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Volume - 8 - November - December 2017
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1261-1266
K S Aditya and K V Praveen
Division of Agricultural Economics, ICAR- Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Pusa - 110 012, New Delhi, India
Abstract
Crop insurance is an efficient and sustainable risk management option which can complement different crop based risk management strategies adopted by farmers. Crop insurance is very important in Indian context, as agriculture is dominated by small and marginal holdings with poor risk bearing ability. With frequency and magnitude of risks increasing during recent past due to climate change, Government is emphasizing on ensuring higher farmer participation in crop insurance schemes. This paper is a modest attempt to synthesize theoretical and conceptual framework of crop insurance, Indian crop insurance efforts, adoption of crop insurance and bottlenecks, and impact of insurance through intensive and exhaustive review of existing literature which may form basis for designing future policies
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1267-1274
A Nischala, K V Hariprasad and Y Peeru Saheb
Department of Entomology, S. V. Agricultural College (ANGRAU), Tirupati - 517 502, District Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
An experiment was conducted at the Department of Entomology, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati, at prevailing room temperature of 26 ± 2°C and R.H. of 60-95%. Among the different varieties of dry turmeric, Lasioderma serricorne showed longest developmental period when reared on Kasturi and least developmental period was observed when reared on Duggirala and Tekurpet giving Kasturi the status of least preferred variety; Duggirala and Tekurpet, the status of most preferred varieties for the growth and development of Lasioderma serricorne. Among the different varieties of dry ginger, the durations of different stages of Lasioderma serricorne were longest when reared on Malini and shorter durations were observed when reared on Local siddipet giving these two varieties the status of most preferred and least preferred varieties for growth and development of Lasioderma serricorne. The adults reared from least preferred variety Malini, were much smaller and laid few number of eggs (39.33 ± 1.15) compared to adults reared from the most preferred variety Local siddipet, where the adults were bigger and laid more number of eggs (50.00 ± 5.00).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1275-1277
K Archana and P Rambabu
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A study was conducted to know the extent of knowledge of MGNREGS beneficiaries on the activities of the scheme. One hundred and twenty respondents were randomly selected based on the criteria of maximum employment generation. The results revealed that majority of the beneficiaries belonged to medium knowledge category followed by high and low knowledge. Regarding the activities undergone, cent per cent of farmers were known about registration of families under MGNREGS was free of cost, it provides 100 days employment guarantee, wage employment was through bank or postal accounts and work is being provided during agricultural slack season. On the other hand majority of beneficiaries had no knowledge regarding financial expenditure, provision of entitlement, quality of work and social audit.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1278-1282
Manoj Kumar Sahu, Sant Ram Sahu, Indra Kemro and Nand Kishore
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi KrishiVishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Soybean wilt disease caused by Fusarium solani f.sp. glycine is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Sixsystemic fungicides viz. Hexaconazol 5EC, Tebuconazole 25WP, Metalaxyl 68WP, Taquat, Saff 75WP, Carbendazim 50WP and four non systemic fungicide viz. Captan 50WP, Mencozeb 75WP, Coperoxychloride 50WP and Sulphur 80WP were evaluated under in vitro by using poisoned food technique for their effect on the inhibition of mycelial growth against aggressive isolates of test pathogen. The inhibitory effect of all fungicides significantly increased with increase concentration, which good inhibited mycelial growth at all the five concentrations over the control. Among systemic fungicides, the maximum percent inhibitory effect was found by Tebuconazole (100%) at 50 ppm concentration. Captan (39.72%) proved to be the best non systemic fungicides giving best mycelial growth inhibition among non systemic fungicides.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1283-1286
A A Sayyed, V N Toprope and P B Wadik
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture (Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth), Latur - 413 512, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Mutations were induced in groundnut genotype, LGN 123 using Sodium azide (10 mM, 20 mM, 30 mM and 40 mM) as mutagene. The observations on eight quantitative characters viz. days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of mature pods per plant, harvest index, shelling percentage, kernel yield per plant (g) and pod yield per plant (g) were recorded in M2 generation. The days to 50% flowering, days to maturity period and plant height were not much affected. Wide genetic variations were observed for most of the quantitative traits studied as evidenced by higher mean, range, GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance was noticed in treated populations for number of mature pods per plant at 40mM, harvest index at 20mM, kernel yield per plant at 40 and 30 mM and pod yield per plant at 30 and 20 mM suggested the additive gene action and improvement of these characters could be made possible by simple selection
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1287-1289
Mohammad Waris and Pagoti Hemalatha
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Orissa university of Agriculture and technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
Most of the rice diseases are transmitted by seeds which are the important limiting factor getting good quality seeds and good yield. Stored and freshly harvested rice seed of different varieties were collected from Agricultural Farm of Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. The seeds were graded on the basis of intensity of discoloration. Stored seeds possessed higher seed discoloration (39.0-55.6%) than freshly harvested seeds (32.0-44.8%). Seed germination decreased with increase in discoloration intensity in both stored and fresh seeds. Germination was lowest in highest grade discoloration (>75%) in stored seed (14-39%) and also in freshly harvested (43-58%). Germination was below seed certification standard (80%) when intensity was >50% in fresh seed and when >25% in stored seed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1290-1292
Chetana Banasode and K K Math
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad on medium black soil during kharif season of 2015 to study the effect of foliar feeding of water soluble fertilizers on growth and yield of soybean in a Vertisol. Among different treatments, two foliar sprays of 1.0 per cent 19:19:19 recorded significantly higher growth parameters like number of branches per plant (5.20) and total drymatter production (25.77, 50.27 and 60.35 g plant-1 at 55, 75 DAS and harvest, respectively) and yield attributes like number of pods per plant (62.93), seed weight (24.51 g plant-1) and test weight (15.82 g). This has resulted in higher seed and haulm yields 27.50 and 36.27 q ha-1, respectively and the extent of increase was 22.98 and 25.37 per cent, respectively. This was closely followed by treatment which received urea (1%) and KNO3 (2%) (27.08 and 35.57 q ha-1, respectively) and one spray of 19:19:19 (1%) at 60 DAS (26.84 and 35.41 q ha-1, respectively). Lower yield values were recorded in control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1293-1295
Rekha, Somasekhar and A C Hosamani
Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
One of the major bottlenecks in successful production of okra is the damage caused by early season sucking pests and fruit borers. Among the sucking pests leafhoppers (Amrasca biguttula biguttula) is undoubtedly more severe and destructive on okra during early stage of the crop. At present, most of the commonly used insecticides are not able to suppress its population below economic thresholds probably because of development of resistance. Among the different insecticides tested for bioassay under laboratory conditions, thiamethoxam 25 WDG at 0.2 g per litre and flonicamid 50 WG at 0.3 g per litre showed the highest mortality and was followed by fipronil 5 SC at 1 ml per litre, dinotefuran 20 SG at 0.2 g per litre and acetamiprid 20 SP at 1 g per litre which proved to be superior over imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 0.3 ml per litre, diafenthiuron 50 WP at 1 g per litre, lamda-cyhalothrin 5 EC at 0.5 ml per litre, emamectin benzoate 5 SG at 0.2 g per litre, fenpyroximate 5 SC at 1ml per litre and acephate 75 SP at 1 g per litre. The concentration mortality response of nymphs to these chemicals under laboratory was evidenced through leaf dip bioassay and the LC50 values for these chemicals were computed. The LC50 value of thiamethoxam 25 WDG, flonicamid 50 WG, fipronil 5 SC, dinotefuran 20 SG and acetamiprid 20 SP were 4.03, 4.50, 16.18, 7.60 and 16.40 ppm respectively. The different insecticides which were promising through laboratory were field evaluated and the results revealed that thiamethoxam 25 WDG at 25 g a. i. per hectare was found to be effective against the leafhoppers followed by flonicamid 50 WG at 75 g a. i. per hectare, fipronil 5 SC at 25 g a. i. per hectare, dinotefuran 20 SG at 20 g a. i. per hectare and acetamiprid 20 SP at 20 g a. i. per hectare. Whereas, acephate 75 SP at 375 g a. i. per hectare was least effective against the leafhoppers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1296-1298
M L Jadhav, *S K Khot, **D A Khote and ***S B Patil
Department of Farm Power and Equipment, ICAR-CIAE, Nabi Bagh, Bhopal - 462 038, Madhya Pradesh *Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, CTAE, Udaipur, Rajasthan **Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha ***Department of Farm Machinery and Power, Dr. D. Y. Patil CAET, Talsande, Kolhapur, Maharashtra
Abstract
The proposed study was conducted to develop a multipurpose punching and cutting machine (machine) for tender coconut punching and cutting, mango slicing (pickle purpose) and sugarcane bud chipping. Till now no household tool or machine exist, which can combine these four operations with effective and safe performance. Present tools and trends used to perform these operations are unsafe and messy, which need skill and training. A machine was developed with easily available material and with less mechanical linkages and elements involvement for performing above operations based on the principle of lever mechanism of second kind, having overall dimensions of 150 × 60 × 45 cm with weight of 20 kg and made suitable for portable operation by changing of tools/blades. The performance evaluation of the developed machine showed that average coconut punching and cutting rate was 54 and 103 coconuts per hour. Pickle mangoes were cut at an average rate of 22.5 kg mangoes (8 pieces) per hour. Average sugarcane bud chipping rate was 1261 buds per hour. The payback period in terms of percentage of expected machine life was found 1.35, 1.02, 11.89 and 4.54 for coconut punching, cutting, raw mango cutting and sugarcane bud chipping operations respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1299-1302
C Ramachandra, Naveen Venkatesh Varad, A D Ranganatha and B S Sowmyalatha
Zonal Agricultural Research Station (UAS Bengaluru), V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at ZARS, V. C. Farm. Mandya during kharif 2014, to assess the nutrient, water requirement and economics of mechanized transplanted paddy. The experimental soil was sandy loam having moderate acidic in soil pH (5.30) and medium in organic carbon content (0.51%). The experiment consists of 12 treatment combinations comprised main plot treatment of water management practices (04) and subplots of nutrient management practices (03) were laid out in split plot design with three replications. The results revealed that maintaining saturation throughout the crop growth stage recorded significantly higher grain yield (6459 kg ha-1), gross returns (₹ 91500 ha-1), net returns (₹ 50893 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.25) compared to 3 and 5 DADPW. Higher water use efficiency was observed with irrigation scheduling 5 DADPW (59.60 kg ha-cm-1) found significantly superior over 3 DADPW. Among different nutrient management practices application of 150% RDF resulted in higher grain yield (6314 kg ha-1), higher gross returns (₹ 91500 ha-1), net returns (₹ 50893 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.25) and higher water use efficiency (48.12 kg ha-cm-1) than to 100% RDF and 125% RDF. Interaction between water and nutrient management practices was found non significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1303-1307
M Eswara Raghava Kumari, A Vijaya Gopal, R Lakahmipathy and V Manoj Kumar
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Agriculture P/G College, Lam, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) is the rhizosphere bacteria that can enhance plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms. A lab experiment was conducted in the year of 2016-17 at the Department of Agricultural Microbiology. In the present study eight soil samples were collected fromblack gram rhizospheric soils of Ananthapur district. From those soil samples sixteen bacterial strains were isolated. Cultural, morphological and biochemical characterization of these sixteen isolates was done and then identified as eight isolatesRhizobium and eight isolates was pseudomonas. All isolates were gram negative.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1308-1312
Sushma Tamta and P S Kashyap
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 153, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Evaporation is a process by which liquid water is converted into water vapour. It is a very important component of hydrologic cycle and water resources problems. It is used to estimate the potential evapotranspiration and water resources management. In the present study the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Co-Active Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (CANFIS) models were developed for estimating evaporation. The data set consisted of four years of daily records from 2010 to 2013. The daily data of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, sunshine hour were used as input and the evaporation was used as the output. For estimation of evaporation 70% data was used for training and 30% for testing of models. ANN and CANFIS were used for designing of models based on activation functions; Sigmoid Axon and Tanh Axon and learning rules; Levenberg Marquardt and Delta Bar Delta with 1000 number of epochs, three hidden layers (1, 2, 3) with 1, 2, 3...8 neuron in each hidden layers. Gaussian and Generalized Bell shaped membership functions were used in CANFIS. The performance of MLR, ANN, and CANFIS models was compared on the basis of statistical functions such as RMSE, R2, and CE. The results indicate that the ANN performed superior to the MLR and CANFIS, while CANFIS performed better than MLR model. It was concluded that the ANN model can be successfully employed for the estimate on of daily evaporation at Hawalbagh, Almora.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1313-1316
Rahat Ashraf, Z A Bhat, *M H Khan and **Waseem Raja
Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, *Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, **Division of Agronomy
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out under All India Coordinated Research Project at Regional Research Station, Wadura, Sopore SKUAST-Kashmir during year 2014. The results of the study revealed that all the vegetative characters were significantly influenced by weed management practice Three hoeing and pendimethalin + imezethapyr + 2, 4-D + one hoeing recorded significantly highest plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and the same treatment produced maximum corms plant, cormels plant corm weight (kg ha-1) cormel weight (kg ha-1) followed by pendimethalin + imezethapyr + 2, 4-D + one hoeing as compared to other treatment including control. The economics of different treatments under study exhibited wide variations. Pendimethalin + imezethapyr + one hoeing and pendimethalin + imezethapyr + 2, 4-D + one hoeing recorded higher benefit cost return compared to other treatments. The lowest benefit cost ratio was observed in control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1317-1320
Pooja Pahare and *Sumit Biswas
Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, *Department of Fruit Science and Horticulture Technology, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha
Abstract
A field trial was conducted in the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar to find out the effect of plant growth regulators at three concentrations viz. GA3 (25, 50 and 100ppm) on growth and flowering of Vinca roseus (Catharanthus roseus L.) during May 2015 to September 2015. The growth regulators were applied in form of foliar spray, once at 30 days after planting (DAS) seedlings and again after 30 days of first application. Plants sprayed with distilled water served as control. The results of the study revealed that application of GA3 at 100 ppm recorded significantly higher plant height(35.33, 37.73, 38.03, 72.96 and 75.33cm) number of leaves per plant (453.66 Nos) at 105 DAS as compared to control which recorded 162.33, 180.66, 228.66, 293.33 and 322.33 Nos respectively. Although there was improvement in number of flowers, flower size and duration of flowers under this treatment as compared to control, the difference was not significant. On the other application of GA3 at 50 ppm significantly reduced the time taken for flower bud initiation (17.33 days) and days to 1st flowering from the date of bud initiation (4.33 days) as compared to control which took 22.33 & 7.66 days respectively for the same.A field trial was conducted in the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar to find out the effect of plant growth regulators at three concentrations viz. GA3 (25, 50 and 100ppm) on growth and flowering of Vinca roseus (Catharanthus roseus L.) during May 2015 to September 2015. The growth regulators were applied in form of foliar spray, once at 30 days after planting (DAS) seedlings and again after 30 days of first application. Plants sprayed with distilled water served as control. The results of the study revealed that application of GA3 at 100 ppm recorded significantly higher plant height(35.33, 37.73, 38.03, 72.96 and 75.33cm) number of leaves per plant (453.66 Nos) at 105 DAS as compared to control which recorded 162.33, 180.66, 228.66, 293.33 and 322.33 Nos respectively. Although there was improvement in number of flowers, flower size and duration of flowers under this treatment as compared to control, the difference was not significant. On the other application of GA3 at 50 ppm significantly reduced the time taken for flower bud initiation (17.33 days) and days to 1st flowering from the date of bud initiation (4.33 days) as compared to control which took 22.33 & 7.66 days respectively for the same.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1321-1323
Binita Rani, Prakash Chandra Gupta and Rajeev Kumar
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Bihar Agriculture University), Patna, Bihar, India
Abstract
Cluster Frontline Demonstration was conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Patna, Bihar to study the impact of Cluster Frontline Demonstration with different techniques like use of improved cultivar, seed treatment, weed management and insect-pest management on production and productivity of summer green gram (moong). It was observed that demonstrated summer moong variety (HUM-16) with scientific package and practice of moong performed very well as compared to local variety grown by farmers as there was 24.49% yield gap between both the cultivars. In the same manner, cultivation of HUM-16 variety of summer moong with scientific practices gave 2.27 q/ha higher yield in comparison to the local variety grown. This study clearly indicates that the cultivation of HUM-16 summer moong with scientific package and practices can play a major role in improving the quantity of seed production of summer moong and may contribute significantly in state and national pulse production programme.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1324-1327
Santoshi Pradhan, N Lakpale and A Pradhan
Department of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Agriculture University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilzeck) is one of the most important short duration pulse grown in India. Among various factors which affect the seed health, the most important is seed borne fungi that cause reduction in seed germination and seed vigour. In this context, present investigation was carried out to detect the mycoflora associated with the seeds of mungbean collected from five mung bean growing districts of Chhattisgarh i.e. Ambikapur, Jagdalpur, Raigarh, Balod and Kawardha by two incubation methods viz. Standard blotter and agar plate. The maximum frequency of mycoflora (40.62% , Fusarium sp.) were detected in seed lot of Kawardha district followed by Balod district seed lot (36.34%) with frequency of different detected mycoflora as Aspergillus niger (30.20%), Alternaria sp. (2.08%) and Penicillum sp. (2.08%). In Raigarh and Jagdalpur district seed lots minimum frequency of mycoflora (3.12%) were detected among all seed lots. While associated seed borne mycoflora detected by agar plate method shows the maximum frequency of mycoflora in Kawardha district seed lot (112%) followed by Jagdalpur district seed lot (82%) Minimum frequency of mycoflora detected in Raigarh (47%) followed by Ambikapur (63%) and Balod (80%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1328-1333
Kitila Walling and J Longkumer
Department of Agricultural Extension, School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development, Nagaland University, Medziphema - 797 106, Nagaland
Abstract
A study was conducted in Mokokchung district of Nagaland during the period 2014-2015 to access the socio-economic profile of UNDP project beneficiaries. The study revealed that majority (71.66%) of the beneficiaries belong to the category of 43-58 years, 65% were male respondents, 35% studied upto high school, 40.83% had 6-10 years of farming experience, 73.33% of the beneficiaries’ annual income ranged from ₹ 50,000 – 1,20,000, 85% had medium mass media exposure, 79.17% had medium extension contact and information seeking behavior, 71.67% had high level of training exposure conducted by the UNDP and 83.33% had medium level of social participation. It was found that 69.17% of the beneficiaries had medium level of awareness/knowledge in respect of project activities namely women participation, revolving fund, integrated farming development (IFD), soil and water conservation and livelihood generating activities. Regarding adoption level it was found that the beneficiaries fully adopted women participation in decision making (62.5%), followed by tree plantation for soil and water conservation and income generation (51.67%), piggery (43.33%), contour bunding (40.83%) and poultry (38.33%). Partially adopted activities by majority of the beneficiaries were women participation in farming activity (55.83%), water harvesting structure (37.5%) and half moon terrace (40.83%). Non adoption of the project activities were revolving fund (75.83%), integrated development farming (84.17), mulching (65%), pig banking (40%) and azolla cultivation (70.83%). The study revealed that the major constraints faced by the beneficiaries were inadequate transportation facilities, lack of veterinarians, shortage of farm labour, lack of training, lack of technical knowledge, lack of improved farm implements, no proper marketing facilities, problem in getting quality seeds and problem in irrigation facilities. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the independent variables viz. educational status, income, mass media contact and extension contact and adoption index.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1334-1336
N Sampada, N Revathy and *S Tanuja
Department of Plant Pathology, Agriculture College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Microbiology, University of Agricultural Science (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka
Abstract
In this study, fungal and bacterial bio control agents were screened against the management of one of emerging disease Sheath rot in rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae at the department of plant pathology, TNAU, Madurai. Five isolates of Trichoderma viride, 8 isolates of Bacillus subtilis and 8 isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated against S. oryzae. The results showed that the maximum mycelia growth reduction of 83.52 per cent over control was observed by bacterial bio agent Bacillus subtilis3 (Bs3) followed by B. subtilis6 (Bs6) recording 81.41 per cent and Pseudomonas fluorescens8 (Pf8) recording 80.11 per cent and Trichoderma viride recorded 63.41 per cent disease reduction over control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1337-1340
Ila Agnihotri, *J R Sharma and **M P Punia
Regional Remote Sensing Centre-West (RRSC-W/NRSC), Indian Space Research Organization, Jodhpur - 342 003, Rajasthan, India *National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Indian Space Research Organization, Jodhpur - 342 003, Rajasthan **Birla Institute of Technology, Malviya Nagar, Jaipur - 302 017, Rajasthan
Abstract
Agriculture supports the overall socio-economy of India where most of the rural population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Ensuring sustainable food security to the rapidly increasing population in a scenario of uneven climate and stressed natural resources is a challenge. The research work presents the spatiotemporal analysis of annual and monsoon season cropped area within a basin and identification of regions where decline was found. The cropped area was analyzed in a basin, its sub-basins and watersheds in ten crop years (July to June) from 2004-05 to 2013-14. The decadal linear trend was calculated and analyzed spatially using Arc Map. The average crop area in the basin was 7343.71 Th. ha annually and 6297.48 Th. ha in monsoon season. The watershed wise variations indicated variations from 0 to 116.29 Th. ha annually and from 0 to 105.86 Th. ha in monsoon season. Trend analysis of the same indicated cyclical variations with an overall increasing trend. The declining trend clusters were identified as one in Kutch at central part of the basin, one in Saurashtra covering major part of the southern including south-western and south-eastern part of the basin and one in Marwar adjacent to north-eastern border of the basin.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1341-1343
R K Naik, S K Jha and S Sarkar
ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore, Kolkata - 700 120, West Bengal
Abstract
Four manual weeders were evaluated in line sown jute crop at ICAR-Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, Barrackpore. The CRIJAF Single Wheel Jute Weeder was found to be the most suitable for jute and similar line sown crops with regards to its highest field capacity (0.026 ha/h), highest weeding index (81.65%), highest performance index (2021.42), less plant damage (4.78 %) and lowest cost of weeding (1672.47 ₹/ha). It was easy to operate and involved less human drudgery during its operation among all the weeding devices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1344-1347
Chunni Kumari, Y K Yadu and Sonali Deole
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 490 12, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted during kharif, 2016 at Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with ten treatments and three replications. Defoliators are the most damaging insect pest of soybean. In the evaluation of plant products against defoliators of soybean garlic + green chilli @ 8.75 kg/ha was most effective against defoliators S. litura and C. acuta after first spray having 0.29, 0.57 and in second spray having 0.16 and 0.27 larva/mrl.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1348-1350
P Pushpa, S N Hanchinal, B S Shwetha, A P Ramesh and Itigi Prabhakar
College of Horticulture (University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot), Sirsi - 581 401, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Livestock rearing in rural systems is not the primary occupation for the rural population but serves instead as a support enterprise to agriculture. Mixed herds with goats, sheep, cattle and buffaloe are found in this system. Peri-urban systems comprise mostly milk animals. Livestock rearing is gaining importance in peri-urban villages with more families involved over time. In view of this, a study was undertaken to analyze economic performance of livestock production systems of periurban and rural livestock owners of Belgaum district. Totally 160 respondents of 8 villages in periurban and rural areas was interviewed by administering the standardized interview schedule. Most of the respondents (41.25%) belonged to good performing units, followed by 36.25 per cent of respondents belonged to very good performing units. Rice or wheat bran is the feed type which was purchased in more quantity by both rural (56.87 kg) and peri-urban (242.75 kg) farmers. Both the average expenditure (4587) and net returns (4649) from livestock in peri-urban area are greater than the average expenditure (₹ 1228) and net returns (2691) from livestock in rural areas.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1351-1353
K Ravi, Sunil Pareek, K Pavan and A Shashank
Department of Horticulture, Rajasthan College of Agriculture (MPUAT), Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
This study was designed to evaluate the oxalic acid treatments affectivity on ber fruit cv. ‘Gola’ regarding fruit quality. Prior to storage fruits were subjected to 10 min dipping in aqueous solution of oxalic acid at different concentrations (2 mM, 4 mM, 6 mM, 8 mM and 10 mM). Ethylene evolution rate, quality parameters (Acidity, Ascorbic acid) and total antioxidants were measured. The results revealed by dipped for 10 min at ambient temperature with 10 mM oxalic acid, the ethylene evolution rate was initially increased up to 5th day and then decreased. During the storage, the acidity, ascorbic acid and total antioxidants showed a decreasing trend throughout the storage period. It was suggested that 10 mM oxalic acid is beneficial in extending the shelf life up to 9 days at room temperature, and maintaining quality parameters by maintaining physiology and enzymatic activity of ber fruits
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1354-1357
A Anantha Rama and L Krishna Naik
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In the present study, the combination of biocontrol agents along with PGPRs like P solubilizers and N2 fixers as soil application is more effective in improving crop growth and yield parameters as compared to uninoculated plants. The result obtained were clearly revealed that the combined application of Trichoderma viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus megaterium and Azotobacter chroococcum were significantly increased plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, number of fruits per plant, fresh fruit yield per plot of okra and significantly reduced the root rot incidence in the plots where the above said biocontrol agents and PGPRs treated.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1358-1361
M B Tengli and *O P Sharma
Division of Dairy Extension, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana *Department of Agricultural Extension, NMCA, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat
Abstract
Adoption is a mental process of an individual; it is a decision of full use of an innovation as the best course of action available. The aforementioned study was conducted in Navsari and Surat districts of South Gujarat during the year 2014-2016. The primary data was collected from 100 respondents by following personal interview method and using structured interview schedule. After the analysis of the collected data it was observed that, majority of the respondents (75.00%) were under medium level of adoption category. With regards to adoption of individual practices, majority of the respondents (76.00%) have adopted the recommended paddy variety, followed by recommended pesticide for brown plant hopper (71.00%). Less than 30.00 percent of respondents adopted split application of nitrogen, chemical for seed treatment (29.00 %) and recommended herbicide in transplanted field (25.00%). The study also reported that there was significant and positive relationship between overall adoption and risk orientation and scientific orientation, while non-significant and negative relationship was exist with material possession and extension contact of respondents with their overall adoption by respondents. The above results compel the research and extension system to work on less adopted practices and week relationship in a pragmatic way.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1362-1365
M Mallikarjun and S K Maity
Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati University, Sriniketan - 731 236, West Bengal
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted during kharif and rabi seasons of 2015-16 and 2016-17 to study energetics of integrated nutrient management (INM) practices in rice and subsequent Yellow Sarson grown under residual nitrogen (N) in soil. Different energetic parameters were estimated individually for rice, Yellow Sarson and over the rice-Yellow Sarson together. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eight treatments including six INM practices, one chemical practice and one control (i.e. no N) with three replications. The results revealed that INM practices involving 25% replacement of N through green manuring or brown manuring with dhaincha and 50% replacement of N through organics (FYM and Azolla dual cropping) came out to be best in terms of energy indices like energy output, energy productivity and energy ratio. The practice of 75% N as chemical fertilizer with dhaincha brown manuring recorded the highest energy output (218.7MJ × 103), energy productivity (209.7 Kg MJ-1 × 103) and energy ratio (14.81).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1366-1368
Kedar Nath Yadaw and *M L Sharma
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (IGKV), Dantewada - 494 441, Chhattisgarh, India *Department of Agricultural Extension, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492012, Chhattisgarh
Abstract
Sericulture has been recognized as an important sector for the economy of rural poor, because of its potential for strengthening the economy by providing employment and additional earnings. Sericulture involves rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk, which is the yarn obtained out of cocoons spun by certain species of insects. In Chhattisgarh, Tropical Tasar (Antheraea mylitta) is mostly reared at commercial scale on the Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) and Asan (Terminalia tomentosa) trees. The study was undertaken with a total of 270 sericulturists as respondents selected from 18 villages of Korba and Raigarh districts of Chhattisgarh state. Primary data from sericulturists were collected through personal interview with the help of pre-tested structured interview schedule. Under this study the psychological characteristics i.e. attitude, cosmopoliteness, level of aspiration, self confidence, scientific orientation, economic motivation and knowledge level of sericulturists was studied. The findings of the study reveals that the maximum number of the respondents (46.67%) had low cosmopoliteness, 50% were found to be of low level of aspiration, 65.92% of sericulturists had medium self confidence, 60.74% of the respondents belonged to high level of scientific orientation category, 76.30% were having medium economic motivation, 98.52% expressed moderately favourable attitude towards improved tasar silk cultivation and maximum number of the respondents (76.30%) were in the high knowledge level category.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1369-1373
Debashis Dash and Birendra Kumar
Department of Agricultural Communication, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 153, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The study is an attempt to understand how personal, socio-psychological, economic and situational characteristics of rural youth affect the vocational training needs in agriculture related areas. Investigation was carried out in Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand. Analytical research design was used along with the qualitative methods. The respondents (n=120) were the youth residing in the villages at the time of investigation. Disproportionate stratified random sampling technique was used for sample collection from three villages representing agricultural progressiveness in decreasing order. Pre-tested interview schedule was used for data collection. The inferential statistical tools like mean, weighted mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentage, coefficient of correlation and t- test were used for analysis of data. Majority of respondents had high level of innovativeness and medium level of achievement motivation, leadership ability, risk preference, occupational aspiration and Cosmopoliteness. Most of the respondents were highly interested to become entrepreneurs followed by engineers and doctors. Age (r=0.232), gender (r=0.322), caste (r=0.204), achievement motivation (0.188), mass media exposure (r=0.191) had significant relationship with vocational training needs. While gender and caste was negatively related to the vocational training needs. Other variables viz. Education, Family size, Family type, Innovativeness, leadership ability, risk preference, occupational aspiration and Cosmopoliteness has non-significant positive relationship between with the vocational training needs in agriculture related areas.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1374-1376
Bharti
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Birsa Agricultural University), Dhanbad - 828 122, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
This study was conducted on 80 Self-Help Group (SHG) members of four village of Dhanbad district of Jharkhand with the objectives to assess the empowerment of women through SHG and to explore income generated activities initiated by SHG members and associated problems. Findings indicated that SHGs helped in empowerment of women by implanting them financial position, decisions pertaining to general welfare of the family influence over political activities and their own development. The SHG members have also adopted income generating activities promoted by banks.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1377-1386
D K Verma and Suheel Ahmad
Grassland and Fodder Laboratory, ICAR- Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Srinagar - 190 005, K. D. Farm, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
The present work was conducted to identify the variability among the red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) germplasms. Traits of 27 landraces of white clover from the Srinagar and Budgam of JK, Western Himalaya, India was studied during the crop season 2013. A total of 27 accessions (IC-0615769 to IC-0615795) with feed and fodder traits were identified. Perennial herb length ranged from 36.07 to 73.32cm, petiole length ranged from 10.37 to 18.93cm, stipule length from 2.76 to 9.03mm, leaf length from 2.09 to 6.00cm, leaf breadth from 2.16 to 13.96mm, leaflets/pinnae from 11.80 to 19.87, leaflet length from 14.63 to 23.54mm, leaflet breadth from 2.64 to 16.37mm, number of pinnae/leaf (pairs) from 2.23 to 4.92, flowering head length (condensed spikes) from 0.51 to 0.92cm, peduncle length from 10.25 to 15.04cm, fruiting stalk length from 1.85 to 5.24cm, fresh fodder yield from 3.24 to 5.91Kg m-2, dry fodder yield from 2.53 to 5.39Kg m-2, number of flowers/flower head from 4.26 to 20.66, number of perfect flowers/head from 2.1 to 14, number of sterile flowers/head from 0.18 to 9.33, number of pods/fruiting stalk from 3.07 to 14.12, number of seeds/pod 3.31-6.88, seed length from 2.47 to 3.97mm, seed diameter from 1.71 to 2.61mm, pod diameter from 2.11 to 2.97cm, pod length from 10.39 to 14.98cm, 1000-seed weight from 5.62 to 6.37g and seed yield from 4.15 to 4.97 q/ha. Accession No. IC-0615781 was found suitable as high yielding fodder strain from North Western Himalaya with good nutritive value.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1387-1390
K Mallikarjunarao, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Kouser Parveen Wani and Aashish Vivek Vaidya
Division of Vegetable Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken with 24 genotypes of radish for evaluating their performance for various horticultural characters. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among genotypes for all the characters under study. The genotype CO-1 was found to possess maximum number of root weight (149.62 g), leaf number (17.69), leaf weight (146.73 g), yield per plant (296.35 g) and TSS (5.530Brix) while, White Round recorded for maximum root diameter (4.44 cm). Length of root was highest in variety HK-111 (28.48) followed by IIVR-2 (28.05 cm) and lowest was observed in Anantnag Red Round (10.14 cm). The cultivar Dronagiri was noted for maximum leaf width (13.75 cm), shoot to root ratio (1.28) and the genotype Moti Tawai Long Leaf was found to be tallest with leaf length of (35.24 cm). Vitamin C was highest in Chinese Pink (26.05 mg) followed by Kalyani White (24.31 mg) and Anantnag Red Round (23.94 mg) whereas total dry matter of roots was recorded highest in Japanese White (6.79%) followed by Kalayani White (6.71%). The estimates of mean values revealed that no single genotype was superior for all the characters. However genotypes CO-1, Kalayani White, IIVR-1, HK-111, Chinese Pink, White Round, Punjab Safed and IIVR-2 showed better performance with respect to root weight and root weight attributing traits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1391-1394
Mukesh Kumar Seth, Jayant Kumar Nishad and Umesh Jaiswal
Department of Agricultural Economics, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidalya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The study on economic analysis of paddy cultivation was fulfilled with the specific objectives to estimate costs and return in paddy cultivation and constraints faced by the farmers in cultivation of paddy was conducted in Bastar plateau during the year 2014-2015. A representative 100 sample farmers were interviewed by using a well structured schedule. Formal survey method was used to augment data from sample of paddy growers. The findings of the study revealed that the average farm size of sample farmers was registered to be 2.13 ha. Overall, cost of cultivation of paddy was accounted ₹/ha 30656.1, which comprised of 44.78 percent of labour cost followed by input materials cost (21.03%) and fixed cost (34.19%), respectively. Overall, yield of paddy was registered to be 29.69 q/ha as a main product and obtained by-product to be 72.05 q/ha. The gross return was obtained to be ₹/ha 42539.9 by sample paddy growers in study area. Average net return came to ₹/ha 11885.1. The average cost on per quintal production of paddy was ₹/q 398.07and the average input output ratio was 1:1.39, and maximum at medium farms. The major constraints in the production of paddy were irrigation facilities i.e. reported by 78% farmers followed by high cost of labour (72%) and high cost of input (71%) respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1395-1398
Akhilesh Kumar, A K Gupta and S C Mukherjee
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidalya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at Shaheed Gundadhoor College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagdalpur, Bastar during 2015-16. In pest succession studies, six species of different insect pests were recorded, among these some were found damaging the tree while others were only visitors presented in very few numbers. Maximum fruit borer infestation of 19.91 infested pods/unit area was recorded during second week of October with seasonal mean of 9.70 fruit borer infested pods/unit area. Peak population of mealy bugs was recorded during second week of October with 29.58 nymphs and adults/unit area. Two peaks of scale insects were observed, first in the fourth week of September followed by second week of November with 28.83 and 29.95 scale insects/unit area. Peak population of plant hopper 20.76 nymphs and adults/unit area recorded during second week of October. Peak activity period of tree hopper was recorded during second week of October with 5.73 nymphs and adults/unit area with the seasonal mean of 2.52 nymphs and adults/unit area. From all these species of insect pest of tamarind, fruit borer recorded as major pest.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1399-1405
Vaibhav Pathak, G Padmavathi, L V Subbarao, V Rabindrababu and Susmita Dey
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The analysis of variance was carried out for 10 agronomic traits of sixty genotypes. In this study, 60 rice germplasm accessions were assessed for genetic variability and correlations between yield and yield components. Data was recorded on 10 quantitative traits namely plant height (cm), total tillers, effective tillers, panicle length (cm), days to maturity (Days), grain length (mm), grain width (mm), 100 (g), protein content (%) and grain yield (g). The objectives are (a) To characterize the germplasm accessions for yield traits (b) to estimate genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for yield and its component traits. (c) To understand the degree and direction of association between yield and its components and among themselves. Thus the identification of important components and information about their association with yield and other traits are very useful for developing efficient breeding strategy for evolving high yielding varieties. The overall results indicted the core set of germplasm accessions contained high genetic variability.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1406-1410
Santosh Swamy, V P Savalgi and P U Krishnaraj
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Experiments were conducted to study the influence of azide resistant mutants of Azospirillum in combination with different levels of nitrogen on growth, nitrogen uptake and yield of maize variety DMH–2. Isolated strains of Azospirillum ACD-7 and ACD-8 with their respective azide resistant mutants ACD-701 and ACD-802 and a reference strain ACD-15 were used in the study. Inoculation of azide resistant mutants of Azospirillum showed greater influence on plant growth parameter, endorhizosphere population, rhizosphere population, nutrient uptake and yield of maize as against inoculation of wild type Azospirillum reference strain and uninoculated control. The maximum plant height, biomass and N uptake was observed in plants inoculated with ACD-701 and ACD-802, when compared to other treatments inoculated with wild type, reference strains and the uninoculated control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1411-1416
Bijayalaxmi Nayak and *C Patel Meena
Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneshwar - 751 003, Odisha *Institute of Distance Education, Anand Agriculture University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out on random sample of total 120 agricultural extension educationists who were involved in agricultural research, education and extension work from various faculties, departments, sub-centers and KVKs of Anand Agricultural University of Gujarat. The methodological procedure consisted of one dependent and thirteen independent variables. An interview schedule was developed in English in accordance with the objectives of the study. The data were collected through interview schedule by personally contacting Agricultural extension educationists. Ex-Post-Facto research design was applied for the study. For measurement of independent variables, different scales and scoring techniques developed by other scientists were used with slight modifications. The collected data were classified, tabulated and analyzed in light of the objectives in order to make the finding meaningful. The statistical tools, such as percentage, frequency, mean score, arbitrary method of classification and coefficient of correlation were used. The major findings were majority (73.33%) of the agricultural extension educationists had favourable opinion about agricultural community radio.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1417-1421
Anshuman Jena and A P Kanungo
Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneshwar - 751 003, Odisha
Abstract
Young farmers can play an important role in ensuring food security, if they are encouraged to involve in farming and the challenges they face are addressed. The present study has delved deeper into the comparative perceptual analysis of youth towards agriculture and agripreneurship between tribal district (Mayurbhanj) and coastal district (Jagatsinghapur) of Odisha by taking 240 respondents out of which 120 each from tribal and coastal areas through proportionate stratified sampling. It is found that 30.83% and 44.2% of coastal youth from farming background had showed interest in agriculture and agripreneurship and felt it as a beneficial occupation respectively in respect to 16.7% and 30.83% of tribal youth. The attitude analysis of youth towards agriculture and agripreneurship showed that coastal (133.03) has the dominance on tribal youth (107.97).It is found that there is 34.03% gap in personal constraints in coastal areas whereas in tribaareasl, highest gap percentage prevailed in social constraints (21.32%) followed by economic constraints (19.21%) in their involvement in agriculture. It is also revealed that tribal youth needs better credit facility (mean=2.81) followed by various subsidies (2.74), better market facilities (2.73), whereas coastal youth needs insurance coverage for all crops (2.53), capacity building (2.4) and climate smart agriculture (2.36) to ensure their more engagement in farming and agripreneurship.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1422-1428
Somdas Sahu, G K Sharma and T Chandrakar
S. G. College of Agriculture and Research Station, Jagdalpur, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to calibrate soil test based balanced nutrition for rice under System of Rice Intensification during 2016. Available NPK before planting ranged between 200.2-238.3, 10.3-32.1 and 311.1-459.0 kgha-1 respectively. The larger variation in grain yield was accounted for N alone. About 95% of the yield variations were estimated due to fertilizer N and P only. Nutrient requirement were estimated as 1.57 kg N, 0.29 kg P and 1.65 kg K to produce one quintal of grain. The fertilizer efficiencies of N, P and K were estimated as 36.52, 26.25 and 84.22 per cent, respectively. The efficiencies of soil test were recorded as 32.60% N, 73.11% P and 20.36% K. The efficiency of FYM was observed as 7.04, 6.58 and 3.82 per cent N, P and K. Fertilizer prescription equations and ready reckoner, useful for similar soil conditions was evolved to achieve a definite yield target.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1429-1431
G Uday Kumar, Devi Singh, V M Prasad and Azmeera Vishnu
Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was under taken at Department of Horticulture, Allahabad School of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, during the year 2014-15. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 14 treatments replicated thrice. The treatments comprised of FYM, vermicompost, poultry manure and bio-fertilizer (Azotobacter and PSB) with 50% RDF and 75% RDF in different combinations including control (No fertilizers and manures) and 100% RDF. The results revealed that application of 75% RDF + FYM @ 2t ha-1 + Vermicompost @ 0.6 t ha-1 + Poultry manure @ 0.4 t ha-1 + Azotobacter @ 2.5 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 2.5 kg ha-1 (T7) produced significantly minimum days to sprouting (10.53), maximum plant height (135.33 cm), number of leaves per plant (13.13), total fresh weight of plant (119.73 g). This treatment was also significantly noted to induce early flowering (81.47 days), duration of flowering (12.67 days), longetivity of first floret (6.80 days), spike length (81.27 cm), floret diameter (11.33 cm), floret length (11.71 cm). However, the maximum number of spikes per plant (2.53), number of spikes per plot (41.60), and number of spikes per hectare (281,481.20) were shown maximum with this treatment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1432-1435
A Lokeshwar Reddy and *T Srinivas
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Lam, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, APRRI & RARS, Maruteru, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
Experiment was conducted at ARS, Kadiri, Ananthapuram district, Andhra Pradesh in a randomized complete block design with two replications. The Ward’s Method using Squared Euclidian distance technique was used for the analysis. The genotypes were evaluated for twelve traits and showed wide variability for different components studied. The cluster analysis grouped the 30 drought tolerant groundnut genotypes into six different clusters. This indicates the presence of wide diversity among the genotypes. The result of the principal components analysis revealed that five principal components (PC1 to PC5) accounted nearly 81.96% of the total variation. It was also noted that differentiation of genotypes into different clusters was because of the small contribution of few character rather than the cumulative effect of a number of characters. The information obtained from this study can be used to plan crosses and maximize the use of genetic diversity and expression of heterosis.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1436-1439
Noor ul Islam Wani, Junaid Rishu, *Rahat Ashraf Wani, Adnan Sirwal and Imran Bashir
Division of Agricultural Extension and Communication, *Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architechture, **Division of Food Technology, ***Division of Plant Pathology, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The study was conducted in two districts of Kashmir, District Srinagar and district Budgam owing to the majority of registered flower growers. The type of survey was exhaustive in nature. An interview Schedule was devised as a tool to assess the adoption level of the registered flower growers. Data was collected by personal interview method from 100 registered flower growers growing lilium. Education, experience in cut flower production, exposure visits, participation in training programmes, economic motivation of growers were found to have a positive and significant relationship with adoption level of the registered flower growers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1440-1445
Bonu Rama Devi and Balineni Venkateswarlu
Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay loam soils of the Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla, during kharif, 2012-13 under irrigated condition. Application of 120 kg N ha-1 recorded significantly lower weed density and drymatter at all the stages of crop growth over 150 and 180 kg N ha-1. Among the weed control practices, hand weeding twice (W2) followed by pendimethalin @ 1.5 kg a.i ha-1 in combination with 2,4-D amine @ 0.58 kg a.i ha-1 at 30 DAS significantly reduced the weed density and weed drymatter at all the stages of crop growth except at 15 DAS. Similarly, the higher weed control efficiency with lower weed index was noticed under hand weeding twice (W2) followed by pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 + 2,4-D amaine @ 0.58 kg a.i ha-1. Significant increase in baby corn yield and stover yield was noticed with increasing levels of nitrogen. Higher cob and ear yields were obtained with the application of 180 kg N ha-1 but which was on a par with 150 kg N ha-1 in case of cob yield and green fodder yield. Among weed control measures, hand weeding twice (W2) recorded significantly maximum cob and ear yield. The maximum green fodder yield was obtained under hand weeding twice (W2) but, which was on a par with the application of Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i ha-1 as pre emergence + 2,4-D amine @ 0.58 kg a.i ha-1 at post-emergence (W5). Though the highest gross, net returns and returns per rupee investment were under hand weeding twice with different levels of nitrogen.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1446-1448
K Jancy Rani and *M Sivakumar
Imayam Institute of Agriculture and Technology, Kannanur - 621 206, Thuraiyur, District Trichy, Tamil Nadu *Department of Nematology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The application of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Tagetus erecta flower extract, Calotropis gigantea leaf extract and neem oil were found to suppress the population of Meloidogyne incognita efficiently under polyhouse conditions. Among these treatments application of P. fluoresecens liquid formulation as seed treatment + seedling root dip treatment + nemagation reduced the population of nematodes in soil (53.76, 61.68 and 74.29%) and roots (51.73, 69.85 and 77.99%); reduced egg masses (66.00, 73.23 and 80.34%) respectively during vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages of tomato under polyhouse conditions and improves the physiological and biochemical responses of tomato and increased yield (177.86%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1449-1451
Renu Gangwar, S K Kashyap and Amita Yadav
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 153, Uttarakhand
Abstract
Rural youth are the key players in driving rural transformation and combating poverty. Youth are the future of country with their energy and aspiration but they are more precarious to find employment and experience rapid physical, social and emotional instabilities. The realistic causes of employment vulnerability may be human, social, economic, psychological, administrative etc. Hence, it is important to understand the employment vulnerabilities among rural youth. The study was conducted in 10 villages of Almora and Pauri Garhwal districts of Uttarakhand. Data was collected from 210 rural youth through interview schedule. Maximum number of respondents had education up to higher secondary level (78%), majority were female (58.10%) and belonged to small family size (38.57%). The study indicates that about half of the respondents (50.47%) were highly vulnerable towards employment, 37.15 per cent were moderately vulnerable towards employment and 12.38 per cent were less vulnerable towards employment. This study will help to frame suitable policies for development of youth and enhance the employment opportunities that may help to develop economy.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1452-1454
K Sathish Babu, P V Ramesh Babu, M Srinivasa Reddy and *P Kavitha
Department of Agronomy, *Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College, Mahanandi - 518 502, Nandyal, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted on maize to study the effect of higher levels of NPK and Zn nutrition on yield attributes, yield, nutrient uptake and soil fertility status during rabi of 2015-16 at College Farm, Agricultural College, Mahanandi. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and replicated thrice. The treatments comprises of three higher levels of nutrients and six treatments of higher levels of nutrients in combination of Zinc as foliar spraying. Result showed that application of 350-100-100 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 along with foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 twice at 15 and 25 DAS (T10) gave higher yield attributes such as highest cob length (19.79 cm), number of grains row-1 (39.70), grain weight cob -1 (216.39 g), test weight (323.00), grain yield (8734 kg ha-1) and stover yield (11275 kg ha-1) which were on par with T9 (T3 + Foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 at 15 and 25 DAS and significantly superior over control (T1). However number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1 were not significantly influenced by higher levels of NPK and Zn nutrition. Highest total N,P,K and Zn at 30, 60, 90 DAS and harvest uptake was noticed from the application of 350-100-100 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 along with foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 at 15 and 25 DAS (T10). However phosphorus uptake at 60 and 90 DAS was higher with T9 (T3 + Foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 at 15 and 25 DAS and T8 (T2 + Foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 twice at 15 and 25 DAS), respectively. Maximum available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (349.33, 89.91 and 823.95 kg ha-1, respectively) in soil was observed with the treatment that received 350-100-100 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1 along with foliar application of 0.2% ZnSO4 twice at 15 and 25 DAS (T10).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1455-1457
S Sharmila and M Kavaskar
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalianagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
At present the extension personnel in department of agriculture has the major responsibility of transferring technologies to the farming community from time to time. But at this juncture the extension agents face number of problems in contacting farmers and the researchers due to physical distances and lack of transportation etc., Hence, the application of ICT offers excellent possibilities, for strengthening TOT between research and extension system and further onward transmission to the end-users. So there exist need to understand and measure the attitude of extension personnel towards the information and communication technology (ICT) tools is the prime. Hence, the present study was taken up to develop standardize scale for measuring the attitude of extension personnel towards ICT tools. This study was conducted in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. The study revealed that majority of the extension personnel had favorable attitude towards ICT tools.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1458-1461
Gururaj Makarabbi, A K Chauhan and L Priscilla
Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
SHG-Bank Linkage programme of NABARD has facilitated sustained access to financial services for the unreached segments of the rural population in India and emerged as a tool for women’s development and empowerment. The present study was conducted in Belagavi district of Karnataka to identify how Women Dairy Self Help Groups (WDSHGs) helps in empowerment of the women member. Three talukas and five villages from each taluka were selected purposively based on the presence of WDSHGs. Finally, two WDSHGs were selected randomly from each village and from each WDSHG two members were selected randomly making a sample of 90 members. Also, 90 non-members having similar socio-economic status were selected, thus making the total sample size to 180. It was found that Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) was higher for members as compared to non-members indicating that the members of WDSHGs had achieved a greater level of empowerment as compared to non-members. In other words, WDSHGs were found to play an important role in empowerment of women in the study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1462-1465
D Lasya Mohana Rekha, R Lakshmipathy, A Vijaya Gopal and V Manoj Kumar
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, APGC, Lam, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
To investigate the role of these biofertilizers in enhancing the growth and yield of bajra a pot culture experiment was taken up during the year 2016-17 at Agriculture Research Station, Amaravathi. In this study, microbial consortium consisting of biofertilizers viz. nitrogen fixers, P solubilizer, K releasing bacteria and nutrients mobilizers were used. There were two microbial consortia (MC1 and MC2) consisting of nitrogen fixers Azospirillum and Azotobacter were applied alone and with recommended dose of FYM to the soil treated with different doses of chemical fertilizers. The growth parameters viz. plant height, number of leaves, root length and root weight were found to be maximum in the treatments with microbial consortia MC1 along with recommended dose of FYM and 75 per cent recommended dose of chemical fertilizers compared to other treatments. Maximum yield parameters viz. earhead length, earhead weight, number of seeds per earhead, test weight, seed yield and straw yield of bajra were recorded in the treatments applied with microbial consortia MC1 along with recommended dose of FYM and 75% recommended dose of chemical fertilizers compared to other treatments. This study showed the role of biofertilizers in enhancing the growth and yield of bajra when they are applied along with recommended dose of FYM. This study also showed possibility of reduced use of chemical fertilizers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1466-1472
R Manjula, Amaresh and V Manjunath
Department of Agricultural Statistics, Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study has measured the disparities in poultry egg production of Karnataka state with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of thirteen indicators grouped under agriculture and infrastructure sectors. The district-wise egg production data for the years 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2014 in respect of these thirteen indicators were utilized in the study. The disparity among districts in egg production has been separately analyzed by composite index on agriculture and infrastructure sectors. The Koppal district was ranked first in egg production in all the study years based on agriculture as well as infrastructure indicators. Wide disparities in egg production have been observed in different districts of the state and it is clearly indicated by Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance. Positive significant association was found between the composite indices of agriculture and infrastructure sectors. The area under maize, irrigated land from agriculture sector and number of agriculture workers, road length and veterinary institutions from infrastructure sector were proportionally higher in districts under high and high middle egg producing categories. This indicated that the above mentioned variables were few causes for disparity among the districts in egg production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1473-1477
G Laxman and Uma Maheswari
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendranagar- 500 033, Hyderabad, Telanagana
Abstract
Screening of castor genotypes against major defoliators and sucking insect pest showed that the genotype, 48-1 as recorded highly susceptible to Achaea janata. Similarly, GCH-4, PCH-106 and RG-2928 were recorded as moderately susceptible. The genotypes viz. Haritha, RG-2835, PCH-222 and RG-1180 were recorded as less susceptible and the genotypes, DPC-9, DCS-9, PCH-288, PCH-111, PCH-254, M-574, Kiran, PCH-248, PCH-294, PCH-262, PCH-282, RG-776 and Kranthi were reported as resistant to Achaea janata. The genotype, 48-1 as recorded highly susceptible to Spodoptera litura. Genotypes RG-2835, RG-1180 and Kranthi were recorded as moderately susceptible where as the genotypes viz., DCS-9, Haritha, PCH-111, PCH-294 and PCH-262 were recorded as less susceptible and the genotypes, DPC-9, PCH-288, PCH-254, M-574, Kiran, PCH-248, GCH-4, PCH-282, PCH-106, PCH-222, RG-2928 and RG-776 were found to be resistant to Spodoptera litura. The genotypes, 48-1, PCH-254, M- 574 and PCH-262 were highly resistant to Empoasca flavescense and the genotypes PCH-248 and PCH-282 were recorded as resistant. The genotypes Haritha, PCH-294, RG-1180 and RG-776 were moderately resistant. The genotypes, Kiran and Kranthi were susceptible whereas DPC-9, DCS-9 PCH-288, PCH-111, RG-2835, PCH-106, PCH-222 and RG-2928 are highly susceptible.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1478-1482
J Naipunya and S Rajeswari
Department of Agricultural Economics, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted at Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. The cost of cultivation was highest in the case of cropping system-I (₹ 66,368) followed by cropping system-III (₹ 64,741) and cropping system-II (Rs.48,826). Among the three cropping systems, cropping system-I (Re. 1.63) recorded the highest net income per rupee of expenditure followed by cropping system-III (Re. 1.48) and cropping system-II (Re. 1.42).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1483-1485
R Brindavathy and R Vaidyanathan
Department of Microbiology, Oil Seeds Research Station, Tindivanam, Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the synergistic effect of biological phosphorus sources, Bacillus megaterium var phosphaticum and AM fungi in groundnut. Results revealed that significant higher plant height, biomass, nodulation and yield were obtained in phosphobacteria, AM fungi and fifty per cent inorganic P applied plants. This enhanced results is due to the synergistic interaction between native rhizobia, phosphobacteria and AM fungi. This combination optimizes the P solubilization from applied phosphorus source and increased microbial activity in the rhizosphere. So, from these results, the solubilization and mobilization P hand in hand sustained phosphorus supply enhanced the growth and yield in groundnut under rainfed condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1486-1489
Rahat Ashraf, Z A Bhat, *M H Khan and **Waseem Raja
Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, *Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, **Division of Agronomy,
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out under All India Coordinated Research Project at Regional Research Station, Wadura, Sopore SKUAST-Kashmir during year 2014 to identify the important weeds infesting Gladiolus grandiflora L. Family Iridaceae and to investigate the effects of various herbicides on floral characters of Gladiolus grandiflora L. Control (weedy check) was also included for comparison. Data recorded showed that a total of 6 major weed species belonging to 4 different families were found in association with gladiolus. The fields were observed densely populated (3/6 weeds) with monocotyledonous belonging to family Poaceae. The weed population and weed dry matter m-2 was lowest in three hoeing followed by pendimethalin + imezethapyr + 2, 4-D + one hoeing, while the highest weed population and weed matter dry was found in control treatment (T1). The results further revealed that all the floral characters were significantly influenced by weed management practices. Three hoeing followed by pendimethalin + imezethapyr + 2, 4-D + one hoeing recorded earlier spike emergence and colour break than other treatments. The spike length and number of florets/spike was recorded highest in treatment T2 (three hoeing) followed by T4 (pendimethalin + imezethapyr + 2, 4-D + one hoeing) and lowest was recorded in control treatment (T1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1490-1494
Vedant C Patel, S R Bhakar and S S Lakhawat
College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The effect of fogging system to determine the spatial variation of temperature and relative humidity and also fogger cooling efficiency at a different vertical height in a winter season under shade net house. The fogging system consisted of a water filter, water reservoir, fogging pump, pressure regulator, and fogging-generating nozzles. The fogging was sprayed intermittently (spraying time: 60 sec, 120 sec, 180 sec, 240 sec and 300 sec at a 0.15 m , 1 m and 2 m height with operational intervals 30 min) from nozzles installed 3 m above the floor inside the shade net house. Then, fogger cooling efficiency (FSE) expressed as the ratio of the difference in dry bulb temperature between the outside DBTo and the inside DBTg to the difference between DBTo and the outside wet bulb temperature (WBTg), was calculated. The FSE increased as the difference between the dry-bulb temperature (DBTo) and wet-bulb temperature (WBT) was increased. From the measurements, when fogging fills the shade net house atmosphere, the air is rapidly cooled at a rate of 3.2°C per min. FSE was found in a range between 21% to 30%.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1495-1497
K Jancy Rani and *M Sivakumar
Imayam Institute of Agriculture and Technology, Kannanur - 621 206, Thuraiyur, District Trichy, Tamil Nadu *Department of Nematology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Soluble proteins are important factor in plant physiological activities. The infection of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita alters the soluble protein content in tomato. The reduction of soluble proteins due to the infection of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita was observed as 28.48, 17.38 and 17.73% during vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages of tomato under polyhouse when compared to open field cultivated tomato. The application of biocontrol agents and botanicals as liquid formulation for the management of M. incognita shows the increased activity of soluble proteins in leaves of tomato grown under polyhouse. The highest soluble protein was noticed in Pseudomonas fluorescens liquid formulation as seed treatment + seedling root dip treatment + nemagation showed 14.63, 16.08 and 14.99 mg/g of soluble protein during vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages of tomato cultivated under polyhouse.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1498-1502
Z A Bhat, I T Nazki, Nelofar and Burhan Hamid
Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
Out of the whole chrysanthemum germplasm maintained at this center, the best cultivars suited for various purposes in temperate region of Kashmir areas follow: Pot culture: Arun Kumar, Arun Singar, Bindiya, Hemant Singar, Kaumundi, Local White, Panchoo, PeetSingar, SharadSingar, SuhagSingar, SwetaSingar. Cut flower: Alison, Apsara, Baggi, Basanti, Davidson, Donald, Flirt, Hill Hopton, Mountaineer, Pink Cloud, Pink Giant, Priya, Pitamberr, Raja, Vinaya, C-25, C-38, C-68 and C-136. Garland making: Apsara, Aparajita, Kundon, Khusroo, Lilliput, Lord Roberts, Mercury, Nanako, Phyllies, Prof. Harris, Vasantika, Vandona, C-122, C-125, C-147 and C-156. Garden decoration: Aparajita, Bett, Dora, Fish Tail, Flirt, Kaumundi, Local Yellow, Otome Zakura, Rattan, Red Gold, Ravi Kiran, Vasantika, White Quills, C-115, C-131 and C-136. All these verities of Chrysanthemum were evaluated for flowering duration, flowering yield, vegetative growth and other parameters in temperate region of Kashmir.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1503-1507
Arsha Balakrishnan, *Sheela Kharkwal and T N Prakash Kammardi
Department Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka *Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The paper has compared the economics of rubber production of Rubber Producers’ Society (RPS) members with non- members in Kottayam district of Kerala. The total cost of establishment for one acre of rubber plantation was worked out for the group of rubber farmers as a whole and it was found to be ₹ 57, 195. Labour cost was the prime component of the establishment cost by constituting about 56 per cent whereas material costs constituted about 44 per cent. The cost of cultivation worked out to be ₹ 62,541 for RPS members and it was almost 14 per cent more in case of non members. The major cost item was variable cost for both members (72%) and non members (77%). Among different components of variable costs, labour cost was the prime cost constituting 56 per cent (₹ 34,988) and 62 per cent (₹ 44, 900) of the total cost for members and non members respectively. There was considerable difference in the yield realized by the two groups of farmers. The members of RPS incurred lesser processing cost and cost of production due to the group processing and marketing facilities. The gross return was worked out to be ₹ 1,51,636 for non members and it was around 10 per cent higher for members due to the better price realized by them. Return per rupee of cost was 2.68 and 2.08 for members and non-members, respectively. The study confirms that Rubber Producers’ Society (RPS) have contributed significantly in improving the economic status of smallholder rubber farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1508-1512
Reeta Mishra, *Y D Mishra, P P Singh, B P S Raghubanshi and Vinod Rajput
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV), Morena - 476 001, Madhya Pradesh, India *Directorate of Extension Services, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract
Increasing demand for milk and milk products in recent years intensifies dairy farming as profitable enterprise for women. Rural women carry out both domestic and livestock related activities. During milking of animals, farm women adopt long static squatting postures without realizing harmful effects on the body which increase the static muscular effort resulting in high physiological cost and low work productivity. Hence, in view of the above, the present investigation was carried out to assess the health status of selected rural farm women, to measure the ergonomic parameters of farm women during milking of animals by traditional method and using revolving stool and to disseminate the technology of milking dairy animals by improved tool following On Farm Trial (OFT) and Front Line Demonstration (FLD). The trial was conducted in Morena district of Madhya Pradesh by selecting farm women's practice and revolving stool. To carry out the experiments, five replications were taken to both types of treatments. The results indicated a significant decrease in heart rate (116.9 beats/min) and energy expenditure (9.87 kilojoules/min) with the use of revolving stool over the women’s practice. There was 26.41 per cent saving in cardiac cost of farm women per unit of out put for milking dairy animals using a revolving stool as compared to the continuous squatting position while milking an animal traditionally. Introduction and dissemination of revolving stool saves not only the time but increases 39% of working efficiency of farm women and reduces 36% drudgery against the traditional method of milking of dairy animals. Results of the study showed that revolving stool improved the work posture, therefore reduced muscular stress of women in milking of animals and enhanced the work efficiency and health.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1513-1514
A P Verma, *M A Ansari and J Parameswaranaik
Dairy Extension Division, ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana *Department of Agricultural Communication, College of Agriculture, GBPUAT, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand
Abstract
T he desire to promote better information access to improve the socio-economic condition of the farmers has always been the top priority of extension professional and rural advisory service providers (Syiem and Saravanan 2015). According to FAO (2011), exchanging information is critical for different type of stakeholders in agriculture value chain in order to reduce the asymmetries in information and communication as well as to reduce the malicious circle of poverty. Parameswaranaik et al. (2015) reported that for every technology there will be some constraints in using by farmers. Yet despite economically vital role, Indian agriculture has until recently been regulated in an archaic fashion that limits its productivity. Non optimal farming practices and capricious weather pattern left post-independence India with an underperforming agricultural sector, acute food shortages, and dependence on food imports. To tackle these challenges of Indian agriculture, ITC (Indian Tobacco Company) conceived e-Choupal that places computers with internet access in rural farming villages. e-Choupal is internet kiosk, village gathering place and e-Commerce hub all rolled into one. e-Choupal also established a low- cost fulfillment system focused on the needs of rural India, which helps in mitigating rural isolation, create more transparency for farmers, and improve their productivity and income. e-Choupal aims to provide rural people ready access to specific real time information and customized knowledge in their native language. The choupal is run by an operator called the “Sanchalak” who himself is a farmer (Jain and Purohit 2015). Thus, the present research was designed to study the constraints of farmers in usage of e-Choupal in Gonad district of Uttar Pradesh.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1515-1517
Nazir Khan Mohammadi
Department of Agronomy, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat
Abstract
M aize (Zea Mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops of the world and contributes to food security in most of the developing countries. In India, maize is emerging as third most important crop after rice and wheat. Maize is grown in a wide range of production environments, ranging from the temperate hill zones to the semi-arid desert margins and in all three seasons due to photo insensitive character, hence called ‘queen of cereal’. Its importance lies in the fact that it is not only used for human food and animal feed but at the same time it has become an important raw material in food processing, poultry, dairy and ethanol industry and along with its traditional uses makes it one of the fastest growing cash crop in the world.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 8 - Issue : 6 ; 1518-1520
Sai Smitha and *Nazeer Ahmed Saheb
Department of Sericulture, STSN Government Degree College, Kadiri - 515 591, District Anantapur, A. P. *Research Extension Centre, Central Silk Board, V. Kota - 517 424, District Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
Ericulture holds an immense potentiality in providing a wide sustainable employment and additional income to tribal and small farmers belonging to disadvantageous sections of the society through optimum utilization of Eri food plantation, castor in the region of Deccan plateau of Andhra Pradesh. Ericulture significantly contributes to the Indian Silk Production which is a traditional agro based industry in the rural plain of North East India. Eri silk, a unique natural protinous animal fibre with special thermal property looks like cotton and softness of silk and regarded as an alternate to wool and ideal for cold countries. A study was conducted on practices of ericulture in Kadiri region of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh and the information on cost of inputs in food plant and silkworm rearing was recorded. The value of cocoon obtained were taken into consideration to ascertain the cost benefit ratio which was recorded as 1:2.10 and the study revealed that Ericulture is a profitable venture for the poor and marginal farmers below poverty line.


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