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Volume - 8 - July-August 2017
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 789-796
Arindam Das, Manas Kumar Pandit, *Saheb Pal, *K Muthaiah and Santanu Layek
Department of Vegetable Crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741 252, West Bengal, India *Division of Vegetable Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru - 560 089, Karnataka, India
Abstract
For maintaining a healthy germplasm and improvement of any crop, a country needs to document or characterize the existing local genotypes, landraces, cultivars or farmers’ variety. With these objectives, the present investigation is carried out to evaluate and characterize twenty one brinjal genotypes during two consecutive autumn-winter season of 2014-2016. A total of forty seven characters viz. growth, yield and morphological, were studied and significant variation observed among the genotypes collected across the country. This variation may be due to the effect of genotype, environment or their interaction. A randomized block design with three replication has been used for this experiment. Mean data pooled over the years has been furnished and statistically analyzed for all the characters except number of fruits per plant, weight of fruits, number of seeds per fruit, yield per plant and yield per hectare. Though genotype BCB-27 followed by BCB-8, is the highest yielder/plant for two seasons, BCB-8 is superior to any other genotypes in total fruiting period, fruit length and number of fruits per plant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 797-801
K Ramesh, K B Suneetha Devi, K A Gopinath and M Uma Devi
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana AICRP for Dryland Agriculture, CRIDA, Santoshnagar, Hyderabad, Telangana Water Technology Centre, D. J. B., Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at College Farm, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during rabi 2015-16 to evaluate Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) at different dates of sowing and varied crop geometry in semi-arid regions of Telangana. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications to test three dates of sowing (D1: 15th October, D2: 1st November and D3: 16th November) and to standardize the crop geometry (S1: 10 × 15 cm, S2: 10 × 30 cm, S3: 10 × 45 cm and S4: 10 × 60 cm). The maximum seed, stalk yield was obtained with 15th October date of sowing with narrow (15 × 10 cm) spacing and was followed by 30 × 10 cm. The number of branches plant-1, panicle length, number of spikes panicle-1, were higher with wider spacing (45 × 10 cm and 60 × 10 cm) compared to narrow (15 × 10 cm) spacing. The higher number of grains panicle-1 was recorded with 45 × 10 cm spacing. The protein content of quinoa seed was found non-significant with date of sowing and crop geometry and higher oil content was recorded with 15th October date of sowing. Higher N content in stalk was recorded 16th November whereas 15th October date of sowing showed higher P, K content in stalk and seed. The combination of October 15th and 15 × 10 cm was recorded significantly higher N, P, K uptake than other crop geometries followed by 30 × 10 cm spacing.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 802-804
S Pallavi, I Sreenivasa Rao, N Venkateshwar Rao, V Sudha Rani and K B Suneetha Devi
Department of Agricultural Extension, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
The present investigation was carried in Karimnagar district of Telangana state.This paper describes the relationship of profile characteristic of BCI bebeficiaries with their knowledge on recommended package of practices of cotton cultivation under BCI programme. Ex post facto research design was followed in the investigation. The fifty respondents were selected at random from ten villages of five Mandals of the district. The findings revealed that the variables like education, farming experience, extension agency contact, information seeking behaviour, risk taking ability, market facility, trainings undergone, scientific orientation and profit oriented behaviour were having positive and significant relationship with knowledge level of beneficiary farmer , variable age showed negative and significant relationship, where as variables farm size and labour utilization had non significant relationship with knowledge level of beneficiary farmers about the recommended package of practices of cotton cultivation under BCI programme
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 805-811
Alima Shabir, S H Khan and M Mudasir Magray
Division of Vegetable Science, S. K. University of Agriculture Science and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 191 121, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
A study was conducted to assess the role of organic and inorganic treatments on chilli-pea cropping sequence along with residual soil fertility. It was observed that different treatments differ significantly to each other with respect to growth, yield and soil physico-chemical properties. Combined application of organic manures with inorganic fertilizers showed significantly higher growth and yield parameters besides improving soil physico-chemical characteristics which further resulted in enhanced soil availability of nutrients.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 812-815
A Rama Devi and S Jha
A Rama Devi and S Jha
Abstract
The experiment on efficacy of different chemical and non chemical treatment schedules were carried out against lepidopteran insect pests of sunflower (cv. Aditya) at the Instructional farm Jaguli, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Nadia, West Bengal, India, during two consecutive crop seasons of 2013-14 and 2014-15. All the standard agronomic practices, recommended for this region were followed for raising the crop, except application of insecticides. Of the seven different insecticidal treatment schedules it was observed that lowest population of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura was recorded with treatment T4 (seed treatment of imidachloprid 70 WS @ 5 g/kg seed followed by spray of lamdacyhalothrin 10 EC @ 1 ml/lit on 30 DAS followed by spray of chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5 ml/lit 60 DAS). However, yield of sunflower seed and B:C ratio was also highest in T4 (1195.8 kg/ha with B:C ratio of 2.10) followed by T3 (1095.8 kg/ha with B:C ratio 1.91), T2 (1.77), T1 (1.72), T5 (1.66), T6 (1.60) and T7 (1.19).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 816-820
C Naveen Kumar, K V Prakash, M Anantachar, M Veerangouda and N Nagaraj
Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The performance of FYM spreader was evaluated at College of Agricultural Engineering, Raichur, during 2014-15 to achieve uniformity in FYM application with controlled rate and to ensure timeliness of operation. A tractor with 60 hp was selected as a power source. The FYM spreader was made to operate through ground wheel assembly. Its performance was evaluated under different variables such as tractor forward speed, adjustable frame opening and tractor trolley slope. The FYM having moisture content of 24.73% was used for field spreading. The maximum application rate of 16.29 t/ha and minimum application rate of 5.69 t/ha was recorded at a forward speed of 0.55 m/s and 1.11 m/s respectively. The maximum coefficient of uniformity of 88.16 % and minimum was recorded as 71.39 % at a forward speed of 0.83 m/s and 1.11 m/s respectively. The average effective field capacity of 0.352 ha/h, average field efficiency of 72.70 %, average fuel consumption of 3.9 l/h was found at the 0.83 m/s forward speed of the tractor operated FYM spreader.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 821-824
P Punitha, D K Pandey, *Daya Ram, R J Singh and S S P Jyothi
P Punitha, D K Pandey, *Daya Ram, R J Singh and S S P Jyothi
Abstract
Shifting cultivation or Jhum is a prominent practice practiced by tribal’s of North Eastern India. There were various schemes implemented by Government of India after independence to wean Jhumias away from Jhum. The need to find the affinity of shifting cultivators towards their Jhum land inspire of various schemes implemented by government of India lead to develop a scale to measure the place attachment of Jhumias towards Jhum as a livelihood. The purpose of scale construction is to measure the variable place attachment quantitatively by incorporating in the interview schedule. The method of Likert summated rating method was used to develop the attitude scale. A sum of 89 statements was selected from review, field experiences, farmers’ opinion and discussion with the scientists. These statements were edited and sent for experts’ opinion for validity comprising of scientists, line department officials and Jhum farmers. The relevancy test made to select the relevant statements based on relevancy percentage > 70, relevancy weight age >0.70 and mean relevancy score >2.0 were isolated, modified and screened for further testing. Those 18 statements with the t value equal to or more than 1.75 were finally selected. The reliability test, cronbach's alpha exhibited with the value of 0.740. The reliability and validity of the scale indicate the precision and consistency of results. This scale can be used to measure the place attachment of shifting cultivators towards shifting cultivation as a livelihood beyond the study area with suitable modifications.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 825-831
Hamid Nazir and *Sheela Kharkwal
Department of Animal Husbandry Extension, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India *Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Kumaon hills of Uttarakhand state to identify typical dairy production systems based on farm and socio-economic characteristics. The study area comprised of five randomly selected villages from three Tehsils in each of two hill districts of Kumaon division, viz. Nainital and Almora. A total of 300 households constituted the ultimate sampling units for the study. Farm household typologies were constructed by using two multivariate statistical techniques, viz. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA). PCA was used to transform linearly an original set of 20 variables, representing farm and socioeconomic characteristics, into a smaller set of uncorrelated variables (factors) that represents most of the information in the original set. The factors retained from the PCA were used for cluster analysis. Four homogenous groups (clusters) were obtained. Cluster I (28.42%) was defined as households with low land holding, high stock of buffalo and low degree of technology adoption. Cluster II (40.75%) was defined as households with high land holding, high degree of technology adoption, and high buffalo stock with low farm family labour involvement. Cluster III (22.60%) was defined as households with low intensity of Market Participation in Dairying and Cluster IV (8.22%) was defined as households with high intensity of market participation, high stock of crossbred animals and high degree of technology adoption.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 838-840
Azra Lateef, M I Makhdoomi, Ambreen Nabi, Mubarak Ahmad and Faisal Noor
Division of Vegetable Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Science and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken at experimental field, Division of Vegetable Science, SKUAST-Kashmir Shalimar during year 2015 kharif to obtain information on genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance with respect to various quantitative and qualitative traits among 50 genotypes of Brinjal. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all the traits studied. The maximum range was recorded for fruit yield per plant (211 - 388 g) followed by average fruit weight (45.7 - 103.5g), days to first fruit picking (60.4 - 74.93), plant height (27.06 - 82.93cm) and plant spread (10.66 - 72.86cm). The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variability were observed for number of branches plant-1 followed by plant height, anthocyanin content, plant spread and fruit diameter. In general the phenotypic coefficients of variation were slight higher than genotypic coefficients of variation, which indicates the minor role of environment in the expression of traits under observation. The estimates of heritability in broad sense were high for all the characters except for number of pickings plant-1. The present investigation indicates a great scope in the improvement of these traits as these characters in general possessed high estimates of heritability coupled with high genetic advancement except for days to first flower, days to first fruit set, days to first fruit picking, number of pickings plant-1, dry matter content, TSS and vitamin C (high heritability but moderate genetic gain) indicating the preponderance of additive gene action for control of these traits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 832-837
Santram Sahu, Manoj Kumar Sahu, R K S Tiwari and Niranjan Khare
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Pigeon pea wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum is one of the most important diseases of Pigeon pea. In vitro evaluation among three isolates of Trichoderma and twenty four isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas against five (BeFU, KFU, DFU, RjFU and KoFU) and one aggressive isolates of F. oxysporum respectively. Among all the three isolates of Trichoderma tested, Trichoderm harzianum isolates (Kanpur 1 and Kanpur 2) were found to be best against pathogen isolate of DFU (61.92%) and BeFU (69.19%) respectively while Trichoderma viride (Bilaspur isolate) was most effective against KFU (68.02%) after 7 DAI. Twenty four isolates of Fluorescent pseudomonas were evaluated, whereas maximum inhibition was recorded in case of isolate P151 (45.30%) followed by P67 (41.88%) and P99 (41.88%) and least inhibition was observed in case of P126 (29.96%) at 9 days of incubation. These antagonist isolates inhibited 45.30 to 29.96 per cent mycelial growth of test fungus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 841-843
U Kiran Kumar Reddy, T Lakshmi, P V Satyagopal and S V Prasad
Department of Agricultural Extension, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted with 60 undergraduate students of S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, to assess the ways and means in which the students were aspired Educationally, Professionally, Economically, Socially and Entrepreneurially. The study revealed that among educational aspirations more than one-third (43%) of the students aspire to complete Post-Graduation. In professional aspirations more than one-third (40%) of the students aspire to achieve Agricultural Research Services (ARS), followed by majority (60%) of the students aspire to raise standard of living of family in economic aspirations. Social aspiration consists of two sub-components i.e., Club organization and Volunteer organization. Within Club organization more than half (52%) of the students aspire towards Youth club and in Volunteer organization more than half (52%) aspire to Serve for rural development works. Among entrepreneurial component more than one-third (37%) of the students aspire that they want to be their own boss.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 844-847
Sheela Kharkwal
Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand to compare the socio-economic conditions of livestock rearing and non-rearing farm households. A sample of 80 households was selected from four villages of Kashipur block of Udham Singh Nagar district. Total sample was categorized in two groups, group-1 represented farm households whose main occupation was agriculture and didn’t rear livestock and group-2 represented households which reared livestock along with farming. Twelve socio-economic indicators were evaluated using three point scale and differences were measured in the socio economic conditions of these groups. Group-2 was found to have better score of annual per capita food, non food, health expenditures. Debts were found to increase along with asset possession though per capita saving declined. This may be due to the reason that livestock rearing household were assured to have a positive income source and hence were less hesitant in investing more and saving less. As livestock rearing gives insulation to the household against risk associated with agriculture, efforts should be made to promote it.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 848-850
Deepika Unjan, G K Das, J L Chaudhary and Uttam Kumar Diwan
Department of Agrometeorology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
College of Agriculture and Research Station Ambikapur, District Surguja is an important center of northern hill zone of Chhattisgarh state, Catering the educational research and extension needs of farming community of the area. There are a lot of topographical variations in the zone as compared to plane zone. Rice is main crop in kharif season and it is mainly grown in rainfed condition. Rice occupied 70% of total cultivable area of the zone followed by wheat in rabi season. The production and productivity of rice and other crop in this area are very less as compared to state as well as national average. There are number of reasons for the low productivity of rice and wheat out of which the dependence on the monsoonal rain in rainfed situation and pest-diseases in rice crop are major factors. That’s why an effort has been made to analyze daily rainfall data of last 34 years (1981-2014) by using weathercock software to establish the rainfall variability and their distribution pattern on monthly, seasonal and annual basis. The coefficient of variation was 26% which indicates that the rainfall was more or less stable over last 34 years in this zone and the maximum mean rainfall of 385.5 mm is received in the month of July followed by August month which receives 315 mm and June month received 200.1 mm rainfall. The result also revealed that the rainfall and rainy days during monsoon season ranged from 438.9 to 1983.1mm within 23 to 69 rainy days. During study period average annual rainfall of Ambikapur station was 1332.7 mm, which was distributed as 47.7 mm during winter season (January - February), 48.2 mm during summer season (March - May), 1154.2 mm during South-west monsoon (June- September) and 81.8 mm during post monsoon (October - December). The quantity of rainfall and their distribution play a crucial role for establishment of crop and cropping system of an area. In Surguja rice and rice based cropping system is established system and on the basis of present study we can suggest to adopt the new advancement going on in field of rice cultivation and rice based cropping system so that farmers can harvest maximum yield per unit area and per unit time in changing climatic scenario.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 851-859
A Sathish, B K Ramachandrappa, M S Savitha, P N Srikanth Babu, M N Thimme Gowda and M Anitha
All India Co-ordinated Research Project for Dryland Agriculture, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The surface soil samples (0-30 cm) were drawn from the farmers’ fields along with GPS points (co-ordinates) in Chikkamarnahalli cluster villages in Nelamangala Taluk, Bangalore rural district, Karnataka. The samples were analysed for their fertility status and fertility maps were prepared by interpolation technique. The pH of soil samples was strongly acidic to slightly acidic in nature. Soil organic matter content was low to medium (low: 83.46% area, Medium: 16.54% area). Available nitrogen content was low (low: 100% area), available phosphorus content was medium to high (Medium: 8.61% area, High: 91.39% area) available potassium and sulphur were low to high. About 1.74 per cent area was found to be low in available zinc, 3.06 per area was found to be marginal in available zinc, 31.88 per cent area was found to be adequate in available zinc and 63.32 per cent area was found to be high in available zinc. About 75.65 per cent area was found to be low in available boron and 24.65 per area were found to be medium. Whereas, iron, copper and manganese were sufficient in these soils. The thematic maps showing available nutrient status was utilized in suggesting nutrient management options. The soil test based fertilizer recommendation was made to farmer’s which in addition to saving input cost also provided balanced nutrients facilitating in higher productivity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 860-862
B G Anusha, Shripad Kulkarni and S I Harlapur
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Paecilomyces lilacinus has an important nematophagous fungi has potential for nematode management. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the population of P lilacinus on usage of different carrier materials and also recorded the presence of contamination. The maximum spore population (cfu count × 108) was observed in Talc based formulation with no contamination. And minimum spore population was observed in FYM with less contamination. Also different temperature, pH and broth were tested results sabourds dextrose broth was found to be significantly superior compared to all other broths tested.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 863-865
R Vishwatej, K S Kadian, L Raja and N Hemsaratchandra
Division of Dairy Extension, ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
A study was conducted in Telangana state during 2014-2016 to know the perception of improved Indigenous Technical Knowledge practices among livestock farmers. A sample of 220 respondents was selected randomly from two districts of the state i.e. Warangal and Mahabubnagar and was personally interviewed. It was found that most of the farmers were of old aged (43.80%), School dropouts (64.55%), depends on multiple occupation i.e. Livestock farming + agriculture + wage labour (34.55%) possessing marginal land holding (34.55%), medium herd size (46.36%) and family annual income ranging from ₹ 95,447/- to 1,98,027 (40.62%). The most of respondents also had high farming experience (46.82%), Social participation (43.10%), Mass media exposure (43.12%) and innovativeness (39.38%). It was also revealed from correlational analysis that seven out of ten variables were positive and have significant correlation with their perceived effectiveness of improved ITKs viz. farming experience (0.341), Social participation (0.321), Innovativeness (0.293), Mass media exposure (0.267), Herd size (0.225), Age (0.212) and Occupation (0.198). Whereas education (-0.253) has been found to be negatively influence their perception.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 866-870
Monsoon Khemundu, S R Koteswara Rao, B Vidya Sagar and C Srinivas
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
During storage, maize grains are severely destroyed by insects and other pests. One of the most important cause of grain loss in stored maize is the damage caused by Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela Olivier. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of six different insecticides viz. flubendiamide @ 0.2 ml/l, emamectin benzoate @ 0.2 g/l, spinosad @ 0.25 ml/l, deltamethrin @ 3.5 ml/l, novaluron @ 1 ml/l and lufenuron @ 1 ml/l against Sitotroga cerealella (O.) on stored maize by applying insecticides on gunny bags at Seed Research and Technology Centre. However all the insecticides was proved to be effective in controlling S. cerealella (O.) without affecting the seed quality attributes, deltamethrin @ 3.5 ml/l was found to be superior over all other insecticides. Spinosad @ 0.25ml/l, emamectin benzoate @ 0.2 g/l, flubendiamide @ 0.2mll/l, novaluron @1ml/l and lufenuron 1ml/l were next in the order of efficacy.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 871-874
P S Dhakad, Om Singh, *Rajiv Dubey, R Gallani and D Patil
College of Horticulture (RVSKVV), Sitamau, Mandsaur - 458 001, Madhya Pradesh, India *AICRPDA, College of Agriculture, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field study was carried out during winter (rabi) season of 2014-15 at the Research Field of the Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, College of Horticulture, RVSKVV, Mandsaur (M.P.) to evaluate the effect of weed-management practices on weed control efficiency and growth, yield and economics of coriander. Weed management practices significantly reduced weed density, weed dry weight and improved growth (plant height), yield attributes (umbels/plant and test weight), harvest index and seed yield, as compared to control. Two hand weeding (HW) at 20 and 40 DAS and pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + one hand weeding at 40 DAS resulted in maximum reduction in weed density, dry weight and gave the highest seed yield (20.25 and 18.48 q/ha) of coriander as compare to weedy check (5.90 q/ha). However, maximum net return (₹ 127055 and 114261) and B:C ratio (5.11 and 4.69) were obtained by Two hand weeding (HW) at 20 and 40 DAS and pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha + one hand weeding at 40 DAS. Both the treatments reduction of weed dry matter and resulted in maximum weed control efficiency (88.50%) as compared to mertibuzin @ 0.30 kg/ha and rest of the treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 875-878
H M Swamy, G B Lokesh and B V Deepthi
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The impact of climate change on agriculture could result in problems with food security and threaten the livelihood activities upon which majority of population depend in India. The study reveals that in Karnataka the area, production and yield of maize crop has been studiedly increasing over the years with the annual growth rate of 7.2 percent, 9.4 per cent and 2.32 per cent respectively. The relationship between rainfall and production is significant (P value 0.002) were as the rainfall and yield is not significant (p value 6.028E-05) this shows that yield is not only influenced by rainfall but also other climatic factors, managing factors, pest and disease and size of holdings. In study area majority of farmers belong to marginal farmers (<1ha) accounting for about 49.14 per cent (38 lakh) of total famers (78 lakh). As the marginal farmers were highly vulnerable to climate change. The study suggests that as the impact of climate change is intensifying day by day it should be addressed through policy perspective that the focus is to be on the marginal farmers as their number are more and their livelihood dependent on rainfed situation and there is a need for developing coping mechanisms for climate change compared to other categories of farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 879-882
D Channamallikarjuna and Syed Sadaqath
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Dharwad district of Karnataka state to assess adoption level of the farmers on SRI method of paddy cultivation. Totally 150 respondents were interviewed for the study. Majority of the respondents were adopted recommended seed treatment by using Trichoderma. Almost equal percent of respondents adopt. Spacing at 25 cm x 25 cm and good quantity utilization of FYM. Majority of respondents were using more than 2 kg seed per acre. Majority of the respondents belonged to low utilization green manuring crop. More than half of the respondents applying zinc to paddy crop. More than fifty per cent of the respondents have adopted the technology towards preparation of nursery for raising seedlings and followed by soaking seed for getting good seeds for better germination and healthy seedlings. High percent of them were practicing application of FYM in alternate years. Half of the respondents have better management of water at the time of flowering stage and less than half of the respondents getting better yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 883-889
Udaya Bhanu Kote, *S Nagalakshmi, *M Surender and **V L N Reddy
*Agriculture College (ANGRAU), GBC Road, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India *Institute of Biotechnology, Seed Research and Technology Centre, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, **Frontier Technology (ANGRAU), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
Genetic diversity of 42 quality protein maize inbred lines was carried out using 28 hyper variable polymorphic polymorphic markers. The genotypes were grouped into two major clusters. Cluster analysis gathered the maize genotypes into various classes to determine hereditary variations/connections among the elite breeding lines using the UPGMA method. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values for SSR markers was ranged from (0.97) to (0.05). The PIC value was found to be highest for the primer umc1378 while the lowest value was recorded for primer umc2245. Larger range of similarity values for related cultivars utilizing microsatellites gives more prominent insight in assessment of genetic diversity and relationships. The present study revealed the variation and genetic distance among the quality protein maize inbreds, it is useful for heterosis study and further making crosses among the genetically distance inbreds. It results reveals that the three inbreds L2, L7 and L10 were highly heterotic in nature, these combinations will give superior quality protein maize hybrids in crossing program. The data acquired from the DNA fingerprinting made better to distinctly recognize and characterize 42 inbreds utilizing 28 hyper variable polymorphic SSR primers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 890-894
Manisha Deshmukh, Nitin S Gupta, Swapnil D Deshmukh, Priya Gawande and V U Raut
Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
An experiment entitled enhancement in growth of tuberose by the split application of NPK were carried out at Parks and Garden Unit, College of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during kharif season of the academic year 2011-12. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with four replications and twelve treatment combinations. The recommended dose of fertilizers was applied in split. The results indicated that, the plant growth in terms of days required for sprouting were found superior under N1 (three split of N) and P1 (basal application of P). In respect of height of plant, number of leaves and leaf area was found superior under N2 (four split of N), P2 (two split of P) and their respective combinations (N2P2).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 895-898
Manglemba Paonam, Daya Ram, Th Randhir Singh and N Okendro Singh
Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India
Abstract
Commercial poultry farming has become one of the viable and proven enterprises all over the world due to its adaptability to varied agro-climatic conditions, low investment per unit, rapid growth rate and short generation interval. Since time immemorial poultry farming has played an important role to meet the domestic as well as socio-cultural needs of the rural people. The present study was conducted in Imphal- West District of Manipur. A multi-stage sampling procedure was followed for selection of sub-division; village and respondents Total 120 respondents (Poultry farmers) were selected based on proportional random sampling method. The study concluded that majority of the farmers had medium level of knowledge on different aspects of poultry production practices. Education, annual average income, socio-economic status, flock size, extension contact, utilization of mass media and attitude toward poultry rearing were the important factors which have contributed to the knowledge gained by the poultry farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 899-901
G V Vishaka, Ramakrishna Naika and R Narayana Reddy
University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The silkworm growth and cocoon yield as influenced by solonacious intercropping at 60 days after planting (DAP) was studied in kharif season 2014. Performance of silkworm (PM × CSR2) on V-1 mulberry with solonacious intercropping system did not show significant difference with respect to larval and cocoon characters. Significantly lesser number of defective cocoons (11) was observed in sole mulberry treatment and maximum cocoon yield (659 g DFL-1) was noticed in the mulberry + brinjal treatment compared to the other solonacious intercropped treatments. However, maximum larval weight (33.45 g), ERR (88.89%), cocoon weight (19.78 g), shell weight (4.31 g), shell ratio (19.30%) was noticed in pure crop. Whereas, shorter larval duration (619.67 hrs.) was recorded in mulberry + potato, least denier (2.27) was observed in mulberry intercropped with Brinjal. The incidence of flacherie and grasserie was least in pure crop but muscardine incidence was least in mulberry + potato intercropping system.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 902-905
P Asha Priyanka, M Chandrasekaran and *E Nandakumar
Department of Agricultural Economics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Humanities, PSG College of Technology, Peelamedu, Coimbatore - 641 004, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Sugarcane is the raw material for second largest agro based industry in India. Sugarcane can be produced through conventional production and improved technologies such as drip system and Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI). The present study analysis the quantities of input use and cost of production among the three production methods. The cost of production was the lowest in SSI method and cost of labour has formed a major share of variable cost. The labour usage was the lowest in drip system. The inputs such as fertiliser and manure were applied in drip system and SSI method similar to conventional production which has shown an incomplete adoption of technologies. Yield was higher in drip system and SSI by 12.14 per cent and 19.96 per cent, respectively than conventional production. Profit was higher by 82.44 per cent and 129.69 per cent, respectively than conventional production method which could even be higher when the technologies are properly adopted.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 906-908
Yield Prediction of Rice Crop by Regression based Statistical Models in Chhattisgarh
Department of Agrometeorology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Yield prediction before harvesting is one of the tools in order to planning food production supply in future. Yield prediction was carried out at Department of Agrometeorology, IGKV, Raipur for rice (Oryza sativa) using regression based models in 9 district of Chhattisgarh during 2015. The kharif rice yield and weather data from 1981 to 2012 for 9 districts of Chhattisgarh were used to develop regression based model for rice yield forecasting. The performance of the model tested with the actual yield of 2014. Results indicated that the yield prediction model explained 55 to 95 per cent variations for rice yield at pre harvest stage. At this stage of forecasting, it was clear that maximum and minimum temperature in combination with relative humidity and time were the most influencing factors in the prediction of rice yield in most of the districts. This model is very simple to work out and it does not have trickiness. It requires only weather data for growing period and long term crop yield data to predict pre-harvest crop yield. Therefore it can be used for district, agro-climatic zone and state level forecast.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 909-913
Dinesh Kumar, R B Ardeshna, B R Verma and A K Patel
Department of Agronomy, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out at College Farm, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) to study the quality characters and yield potential of summer sesamum based intercropping systems during summer season of 2016. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with four replications and nine treatments. Oil and protein content of sesamum were not affected significantly by various treatments. All the three sole sesamum treatments (T1, T2 and T3) were statistically at par with respect to oil and protein yield. Intercropping significantly declined oil as well as protein yield of sesamum. Among intercropping treatments, sesamum + green gram (Paired 3:2) (T7) recorded maximum oil as well as protein yield. The effect of different treatments was significant on available N and P2O5 status of soil after crop harvest, but non-significant on available K2O. Available N and P2O5 content after crop harvest in soil were recorded remarkably higher in sole green gram (T4) and sole cowpea (T5) closely followed by sesamum + green gram/cowpea intercropping treatments and least in sole sesamum. Among the intercropping treatments, sesamum + green gram (Paired 3:2) (T7) recorded maximum available N and P2O5 content after crop harvest in soil followed by sesamum + green gram (Paired 2:1) (T6).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 914-916
M Mahesh and R V S K Reddy
Department of Horticulture, College of Horticulture, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
Being a cross pollinated crop bitter gourd offers tremendous scope for heterosis breeding. Hybridization to exploit heterosis on commercial basis or far selection of promising recombinants in subsequent generations is the prime objective of heterosis breeding programme. Five parental lines and their 10 cross combinations of bitter gourd obtained from half diallel were studied to investigate extent of heterosis for yield and yield contributing traits. In order of merit F1 hybrids RNMC-52 × RNMC-55 (25.90%), RNMC-54 × RNMC-55 (19.05%) and RNMC-51 × RNMC-53 (9.92%) were recorded to be best promising F1 hybrids for fruit yield per vine.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 917-922
Mudasir Hassan, Khurshid Ahmad and N A Khan
Division of Plant Pathology, S. K. University of Agricultural Science and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
Walnut anthracnose is one of the most important disease of walnut (Juglans regia L.) worldwide. The disease is prevalent in all the walnut growing areas of Kashmir valley surveyed, during the year 2013. The overall mean disease incidence and intensity ranged from 71.78 to 97.34 per cent and 19.56 to 51.66 per cent on leaves and twigs, respectively. The maximum disease incidence of 97.94 and 74.66 per cent and intensity of 55.76 and 22.77 per cent on leaves and twigs, respectively was observed in district Anantnag and minimum disease incidence of 96.22 and 68.41 per cent and intensity of 49.03 and 15.32 per cent, respectively was observed on leaves and twigs in district kupwara respectively. Twelve fungitoxicants both systemic viz. Carbendazim 50WP, Thiophanate methyl 70WP, Flusilazole 40EC, Difenoconazole 25EC, Tebuconazole 25EC, Metiram + Pyraclostrobin 60WG @ 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.015%, 0.02% and non-systemic viz. Copper oxychloride 50WP, Mancozeb 75WP, Propineb 70 WP, Chlorothalonil 75WP, Captan 50WP, Ziram 80WP @ 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% were evaluated in vitro for their comparative efficacy against spore germination and mycelial growth inhibition against the Marssonina juglandis causing walnut anthracnose. All fungitoxicants at all the test concentrations inhibited the spore germination and mycelial growth of the pathogen and their effect differed significantly. Among the twelve fungitoxicants tested in vitro, metiram + pyraclostrobin 60WG, tebuconazole 25EC, flusilazole 40EC, mancozeb 75WP, captan 50WP, copper oxychloride 50WP proved significantly superior in inhibiting the spore germination as well as mycelial growth of test fungus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 923-926
Anju A Bhagat, A J Shivgaje and C A Nimbalkar
Department of Statistics, Post Graduate Institute, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Black gram production in the country is largely concentrated in five states viz. Uttar Pradesh (UP), Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. These five states together contribute for about 65 per cent of total black gram production in the country. There is a distinct change in production pattern of black gram across states. Maharashtra contributes about 14 per cent while Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh account for about 10 per cent and 8.5 per cent respectively of total production in the country. To know the scenario of black gram production, it is very important to know the trend analysis of the Black gram yields. Hence, the objective of research study is to fit the trend models for the black gram yield of Maharashtra state. We found that there was an autocorrelation in the data set and as such the Cochrane and Orcutt procedure was used to fit trend models. It was found that Compound trend model was an appropriate model for this data set on the basis of R2. Finally, concluded that it is very important to analyze data set with statistical methods which take into account autocorrelation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 927-930
Nitesh Kumar Banjare and Leelesh Kumar Sahu
Department of Agricultural Economics, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study is conducted in Pusour and Baramkela blocks of Raigarh district of Chhattisgarh state. Accordingly twenty six villages are selected from these two blocks for the study. Total 150 farmers are considered for the present study comprised of marginal (53), small (46), medium (25) and large (26). The Primary data were collected from the farmers through personal interview with the help of well prepared and pre-tested schedule and questionnaire. The whole information is related to the crop year 2014-2015. The major findings of this study revealed that the overall family size is found as 5 to 6 members at all categories of farms. The average size of farm was worked out to be 2.26 hactare, overall an average cropping intensity was observed126.73 percent. An overall the cost of cultivation per hectare of ginger was calculated as ₹ 115520.47 and gross return is estimate as, ₹ 405388.03. The overall cost of cultivation per quintal was calculated as ₹ 771.64. The overall yield of ginger was 126.31 quintal per hectare. The input output ratio over total cost found to be 1:3.51. The cultivation of ginger is labour intensive and the farmers faced the problem of unavailability of labour. Hence, there is a need to bring mechanization in the production and post harvest management of ginger.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 931-934
P K Sori, H K Awasthi and Govind Prasad
Department of Agricultural Extension, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out during 2013-2014 in the purposively selected Kondagaon district in Bastar region of Chhattisgarh state with sample size of 112 respondents. The finding revealed that majority of the fish farmers were medium adoption category (76.78%). In case of practice wise level of adoption, majority of the fish farmers had full adoption regarding method of fish harvesting (43.75%), whereas partial level of adoption the practices were suitable harvesting rate of fish (65.17%), quality of fish seed (56.25%), while in case of not adoption of composite fish culture technology the practices were examination of fish health and growth (98.21%), application of feed in pond (84.82%), control of disease (82.14%), stocking of fish seed their suitable rate (81.25%). The variables like education, credit availability, source of information and knowledge about composite fish culture technology were found positively and highly significantly correlated with adoption of composite fish culture technology at 0.01 per cent level of significance and in case of multiple regressions only three variables i.e. fish farming experience, credit availability and knowledge about composite fish farming had highly significant and positive contribution towards adoption at 0.01 per cent level of significance
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 935-938
Rajmani, O P Yadav and A K Singh
Department of Agricultural Extension, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur - 208 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Majority of respondents belong to about age group, different sub caste of scheduled caste and backward caste and had high level of illiteracy, having kuccha house, single family with up to five member, agriculture labour groups and medium income groups. Most of them were not the member of any organization due to poor and unducated of respondents. Out of 120 respondents that majority of beneficent opinion about the MNREGA is a good programme for rural areas, provide mode of payment is satisfactory, solving the rural unemployment alleviation of rural poverty, providing the rural connectivity and water conservation facility. The constraints faced by the respondents like minimum wages paid on weekly basis, not availability of facility like medical facility and only availability of drinking water, shad crèche and 100 days work is not provided by Gram Panchayat.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 939-943
Shwati Pardhi, *Abhay Bisen and Neelam Jaiswal
Shri Ram College of Agriculture (IGKV), *S. K. S. College of Agriculture (IGKV), Thakurtola, District Rajnandgaon - 491 441, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. is a phytopathogenic fungus causes diseases such as twig blight, tip dieback, gummosis and bark splitting in horticultural crops viz. mango, sapota and cashew nut. Fifteen isolates of B. theobromae from these fruit crops were collected and their pathogenicity was confirmed in the laboratory. The early development of symptoms were observed in cashew nut (25-31 days) followed by mango (27-40 days) and symptoms initiation was late in sapota (39-49 days). Fifteen isolates when cross inoculated with the three hosts, it was observed that all isolates were establishing pathogenic reaction. The minimum growth (37.00 mm) of test isolates was attended by isolate BtM7 from mango. The percent growth inhibition of fungicides and botanicals were maximum in propiconazole (0.1%) with 92.40% followed by thiophanate methyl (0.2%) and hexaconazole (0.1%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 944-947
P R Dhutde, K H Pujari and *K N Dhawale
Department of Post Harvest Management of Fruit, Vegetable and Flower Crops, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli - 415 712, Maharashtra, India *Department of Post Harvest Technology, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujrat, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at the Department of Post Harvest Management of Fruit, Vegetable and Flower Crops, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli to standardize the physical and organoleptic parameters of spray drying sapota (Cv. Kalipatti) juice powder during storage. Maltodextrin levels exhibited a significant variation with respect to physical parameters such as recovery percentage, bulk density, moisture content and water activity of the powder. Based on the organoleptic evaluation, the sapota powder with 10 and 15 per cent maltodextrin was found to be the best with respect to high colour score, better flavour and overall-acceptability, but had low texture score. The Milkshake prepared by using spray dried sapota powder with different levels of maltodextrin was acceptable with respect to all organoleptic qualities. It has been recommended to the addition of maltodextrin @ 10 or 15 per cent for the preparation of best quality sapota juice powder and milkshake.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 948-951
Jeevitha Jeevi
Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to study the effect of six different spacing and two levels of fertigation on growth parameters of onion (Allium cepa L.) hybrid Arka Lalima at the Precision Farming Development Centre (PFDC) Department of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru during 2015-16. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with thirteen treatments three replications. The performance of spacings 10 cm (row to row) × 5 cm (plant to plant) 10 cm (row to row) × 10 cm (plant to plant), 15 cm (row to row) × 10 cm (plant to plant), 15 cm (row to row) × 15 cm (plant to plant), 20 cm (row to row) × 15 cm (plant to plant), 20 cm (row to row) × 10 cm and fertigation at 80 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers (100:60:100 kg NPK ha-1) and 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers (125:75:125 kg NPK ha-1) water soluble fertilizers (19:19:19, Urea and Sulpahte of Potash SOP) through drip fertigation was compared with soil application of normal fertilizers (Urea, DAP, MOP) and normal spacing 15 cm (row to row) × 10 cm (plant to plant). The results revealed that the fertigation with 80 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers and plants spaced at 20 cm (row to row) × 15 cm (plant to plant) produced the highest plant height (44.27 cm, 50.04 cm, and 55.76 cm at 30, 60 and 90 DAT respectively), number of leaves (5.57, 6.07 and 6.77 at 30, 60 and 90 DAT respectively) and leaf width (0.91cm, 1.13 cm and 1.50 cm at 30, 60 and 90 DAT respectively). Significantly lowest plant height (19.74 cm, 25.42 cm and 29.30 cm at 30, 60 and 90 DAT) number of leaves (2.67, 3.30 and 3.63 at 30, 60 and 90 DAT) and leaf width (0.31 cm, 0.40 cm and 0.51 cm at 30, 60 and 90 DAT) were obtained in soil application of normal fertilizers with normal spacing. From this investigation it can be concluded that significant results were noticed in onion hybrid Arka Lalima with respect to growth parameters when the plants are spaced at 20 cm (row to row) × 15 cm (plant to plant) and supplied with 80 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers through drip fertigation
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 952-955
Loitongbam Sulochana Devi and A K Bijaya Devi
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Lamphel - 795 004, Imphal, Manipur, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in the Horticultural Research Farm, Andro, Imphal- East during 2014-2015. The experiment consisting of seven treatments was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The treatment consisted of IGDa-4 (T1), IGDa-2 (T2), NAUDa-2 (T3), Da-199 (T4), Da-11 (T5), Da-25 (T6), and Local as check. The result revealed that growth parameters of greater yam viz. vine girth (1.02cm), leaf area (254.78 cm2) were recorded highest in Local while vine length (327.33 cm), number of leaves per plant (150.33) were found highest in treatment Da-11.Yield and other parameters of greater yam viz. length of tuber (27.40 cm), single tuber weight (1228.77g) tuber weight per plant (1228.77g) and tuber yield (15.17 t ha-1) were recorded highest in Local while diameter of tuber (12.13 cm) and number of tubers per plant (1.67) were recorded highest in Da-11 and Da-199.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 956-958
P M Nibin, R Sankar, U Bagavathi Ammal and Muthukumarasamy
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Trivandrum, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Investigations were carried out in the Agronomy Farm of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal, UT of Puducherry during kharif 2015 to find out the influence of effective microorganisms on growth and yield of bhendi. A field experiment was conducted in sandy loam soil (Fluventic Haplustept). Application of recommended doses of fertilizers, FYM, soil (2 L m-2) and foliar (1%) application of EM at fortnightly interval were taken up. Among the nine treatment combinations tried, application of RDF + FYM + soil and foliar application of EM solution was found to be beneficial in recording higher fruit yield, stubble DMP, biometric attributes and biochemical properties as well as nutrient status of the post harvest soil, which is comparable with RDF + FYM + EM either to soil or foliage application at fortnightly interval.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 959-962
Anjali Verma and Renu Mogra
Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Science, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Psyllium husk is rich in soluble and insoluble fiber, and other nutrients. It has clinical application in various diseases like gastrointestinal diseases, cardio vascular diseases, obesity, cancer and others. It also possesses many functional properties. Hence, an attempt was made to develop composite flour with psyllium husk powder and the developed product (biscuits) was evaluated for organoleptic characteristics, cost and consumer acceptability. Results revealed that 5 per cent (T1) incorporation of psyllium husk powder in composite flour was liked very much as compared to other combinations. Nutritional analysis revealed that 5% (T1 sample) psyllium husk powder incorporated composite flour retained moisture (12.56  0.02g), crude protein (12.57  0.41g), crude fat (3.83  0.02g), total ash (2.19  0.02g) crude fibre (2.52  0.01g), carbodydarte (66.32  0.36g), energy (350.04  0.12kcal), total dietary fibre (27.45  0.05g), calcium (88.15  0.04mg), iron (4.19  0.02mg), phosphorus (313.33  0.04mg), in-vitro protein digestibility (64.77  1.76%) and in-vitro iron bioavailability (0.716  0.00mg) per 100g. The developed psyllium husk powder incorporated composite flour was low-cost product and had good consumer acceptability.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 963-966
Mallu B Deshetti and M Y Teggi
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture (University of Agricultural Sciences), Vijayapur - 586 101, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to analyze the socio economic status and constraints faced by the dairy farmers in Vijayapur and Bagalakote districts. This study was conducted in 12 villages from 4 talukas of Vijayapur and Bagalakote districts by personal interviewing 52 dairy farmers. Here, majority of respondents (50.00%) belonged to large families, 46.15 per cent of Vijayapur farmers and 50.00 per cent of Bagalakote farmers belonged to low income group and majority about (67.27%) of land holding of farmers was irrigated and (22.55%) was dry land area. The high cost of fodder was the major production constraint for both Vijayapur and Bagalakote farmers. It is mainly due to the lack of irrigation facility in the village during summer season. While no scientific storage facility in village was the major marketing constraint for Vijayapur farmers and exploitation by the market intermediaries was the major constraint for Bagalakote farmers respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 967-969
M K Shruthi, T Sheshadri, Nagaraju and S B Yogananda
Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru during kharif-2016 to study the effect of drip fertigation on growth and yield of drip irrigated hybrid maize (Zea mays L.). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design using factorial concept involving different fertigation intervals and duration with varied levels of fertilizers and replicated thrice. The results revealed that application of 125 percent of recommended nitrogen and potassium through drip fertigation with four or eight days interval with fertigation duration of 25% at 0-30 DAS + 50% at 31-50 DAS + 25% at 51-80 DAS resulted in higher kernel yield (85.01q ha-1) and stover yield (101.32q ha-1). Whereas, drip fertigation of 75% of recommended nitrogen and potassium with the same fertigation duration was found on par with 100% recommended NPK application under surface irrigation method (69.65, 78.03 q ha-1 and 69.51, 76.94 q ha-1, respectively).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 970-973
Geethu Krishnan, K S Kumar and *R Rejani
Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana *ICAR-Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santoshnagar, Hyderabad, Telangana
Abstract
In the present study, an attempt has been made to predict the runoff from Nethravathi river basin of Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka using SWAT model for 36 years (1970-2005). The river basin is suffering from water scarcity during summer and severe runoff in rainy season and requires sustainable soil and water management interventions. The model was calibrated for the period 1995 to 1999 (R2 = 0.91) and validated for the period 2000 to 2005 (R2 = 0.86) using CWC (Central Water Commission) discharge data recorded at Bantwal station. The annual runoff in the basin ranged from 13.6 to 41.2% of annual rainfall with a mean of 29%. The mean annual runoff varied spatially from 774 to 1527 mm in different sub-basins. The mean annual runoff was higher in urban land (2040 mm), followed by orchard (1511 mm), forest (987 mm) etc. Based on the runoff estimated various soil and water management structures are suggested in critical basins.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 974-979
Akshay Angadi and Ravindra Mulge
Department of Vegetable Science, KRC College of Horticulture, Arabhavi - 591 218, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Exploitation of heterosis is an important approach in crop improvement adopted in many of the crops all over the world. Gene action studies showed predominant non-additive gene action for all the characters studied. The magnitude of heterosis over commercial check was high for all the characters. The lines TCR-250 (0.22), TCR-334 (0.16), K-3 (0.16), IC-45338 (0.11), IC-44433 (0.10) and Coimbatore Long (0.05) were identified as good general combiners for fruit yield per vine in order of their merit. The hybrids TCR-250 x CO-1 (0.16) and TCR-334 x Arka Harit (0.15) were identified as good specific combiners for fruit yield per vine and yield characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 980-983
G Mohan Naidu and A Jyothi Babu
Department of Statistics and Maths, S. V. Agricultural college, Tirupati - 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study aimed to forecast the sugarcane area, production and yield in India using univariate ARIMA models. To test the reliability of model R2 and Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE) were used. ARIMA (2,1,2), ARIMA (2,2,1) and ARIMA (2,1,1) were found appropriate for sugarcane area, production and yield. Using the models developed, forecast values for sugarcane area, production and yield are developed for subsequent years. The past 84 years data revealed that yield was increased from 35.4 t ha-1 in 1931-32 to 69.1 t ha-1 in 2014-15. The model projected 834.61 per cent increase in sugarcane production in the years to come by 2019-20 in India. Based on ARIAM output, sugarcane area likely to increase from 5271 thousand hectares in 2015-16 to 5517 thousand hectares in 2019-20; production will increase from 388777 thousand tonnes in 2015-16 to 411329 thousand tonnes in 2019-20 whereas yield increase from 70.4 t ha-1 in 2015-16 to 70.7 t ha-1 in 2019-20.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 984-987
Sandeep, Dharambir Singh, Jyoti Yadav and Hemlata
Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
The present investigation of 60 days dealt with the comparative analysis of effects of two pesticides viz. cartap and phorate on the survival, growth and reproductive capability of earthworms. For this, the earthworms cultured on pre- digested cowdung were exposed to cartap (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg), phorate (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg) and cartap + phorate (0.5 + 0.5, 0.75 + 0.75 and 1.0 + 1.0 mg/kg). Pesticides induce negative effects and the effects are more deteriorating when the duration of the exposure increases as observed in this study. Dose dependent significant reduction in growth (in terms of weight gain), reproduction (in terms of cocoon production and no. of juveniles emerged) and number of live earthworms has been observed. Maximum reduction has been caused to the earthworms exposed to cartap at the rate of 2 mg/kg.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 988-993
C Selvaraj and J S Kennedy
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A laboratory bioassay was conducted to investigate the antifeedant effect of Strychnus nux-vomica extracts on Diamond back moth, Plutella xylostella on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis). The extracts from different plant parts viz. leaves, seeds, stem bark, root bark and fruit rind of Strychnus nux-vomica were extracted in different solvents viz. ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, chloroform and were evaluated for their antifeedant effect on P. xylostella. The results revealed that EC formulations of different solvent extracts of S. nux-vomica revealed maximum antifeedant index in chloroform root bark 11.11 EC at 2 per cent concentration recording 87.95 per cent antifeedant index. The maximum antifeedant index was recorded in chloroform extract followed by hexane, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts. Antifeedant effect of plant parts of S. nux-vomica was in the order of root bark > seed > leaf > stem bark > fruit rind.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 994-999
N M Saiyad, *N N Chaudhary, **A S Thounaojam and ***S V Rathod
B. A. College of Agriculture, *Pesticide Residue, **Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India ***College of Agriculture (Junagadh Agricultural University), Amrelli - 365 601, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted at Main Forage Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand during kharif season of 2013-14. The chlorophyll content data indicated that S60 registered significantly maximum values for chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll at 30 DAS and harvest. Among different levels of Molybdenum, Mo @ 1 kg ha-1 gave significantly higher plant height at harvest (223 cm), number of branches per plant (4.41) as well as chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll at 30 DAS and at harvest and green forage yield (352 q ha-1). The plant population (11.94) at 15 DAS, plant height at 30 DAS (65.51 cm), leaf: stem ratio (0.74), dry matter yield (62.08 q ha-1) and crude protein yield (7.84 q ha-1) were statistically higher value were occurred under the application of 1.0 kg mo ha-1 (Mo1.0). The above findings reveal that addition of 60 kg S ha-1and 1 kg Mo ha-1 improves growth attributes and yield of forage cowpea under sulphur deficient Typic Ustrochrept soil of Anand.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 1000-1003
V S Radhika, Kadli Veeresh and G N Kulkarni
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important cereal food crop of the world with highest production and productivity as compared to rice and wheat. In spite of the drought last year, the maize production stood at 24.17 MT in 2014-15. Maize is grown in all the three seasons in an area of 936,000 ha, with an annual production of 273,000 tonnes and productivity of 2.9 tonnes/ha. The present study was under taken in Dharwad district to know the resource use efficiency and resource use pattern in maize cultivation. Multi-stage random sampling technique was employed for selection of the sample farmers. The 30 maize growing farmers are selected randomly from sample villages selected from Dharwad district. Analytical tools such as mean and averages, linear, quadratic and cobb-douglas production functions and budgeting technique were used. It was revealed from the study that per hectare cost of cultivation of Maize was ₹ 21509. Human labour cost was found to be the major item of variable cost of cultivation. The Gross and net returns per hectare of Maize cultivation were estimated to be ₹ 38609.29 and ₹ 17099.94, respectively. The benefit cost ratio was 1.80 indicated the profitability of cultivation of Maize in the study area. The analysis of resource use efficiency for maize under was revealed that bullock labour has significant impact on yield and seed, FYM and machine labour was underutilized and fertilizer, human labour and bullock labour were over utilized by the sample farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 1004-1007
Nikeeta Tiwari, *A K Bhowmick and Shwati Pardhi
Department of Entomology, Shri Ram College of Agriculture (IGKV), Thakur Tola, Rajnandgaon - 491 441, Chhattisgarh, India *College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract
Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.) is a stored grain pest which increases the post harvest losses in wheat. For developing an effective management strategy, adequate information on biology is essential. The results to study the biology of rice weevil S. oryzae (L.) on LOK-1 wheat and revealed that in stored wheat grain (LOK-1) variety S. oryzae has taken an average egg period of 4.33 days, larval and pupal period of 26.66 days and 8.33 days, respectively at room temperature. The total life cycle was completed in 39.33 days. Variety Sujata was found tolerant followed by JW-17, GW-3211, HD-2932 and HI-8498 (Malva Shakti) on which lowest orientation, lowest adults’ emergence, percent grain damage and percent loss in grain weight. Variety LOK-1 was found most susceptible on the basis of above parameter. Keeping in view the importance of the crop and huge losses caused by stored insect S. oryzae to wheat, the present study was carried out to study the biology of S. oryzae and its incidence in different varieties of stored wheat.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 1008-1013
T R Shanmugam, Usha Nandhini and R Sangeetha
Department of Agricultural Economics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agriculture today is a business proposition and no more it is regarded as a way of life. The vulnerable groups like landless labourers and sharecroppers face a variety of risks which have a bearing on their steady flow of income and their ability to build income generating assets. The study was conducted in ten districts of Tamil Nadu with the objectives to identify the constraints that involved in yield loss of selected crops and to assess and quantify the production risks at farm level for selected agricultural commodities. It was higher in banana crop followed by tomato, maize and groundnut. It shows that insect’s pests affect rice crop a lot of about 41%. Infestations by the disease are high in maize crop comparing to other crops which accounted 50%. Likewise, the major crop affected with nutrient deficiency was groundnut which was about 56%.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 1014-1015
K Sandeep, M Padma and R V S Reddy
Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, College of Horticulture, Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 30, Telangana
Abstract
F enugreek commonly called as methi is one of the oldest leafy vegetable crops grown for spice, condiments and medicinal purposes besides being consumed directly as vegetable
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 1016-1017
Shaheen Kouser, *Farahanaz Rasool, **Nighat Mushtaq and ***Rehana Jan
Division of Plant Pathology, *Directorate of Extension Education, **Division of Vegetable Sciences, ***Division of Soil sciences, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
T he enormous increase in our population has necessitated food production through alternate resources such as mushroom as the availability of arable land for traditional crops is unlikely to increase. There are about 5000 different species of mushrooms of which at least 1250 are reported to be edible. The cultivation of edible mushrooms is a biotechnological intervention for the conversion of various lingo-cellulosic agro-waste into proteins. Their cultivation on extensive scale can help solve many problem such as protein shortage, resource recovery and reuse as well as part of environmental management. The commercial mushroom cultivation is an appropriate agribusiness suiting the agro-climatic conditions of Jammu and Kashmir state. Its cultivation involves low-cost eco-friendly technology wherein locally available farm wastes are utilized as raw material. The temperate climatic conditions prevailing in Kashmir valley are quite conducive for mushroom cultivation almost throughout the year
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 4 ; 1018-1023
Binita Kumari
Department of Agricultural Economics, ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
Income inequality is a serious problem. Ninety percent of the world’s income is in hands of one per cent of the population. The focus should not just be on increasing the size of the cake but also on its equal distribution. A welfare state can be achieved only if equality is achieved. The following is an article on the income inequality status of population in India. In this paper, it is analyzed whether the Kuznets hypothesis is relevant in Indian context or not. Various dimensions of inequality i.e. in terms of class, caste, rural-urban etc. has been discussed and it has been concluded that income inequality exists in the before mentioned dimensions. As the income inequality is increasing, it may be compared with a ticking bomb which has a short fuse hence; if proper measures to reduce it are not taken then it may explode at any time.


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