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Volume - 8 - May - June 2017
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 553-558
Yogesh Chandra Patel, *Rahul Kumar and **Ankit Singh
Department of Horticulture, Government Degree College, Jakhani, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India *Division of Vegetable Sciences, **Division of Fruits and Horticulture Technology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012, India
Abstract
Apomixis is a mechanism of seed formation without fertilization. It is a complex process but the genes controlling apomictic reproduction are being identified. Apomixis is an area of research that is extremely significant for the crop breeding in future. Transfer of apomixis to crop species through wide crosses has not been successful so far, but with recent advances in our knowledge of cellular and molecular biology and establishment of transgenic technology, now it is possible to engineer apomixes into crop species. Apomixis may confer high degree of uniformity to the crop plants; fix the heterosis in the progeny of hybrids and it will make hybrid production possible in all crop plants. In clonal crops like potato, cassava etc. it will eliminate expensive and cumbersome tissue culture methods for production of disease free planting materials. If apomixis is expressed in an inducible manner, it is about to change the face of crop breeding.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 559-566
Masrat Maqbool, Sumaira Shafi and N Z Rehman
Division Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Wadura, Sopore - 193 201, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
Now-a-days for food security land conversion and degradation of soil quality is common problem. In Kashmir land use changes mainly from natural vegetation to cultivated lands brought about rapid nutrient depletion. Intensive and continuous cultivation of land without proper management resulted in decline in soil properties which aggravate crop yield reduction and food shortage. Therefore, the present study is designed to have comparison between forest and agriculture land uses in relation to physico-chemical properties and nutrient status of soil in district Ganderbal of Jammu and Kashmir. Seventy two samples were collected on the basis of stratified random sampling design from forest and agriculture land use. The result showed significant variations, coarser texture was found in forestry as compared to agriculture. Bulk density, moisture content, dispersion ratio (1.28 g cm-3, 28.86%, 0.16) was found significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in forest than agriculture (1.4 g cm-3, 39.09%, 0.80), OC was found significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in forestry (23.68 g-kg-) as compared to agriculture (4.3 g-kg-). Almost all nutrients were found significantly higher in forest land use except phosphorous, particle density which showed non significant variation between two land uses. The results revealed that soil quality declines as land use changed from forest to cultivated lands. So in order to meet the needs of rising population of Jammu and Kashmir as well as of nation one should maintain the soil properties of agriculture land too by adding more amount of input sources especially organic matter along with inorganic fertilizers particularly for micronutrients.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 567-570
G Vinay Kumar, V Satyanarayana Rao and *V Satya Priya Lalitha
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural College, Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh, India *Sugarcane Research Station, Vuyyuru, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
An investigation was conducted at the Sugarcane Research Station, Vuyyuru, Andhra Pradesh, India during 2013-2014 season for studying correlation and path coefficient analysis in thirteen clones of sugarcane (Saccharum spp) plant crop for yield, yield components and quality characters. The cane yield and sugar yield considered as the most important characters of sugarcane were positively and significantly correlated with each other. Characters viz. number of germinants at 35 DAP, number of millable canes, length of millable cane, diameter of millable cane and single cane weight recorded positive and significant association with cane yield whereas characters viz. brixper cent, sucroseper centand CCS per cent showed negative correlation with cane yield. Sugarcane is influenced by a number of characters to various degrees of relationship among themselves. Thus, the path coefficient analysis for cane yield, as dependent and the other characters as independent have been done at phenotypic level. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the characters viz. number of millable canes, length of millable cane, single cane weight, sucrose per cent, CCS per cent and sugar yield had positive direct effect on cane yield. Selection can be practiced for these characters for improvement of yield in sugarcane.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 571-573
Jahangeer A Baba, Syed Shujat Hussain, *W M Wani, *Shabber Hussain, Mohd Zubair and Arifa Jan
Krishi Vigyan Kendra/ Extension Training Centre, Malangpora - 192 308, Pulwama, J & K, India *Division of Fruit Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar - 190 025, J & K, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted in the main cherry growing belts of Kashmir viz. Srinagar, Baramulla and Shopian districts during 2013 and 2014. The basic material for this study consisted of 45 diverse genotypes of cherry. Divergence analysis of the forty five cherry genotypes, using Mahalanobis D2 statistics revealed significant results and the genotypes got grouped into seven clusters. Maximum inter-cluster distance was found between cluster-VI and cluster-VII. Cluster-VI recorded maximum mean values for fruit weight (10.79 g), fruit volume (9.27 cm3) and fruit weight to stone weight ratio (22.05), minimum stone weight (0.40 g) was recorded in cluster-V and cluster-II recorded maximum T.S.S. (19.060Brix), yield efficiency (1.01) and minimum acidity (0.56%). Maximum contribution towards total divergence came from T.S.S. (32.73%) followed by yield efficiency (25.96%). The genotypes evaluated during the investigation recorded significant amount of variability for various descriptive and quantitative characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that significant variability exists among the genotypes for all the traits. The genotype-environment interaction (G × E) was significant as well.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 574-577
K J Morey, A A Pisal and A N Mehetre
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture (Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth), Kolhapur - 416 004, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted during kharif 2014 at the Agronomy Farm, College of Agriculture, Kolhapur, Maharashtra on sandy clay loam soil to assess the response of soybean varieties to nutrient management. The yield attributing characters like number of pods plant-1, weight of pods plant-1 (g), number of seeds pod-1, 100 seeds weight (g) as well as seed yield (37.43 q ha-1) and straw yield (41.67 q ha-1) were also maximum in variety KS-103. The protein (44.42%) and the oil content (18.51%) were maximum in KS-103 as compared to other varieties. The yield contributing characters such as number of pods plant-1, weight of pods plant-1 (g), number of seeds pod-1 and 100 seeds weight (g) were the highest when fertilizers applied @ 75% RDF and foliar spray of 0:52:34 + Cycocel 1 ppm (Lihocin @ 1 ml lit-1) + Nitrobenzene 3 ppm (Boomflower @ 3 ml lit-1 ) of water at 50% flowering. The seed yield (38.36 q ha-1) and the straw yield (45.15 q ha-1) followed similar trend.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 578-583
R Rangegowda, K B Umesh, *G M Gaddi and **Lokesh S
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture (UAS Bengaluru), Hassan - 573 225, Karnataka **Department of Agricultural Economics, Kerala agricultural university, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Pomegranate are one of India’s most important fruits crop after major fruits, the country occupies first in both area and production in the world the country is the world’s first producer and third in exporter of pomegranate. Integrated markets are those indicates where price signals are well transferred from one markets to another markets, permitting physical arbitrage to regulate any disturbances in these markets; integrated markets are thus a indication of efficiency. From this context, we have tried to determine domestic integration of five major potential pomegranates markets in India, i.e. Delhi, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Kolkata by utilizing Johansen’s co-integration, granger causality test and vector error correction model. The data used in the co-integration analysis consists of monthly wholesale prices of five major markets of India for the period from Jan-2003 to Dce-2014. For this particular Co-integration analysis statistical software called Eviews was used. The market pair-wise co-integration test has confirmed that the pairs of Delhi-Bengaluru, Dehli-Mumbai, Delhi-Hyderabad, Delhi-Kolkata, Mumbai-Hyderabad, Mumbai-Kolkata and Hyderabad-Kolkata had bidirectional relationship, which implying that these market pairs are co-integrated and there exists long-run price association between them. According to granger causality test, there were bidirectional causalities between majority paired markets expect unidirectional causalities between the market pairs Bengaluru-Mumbai and Bengaluru-Hyderabad wholesale markets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 584-586
Rayees A Shah and B A Wani
National Agriculture Innovation Project (SRLS-3), SKUAST-Kashmir, Kupwara, Jammu & Kashmir, India *High Mountain Arid Agriculture Research Institute (SKUAST-Kashmir), Leh, Jammu & Kashmir, India
Abstract
Field experiments were conducted at Langate cluster adopted under National Agriculture Innovation Project (SRLS-3) Kupwara SKUAST-Kashmir during two kharif seasons of 2012 and 2013 to work out the influence of different organic and inorganic nutrient management practices on maize crop. The experiment comprised of seven integrated nutrient management practices laid in a randomized block experimental design. Application of 100% RDF (NPK) + vermin-compost @ 3 tonnes per hectare recorded maximum kernels per cob, number of cobs per meter square, thousand grain weight, cob length and grain yield per hectare (3.26 tonnes). Highest nutrient uptake 95.1, 20.8 and 84.1 kgs of NPK respectively was observed with the application of 100% NPK + 3 tonnes vermin-compost per hectare. however the findings also revealed that vermin-compost application @ 5.5 tonnes per hectare + farm yard manure (FYM) @ 5.5 tonnes per hectare to maize crop recorded the soil availability of N, P and K status of 394.8, 21.37 and 169.8 kgs per hectare respectively statistically highly significant than the check.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 587-591
V P Karthika and B Ajithkumar
Department of Agricultural Meteorology, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara - 680 656, Thrissur, Kerala, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to study the weather effects on the various biotic and abiotic growth limiting factors in cauliflower. Five planting times (1st November, 15th November, 1st December, 15th December and 1st January) were selected for the study in two consecutive years. During the course of study, depending upon the changing weather conditions various crop growth and yield affecting factors like pests, diseases and physiological disorders were observed. Tobacco caterpillar was observed as a regular pest with variations in severity in both the years regardless of the growth stage of the crop, but its activity was low in the delayed plantings. The incidence of cabbage stem borer, semi looper and leaf webber were observed in the early plantings. Black rot disease was observed in all the crops in 2010-11 coupled with the incidence of Soft rot in the earlier plantings. Among physiological disorders, bracing was observed in the earlier plantings whereas in delayed plantings, leafiness was observed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 592-597
S Devika and *V Ravichandran
Department of Crop Physiology, *Department of Rice, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out at Department of Rice, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu during 2015-2016 to study the physiological analysis of nitrogen use efficiency and yield traits of rice genotypes under different nitrogen levels. The results of the experiment was revealed that the gas exchange parameter such as photosynthetic rate (36.91 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) was recorded higher in the treatment of 150% RDN + CB-08-513 at 50% flowering stage. Higher SPAD value (44.23) was observed in the treatment of N3G6. Regarding nitrogen, the leaf nitrogen content (5.43%) and total nitrogen content (1.86%) was recorded in medium duration genotypes under 150% of RDN at panicle initiation stage. The nitrogen uptake efficiency (1.73), physiological nitrogen use efficiency (29.39), nitrogen utilization efficiency (3.17), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (4.74) was lower in medium duration genotypes when treated with 150% of RDN. The maximum grain yield of 9160.7 kg ha-1 was registered in medium duration genotype CO 50 under 150% of RDN with increase of 20.62% over control. However, in short duration genotype CB-08-504 was recorded maximum grain yield of 8449.7 kg ha-1 under 150% of RDN with increase of 21.41% compared to 50% of RDN. This work will complement to other studies will establish a baseline for breeding physiologically nitrogen efficient rice genotypes under both lower and higher levels.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 598-603
M Raja Naik, *K Ajith Kumar and **A V Santhosh Kumar
College of Horticulture (Dr. Y.S.R Horticultural University), Anantharajupeta - 516 105, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Pomology and Floriculture, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala, India **Department of Tree Physiology and Breeding, College of Forestry, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out at College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala during 2010-2013. Results revealed that, among various treatments, plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of shoots per plant, girth of shoot and inter nodal length recorded were highest at two stages of growth in the treatment T3. In TxS interaction, number of leaves per plant was highest in the treatment combination T4S2 (9.55 at 24 MAT). Among flowering attributes, the treatment T6 resulted in longer spike (30.46 cm), flower count (5.08). In TxS interaction, the treatment combination T6S2 resulted in longer spike (34.80 cm), number of flowers per spike (6.46). While, number of spikes per plant (3.22) was obtained in T4S2. Pertaining to root parameters, higher number of roots per plant (79.72), root volume (14.19 m3) is recorded in T6. Longer roots of 47.06 cm were recorded in T4. Among various micro-climatic conditions, maximum values for growth and flowering attributes were recorded in plants grown under S2. The interaction of plant growth promoters and systems of growing had significant influence on all root parameters. It can be concluded from the above findings that the nutrient and growing system combination (T4S2) may be considered as the suitable combination for growth, flowering of Dendrobium cv. Earsakul.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 604-606
P N Krishnamma, M S Sreedevi, M Shankar and T Nagesh Kumar
Department of Food Science and Technology, Agriculture College, Hassan - 573 225, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Performance evaluation of sugarcane crusher fitted with vertical cylinders were conducted in experiment site under two types of grooves viz. V-grooves and combination of Zig-Zag and V-grooves and three types of power units viz. diesel engine, electric motor and animal power. The results showed that the crushing capacity per unit time fitted with Zigzag V-grooved type of vertical cylinders and run by electric motor found to be superior in crushing 850 kg of cane per hour and have crushing efficiency of 55-65 per cent as compared to the same unit fitted with diesel engine (750 kg/h and 52-61% efficiency). The results revealed that the crusher fitted with horizontal type V-grooved cylinders with Zigzag slots over the periphery of the cylinder operated by electric motor found to be superior in crushing higher capacity of sugarcane (980 kg/h with 58-66% efficiency) as compared to the same unit run by diesel engine (950 kg/hr and 55-65% efficiency).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 607-610
Divya Chandrakar, Hulas Pathak and Leelesh Kumar Sahu
Department of Agricultural Economics, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study aims to examine the production of green gram in Mahasamund district of Chhattisgarh state with the objective to work out the economics of green gram in the study area. The study was conducted in 3 blocks in Mahasamund district of Chhattisgarh state. In all, 150 major pulses growers from 15 villages of the selected blocks were interviewed for the study. The period of enquiry related to the year 2014-15. The major findings of this study revealed that the overall cost of cultivation per hectare of green gram ₹ 22504.44. The value of output ₹ 34922.97, net income ₹ 12418.53, family labour income ₹ 16843.10, farm business income ₹ 25223.21, farm investment income ₹ 20798.64 and input output ratio 1:1.55 on green gram. The study suggested, imparting technical knowledge, extension and adoption of production system approach for enhancing the production of green gram.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 611-614
Shabana Tabasum, K N Singh, *Sajad Hussain Dar and Parmeet Singh
Division of Agronomy, *Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Srinagar, J & K, India
Abstract
Models Yield forecasting under variable growth conditions of temperate Kashmir using mechanistic crop growth models is required for decision making at different topography and latitude. Data from field experiment carried out during 2011 and 2012 at Badgam station of Kashmir was used to calibrate and validate CERES-Rice (ver.4.5.). Field experiment comprises of four varieties (Jhelum, Shalimar rice-1, SKAU-341 and SKAU-382) sown on 25 May, 10 and 25 June. Model performance was satisfactory with regard to parameters phonological events (days to anthesis and maturity), grain yield, top weight at maturity and N-uptake. Duration to anthesis ranged between 70 to 110 days and 65 to 102 days for observed and simulated data, respectively. However, corresponding figures for days to maturity was between 107 to 147 days and 105 to 141 days for observed and simulated data, respectively. Observed grain yield values of all treatment combinations (varieties × transplanting dates) ranged from 3019 to 7352 kg ha-1 as compared to simulated data ranging from 3216 to 7255 kg ha-1. The RMSE, MAE and D-index were 474.48 kg ha-1, 300.54 kg ha-1 and 0.89, respectively. Predicted total dry matter and N-uptake matched well with observed values. Optimum period for higher rice yield was 25 May to 10 June. 25 May sowing date simulated highest yield under temperate Kashmir.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 615-617
Nataraj B Patted and R A Yeledhalli
Department of Agribusiness Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
India is called the land of Spices. Among spices Black Pepper has got prime importance due to its low volume and high returns from exports. Attempt was made to know the importance of pepper and its products from India. All pepper products expressed a positive growth rate in exports both in quantity as well as value terms for the last decade. International markets are much confine towards processed products rather than unprocessed products. For the past several years, pepper powder demand has increased in the International market. Government need to think and tap the potential by giving good agricultural practices to pepper growers which will lead to maximum returns from export earning in coming near future.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 618-621
O P Sonvanee, Sandeep Patel and Hulas Pathak
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur- 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Present study deals with an economic analysis of post harvest losses in major oilseeds in Bastar plateau of Chhattisgarh state. One hundred farmers were selected randomly from ten villages from these blocks to collect the required information on the post harvest losses and other aspects for the present study. The primary data were collected of the rabi crops 2013-14 and kharif crops 2014-15. All the physical harvest and post harvest losses at niger, rapeseed-mustard, sesamum, linseed and soybean crops were 4.13 kg per qtl, 11.08 kg per ha and 0.62 kg per farm, 3.08 kg per qtl, 39.24 kg per ha and 13.37 kg per farm, 1.71 kg per qtl, 1.95 kg per ha and 0.44 kg per farm, 3.58 kg per qtl, 31.35 kg per ha and 5.22 kg per farm and 10.46 kg per qtl, 125.14 kg per ha and 17.28 kg per farm. The monetary losses in major oilseeds observed were ₹ 210.37 per qtl, ₹ 84.03 per qtl, ₹ 103.94 per qtl, ₹ 127.74 per qtl and ₹ 365.54 per qtl. Lack of suitable site for drying (82.00%) and storage structure (100.00) and rodent (non-insect pest) (100.00) were major constraint during storage. Hence, for reducing harvest and post harvest losses, proper implementation of post harvest technology at the farmer’s level is necessary.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 622-624
Vijay Kumar Didal, S S Hallikeri and B Chandra Sheker
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during kharif 2015 at Agricultural Research Station Arabhavi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, to explore the effect of foliar fertilization of market available soluble fertilizers on grain yield and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with 3 replications and 12 treatments. The treatments consist of seven market available soluble fertilizers which are sprayed in different concentrations at 30 and 50 DAS. Foliar applications were made in addition to RDF and all these soluble fertilizers are available in the market. Only water spray was kept as control. The results revealed that application of potassium nitrate with 1.0 per cent foliar spray (F6) recorded significantly higher grain yield and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) (9371 kg ha-1, 32.6 kg kg-1, respectively) over control (Only water spray) (6430 kg ha-1, 23.0 kg kg-1, respectively). The magnitude of per cent increase of grain yield and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) with potassium nitrate with 1.0 per cent foliar spray over control (Only water spray) was 44.4 and 41.7 per cent, respectively. It was on par with 19:19:19 with 2 per cent foliar spray (F2) and mono potassium phosphate (0:52:34) with 0.5 per cent foliar spray (F8).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 625-628
R C Gowda, P Veeranagappa, D C Hanumanthappa, Muneshwar Singh and T Bhagyalakshmi
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Long term fertilization study to evaluate soil fertility, productivity of soil and crops was started in 1986 at Bengaluru on finger millet-maize cropping system. Selected treatments like 50% NPK, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + lime, 100% NP, 100% N, 100% NPK + FYM, 100% NPK and control were considered to study the yield sustainability, potassium use efficiency and dynamics in soil. The results revealed that application of super optimal dose of NPK (150%) resulted in higher grain yield of finger millet (47.44 q ha-1) followed by NPK + FYM (41.75 q ha-1). Integrated use of organics and inorganics recorded higher yield of maize (31.49 q ha-1) followed by 150% NPK (29.50 q ha-1). Higher sustainable yield index (SYI) of 0.633 was recorded in 150% NPK followed by 100% NPK + lime and 100% NPK + FYM (0.586 and 0.557) for finger millet, whereas, in maize application of NPK + FYM recorded higher SYI (0.299) followed by 100% NPK + lime (0.271). Higher potassium use efficiency (KUE) by finger millet was recorded in 100% NPK (148.51%) and 150% NPK (145.88%) whereas, in maize application of 100% NPK + lime resulted in higher potassium use efficiency (83.78%) followed by 100 % NPK (77.57%). Different forms of potassium in soil showed a decreasing trend without K application. Potassium applied treatments recorded more water soluble and exchangeable potassium in soil. There was no consistent trend of non-exchangeable potassium in soil among various fertilizer applications.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 629-634
P Venkatarao and K Manjula
Department of Agricultural Entomology, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Field studies were conducted to evaluate the compatibility and bio-efficacy of newly released insecticides and fungicides alone and in combination against defoliator, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer.) and stem rot, Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.) disease on groundnut during Rabi 2009-10. The maximum percent larval reduction over control 89.12 percent was recorded in the treatment emamectin benzoate (0.003%) + hexaconazole (0.2%) followed by emamectin benzoate (0.003%) + mancozeb (0.25%) with 86.95 per cent reduction. The maximum percent disease reduction over control 67.85 per cent was recorded in the treatment emamectin benzoate (0.003%) + hexaconazole (0.2%) followed by emamectin benzoate (0.003%) + mancozeb (0.25%) (63.27%) and spinosad (0.002%) + hexaconazole 0.2% by recording per cent disease reduction 63.27 and 60.92%, respectively over control. The maximum (54.45%) per cent disease control was observed in hexaconazole 0.2% followed by mancozeb 0.25% (51.78%) over control alone in fungicide treatments after three rounds of soil drenching. Among the insecticides tested, chlorpyriphos (0.05%) gave 21.15 per cent reduction of disease over control followed by thiodicarb (9.25%). The dry pod yields are also highest in insecticide and fungicide combinations (2647 to 3532 kg/ha) compared to insecticides (2542 to 2787 kg/ha) or fungicides (2692to 2900 kg/ha) alone and untreated control (2384 kg/ha).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 635-637
Nataraj B Patted and R A Yeledhalli
Department of Agribusiness Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
India is popularly known as Spice Bowl of the World. Black pepper contributes a major share in Spices which is due to highly tradable commodity. Karnataka stands in second position in production in India. Major five markets of Karnataka were selected based on arrivals in order to ascertain to know the trends in prices and arrivals of black pepper. Data pertaining to prices and arrivals were collected for the period of 2005 to 2016. In all the selected markets there were positive trend in prices and arrivals of black pepper with significant support of time variable indicating a good sign to the growers almost all markets revealed same results for seasonal indices exhibiting high prices in the months of October to January and more arrivals in the months from March to June for the respective markets selected for the study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 638-643
N Sumalatha, B Pushpavathi, R Jagadeeshwar, V Suresh and R V S K Reddy
Department of Plant Pathology, Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The isolates of mycoflora and florescent pseudomonas were evaluated against stem blight disease, isolated rhizosphere soil from tomato fields in different mandals of Ranga reddy district. Among the screened isolates against Rhizoctonia solani isolate, M10 (Trichoderma viride) was found highly effective under in vitro conditions. In vitro studies with eight commercial fungicides indicated that propiconazole, hexaconazole, tebuconazole, captan + hexaconazole and trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole showed cent per cent inhibition of the radial growth of the pathogen at four dosages (recommended, 75% of recommended, 50% of recommended and 25% of recommended dosage). Potential bioagent T. viride was showed least sensitivity towards the fungicide pyroclostrobin + metiram at 25% of recommended dose
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 644-646
L Raja and *V S Tekale
Division of Dairy Extension, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India *Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Nagpur - 440 001, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken with the objective to Estimation of Rank Based Quotient (RBQ) for SWOT on Bt cotton Growers in Bt cotton cultivation in Nagpur District of Maharashtra in the year 2014-2016 with 120 respondent Bt cotton growers. The major strengths of Bt cotton growers in Bt cotton cultivation are - reduced pesticide sprays for bollworm, followed by better bollworm control. The major weaknesses are - Bt crop requires more number of sprays for managing sucking pests, followed by emergence of new pests and diseases like pink bollworm, mealy bugs, tobacco streak virus, cucumber mosaic virus, grey mildew, wilt, etc. The major opportunities are - availability of seed in time, followed by availability of seed in sufficient quantities. The major threats are - highly dependent on private companies for seed, followed by fluctuations in market prices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 647-651
D S Jayasheela, *G S Sreekala and C Mini
Department of Processing Technology, *Department of Plantation Crops and Spices, College of Agriculture, (KAU), Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 522, Kerala, India
Abstract
Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a delicious fruit widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. India stands first among papaya producing countries in the world with a production of 4.6 million tons of papaya during 2014-2015. Papaya fruit postharvest losses of up to 75% have been reported to Hawaiishippers by mainland USA wholesalers and retailers. The present investigation was under taken at the Department of Processing Technology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani. The objective of this study was determine how ripening physiology and quality of Coorg Honeydew papaya fruit are affected by harvested at four different maturity stages. For local market, fruits were harvested at ¼ to ½ yellow stages and for distant market fruits were harvested at one stripe yellow and fully mature green stage. In the present experiment a higher shelf life was recorded in fruits harvested at ¼ yellow and a higher shelf life of 4.25 days indicates the right stage for local market compared ½ yellow stage which remained only for 2.87 days. For distant market higher shelf life 5.85 days was reported in fully mature green stage compared to one stripe yellow (4.71 days).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 652-654
Mithun Kumar Mishra, A K Paliwal and Sonali Harinkhere
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Soil test based fertilizer prescription equations under Integrated Plant Nutrition System (STCR-IPNS) were developed for mustard on Inceptisols of Northern hills zone of Chhattisgarh. Making use of these equations, nomograms were formulated for a range of soil test values and desired yield targets of mustard. These equations were validated on experimental field and it was found that mustard crop requires 4.21 kg N, 1.06 kg P and 3.31 kg K for one quintal grain production. Fertilizer and soil test efficiencies estimated were 31.90 and 3.41 percent for N, 21.25 and 24.30 percent for P and 63.90 and 2.96 percent for K respectively. The FYM contribution in terms of N, P and K were estimated 4.08, 3.51 and 2.02 per cent, respectively
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 655-658
D U Pujar, A M Shirol, P R Choudhury, S S Hiremath and *M Shirgur
Department of Fruit Science, *Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture (UHS Bagalkot), Arabhavi, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Studies were conducted to know effect of growth chemicals and bio agents on plantlet regeneration through macro propagation in banana cv. Ney Poovan. Since Ney Poovan is a promising variety in Belagavi area, but a major problem in cultivation of Ney Poovan variety is supply of quality planting material. Banana planting materials can be regenerated through two methods viz. through traditional sucker propagation and through tissue culture. In vitro propagation is tried, but is not easily affordable by normal farmer/gardner and through sucker it is not possible to meet enough planting materials. Hence, macro-propagation was tried to see the practicability in using it for large scale multiplication. Banana has strong apical dominance, which when suppressed will give rise to many side suckers. This principle was used in macro propagation. Different growth chemicals and bio agents such as Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP), Thidiazuron (TDZ), Vesicular Arbascular Mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi and Trichoderma viridae (TV) were used to know the regeneration capacity of corm through macro-propagation. Among different growth chemicals and bio agents used growth chemical BAP (40 ppm) significantly produced higher number of primary buds per corm, number of plantlets after secondary decapitation, total number of plantlets per corm and days taken for first bud emergence.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 659-662
Sheela Kharkwal, Usha Rani Gori* and Arsha Balakrishnan
Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India *Agricultural Field Officer, OBC Bank, Sameja Kothi - 335 021, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted to examine the structure of two principal fruits and vegetables markets of Uttarakhand and to identify the problems faced by sample farmers, market intermediaries and the officials of the market committee in the sample markets. Haldwani market from Kumaon and Dehradun market from Garhwal division were chosen for the study. Four major crops potato, tomato, cabbage and apple were selected considering round the year arrival and availability. Seven growers for each selected crop from each market were chosen randomly thus giving a total sample of 56 growers. Besides farmers, a sample of 30 traders was drawn randomly from the selected markets, 15 from each market. Tabular analysis was done and instability of arrivals, percentages etc. were calculated. Garret’s ranking technique was used to analyze the problems faced by all selected stakeholders. Farmers faced the problems like non-remunerative prices for their produce, high transportation charges, high packaging cost, lack of storage facilities etc. The problems highlighted by traders were high wage rate of labour, same prices for graded and ungraded produce, lack of storage facility etc.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 663-667
Hemant Dhuri, Alice Tirkey and Hema Devi
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Combining ability analysis was carried out in ashwagandha from the crosses between 3 lines and 6 testers through line x tester technique. The F1s and parents were grown in line × tester design with two replications. The experimental material consist of 11 genotypes including two checks viz. JA-20, JA-134, RAS-7, RAS-15, WS-90-111, WS-90-12, WS-90-146, MSW-306, MWS-310, IGAU-1 and Posita. The analysis of variance of combining ability for most character revealed significant variability among parents, cross, Line × Tester and parents vs crosses. Among the lines RAS-7 was best general combiner for all the character taken in study except plant height and dry root yield whereas, RAS-15 showed best general combiner for plant height (cm) and IGAU-1 for dry root yield plant-1 (g) and No. secondary root plant-1. Among the tester MWS-310 and Posita were rate as best general combiner for root yield plant-1. Among the crosses IGAU-1 × WS-90-111 was best specific combiner for fresh root yield in plant followed by RAS-7 × Posita. Among the crosses RAS-15 × MWS-310 was best specific combiner for dry root yield in plant followed by RAS-7 × Posita. This cross may be considered for exploitation for the production of root yield in ashwagandha. This might be due to favourable dominant gene, over dominance or epistatic gene.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 668-670
J A Shaikh, A B Bagade, A K Choudhari and J D Deshmukh
Department of Agricultural Botany, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Thirty sorghum germplasm lines were evaluated to assess the pattern of morphological variation through metroglyph technique. An experiment was conducted during 2015-16 at experimental farm of Sorghum Research Station, VNMKV Parbhani. Genetic variability was evaluated for seven characters viz. plant height, number of leaves, panicle length, panicle girth, 100 seed weight, grain yield/plant and fodder yield/plant. Mean values were used for analysis. All germplasm lines were categorized in to six groups. Groups II and VIII consisted of maximum number of genotypes followed by group V Germplasm lines of sorghum falling in one group are closely related while lines belonging to different genotypes exhibit wide variability. Therefore, the germplasm lines falling in different groups can be used as parents in sorghum improvement programme. Genotype CSV29R from group VI is of maximum genetic worth followed by CSV22 and IS6374 identified as important and can be used in sorghum improvement programme
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 671-674
Manoj Kumar, V Srinivasa, *Manish Kumar, **Meenakshi Kumari and Praveen Yadahalli
Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, (UAHS Shivamogg), Mudigere - 577 132, Karnataka, India *Division of Vegetable Science, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110 012, India **Department of Vegetable Science, CSA University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur - 208 002, U.P, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken during the kharif and rabi season of 2015-16 in Department of Vegetable Science, COH, Mudigere under UAHS, Shivamogga, Karnataka, by using eight lines and three testers for qualitative traits in l × t analysis. The results of analysis indicated that variance due to GCA and SCA showed the predominance of non-additive gene action for most of the qualitative traits, though the additive component was also significant for some characters such as locules per fruits and lycopene content. Among the parents, good gca for quality traits (both lycopene and ascorbic acid content) was exhibited by the lines black prince and tester UK Local-2, which were good general combiner for these traits. The cross Podlandt Pink × Sioux was found to be exhibiting desired significant sca effect for fruit quality traits like pericarp thickness, TSS and ascorbic acid content. Podlandt Pink and AR-4 are good combiners for lycopene content
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 675-677
Swati Kumari, K K Jha, S Sengupta and Sanyat Misra
Department of Horticulture, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi - 834 006, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted in the year 2015 and 2016 at research farm of Department of Horticulture, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi to study flowering behavior, physical characters and physico-chemical parameters of fruits of some non-descript genotypes of litchi. The experiment comprised of eleven treatments. Minimum days for panicle emergence (27.12 days), initiation of flowering (53.87 days) and 50% flowering (63.37 days) were recorded in genotype 1. Maximum fruit set (38.47%) and retention (39.73%) of fruits were also observed in the same treatment. Yield was found maximum in genotype 1 (109.49 kg/tree and 10.95t/ha). Maximum fruit length (3.49 cm), breadth (3 cm) and weight (25.34 g) were observed in genotype 1. Whereas, volume (22.90 cc) was maximum in genotype 11. Maximum TSS (20.300B) and minimum titratable acidity (0.48%) were observed in genotype 1 whereas, ascorbic acid was recorded maximum with genotype 11 (42.32 mg/100 g of pulp). B: C ratio was found maximum in genotype 1 (2.9).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 678-680
Seema Shekhawat, S K Jain and *N S Rathore
Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India *Deputy Director General (Education), Division of Education, Krishi Anusandhan Bhawan - II, New Delhi, India
Abstract
Existing slicers and shredders were reviewed and the multipurpose vegetable slicer cum shredder was developed based on appropriate technology. Locally available materials like Stainless steel, Mild steel, Plastic and Wood were used in the fabrication. The machine can be adjusted to slice or shred vegetables at varying speed. For the processing of vegetables cutting of them in uniform manner is an important unit operation. Hence, a multipurpose vegetable slicer cum shredder was designed and developed. The potato chip is a very popular snack food in India. For making chips, the important preparatory operations are washing, peeling and slicing. In which slicing, size reducing unit operation play tremendous role for it. Manual slicing is traditional in India and is tedious and time consuming. Moreover, the un-uniformed of the final product is very high. It is not recommended for making the chips manually. Same phenomena use for the shredding unit operation. Therefore, keeping the above fact in mind, the Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, designed and developed a multipurpose vegetable slicer cum shredder machine
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 681-685
D Lakshminarayana, *R Chandrasekhar, P Prasanth, **A Siva Shankar and ***M H V Bhave
College of Horticulture (SKLTSHU), Mojerla - 509 382, Telangana, India *Director of Extension & COE, SKLTSHU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India **Controller of Examinations, ANGRAU, Guntur - 522 601, Andhra Pradesh, India ***Department of Statistics, PJSTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The gladiolus is a very common and commercially grown cut flower crop of Telangana State. Dormancy plays a key role in flower production and its market price, in order to produce spikes earlier and to get good market price, different dormancy breaking treatments were tested on corms at College of Horticulture, Mojerla during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The treatments were sphagnum moss, chilling conditions and control (ambient conditions) with two corm natures. After more than fifty per cent of shoot and root initiation, the corms were planted in the experiment field. The rooting was found earlier in without tunic corms stored at 1°C (started from 20th day). At the 41th day of lab experiment, highest root initiation was noticed in chilling treatment, similar results were obtained for shoot initiation. At the 48th day, maximum shoot was found in chilling treatment and lowest in with tunic and control treatments. Whereas, in field experiment, maximum percent of sprouting at 15 and 30 days after planting was recorded in cold stored dry corms at 2°C followed by wet sphagnum moss. Thus, with these results, we can conclude that for dormancy breaking of corms, very low temperatures (1°C) are suggestible and for better sprouting low temperatures (2°C) are ideal in gladiolus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 686-688
Swati Kumari, K K Jha, S Sengupta, Sanyat Misra and Rashmita
Department of Horticulture, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi - 834 006, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of cushioning materials and freezing temperature on shelf life of litchi. Physiological loss in weight and volume of litchi fruits increased with increase in the duration of storage. However, cushioning of stalkless fruits with shisham leaves stored at freezing temp.(T8) resulted in significantly less loss in weight (15.88% in 7th day) and volume (12.16% in 7th day) as compared to control and other treatments. Significantly high TSS (23.56°B in 7th day) and ascorbic acid content (30.86 mg/100 g of pulp in 7th day) was recorded under same treatment. Decline in the acidity of litchi fruits with increase in storage time was observed and it was found minimum in T4 (Cushioning of stalkless fruits with litchi leaves stored at freezing temperature). No significant effects of treatments tested on total sugar, reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar, was observed upto 7th day of storage. However, cushioning of stalkless fruits with shisham leaves stored at freezing temperature resulted in high total sugar content. Maximum shelf life of fruits was also observed with T8.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 689-692
Haseeb Ur Rehman
Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
This study entitled effect of pre-treatment of growth regulators on shoot-tip grafting of Patharnakh scion on Kainth was carried in Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Fruit Science, PAU during the year 2011-13. Two growth regulators namely Thiadiazuron and 2, 4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid at various levels were used for pre-treatment of microscions of Patharnakh. The results showed positive effects on graft success percentage as graft success increased to 42.34 % using TDZ (0.5 mg/l) + 2, 4-D (7.5 mg/l) as compared to 33.71% in control using no growth regulator treatment. However, aseptic culture percentage showed varied results with maximum aseptic cultures (88.78 %) resulted by using TDZ (0.75 mg/l) + 2, 4-D (5.0 mg/l). Similarly, necrosis and vitrification percentage showed mixed results with least necrosis (1.65 %) using TDZ (0.75 mg/l) and least vitrified micrografts (4.11 %) using TDZ (0.75 mg/l) + 2, 4-D (7.5 mg/l) for scion pre-treatment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 693-695
K Harishkumar, S Lohith and T Chikkaramappa
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken to study the genetic parameters such as, phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV, GCV), heritability and genetic advance over mean for 12 characters of F2 progenies in two crosses viz. AAC-1 × Arka Poornima and Arka Kamini × P G. Purple. Both the crosses differed in their mean performance for all the characters under study. The estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation were higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation. High PCV and GCV were observed for number of flowers per plant, individual flower weight and flower yield per plant in both the crosses. High heritability along with high genetic advance as percent mean were recorded in both the crosses for plant height, number of branches, number of leaves per plant, flower stalk length, flower diameter, disc diameter, number of flowers per plant, individual flower weight and flower yield per plant. As the high heritability and genetic advance as percent mean are due to additive type of gene action selection will be effective for all the characters in both crosses
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 696-699
A T Rede, Rohini Darade, Priyanka Hingne and Kavita Kadu
Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Carrot based flavoured milk prepared in the ratio of 96 per cent cow milk, 4 per cent carrot juice, 0.1 per cent cardamom powder and 8.0 per cent sugar for all treatment. The flavoured milk was stored at ambient and refrigerated temperature. In respect of chemical composition the carrot enriched flavoured milk shows that there was no changes observed in chemical constituents such as fat, solid not fat, total solid, protein and ash at both room temperature (T1) and at refrigeration temperature (T2). There was changes observed in the acidity, it was increased as storage temperature and storage interval increases. The acidity was increased as storage temperature and storage interval increases. The acidity was increased at both room temperature (T1) and at refrigeration temperature (T2). In microbial evaluation with the enhancement of storage period SPC and Yeast and mould increased steadily and gradually at every storage interval and temperature. The flavoured milk becomes mouldy after 5 hours and 5 days of storage at room temperature and refrigerated temperature respectively. There was faster growth of bacteria and mould at room temperature than the refrigeration temperature.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 700-704
Umesh Chandra Sati, Manoj Raghav, Kailash Sati and Lavlesh
Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels and methods of potash application on growth and marketable tuber yield of potato at Vegetable Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) India. The experiment laid out in randomized block design consisting eleven treatments replicated thrice. There was a significant effect found under various potash treatments in terms of plant height and haulm diameter at various stages of crop growth and the fresh weight and dry weight of plants, marketable tuber yield and harvest index, while the plant emergence and number of haulms per plant were not affected by the potash levels and methods of application. The maximum marketable tuber yield (37.22 t/ha) was obtained with the split application (basal + spray) of potash. The findings revealed that performance of potato crop was significantly influenced by different split potash levels.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 705-707
M B Shanabhoga, *S V Suresha, **G M Varadaraju and Shivani Dechamma
Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Bakery Training Unit, University of Agricultural Extension, Hebbal, Bengaluru - 560 024, Karnataka, India **Staff Training Unit, University of Agricultural Extension, Hebbal, Bengaluru - 560 024, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The post-harvest sector of pomegranate is characterized by its linkages or relationships between producers and consumers as well as between urban and rural areas. And the intermediates operating between the producer and the final buyer play a significant role in regulating these linkages. The functions of intermediaries are buying, selling and risk taking. The costs of fruits are often determined by the performance and efficiency of different intermediaries or functionaries in various marketing channels. The study was conducted in Hiriyuru, Hosdurga and Challakeretaluk of Chitradurga district with a total sample size of 120 comprising 60 growers each under public extension and private extension systems. The harvesting losses faced by the pomegranate growers in public extension are found to be high in Hosadurgataluk (358 Kgs/acre) and In private extension highest harvesting losses was found in Challakeretaluk (290 Kgs/acre). The reasons for the losses attributed in case public extension system were due to disease and rotten (100.00%), whereas in case of private extension services damage due to poor packaging/press is found to be high (88.33%). In public extension the majority (63.33%) of pomegranate growers followed the marketing channel namely producer – market – commission agent – wholesalers – retailer – consumers, whereas, in private extension majority (75.00%) of respondents used marketing channel namely producer – market – commission agent – wholesalers – retailer – consumers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 708-711
SNCVL Pushpavalli and G Kumar
Agricultural Research Station (PJTSAU), Tandur - 501 141, District Vikarabad, Telangana, India q
Abstract
Genetic divergence, variability, correlation and path analysis among yield and yield components has been carried out in a set of sixty three safflower genotypes during Rabi 2015-16 at Agricultural Research Station, Tandur. The genotypes were clustered into two distinct clusters based on Mahalonobis D2 statistics. Genotypes in cluster I recorded highest mean values for number of effective capitula/plant, number of seeds/capitula and seed yield. Seed yield followed by 100-seed weight contributed to maximum genetic divergence. Broad sense heritability estimates was highest for seed yield followed by 100-seed weight. Significant and positive correlation was observed between seed yield and number of capitula/plant, number of seeds/capitulum and 100-seed weight. Path coefficient analysis indicated that 100-seed weight exhibited maximum direct effect followed by number of seeds/capitulum.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 712-717
J Ravinder, N M Konde, V K Kharche and P R Kadu
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Post Graduate Institute, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken in the six farmer’s fields of Purna valley with soybean crop during Kharif, 2014-15 in randomized block design, replicated six times, with four treatments comprised of only BBF, BBF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1, BBF + gypsum @ 2.5 t ha-1 and BBF + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + gypsum @ 1.25 t ha-1 combined. The results revealed that the reduction in pH from the average initial of 8.6 to 8.28 and CaCO3 reduced greatly from 9.87 % to 7.47% when farm yard manure was added in broad bed furrow. Similarly the improvement in organic carbon (5.99) g kg 1 when applied farm yard manure with gypsum but role of gypsum in organic carbon improvement was unnoticeable. In the same manner noble improvement in available NPK of soil also observed. The electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium percentage were also brought into predictable growth conditions by adding organic and inorganic amendments under BBF. The use of gypsum showed relatively more improvement in exchangeable cations except sodium. The exchangeable calcium was increased from 31.10 to 36.08 cmol (p+) kg-1. In the same way exchangeable magnesium enhanced from 17.73 to 21.82 cmol (p+) kg-1 where gypsum @ 2.5 t ha-1 was incorporated and also exchangeable potassium was greatly increased in treatment T4. (1.20) cmol (p+) kg-1 where gypsum and farm yard manure @ 1.25 t ha-1 and 5 t ha-1 were clubbed respectively in broad bed furrow. The exchangeable sodium was significantly reduced in treatment T3 (5.10) cmol (p+) kg-1 where was gypsum added @ 2.5 t ha-1 in broad bed furrow. In respect of soluble cations and anions the allocated treatments were given palatable results either it may be increased or decreased but the results were very much desirable for the soil health and crop productivity in salt affected soils of Purna valley in Vidarbha.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 718-723
Narander Pal Singh, Jyoti Kachroo, Anil Bhat, Naveed Hamid, S P Singh and Jahangir Ali
Division of Agricultural Economics and ABM, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Chatha - 180 009, Jammu & Kashmir, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted in Chandigarh city covering 25 sectors for analyzing sales network in which 300 retail outlets and distributors were selected through purposive sampling. The information from various retail outlets and distributors was collected with the help of structured questionnaire and the data was analyzed by using various statistical tools. Factor confirmatory test was applied to 20 variables having impact on market expansion. Further regression model was developed to analyze the impact of various factors towards market expansion in which communication (0.580) having the impact followed by transactional channel (0.396) of which least impact has been observed. It can be thus concluded that biscuit industry is highly fragmented sector. The needed approach focused on various factors that can affect market expansion in Chandigarh city have emphasized on improvement in the availability at all the retail outlets, query and feedback handling, storage and warehousing activities and risk coverage especially for retailers. Keeping these factors into consideration a market expansion strategy can be formulated to convert non-active retail outlets into the active retail outlets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 724-728
Vidya Charan Ratre, S R Patel, A S Nain, J L Chaudhary, Rajesh Khavse and H Puaranik
Department of Agrometeorology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Krishak Nagar, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out at Department of Agrometeorology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during kharif season. Simulation model, with its holistic approach to simulate the soil-plant-atmospheric system, is an ideal tool to analyze the impact of different inputs and to suggest the appropriate package and practices. Keeping in mind the importance of crop simulation models, HERMES model was calibrated in Chhattisgarh conditions. The phenology, LAI, biomass and grain yield simulated by model were compared with that observed in the terminal drought condition under field situation. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out in different temperature scenarios by increasing or decreasing daily temperature by 1, 2 and 3°C. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that while increasing the temperature by 1, 2 and 3°C grain yield increased by 5%, 10 % and 11% under terminal drought condition, respectively. While, decreasing the temperature by 1, 2 and 3°C grain yield decreased by 5%, 2%, and 4% under terminal drought condition respectively. The grain yields were highly affected by changing the temperature in cultivar ARB-8 of rice crop. The conclusions drawn from this study is that crop growth model are very good tools for analyzing the soil-plant-atmospheric system and their interactions. The crop models can provide a frame work for interpreting the output from field experiments and they can be used to explore ways of improving management. HERMES model could simulate the phenological stages, growth and yield of rice which are in fair agreement with the observed phenological stages, growth and yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 729-732
D Sravanthi, *G Pratibha, B Padmaja and M Malla Reddy
Agricultural College, PJTSAU, Jagtial - 505 529, Karimnagar District, Telangana, India *Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santhoshnagar, Hyderabad - 500 059, Telangana, India
Abstract
Maize crop is voracious eater of nitrogen fertilizers, among the different nitrogenous fertilizers urea is most widely used fertilizers in India. The process of urea hydrolysis and nitrification are major to control the nitrogen loss in the field conditions. Especially in drylands, nitrification is the major loss which releases nitrate nitrogen and ammonical nitrogen further leads release of nitrous oxide which is major greenhouse gas in atmosphere. Now-a-day’s every human being key role is to mitigate climate change. This loss will create harm to human beings, threat to aquatic life and low nitrogen use efficiency in rainfed maize which results to low yields. In-order to reduce this loss the coating of urea with natural nitrification inhibitors came into existence. Natural nitrification inhibitors are neem cake, karanj cake and Vitex negundo leaf powder coated urea @2.5% with adjuvants coaltar and castor oil 1% will slowing down the both urea hydrolysis and nitrification process there by improves the availability, growth, yield and economics in rainfed maize
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 729-732
D Sravanthi, *G Pratibha, B Padmaja and M Malla Reddy
Agricultural College, PJTSAU, Jagtial - 505 529, Karimnagar District, Telangana, India *Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santhoshnagar, Hyderabad - 500 059, Telangana, India
Abstract
Maize crop is voracious eater of nitrogen fertilizers, among the different nitrogenous fertilizers urea is most widely used fertilizers in India. The process of urea hydrolysis and nitrification are major to control the nitrogen loss in the field conditions. Especially in drylands, nitrification is the major loss which releases nitrate nitrogen and ammonical nitrogen further leads release of nitrous oxide which is major greenhouse gas in atmosphere. Now-a-day’s every human being key role is to mitigate climate change. This loss will create harm to human beings, threat to aquatic life and low nitrogen use efficiency in rainfed maize which results to low yields. In-order to reduce this loss the coating of urea with natural nitrification inhibitors came into existence. Natural nitrification inhibitors are neem cake, karanj cake and Vitex negundo leaf powder coated urea @2.5% with adjuvants coaltar and castor oil 1% will slowing down the both urea hydrolysis and nitrification process there by improves the availability, growth, yield and economics in rainfed maize
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 733-736
K N Nithin and S B Mahajanashetti
Department of Agribusiness Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Natural Rubber is the most versatile industrial raw material of plant origin. The study was based on secondary data collected from the Rubber Board, from 2005-06 to 2014-15. The growth rate was ascertained using the exponential function of the Compound Annual Growth Rate analysis. Among the Indian states, Kerala (69.16%) held highest share of area under rubber cultivation. The third degree polynomial function was found to be the best fit for natural rubber production as indicated by R2 value of 0.84 and 0.89 respectively for India and Kerala. Among the Indian states, Tripura secured top position in terms of growth rate of area (9.27%) as well as production (11.55%). The results for all India level showed a highly significant growth rate of 3.36 per cent per annum for area under cultivation of rubber. Whereas the growth rate of production was found to be insignificant negative of 1.19 per cent per annum and productivity exhibited significant negative growth rate of 1.77 per cent during the study period. One of the factors which caused declining productivity was adverse climatic conditions like high temperature, reduction in the rainfall and humidity etc. Another major factor was the farmers short run response while the price of natural rubber crashes in the market. It is observed that when the prices in the market goes down, farmers for a short period of time ceases the tapping of rubber trees till they witness any positive movements in price.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 737-741
T Ramesh Kumar and M K Barnwal
Department of Plant Pathology, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi - 834 006, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
The antagonistic efficiency of seven Trichoderma isolates (Trichoderma isolate1, Trichoderma isolate 2, Trichoderma isolate 3, Trichodermaisolate 4, Trichoderma isolate 5, Trichoderma isolate 6, Trichoderma harzianum (Kanke) in integration with one fungicide i.e., Avtar (Hexaconazole 4% + Zineb 68%) against Alternaria solani was studied in laboratory and Research Farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke during, 2013-14. In Dual culture study, maximum inhibition of mycelial growth over control of 28.8% was observed in Trichoderma isolate 6, whereas, in pot trial, the lowest disease intensity of 22.7% was recorded when tomato plants sprayed twice with Trichoderma isolate 6 (1.0%). This treatment also recorded decrease in disease over control of 52.0%, fruit yield of 410.6 g/pot and increase in fruit yield over control of 94.9%. In an integrated approach, seed treatment with Avtar @ 2 g/kg seed plus root dip (0.1%) plus two foliar sprays of Avtar (0.1% each) recorded highest tomato yield of 228.6 q/ha and 32.4% more yield over control. This treatment also recorded disease intensity of 10.3% and fruit infection of 2.7% and cost benefit ratio of 1: 18.6 and highest net return of ₹ 53139.8 per ha.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 742-748
A Sathish A, B K Ramachandrappa, K M Prashanth, M N Thimmegowda, M S Savitha and P N Srikanth Babu
All India Co-ordinated Research Project for Dryland Agriculture, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiments were conducted during the kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 at AICRIPDA, GKVK, UAS, Bangalore, Karnataka to study the effects of application of farm yard manure, green manure, bio fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on productivity of finger millet and groundnut cropping sequence. The field was laid out in a randomized complete block design comprising of nine treatments and replicated three times. Application of 10 t ha-1 FYM + recomended NPK + bio- fertilizers recorded higher finger millet grain yield (3624 kg ha-1) and groundnut pod yield (1024 kg ha-1) followed by Ex-situ green manure (7.5 t ha-1) + 75% N and P+ 100% K + bio- fertilizers (3472 Kg ha-1 and 995 Kg ha-1 respectively) as compared to recommended NPK (2995 Kg ha-1 and 701 kg ha-1 respectively) resulting in 17.5 and 46 per cent respectively yield increase with higher net returns. The lowest pod and haulm yield was recorded in control (632 and 1533 kg ha-1, respectively). The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of soil increased with the application of 10 t ha-1 FYM + 100% N & P + 150% K + bio- fertilizers compared to application of NPK alone and control. Higher exchangeable calcium and magnesium was observed with application of farm yard manure combined with inorganic fertilizers and bio fertilizers compared to green manuring and inorganic fertilizers. Higher available sulphur (23.65 ppm) was recorded with application of recommended NPK + bio-fertilizers. It was observed that integrated nutrient management significantly helped to improve growth, yield and quality of finger millet and groundnut.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 749-751
Gajendra Meena, Bihari Ram Maurya, *Soumya Pandey and **Debabrata Nath
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India *Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India **Division of Soil Physics, Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal - 462 038, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Soil fertility can be restored effectively through adopting concept of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM). Laboratory experiments investigated the Impact of potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) isolates on electrochemical and biological properties of soil. A pot experiment conducted to study the effect of KSB isolates on electrochemical and biological properties of soil. Wheat (Triticum spp.) Plants seed treated with different KSB isolate without potassium source. Soil samples were note down from the respective plots and they were subjected for the analysis of various electrochemical and biological parameters related to nutrients aspects. Results indicate that the phenomenon enhanced soil fertility.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 752-755
Shreeshail Rudrapur, S M Mundinamani and *M V Manjunatha
Department of Agricultural Economics, *Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Water is the elixir of life and it is gradually becoming a scarce resource worldwide especially in developing countries like India. With the increasing need of providing food and water security for an ever increasing population, the availability, usability and affordability of water is becoming a major challenge. Hence every drop of water needs to be used optimally. With this backdrop the study was conducted in Northern Karnataka. Belagavi, Vijayapur, Bidar and Kalaburgi districts were selected purposively for the study. From each district 90 sample respondents were selected for the study and thus the total sample size was 360. Tabular analysis was employed to draw meaningful conclusions. The results of the study showed that the gain in water use efficiency under micro irrigation system over conventional method of irrigation in case of sugarcane, maize, groundnut, tur and rabi sorghum was to the extent of 70.59 per cent, 53.63 per cent, 70.97 per cent, 66.29 percent and 65.66 percent, respectively. Hence to save water and enhance water use efficiency, the farmers are to be advised for adoption of micro irrigation systems in cultivation of above mentioned crops in the study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 756-758
Sunita Johri and S J Patil
AICRP on Agroforestry, Department of Farm Forestry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Agroforestry combines-agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. In addition to the more familiar support measures outlined in the Forestry Programme 2014-2020, there is a new and imaginative measure aimed at supporting Agroforestry. Keeping the target in mind this experiment conducted under the fifteen year old established plantation (2001) of teak (Tectona grandis) along with the eight different varieties of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). The objective is to find out the performance of the turmeric as a shade loving plant in the year 2015-16. The study revealed that among the different turmeric varieties CLI, Rajpuri and Selum recorded higher yield (24.84, 24.68 and 23.75 q/ha) respectively. The light intensity on turmeric was affected by the crown cover and height of Teak plantation which recorded minimum of those trees which were surrounding the CLI, Rajpuri and Selum varieties because of more crown width. The light intensity is having negative correlation with yield which was least observed surrounding the plot of CLI, Rajpuri and Selum (35.88, 36.33 and 39.67 lux per meter) respectively. Because of the maximum crown cover (3.96, 3.84 and 3.70m) EW side and (3.64, 3.62, 3.60) NS side and height of teak plantation (14.99, 13.84 and 14.63 m) surrounding these turmeric varieties gives higher yield as compare to others. This experiment is also proving that more crown width with less light intensity, directly correlated with more yield. Therefore, growing of turmeric varieties under old established plantations is the best example of Agroforestry which will be helpful in better production and additional income.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 759-762
Sandeep Patel and Ashish Raghuvanshi
Department of Agricultural Economics, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Present study deals with the compound growth rate of groundnut in India, major groundnut producing states as well as Chhattisgarh in terms of area, production and productivity. Time series data were collected from various official website of the government and published sources from twelve years (2002-03 to 2013-14). Growth in area of groundnut was found significantly declining with the rate of -1.86 per cent in India. Production and productivity of groundnut was sowing an increasing trend being 1.73 and 3.65 per cent respectively. Growth in area of groundnut was showing significantly declining trend in Gujarat, Karnataka and Chhattisgarh being -2.62, -4.77 and -2.82 per cent respectively. In case of production it was found significantly positive in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh being 10.93, 5.79 and 3.98 per cent respectively. Average productivity and its growth in Tamil Nadu was 1622 kg per hectare and 6.17 percent respectively; which was highest among all the states. Growth in area of groundnut was found significantly negative in Chhattisgarh state and Raigarh district being -2.82 and -4.72 percent respectively. Production of groundnut was found increasing with the rate of 6.04 percent in Jashpur district of Chhattisgarh which was highest among the leading groundnut producing districts of the state.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 763-766
C Yamuna, P Kishore and Varma and R D Prasad
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *Crop Protection Division, Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Abstract
Castor gray mold caused by Botryotinia ricini is one of the most destructive diseases of castor causing heavy yield losses. Castor is known to suffer from many fungal and bacterial diseases of which castor gray mold caused by Botryotinia ricini (Godfrey) Whetzel (Anamorph: Amphobotrys ricini) is the most destructive disease. Yield losses are extensive due to this disease and are a major threat to commercial cultivation of the crop. Seed yield loss up to 100% was reported from India. Seven fungicides were evaluated against Botryotinia ricini under laboratory and green house conditions by poisoned food technique and detached spike method, respectively. The fungicides, carbendazim, tebuconazole, propiconazole and trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole showed complete inhibition of the pathogen under in vitro conditions. Green house evaluation of fungicides revealed that the per cent infected capsules were minimum in the racemes sprayed with carbendazim, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tebuconazole.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 767-768
P N Krishnamma, Prasanna Kumar, A Sujay Kumar, T Nagesh Kumar and M S Shwetha
Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
M aize (Zea mays L) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world agricultural economy. Maize is next to rice, wheat and jowar with regard to area and production. Mechanization of threshing is gaining more importance in recent days. Due to the increased importance of mechanized threshing, several types of threshers have been introduced and evaluated throughout the country. Among them the commonly used ones on the Indian farm are spike tooth type, chaff cutter type, syndicator type and beater type meant for threshing specific crops. Threshing or shelling is one of the most important crop processing operations to separate the grains from ear heads or the plants and prepare it for market (Patil et al. 2014b). One of the most important processing operations done tobring out the quality of maize is shelling or threshing of maize (Nwakaire et al. 2011).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 769-770
Manoj Kumar Painkra, S S Shaw and R K Thakur
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur- 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A pis cerana Indica Fabr. is one of nine currently recognised honey bee species of the genus Apis (Family Apidae, Subfamily Apinae, Tribe Apini) (Arias and Sheppard 2005, Raffiudin and Crozier 2007). Migratory beekeeping helps increasing in the honey production through their exploitation of different bee flora (Sharma and Raj 1985, Goyal et al. 1989) and provides opportunities for overcoming unfavourable climatic condition as well the attack of local bee enemies (Deodikar 1970, Phadke 1987). Himachal Pradesh due to its richness of bee flora is one of the most important states where beekeeping practised with A. cerana Indica. However, the low temperature and scanty flora during winter makes it unsuitable for keeping bee colonies here during this period. Besides this, the attack of wasp during rainy and autumn here is also factor detrimental to the well being of bees. Therefore in the order to overcame these problems of this place and for increasing honey production, migratory beekeeping with Apis cerana Indica between hills of Himachal Pradesh and plains of Haryana was practised from September 2015 to March 2016.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 771-772
Sonali Harinkhere, V K Samadhiya, Mithun Kr Mishra and Y K Sahu
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
R ice (Oryza sativa L) is one of the most consumed cereal grain in the world. Rice is grown under so diverse soil and climatic conditions that it is said that there is hardly any type of soil in which it cannot be grown including alkaline and acidic soils. Rice crop has also got wide physical adaptability. Chhattisgarh is popularly known as “rice bowl of India” because state has maximum area under rice cultivation during kharif and contribute major share in national rice production. A high concentration of iron in soil solution can cause nutrient imbalance through antagonistic effects on the uptake of nutrients, including K and Zn. The deficiency or lack of availability of other nutrients can also affect the rice plant’s ability to decrease uptake of iron in the tops through physiological functions carried out by roots such as iron oxidation, iron exclusion, and iron retention. Differences in yield and nutrient uptake have been related to root development (elongation and absorption), translocation, and shoot demand per unit of nutrient absorbed (Baligar et al. 1993, Fageria et al. 1990, Foy 1984). Cultivars with a high nutrient efficiency ratio when grown under acid soil stress, may have an advantage in adapting to mineral-stressed acid soils and genotypes that are efficient nutrient utilizers might be useful in breeding for more efficient cultivars.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 773-775
Preeti Sharma and R P Srivastava
Bioactive Plant Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
T he tobacco caterpillar, S. litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), is an important polyphagous pest found throughout the world. It is a serious pest of wide range of plants around 112 in number, belonging to 44 families and various crops, such as cotton, groundnut, chilli, tobacco, castor and pulses etc (Ferry et al. 2014). It can cause 25.8 to 100% economic loss to crops based on crop stage and its infestation level in the field. Indiscriminate use of insecticides over the years has adversely affected human health, non-target organisms, extensive ground water contamination, environmental pollution and development of pesticides resistance in insect species (Singh et al. 2006). In such a scenario, Scientists are searching an alternative for these problems, in this direction botanicals or bio pesticides are being found to be viable alternative to synthetic pesticides. Botanical pesticides are eco-friendly economic, highly suitable, target specific and easily biodegradable since they have low toxicity but have multiple mode of action (Ignacimuthu 2004). They are act as anti-feedants, antiovipositors, insect growth regulators and insecticides. It has been reported that more than 2000 plant species belongs to different families contain toxic principles, which are effective against insect pests (Auamcharoen et al. 2012) and S. litura (Sadek 2003). Several plant families have been studied against insects in which certain are particularly Meliaceae, Rutaceae, Asteraceae, Labiateae, Piperaceaea and Annonaceae are the promising sources of plant-based insecticides or botanicals (Arivoli and Tennyson 2013). Some other plant families such as Cucurbitaceae and Bixaceae also showed feeding deterent activity against S. litura and other insects (Susana et al. 2013). Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the feeding activity of certain medicinal plant extracts against S. litura
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 776-778
Swati Barche, *Reena Nair and **Kamal S Kirad
Department of Horticulture, R. V. S. K. V. V., College of Agriculture, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India *Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Balaghat, Murjhad Farm, Waraseoni - 481 331, M.P. India **Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV), Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
C oriander (Coriander sativum L) is an annual seed spices herb and mainly cultivated for its fruits as well as for the tender green leaves which is used as culinary herb. It is a tropical crop, and can be grown throughout the year but it is a remunerative crop in rabi season. Black cotton soil of Malwa plateau agro-climatic region of Madhya Pradesh, have high retentivity of moisture and hence is best for growing coriander. But the productivity of coriander in this region is low which is mainly due to lack of improved varieties, cultivation in marginal lands with poor management of soil fertility, irrigation, fertilizers, diseases and pests. Lacking of improved varieties to the farmers forces them to use local genotypes, which are variable in productivity and susceptible to various diseases ultimately reducing the yield. Although coriander is one of the most important spice crops, very less importance has been given for its improvement. A germplasm collection with good variability for the desirable characters is the basic requirement of any crop improvement programme (Singhania et al. 2006). In addition, crop improvement is primarily based on extensive evaluation of germplasm for a specific region of the different plant characters studied, plant height, number of branches, thousand seed weight and seed yield could be considered as criteria for success of breeding and development of new genotypes (Kaya et al. 2000, Moniruzzaman et al. 2014, Yousuf et al. 2014). Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made to evaluate the morphological traits of the collected coriander genotypes on black cotton soil of Malwa region and to select the promising genotype (s) for higher yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 779-781
Priyanka Kandwal and V K Rampal
Department of Extension Education, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
I ndia is primarily an agriculture-based country and its economy largely depends upon agriculture. The development of our country also depends on development of agriculture as Indian agriculture has responsibility of providing food and nutritional security to its spilling over millions. Agricultural development has been plagued by variety of factors including fragmented land holdings, irrigation problems, seed problems etc. Wide-spread occurrence of ill-effects of green revolution technologies in all intensively cultivated areas like Punjab and Haryana is threatening the sustainability of the important agricultural production systems and national food security. Further, the size of land holdings is decreasing due to population increase and this declining trend in size of land holding poses a serious challenge to the sustainability and profitability of farming. The average size of the landholding has declined to 1.16 ha during 2010-11 from 2.28 ha in 1970-71. If this trend continues, the average size of holding in India would be mere 0.68 ha in 2020 and would be further reduced to 0.32 ha in 2030 thereby increasing the small and marginal farmers to a great extent. All these factors are increasing the vulnerability of Indian farmers and their livelihoods. So, the need of the hour is that our farmers should have sustainable livelihoods. Livelihood is a means of securing the basic necessities of life i.e. food, water, shelter and clothing. A livelihood is called environmentally sustainable when it maintains or enhances the local and global assets on which livelihoods depends and has net beneficial effects on other livelihoods. A livelihood is socially sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, and provide for future generations. A livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generations and which contributes net benefits to other livelihoods at the local and global levels and in the short and long term.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 782-783
Sanjay Bhelawe, G K Das and J L Chaudhary
Department of Agrometeortology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
E vaporation is an important part of the hydrological cycle and a main loss component of surface water. In total, two-thirds of the precipitation over land is consumed in evapotranspiration in one year (Chahine 1992, Brutsaert 2005, Oki and Kanae 2006). Changes in evaporation will affect agricultural irrigation, water resources utilization as well as the ecological environment. Global warming has become an indisputable fact. Research on the influence of climate change on evaporation started in late 1970s (Wang 2006). It was generally considered that the temperature is an important influencing factor for evaporation. It is of great interest for engineers as well as scientists whether or not the hydrological cycle will change along with the prospective climate change and how large it is in its magnitude if it does. In a simple thought, raised temperature and increased water vapour in the air could cause the increase in the rainfall amount in a single storm event. The increased precipitation, and thus the increased soil wetness can be associated to increase of the river discharge and the evaporation from the land surface. In this way, global temperature rise is expected to cause acceleration in the global hydrological cycle. Increased concentration of green house gases increases temperature across the globe (IPCC 2007). In future, evapotranspiration and crop water productivity will be altered due to climate change (Thomas 2008, Mo et al. 2007). The purpose of this study is to investigate the long term variations of pan evaporation in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 784-785
Binoy Tripura and *Sagar Mondal
Department of Agricultural Extension, PSB, Visva-Bharati, West Bengal, India *Department of Agricultural Extension, BCKV, Mohanpur - 741 252, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Abstract
I ndia is among the few nations in the world for its tribal population. The tribal population of India is 51.6 million which constitute 7.76% of the total population. Agriculture, which forms the livelihood of 80 per cent of the people, is still predominantly dependent on rainfall. Net irrigated area forms just 9.3 per cent of net sown area and the vagaries of monsoon hit the economy hard. The productivity of the soil found in the whole Tripura is determined by the relief, which divides the land into two categories, viz., upland and the low land. The upland produces coarse rice and various such crops. The law land is terraced low and rice is grown. There are three main crop seasons namely, kharif and Rabi crops. Major Kharif crops are rice, bajra and maize etc. Rabi crops are wheat, pulses, gram, and mustard etc. Tribal farmers possess small and uneconomical landholdings because of which their crop yield is less and hence they remain chronically indebted. Only a small percentage of the population participates in occupa¬tional activities in the secondary and tertiary sectors. The landholdings are small and the farmers practice subsistence farming for their livelihood. Therefore, a study on problems faced by the tribal farmers was undertaken to identify the major problems areas faced by the tribal farmers and to see if there existed any relationship of those problems with socio-personal, economic and psychological traits of the farmers. Daipuria (2010) the tribal farmers experienced many constraints, namely, lack of education, lack of knowledge of improved technology, lack of knowledge in right time, agriculture literature contained with difficult words, lack of interaction with extension officers, lack of training/ demonstration, lack of irrigation, demotivation of extension workers, lack of cooperation in extension work and lack of fertilizer and manures availability in right time were the points on which they laid emphasis and desired for reprisal. The present study has been undertaken to find out the constraints faced by the farmers in Dhalai districts of Tripura.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 786-788
Das Ratan, *R Veere Gowda, **P Chowdappa and ***G K Halesh
Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru - 560 089, Karnataka, India *Division of Vegetable Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bengaluru-560 089, Karnataka **Director CPCRI, Kasaragod, Karnataka, India ***Department of Crop Improvement and Biotechnology, College of Horticulture, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
Abstract
O nion (Allium cepa L.) belongs to the genus Allium, of the family Alliaceae (Messiaen 1994). It is a large genus containing five hundred or more species and despite the similarities, which bring the species together, the genus is a strikingly diverse one (Jones and Mann 1963). There are five important species of the cultivated Allium of which the onion crop is the most important (Messiaen 1994). Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the commercial vegetable and spice crops of India. India produces 187.36lakh MT of onion from 8.82lakh ha area (NHB 2014). India ranks first in area, second in production and third in export in the world. In India, onion is largely cultivated during rabi season (60%) followed by 20% each in kharif and late kharif season. For commercial cultivation of onion, foliar diseases play the key role in reducing the bulb yield and quality of produce. Among the various foliar diseases purple blotch caused by Alternaria porri Ell (Ciferri), is the most devastating and prevalent in many parts of India (Gupta et al. 2011). This become more important due to change in climatic conditions during the growing season. Hence, cultivation of resistant varieties against onion purple blotch as a control measure not only become more economical but also environment friendly than rest of the chemical control measures. The present study, was, therefore, conducted in onion to identify the genotype resistant to purple blotch disease in kharif seasons under field conditions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 3 ; 832-837
Santram Sahu, Manoj Kumar Sahu, R K S Tiwari and Niranjan Khare
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Pigeon pea wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum is one of the most important diseases of Pigeon pea. In vitro evaluation among three isolates of Trichoderma and twenty four isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas against five (BeFU, KFU, DFU, RjFU and KoFU) and one aggressive isolates of F. oxysporum respectively. Among all the three isolates of Trichoderma tested, Trichoderm harzianum isolates (Kanpur 1 and Kanpur 2) were found to be best against pathogen isolate of DFU (61.92%) and BeFU (69.19%) respectively while Trichoderma viride (Bilaspur isolate) was most effective against KFU (68.02%) after 7 DAI. Twenty four isolates of Fluorescent pseudomonas were evaluated, whereas maximum inhibition was recorded in case of isolate P151 (45.30%) followed by P67 (41.88%) and P99 (41.88%) and least inhibition was observed in case of P126 (29.96%) at 9 days of incubation. These antagonist isolates inhibited 45.30 to 29.96 per cent mycelial growth of test fungus


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