost of cultivation of sugarcane was amounted as ₹ 88153.85 per hectare. The major share of cost of cultivation gone to labour cost hired and family being 40.38 per cent of the total cost. The gross return obtained 171315.67 and net return against the cost of cultivation was observed ₹ 83161.82 per hectare. The input - output ratio of sugarcane came to 1:1.94. The study suggested that during peak period of agricultural operations the unavailability of sufficient labour and available at very high cost. To avoid the escalation of cost and better use of inputs mechanization may be encouraged.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 525-527
K J Morey, A A Pisal and A N Mehetre
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture (Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth), Kolhapur - 416 004, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted during kharif 2014 at the Agronomy Farm, College of Agriculture, Kolhapur, Maharashtra on sandy clay loam soil on nutrient management to soybean varieties. Among the varieties, KS-103 recorded the highest plant height, number of branches as well as total dry matter plant-1. The growth and development of soybean measured in terms of plant height was maximum when fertilized with 100% RDF coupled with foliar spray of 0:52:34 applied at 50% flowering. However, the number of branches plant-1 and dry matter plant-1 were increased over other treatments up to 42 days with RDF, while 56 days onwards till harvest of the crop, number of branches plant-1 were maximum with application of 75% RDF + foliar spray of 0:52:34 + Lihocin + Boomflower (F6) but comparable with 75% RDF + foliar spray of 0:52:34 + Boomflower (F5). It might be due to effect of foliar spray performed at 40-42 DAS.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 528-532
S K Patra, A Krishna Chaitanya and J Mukhim
Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741252, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Potassium releasing power of ten soils of West Bengal and Jharkhand evaluating through step K and constant rate K showed that K release reached plateau at 4th to 6th number of extractions indicating variability of K availability to plants. Step K ranging between 9.40 to 22.74 mmol (p+)/kg exceeded the amounts of non exchangeable K in all soils and expected to be non-responsive to K fertilization for longer duration. Constant rate K varied from 0.25 to 0.44 mmol (p+)/kg and expected low to moderate K supplying power under stress. Cumulative K release varied within 11.40 to 26.26 mmol (p+)/kg soil. All these forms of K showed significant positive correlations with exchangeable, non exchangeable and lattice K. These suggest that there is need to apply moderate doses of fertilizer K at regular interval for optimum plant K nutrition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 533-535
C S Avinash, B L Patil and Raghavendra Chourad
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted to know the resource use efficiency and resource use pattern in BT cotton cultivation in Dharwad district of Karnataka. In Dharwad district 3 villages were selected randomly such as Heballi, Narendra and Shivalli. From each village, 10 respondents growing BT Cotton were selected thus making a total sample of 30. To estimate the resources use efficiency Cobb-Douglas production function was employed and Allocative efficiency = MVP/MFC In order to determine the efficiency of allocation of the resources or price efficiency. The analysis of input utilization clearly indicates that the labour utilization was more because of the number of picking was more. With respect yield obtained in study area was 27.25 quintal of main product (Kappas) and 46.61 quintals of by product. The regression coefficient of fertilizer (0.31) and PP Chemicals (0.21) are significant hence it indicating increase in the use of these resources over and above the present level lead to a significant increase in gross returns. Whereas, the resources in study area was over utilized but are still in the rational region of production Except seed and FYM because these two are beyond the rational region hence there is need of optimal use of resources.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 536-541
Nandkishore Pandey, Anurag Kerketta, Bhimeshwari Sahu and H K Singh
Department of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Mushrooms are macroscopic fruiting bodies of fleshy fungi, belonging to the class Basidiomycetes or Ascomycetes. The experiment screening of suitable grains substrates for spawn development, growth and yield of Pleurotus flabellatus were conducted at All India Coordinated Mushroom Improvement Project, Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Raipur at 2015-16. Spawn development, spawn run, pin head initiation, size of sporophores and yield of P. flabellatus was studied among cereal grains. The result of experiment revealed that the minimum days were required for spawn development of P. flabellatus were observed in sorghum grains (7.75 days). The minimum days required for spawn run (10.75 days) and pin head initiation (13.75 days) in wheat straw substrate were observed in sorghum grains raised spawn took significantly less time amongst all grains respectively and highest pileus diameter (7.71 cm), highest stipe length (2.56 cm) and highest stipe diameter (0.89 cm) were observed in sporophores obtained from wheat grains raised spawns. The higher yield and higher biological efficiency were recorded on wheat grains (526 gm) with BE (87.66%) raised spawns compared to other grains raised spawn. The treatment means were compared using critical difference (CD) at p=0.05.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 542-544
Neelam Jaiswal, H K Awasthi and Ysobanta Meher
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study is empirical information into the realistic pertaining to the socio economic profile of farm women in rice production technology. The aim of the study is to investigate the social economic profile of the respondents and this further seeks to ascertain the socio-personal problems and so forth. The total number of 6 villages was selected at randomly in 2 blocks of Korba District of Chhattisgarh. In each village, about 10 respondents were selected by random method. Results of the study revealed that majority of the farm women were middle age (36 to 55 years), middle level of education and nuclear type of family, medium farming experience and most of the farm women had member of more than one organization, marginal farmer, majority of respondent occupation in agriculture and medium level of income.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 2 ; 545-552
Anshul Gupta
Department of Agronomy, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner - 303 329, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
In many agricultural systems around the world, competition from weeds is one of the major factors reducing crop yield and farmers’ income. In developing countries, herbicides are rarely accessible at a reasonable cost, hence farmers often need to rely on alternative methods for weed management. Worldwide limited success in weed control is probably the result of an over-simplification in tackling the problem. Too much emphasis has been given to the development of weed control tactics (especially synthetic herbicides) as ‘the’ solution for any weed problems, while the importance of integrating different tactics (e.g. preventive, cultural, mechanical, and chemical methods) in a cropping system-based weed management strategy has long been neglected. Integrated weed management is based on knowledge of the biological and ecological characteristics of weeds to understand how their presence can be modulated by cultural practices. As such, the interactions between weed management and other cultural practices must be duly taken into account. Integrated weed management uses a variety of control techniques to keep the weeds “off balance” in a sustainable manner.


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