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Volume - 9 - Januray - February 2018
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 01-08
M Sivaprasad, *Sangama and *D V Sudhakar Rao
College of Horticulture (SKLTS Horticultural University), Mojerla, Mahabubnagar - 509 382, Telangana *Division of Post Harvest Technology and Engineering, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post Office, Bangalore - 560 089, Karnataka
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of stage of maturity and bud opening solution on the postharvest quality and vase life of carnation cut flower cvs. Pink Donna and Design. Four maturity stages viz., tight bud, cross bud, paint brush and fully open stages of the two cultivars were pretreated in bud opening solution containing 10 per cent sucrose + 200 ppm 8-Hydroxy Quinoline Sulfate (HQS) + 25 ppm Aluminium sulfate. Tight bud stage flowers pretreated in bud opening solution showed maximum vase life of 12 days in cv. Pink Donna, 11.3 days in cv. Design. It was also observed that pretreatment in the bud opening solution resulted in increase of flower diameter, higher water uptake and reduced number of days taken for bud opening. Rate of respiration and ethylene production were found to be least in tight bud stage flowers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 09-13
K Sushna and B Ajithkumar
College of Horticulture (Kerala Agriculture University), Vellanikkara Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala
Abstract
Analysis of weather parameters in the three research stations (viz. RARS, Ambalavayal, PRS, Panniyur and CoH, Vellanikkara) under the Kerala Agricultural University revealed that morning relative humidity had an increasing trend in RARS Ambalavayal and PRS Panniyur. Minimum temperature showed increasing trend in Panniyur and Vellanikkara. Black pepper productivity over years showed a decreasing trend in these research stations. It is observed that the weather parameters influenced the productivity of black pepper and the effect is different in the various phenophases. In general it can be concluded that the increased morning relative humidity not at all favoured for the yield at any phenophases of black pepper except in spike emergence stage. The plausibility studies between weather parameters and pepper yield revealed that there is 60, 83 and 90 percentages of above average yield in Vellanikkara, Panniyur and Ambalavayal stations respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 14-18
R S Chavan, R N Katkar and R K Bhende
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Krishi Nagar, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra
Abstract
A field study was conducted during rabi 2014-15 at Pulse Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra. The soil of the experimental site was slightly alkaline in reaction, medium in organic carbon, moderately calcareous in nature, low in available N, medium in available P and high in available K, marginal in available S and sufficient in micronutrients but deficient in available Zn. The seven treatments comprised of control, soil application of 10, 20, 30 kg ZnSO4 through zinc sulphate and the foliar application of ZnEDTA @ 0.25%, ZnSO4 @ 0.50 % at the time of flowering stage and incorporation of green gram residues in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The higher N, P, K and zinc content and uptake was recorded with the soil application of ZnSO4 @ 30 kg ha1. The highest available N, P, K and zinc in soil was recorded with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 30 kg ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 19-21
C Vidya, V S Jagtap and N Santhosh
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidhyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out in randomized block design with three replication during the kharif season 2016, at Instructional-Cum-Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Latur, VNMKV, Parbhani. Twenty chilli genotypes were evaluated for twenty seven characters. A wide range of variations were observed among different genotypes for all growth, yield and quality parameters. The high genotypic coefficient of variation as well as phenotypic coefficient of variation was observed for plant spread, stem girth, primary branches, length of fruit, diameter of fruit, fruit stalk length, weight of seed per fruit, seed recovery, acidity, number of fruits per plant (green/dry), yield per plant, plot, qt/ha (green/dry). The high heritability was found all characters under studies except reducing sugar (%), non-reducing sugar (%), total sugar and ascorbic acid (mg/100g) shown low and moderate heritability. High genetic advance over mean shown in twenty characters, while moderate genetic advance was found in six characters and low genetic advance was found in T.S.S (%) and reducing sugar (%) of fruit.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 22-26
Saqib Parvaze Allaie, Jagvir Dixit, *Sabah Parvaze, R M Shukla, Junaid Nazir Khan and *Latief Ahmad
Division of Agricultural Engineering, *Division of Agronomy, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The present study was conducted to determine the use and maintenance pattern of tractor-implement systems and to establish relationship between life, maintenance cost and use pattern of the tractors in selected regions of Kashmir Valley. Data was collected with the help of a pre-structured questionnaire through personal interview of farmers in three districts of the Valley. Districts Anantnag, Budgam and Baramulla representing South, Central and North Kashmir of Jammu and Kashmir state were selected for the study. From each district, three blocks were selected and from each block, two villages were randomly selected and from each of these villages, ten farmers who owned the tractor and equipment with cultivable land were randomly selected. The results showed that most of the tractor owners in all the three districts had medium land holdings (4-10 ha) comprising nearly 46% of the total tractor ownerships. The use of tractors was much above the annual recommendations and was used mostly for non-agricultural purposes like transportation of construction materials as compared to agricultural purposes. Tractor power availability (kW/ha) decreased with increase in the size of land holdings. It was observed that during the life time of tractor maximum expenditure was on repair and maintenance of engine and engine parts. Maintenance cost of tractors increased with increase in age following a polynomial trend. Use hours of tractor decreased with age of tractor. It followed a polynomial trend, registering a mild drop during initial years and sharp drop in later years (after 10-12) years. Correlation between the repair and maintenance cost and its frequency with the use hours was found to be low. Multiple regression between maintenance cost and age of tractors and use hours showed that there was a medium correlation among these variables. Thus, age and use hours were major determinant to calculate maintenance cost for a particular area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 27-32
Ch Saisree, A Vijaya Gopal, R Lakshmipathy and V Prasanna Kumari
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, APGC, Lam, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Phosphate Solubilizing Microbes (PSM) plays an important role in plant nutrition through increase in phosphate uptake by plants and used as bio-fertilizers of agricultural crops. Phosphorus is one of the most vital macronutrient required for the growth and development of plants. A large number of microorganisms present in the rhizosphere are known to solubilize and make available the insoluble phosphorus in the available form to the plants. A total of 16 phosphate solubilizing microbial colonies were isolated on the Pikovskaya’s agar medium, containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate (TCP) from agricultural soil. The colonies showing clear halo zones around the microbial growth were considered as phosphate solubilization. Out of 16 isolates, all the isolates showed Phosphate Solubilization Index (PSI) ranged from 2.62-6.61 were selected for further estimation of phosphate solubilization quantitatively. Among these 16 potent isolates, 3 strains showed maximum PSI in agar plates along with high soluble phosphate production in broth culture. These isolates PSB1 (isolate name, BKP2), PSB2 (isolate name, SSP1) and PSB3 (isolate name, SBP1) belongs to genus Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter as identified by their morphological, biochemical and plant growth promoting rhizobacterial properties respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 33-39
A Kamaraj and S Padmavathi
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In the present experiment, the seeds of green gram were given with pre-sowing bio-inoculant seed treatment using various bio-fertilizers and were imposed with the following seed treatments viz. T0 – Control (Untreated dry seed); T1 – Rhizobium @ 600 gm/ha; T2 – Phosphate solubilizing bacteria @ 600 gm/ha; T3 – VAM @ 600 gm/ha; T4– T1 + T2; T5 – T1 + T3; T6 – T2 + T3; T7 – T1 + T2 + T3. Pelleting was done by using gum Arabica @ 10% as adhesive. The treated seeds were evaluated for the effect of presowing bio-inoculant seed treatment on seed quality and seed yield under salinity condition. In case of seed treatment, T7 (Bio inoculant seed treatment with triple inoculation) registered the high value for germination percentage, speed of germination, accumulated speed of germination and germination values, root length, shoot length, dry matter production, seedling vigour length and seedling vigour mass in saline condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 40-45
Rama Kant Singh, Pankaj Kumar, S K Singh, S B Singh and *R N Singh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (BAU), Naya Tola, Tingachiya, Katihar - 854 105, Bihar, India *Bihar Agriculture University, Sabour, Bhagalpur - 813 210, Bihar, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at farmer field of Katihar district by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Katihar, (Bihar Agricultural University, Bhagalpur) during two consecutive years of 2014-15 and 2015-16 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management practices on yield and economics of jute and residual soil status. Application of recommended dose of fertilizer with organic matter (5 t/ha FYM) and biofertilizer (azotobacter + psb seed treatment) higher fiber yield and gave higher net return, B:C ratio and also improved soil nutrient status as compared to application 75% nutrients with inorganic fertilizers with 25 per cent nutrients with organic matter, recommended dose of fertilizers applied through inorganic fertilizers and farmers practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 46-49
Akshay, T Sajitha Rani and Ammu Punnoose
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Kerala, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at Instructional farm, College of Agriculture, Vellayani during 2012-13. The treatments consisted of three levels of FYM - F1 (20 t ha-1), F2 (15 t ha-1) and F3 (10 t ha-1) and three levels of substitution of the recommended dose of nitrogen. The levels of substitution are N1 (100 % recommended dose of N- 75 kg ha-1), N2 (75% recommended dose of N - 56.25 kg ha-1) and N3 (50% recommended dose of N - 37.5 kg ha-1). FYM along with neem cake in 1:1 ratio is used as organic manure for N substitution. Three controls were also tested in this study. Three controls were C1- Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) package of practices recommendation (FYM @ 25 t ha-1 along with75:40:25 kg N:P2O5:K20 ha-1 as inorganic fertilizer), C2- KAU Ad hoc organic POP recommendation (FYM @ 25 t ha-1 + Poultry manure at 5 t ha-1 + Pseudomonas + Trichoderma and PGPR mix 1, each @2.5 kg ha-1) and C3- Farmers practice (Cow dung slurry @ 20 t ha-1). Maximum yield (28.57 t/ha) was recorded at the highest level of FYM (20 t ha-1). Yield contributing characters were also significantly higher at this level. Among the levels of substitution of nitrogen 100 per cent substitution recorded maximum productivity (28.32 t/ha). Application of FYM @ 20 t ha-1 along with 100% recommended dose of N (75 kg ha-1) as organic form gave maximum productivity which was on par with the yield realized from KAU Ad hoc organic POP and KAU POP. FYM @ 25 t ha-1 along with poultry manure @ 5 t ha-1 + Pseudomonas + Trichoderma and PGPR mix 1, each @ 2.5 kg was observed to be an economical nutrient schedule for chilli.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 50-53
P Satheesh Kumar, K Saravanan and T Sabesan
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Genetic parameters, genotypic, phenotypic and genotypic path analysis were computed in a collection of 63 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes grown under coastal saline low land of Tamil Nadu. Wide variability was observed for number of productive tillers per plant, grain breadth, grain L/B ratio and grain yield per plant. Moderate variability was recorded for days to first flowering, plant height, panicle length, total number of grains per panicle, hundred grain weight and grain length. The high heritability coupled with high genetic advance recorded in all these traits indicated the role of additive gene action in controlling the traits. The genotypic correlation was generally higher than corresponding phenotypic correlations. Grain yield per plant was significantly and positively correlated with number of productive tillers per plant and total number of grains per panicle. Path coefficient analysis revealed the maximum direct effect of total number of grains per panicle followed by number of productive tillers per plant, days to first flowering, grain length, grain breadth, hundred grain weight and panicle length. Plant height and grain L/B ratio influenced the yield mostly through other characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 54-58
K M Chaudhary, A D Raj and V R Jinjala
Department of Agronomy, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field investigation was carried out at N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, during summer 2015. Based on field experimentation, it was found that two row spacing treatments had significant effect on growth and yield attributing characters like, plant height, number of branches per plant, dry matter production per plant and number of pods per plant, which caused significant effect on seed and stover yields of greengram crop. In most of the cases, treatment S1 (45 cm × 10 cm) was found superior than other spacing, but the narrow row spacing of summer greengram i.e. (30 cm × 10 cm) recorded significantly higher seed and stover yield of greengram under South Gujarat condition. Almost all the growth and yield attributing characters like, plant height, number of branches per plant, dry matter production per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and pod length were significantly influenced by different weed management practices. In most of the cases, treatment W7: Weed free (Two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS) was found superior than rest of the treatments, but remained at par with W2: Pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 as PE + one hand weeding at 30 DAS, W4: Pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 as PE + Quizalofop-ethyl 0.05 kg ha-1 as PoE at 30 DAS and W6: Pendimethalin 1.0 kg ha-1 as PE + Imazethapyr 0.10 kg ha-1 as PoE at 30 DAS. Similar trend of response of treatment was recorded for seed and haulm yield of summer blackgram.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 59-64
Renuka Herakal and U V Mummigatti
Department of Crop Physiology, Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 using six cotton Bt. hybrids grown on two dates of sowing D1 (Normal) and D2 (Delay) under rainfed condition in randomized block design at Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka. These hybrids were evaluated for genotypic variability for phenology, growth, biophysical parameters, yield and yield attributing characters for two years. The pooled data indicated genotypic differences for growth and yield parameters for sowing dates (changed climate). The number of days to 50% boll opening was more in D1 (140.97 days) as compared to D2 (130.83). The higher duration of boll growth in D1 (55.97 days) than in D2 (41.94 days) coupled with more number of monopodia and sympodia and higher LAI resulted in higher seed cotton yield in D1. Although significantly more boll weight was recorded in D2 as compared to D1, the decreased LAI, SPAD and monopodia in D2 compared to D1 contributed for yield reduction in delayed sowing. Among the genotypes tested cotton Bt. hybrid Bunny BG-II was more vulnerability for delayed sowing (with 25.14% reduction in yield as compared to non Bt cotton hybrid RH-100 (6.54%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 65-67
Ankit H Patel and *Lalit Mahatma
Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, *Department of Plant Pathology, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Different isolates of Rhizobium bacteria were isolated from mungbean root nodules, cultivated in different mung bean agricultural fields in South Gujarat. Good growth of all the isolates was observed on yeast extract mannitol agar (YEMA) containing congored medium. The isolated isolates were found to be Gram negative in nature. The isolated DNA was subjected to Agarose gel electrophoresis and observed under UV light. The presence of nifH gene was checked by using PCR which gave 300 bps amplicon in all isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing identified different isolates.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 68-70
S Poonguzhali
Department of Crop Improvement, Thanthai Roever Institute of Agriculture and Rural Development, Perambalur - 621 115, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Studies were conducted at the Department of Crop Improvement, Thanthai Roever Institute of Agricultural and Rural Development, Perambalur with Green gram cv. VBN Gg2 to study the effect of seed hardening treatments on physiological and biochemical parameters. Green gram seeds were hardened in various solution of 0.75% KCl and KH2PO4, 5% of Notchi, Prosopis, Pungam leaves extract, garlic + ginger rhizome extract and 5 ppm of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) and along with water and control with 3 hours of duration. Physiological parameter results showed that seeds treated with 5% of Prosopis julifera recorded the higher germination value of 96% root length of 13.45cm and shoot length of 16.43cm, seeds hardened with 0.75% of KH2PO4 recorded the higher generation percentage of 92% followed by seed treatment with pungam leaf extract registered the higher value of 84% and control recorded the lower value of 76% of germination. In biochemical analysis, seeds hardened with 5% of prosopis julifera and pungam leaf extract showed the lowest Electrical conductivity of 0.16 dSm-1 and KH2PO4 recorded 0.14 dsm-1 compared to control (0.22dsm-1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 71-80
Ashok Gehlot
Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding Division, Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur - 342 005, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) is an Indian tree, has many useful as Bio fuel (Biodiesel).A broad variety of high free fatty acid content of vegetable oils is available in Azadirachta indica, which conveys great potential sources for biodiesel production. For large scale multiplication, the effect of season, auxins and their concentration in vermiculite rooting media on adventitious root formation in mini-cuttings of Azadirachtaindica was studied. The experiment was established using three types of auxin (IBA, IAA and NAA) and 2 concentrations (250 and 500), in a complete randomized block design. The present outcome of the experiment revealed that season (summer, monsoon and winter), auxin and their concentration showed significant effect on rooting percent, number of roots and root length of mini cuttings. Seasonal effect is clearly visible in the present study as mini - cuttings rooted maximally in summer (April – June) and monsoon (July – September), whereas minimum in winter (November – January) seasons. Mini-cuttings were assessed for rooting percentage, number of roots and root length. IBA (250 ppm) showed higher rooting percentage (75%), number of roots (49.94) and root length (6.94cm) per rooted mini-cuttings. The determination of proper rooting protocols and the use of mini-cuttings were proved important for improving mass propagation of Azadirachta indica, which helps in production of bio fuel.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 81-85
Sheela Kharkwal, *Shilpa Rana, *Kehar Singh Kadian and **Hamid Nazir
Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, *Division of Dairy Extension, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India **Department of Animal Husbandry Extension, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Government of India has accorded top priority to create infrastructure for increasing milk production and developing dairy industry. At present more than 75% of the milk produced in the country is being handled in the unorganized sector, where credit remains a critical factor. It enables investment in capital formation and technological upgradation. Therefore small milk producers need to be encouraged to come into the organized sector with credit support to establish small dairy units. To meet this credit challenge in the unorganized sector, Government of India launched Doodh Ganga Yojana in Himachal Pradesh in 2010. The present study was conducted to assess the differences in the socio-economic profile of adopters and non-adopters of Doodh Ganga Yojana (DGY) in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh. Total 60 beneficiaries and 60 non-beneficiaries were selected. Important socio-personal and socio-economic traits were listed and a comparison of the profile of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries was made on the basis of these traits. Socio-personal characteristics of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries were almost same in all the aspects viz. Age, Educational status, Family size, Experience in dairy farming except for Training attended. Most of the beneficiaries (92.7%) had received high and medium level training whereas for non-beneficiaries this figure was only 33.33 per cent. The distribution of socio-economic characteristics among beneficiaries was better than among non-beneficiaries. The results showed that socio-personal, socio-economic characteristics and adoption of Doodh Ganga Yojana were both-way related. Respondents who had large land holdings, more experience in dairy farming were keener in adopting the scheme and on the other hand this scheme adoption helped them in increasing their herd size, enhancing income and creating awareness by arranging needed trainings.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 86-88
T Mahesh Babu, T Lakshmi and P V Sathya Gopal
Department of Agricultural Extension, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
The present study was conducted at Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh to analyze the constraints faced by the APMIP beneficiaries and suggestions to overcome the constraints. The study was conducted among a sample of 120 APMIP beneficiaries. The results indicated that non-availability of spare parts, delay in sanctioning of MIS, poor after sales service, lack of good training on operation and maintenance of MIS, clogging of emitters, unavailability of water soluble fertilizers, lack of extension support, damage due to rats and animals, lack of awareness about fertigation, irregular power supply, high initial investment cost, limitations for 5 acres of subsidy, improper selection of the beneficiaries, difficulties in getting loan on MIS, lack of capital to cover maximum area were the constraints expressed by APMIP beneficiaries. Regarding suggestions supplying of standard quality material, followed by local dealers should be provided with spare parts, regular visits by extension officials, Organizing training programs and demonstrations to farmers and extension workers, timely supply of MIS, easily providing the loan at low interest and in time and uninterrupted power supply were the other suggestions expressed by APMIP beneficiaries.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 89-91
K M Chaudhary, A D Raj and V R Jinjala
Department of Agronomy, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field investigation was carried out at College Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, during summer 2015. Based on field experimentation, the periodical weed population and dry weight of weeds at 20 DAS and 40 DAS were significantly influenced by various row spacings. Wider spacing of 45 cm × 10 cm (S2) noted significantly the highest weed population at 20 DAS and 40 DAS as well as dry weight of weeds at 20 DAS and 40 DAS over treatment S1 (30 cm × 10 cm). Significantly the highest weed population at all the growth stages of green gram with regard to monocot, dicot, sedge and their total were noted under unweeded control (W8). All the weed management treatments significantly reduced the population of weeds compared to unweeded control. At the different stages of plant growth particularly at 20 DAS, The lowest numbers of monocots were observed with treatment W1 and W4. The lowest number of dicot was observed with treatment W2 and W4. The lowest number of sedges was observed under treatment W2. At 40 DAS, The lowest number of monocots, dicots, sedges and total weeds were observed with treatment W4. Significantly the highest dry weight of weeds was recorded under treatment of unweeded control (W8). Whereas, significantly the lowest dry weight of weeds at 40 DAS and at harvest was recorded under the treatment W4 and treatment W7, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 92-96
S M Savita, K N Srinivasappa, B Manjunath and B G Vasanthi
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hadonahalli, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka, India
Abstract
India stands second in production of Jackfruit in the world, producing 14.36 lakh tonnes from 1, 02,000 ha. In India, Karnataka ranks first in jackfruit production producing 2.6 lakh tonnes from 11,333 ha. It is an underutilized and over produced crop which lacks processing. Raw fruit fetches low income, thereby processing of Jackfruit is promoted for enhancing the income. Entrepreneurship development in rural population is increasingly being recognized as a means to overall development of the rural community as well as that of the country. The objectives of women Self Help Group (SHG) is to earn, save, utilize and develop themselves to be self-sufficient. Entrepreneurship among SHGs needs to be encouraged. The SHG members had undergone the hands on training on preparation of Jackfruit products through vocational training, namely- Chips, Papad, Halwa, Jam, RTS beverage and Mixture. They were exposed to marketing avenues of Jack products through an Exposure Visit to Mango and Jack Mela - held at Lalbaguh, Bangalore. Production units were established by SHGs and supported by KVK through Critical inputs such as weighing balance, sealing machine, foil sealer, labeling and packing materials. The experience of this FLD model was shared among other farmers in the locality through Field day. KVK guided the SHGs in getting Market linkages such as local bakeries, exhibitions, Krishimela etc. The groups had a turnover of ₹ 85,000 in six months by selling the products using brand names registered under FSSAI. Thus, the SHGs realized a considerable income through processing of jack fruit.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 97-99
R S Patil, R G Deshmukh, P S Deshmukh and K R Bhaskar
Department of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Present study entitled performance of electricity subsidy in Vidarbha was carried out in Maharashtra state with objective to know the growth rates and variability in nitrogen fertilizer subsidy. The data pertained to the period of 11 years i.e. from 2004-05 to 2014-15. From study it was observed that, compound growth rate for electricity subsidy concludes that, the growth of electricity subsidy is highly significant during the study period and it ranges from 5.29 per cent in Amravati district to 14.82 per cent in Wardha district. It is observed from values that least variability 19.59 per cent was observed, in Amravati district while the highest variability i.e. 48.48 per cent in Wardha district. Positive and significant growth in case of electricity subsidy at constant rate was observed in all districts of Vidarbha region. The highest growth was observed in Wardha district i.e. 22.33 per cent while, the lowest growth was observed in 12.18 per cent Amravati district. The least variability in electricity subsidy at constant rate was found in Amravati district i.e. 36.25 per cent while the highest variability was found in Wardha district i.e. 61.25 per cent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 100-103
Shivaputra, V S Kale, Harish Kumar and Manohar Lal Meghwal
Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken to estimate the combining ability effects to find out superior cross combinations for their further exploitation. Half diallel mating design was selected for the study. The experimental material comprised of eight parents viz. Jawahar Mattar-2, Millenium, Palam Triloki, Palam Smool, PB-89, Arka Kartik, Palam Priya and Arkel with their twenty eight crosses along with one check Ruchi. The parents and hybrids were randomized separately and sown using randomized block design during Rabi 2015-2016. The data were recorded on the charecters viz. number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod weight per plant, pod weight per plot, pod weight per hectare. When sca and heterosis performance for various characters were consider together, it was observed that hybrid Palam Smool (P4) × Arka Kartik (P6), Millenium (P2) × Palam Smool (P4) and Millenium (P2) × PB-89 (P5) revealed highest magnitude for most of the character indicating the need for its commercial exploitation for seed yield per plant. The parents Jawahar Mattar-2 (P1), Palam Triloki (P3) and PB-89 (P5) were found to be the best general combiner for most of the characters studied and can be utilized in further breeding programme.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 104-106
T M Dinesh and *Suresh S Patil
Department of Agricultural Economics, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Hyderabad, Telangana *College of Agriculture, (University of Agricultural Sciences), Bheemarayanagudi - 584 104, Karnataka
Abstract
Pigeonpea is the pulse crop grown in the North-East Karnataka region. Despite release of several improved varieties of pigeonpea, adoption rates among farmers remain low. This is due to breeding programme ignoring non-yield production characteristics which are important to farmers. The current study aimed at identifying and evaluating technological attributes preferred by farmers. Data were collected from 60 farmers from two taluks of Kalaburgi district through simple random sampling procedure. The conjoint analysis model was employed to analyze attributes preferred by farmers. The results suggesting that important traits in developing a breeding programme should include duration, resistance and price related attributes were most preferred, plant height least preferred attribute. Garretts ranking employed to analyze the constraints in the existing varieties long duration of variety and susceptible to pest and diseases were the major constraints opined the farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 107-110
Jal Singh Meena, M L Meena, *Nirmal Kumar Meena and **Sunita Meena
Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India *Division of FS and PHT, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012, India **Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, SKNAU, Jobner - 303 329, Rajasthan
Abstract
Present investigation was carried out to elucidate the impacts of integrated nutrient management (INM) on plant growth and curd parameters of broccoli cv. KTS-1. For the experiment, a field trial was carried out in randomized block design with three replications with thirteen treatment combinations. Treatment combination T1 showed higher plant growth characters like plant height (61.20 cm), highest number of leaves per plant (27.76), maximum leaves length (48.26 cm) width (34.14 cm) stem diameter (3.49 cm) and plant spread (58.28 cm). Most of curd related parameters viz. minimum (65 days) to curd initiation, minimum (74.10 days) to 50 percent curd initiation, minimum (88.55 days) to 50 percent curd maturity and maximum curd diameter (11.48 cm) were exhibited by treatment combination T11. Among the all treatment combinations, treatment T11 was found to be best in terms of curd initiation times, diameter and economic point of view.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 111-116
Debashis Mandal, C Lalhmingchawii, Tridip Kumar Hazarika and *Amritesh Chandra Shukla
Department of Horticulture, Aromatic and Medicinal Plants, Mizoram University (A Central University), Aizawl - 796 004, Mizoram, India Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Tomato is one of the important fruit vegetable of India and has good market demand as well as export earnings. Because of its soft and succulent nature, it is difficult to maintain the shelf life in ambient condition. However, refrigerated storage increased shelf life but resulted with chilling injuries. Therefore, the experiment with post harvest coatings of chitosan, wax and particle film (kaolin) was taken up to study their influence on shelf life and quality in ambient condition. Results showed that wax coated tomato fruits had delayed pigmentation with good fruit firmness while had low weight loss (2.86%) and fruit decay (8.0%) at 14 days after storage (DAS). It was found that ripening during storage delayed in waxed and Chitosan (2%) coated fruits which had low TSS:acid ratio (7.76 and 9.38) at 14 DAS. Waxed tomato fruits had high retention of ascorbic acid (16.32 mg 100g-1) at 14 DAS and got maximum shelf life (26.33 days) followed by coating with Chitosan 2% (22 days).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 117-121
H A Patel, A D Raj and V R Jinjala
Department of Agronomy, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during summer season of the year 2016 at the College Farm, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. The experiment consisting eighteen treatments combinations comprising of three levels of nitrogen (25, 50 and 75 kg N ha-1), three levels of phosphorus (12.5, 25 and 37.5 kg P2O5 ha-1) and two levels of biofertilizers (no inoculation and seed inoculation with Azotobacter + PSB) were evaluated in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The result revealed that better crop yield with higher net return can be obtained from summer sesamum by fertilizing the crop with N3 (75 kg N ha-1) and P3 (37.5 kg P2O5 ha-1) in the “deep black soil” soil of South Gujarat Agro climatic region.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 122-126
Shilpa Rana, Kehar Singh Kadian, *Sheela Kharkwal and **Hamid Nazir
Division of Dairy Extension, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana *Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India **Department of Animal Husbandry Extension, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh to assess the differences in the productivity performance of dairy animals belonging to beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries under Doodh Ganga Yojna Scheme. Data were collected from total 60 beneficiaries and 60 non-beneficiaries and productive performance of crossbreds, indigenous cows and buffalos reared by beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries were compared using five parameters namely; average milk yield, lactation length, lactation milk yield, peak yield and dry period of animals. The results indicated that the average milk yield of beneficiary’s crossbred, indigenous and buffalo animals was 7.48±1.3, 5.09±0.76 and 5.44±0.60 respectively and non-beneficiary’s animals was 6.69±1.5 4.39±0.87 and 4.83±1.00 liter/day/animals. Lactation length of beneficiary’s animals was 276.02±5.44, 251.43±9.12 and 265.25±7.20 while non-beneficiary’s animal was 266.51±6.2, 239.68±7.81 and 256.42±5.71 days/animals. Lactation milk yield of beneficiary’s crossbred, indigenous and buffalo animals was 2065.92±366.45, 1278.26±195.10 and 1441.88±195 while non- beneficiary’s animals was 1786.94±278.98, 1050.49±198.90 and 1238.25±280 liter/animals, peak yield of beneficiary’s animal was 11.25±2.50, 6.48±0.99 and 5.50±0.50 while non- beneficiary’s animals was 10.26±1.40, 6.51±1.17 and 5.08±0.79 liter/animals, dry period of beneficiary’s crossbred, indigenous and buffalo animals was 83.98±5.45, 113.57±9.13 and 99.57±7.2 while non- beneficiary’s animals was 93.49±6.2, 120.32±7.81, 108.58±5.71 days/animals respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 127-131
M S Kishore and C Murthy
Department of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in 2016-17 with the objective of assessing the performance of two coconut processing units with respect to investment pattern, cost of production and marketing their products and the value addition taking place in the units. The results revealed that the total investment including working capital for the initial period in desiccated coconut unit was ₹ 313.50 lakhs. The total cost of production and marketing of 1 tonne powder worked out to ₹ 1,84,722.46. Out of this cost, the variable cost (₹ 1,83,133.07) occupied the major share of 99.14 per cent. Among the variable costs, the major share went towards purchase of raw materials (83.64%). In total, the unit could able to get ₹ 1,10,000 worth of desiccated coconut powder ₹ 76,500 worth of sheath chips, ₹ 13,500 worth of coconut shell and ₹ 1,600 worth of coconut water. Hence the total value addition in percentage was found to be 9.14 per cent. It was observed that the net present value of the unit was found to be ₹ 2,49,03,941 at 12.00 per cent discount rate. The internal rate of return was found to be 20.10 per cent. The payback period was found to be 9.2 years. The capital investment made in shell charcoal unit was ₹ 126 lakhs was invested on the processing unit. It was observed that a total of cost ₹ 21,042.54 was incurred to produce 1 tonne of charcoal. Out of this cost, the variable costs (₹ 18,988.43) contributed 90.24 per cent and fixed cost (₹ 2,054.10) contributed 9.76 per cent to total costs. Among the variable costs, the cost of raw materials (₹ 13,500) viz. coconut shell contributed 59.40 per cent. It was observed that to produce 1 tonne of shell charcoal, a total of 3 tonnes of coconut shell was required. After processing, a quantity of 1 tonne of shell charcoal and 10 kg of by-product viz. charcoal dust could be obtained. The total return realized from sale of 1 tonne of shell charcoal along with by-product was ₹ 22,070. The net value added from processing shell to charcoal was found to be 4.88 per cent. The net present value of shell charcoal unit was ₹ 85,84,204. The internal rate of returns was found to be 18.50 per cent. The B:C ratio was found to be 1.03 and payback period was 11.3 years.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 132-136
Jenny Kapngaihlian, *T Arivelarasan and Yendrembam Latika Devi
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, P. J. Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Hyderabad, Telangana *ABM Division, ICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research Management, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
Corn, an emerging cereal crop is one of the most versatile crops grown in more than 166 countries, including tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. In India, it is cultivated throughout the year in most of its states for various purposes from consumption; as food and feeds to industrial products. In the light of which the expediency and probability of adopting corn as a major crop have been premeditated by analyzing the price and production forecast of corn. ARIMA stochastic modeling was used to forecast the corn production and prices in India mainly to identify the most effective model that will forecast the price and production up to 2020. The finding showed an increase in corn production and prices. Thus, the increase in price will result in an impending surge in supply by allocating more area by corn producer farmer will allocate more area from income and profits point of view. The paper concludes that productivity should be stressed at a larger scale for the augmentation corn as an important cereal crop in India.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 137-139
M Srikala, *I Bhavani Devi, S Rajeswari and **G Mohan Naidu
Department of Agricultural Economics, **Department of Statistics and Mathematics, S. V. Agricultural College (ANGRAU), Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India *Institute of Agribusiness Management, ANGRAU, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
This paper has studied the price volatility of paddy and maize in selected markets. For assessing the price volatility in the selected markets the data on monthly modal price data for the period from January 2005 to December 2015 for paddy crop and January 2003 to December 2015 for maize were used. Selected markets were Nizamabad and Suryapet (Andhra Pradesh), Sindhanur (Karnataka) and Toofanganj (West Bengal) markets for paddy crop and Nizamabad (Andhra Pradesh), Udumalpet (Tamil Nadu), Davanagere (Karnataka) and Kota (Rajasthan) markets for maize crop. The price series of Toofanganj market for paddy showed the presence of price fluctuations as indicated by the sum of Alpha and Beta co-efficients which were nearer to one (0.9736), where as in the remaining markets, the volatility shocks were not quite persistent. The volatility in maize prices was also observed from ARCH- GARCH analysis and it revealed that maize prices in all the selected markets were less volatile.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 140-142
Priyajoy Kar, H R Meena and A P Verma
Dairy Extension Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the consumers understanding regarding the food labels in the dairy products and to find out its utility in consumers daily life. Primary data was collected by interviewing 200 consumers (NDRI and GADVASU milk parlor), who were the regular consumers of the milk products in the two distinct areas of northern India to find out the differences in their purchasing pattern. The result revealed that majority of the consumers reads the food labels on initial purchase of their food items. Consumers were well comprehended with the food labels used in the food items. Different kinds of information like Expiration Date (99.50%), Ingredients (78.40%), Health claims (66.80%) and Nutritional information (65.30%) were mostly used by the consumers, and they look for it in the dairy food products labels. Expiry Date was most commonly used by consumers as an indication of freshness, shelf life and food safety across a range of foods. The findings proposed the improvement of consumers knowledge regarding food labels used in the dairy products.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 143-146
A P Bhavya, *G N Kulkarni and B C Ashwini
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka
Abstract
The handloom industry of Karnataka is the largest cottage industry. In terms of magnitude of employment it is next only to agriculture. Therefore, it occupies an important place in the development of the state by catering to the needs of economically weaker sections of the society. The total number of handloom worker households in the state was 37,680. Out of which 33,854 (89%) households are in rural area and remaining i.e. 3826 (10.15%) households are in urban area. The study was conducted in Tumkur district of Karnataka. The total sample size was 60 from three different taluks of Tumkur District, the result of the study reveal that The variation in man days used depended on the type and design of the saree produced in Handloom (Gatti type saree: 1.50 MD, 3D type: 2.5 MD, Box Design: 3.5 MD and Brocade: 4 MD) and the quantity of filature silk and charak silk used remained the same across saree types. The total cost of production of Brocade saree (₹ 3513/saree) was kept highest compared to others type sarees owing to differences in design and colour combination. And net returns obtained from Brocade saree was highest ₹ 428/Saree with B:C ratio of 1.11.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 143-146
A P Bhavya, *G N Kulkarni and B C Ashwini
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka
Abstract
The handloom industry of Karnataka is the largest cottage industry. In terms of magnitude of employment it is next only to agriculture. Therefore, it occupies an important place in the development of the state by catering to the needs of economically weaker sections of the society. The total number of handloom worker households in the state was 37,680. Out of which 33,854 (89%) households are in rural area and remaining i.e. 3826 (10.15%) households are in urban area. The study was conducted in Tumkur district of Karnataka. The total sample size was 60 from three different taluks of Tumkur District, the result of the study reveal that The variation in man days used depended on the type and design of the saree produced in Handloom (Gatti type saree: 1.50 MD, 3D type: 2.5 MD, Box Design: 3.5 MD and Brocade: 4 MD) and the quantity of filature silk and charak silk used remained the same across saree types. The total cost of production of Brocade saree (₹ 3513/saree) was kept highest compared to others type sarees owing to differences in design and colour combination. And net returns obtained from Brocade saree was highest ₹ 428/Saree with B:C ratio of 1.11.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 147-150
Yeshpal Singh, *B S Duhan and N L Sharma
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Amar Singh (P/G) College Lakhaoti, Bulandshahr - 245 407, Uttar Pradesh, India *Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Mustard grain yield significantly increased from 7.98 to 9.22 and 10.79 q ha-1 with the application of S 30 and 60 kg ha-1, respectively over absolute control. Application of 10 MT FYM alone increased the grain yield from 7.98 to 8.24 q ha-1 over control. Application of S 30 kg ha-1 in combination with 10 MT FYM increased the grain yield of mustard from 7.98 to 10.67 q ha-1 over control. Significant and highest grain yield 11.81 q ha-1 was recorded with the application of S 60 kg ha-1 + 10 MT FYM. Stover yield of mustard also followed the similar trend and highest yield 35.52 q ha-1 was recorded with the application of S 60 kg ha-1 + 10 MT FYM. The maximum harvest index (HI) was recorded 27.64% with the treatment having S 30 kg ha-1 alone followed by 26.87% with S 60 kg ha-1 alone, and least 25.01% by control. The protein content, oil content and oil yield were improved with the increasing levels of S with and without FYM. The highest protein content 19.75%, oil content 33.36% and oil yield 3.94 q ha-1 were recorded with the application of S 60 kg ha-1 + 10 MT FYM over all other treatments. Application of S either alone or in combination with FYM increased the N, P and S uptake by mustard grain and stover. N, P and S uptake by grain was increased from 23.78 to 37.32, 2.27 to 3.41 kg ha-1 and from 3.83 to 11.10 kg ha-1, respectively with treatment having S 60 kg ha-1 + 10 MT FYM over all other treatments. Highest N, P and S uptake by mustard stover registered 22.73, 5.72 and 10.55 kg ha-1, respectively with the application of S 60 kg ha-1 + 10 MT FYM, whereas lowest N, P and S uptake 11.25, 3.78 and 4.91 kg ha-1, respectively were recorded by the absolute control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 151-155
H Ekka, B Dewangan, D Khandey and *Soumitra Banerjee
BRSM College of Agricultural Engineering, Technology and Research Station, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidhyalaya, Chatarkhar, Mungeli - 495 334, Chhattisgarh, India *Center for Incubation, Innovation, Research and Consultancy, Jyothy Institute of Technology, Thataguni, Bengaluru - 560 082, Karnataka
Abstract
Custard apple (Annona squamosa) is a tropical fruit that grows well in India and is considered as a quite popular fruit in India and abroad, because of its unique sweet and appealing taste. This fruit has many beneficial properties like antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and CNS depressant activities. This fruit is utilized for various food preparations like squash, nectar, fruit pulp, ice cream etc. Out of several unit operations, in any kind of food processing, grading is an important operation which is conventionally done manually. But keeping in mind the growing demand of custard apples in national and international levels, the requirement of mechanized grad in unit for custard apples were realized. No much work has reported on custard apple grader based on properties. A fully functional custard apple grading machine was developed and was tested. The machine was found suitable with a grading capacity of 3240 kg custard apples per hour. The machine was found suitable for grading the custard apples in three different grades and grading efficiency and capacity may be increase as per the processors requirement by varying the machine parameters. Physical damage during grading by developed machine was found to be as low as 4-6%.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 156-159
U Sivakumar and *R Brindavathy
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu *Oil Seeds Research Station, Tindivanam - 604 002, Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A survey was made in Northwestern zone of Tamil Nadu to collect nodules from horse gram and to isolate rhizobia. Out of thirty isolates made, seven of them with one standard isolates were tested under pot culture to screen the efficient organisms based on nodulation and growth. The isolate PHG 2 was able to produce fifteen nodules plant-1, this was significantly more when compared to other isolates including the standard one. From the pot experiment four best nodulating, one least nodulating isolates were selected and tested along with a standard isolate under field condition in combination with phosphobacteria. The strain (PHG 2) which performed well in pot culture was able to reproduce the same trend in almost all the parameters and was also comparable with the standard isolates (Coc-10). The efficient rhizobial strain (PHG 2) along with phosphobacteria has registered 29 per cent increased yield in addition to improved nodulation and growth over uninoculated control and hence this strain was identified as efficient rhizobial strain for horse gram grown in this zone.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 160-163
G Vijayalakshmi, K Karuna and G Mahadevaswamy
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Alternaria leaf spot/blight caused by Alternaria helianthi (Hansf.) Tubaki and Nishihara is an economically important disease posing threat to sunflower growing countries throughout the world. Bioefficacy of eight biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride, T. viride strain 16, T. viride strain 60, T. harzianum, T. harzianum strain 2, T. harzianum strain 55, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) was evaluated under in vitro conditions. In dual culture technique, maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of A. helianthi was recorded in T. viride (85.33%), followed by T. viride strain 16 (79.33%), T. harzianum (76.44%), and the least inhibition (49.77%) of mycelial growth was noticed in P. fluorescens. Culture filtrates of T. viride caused maximum reduction in dry weight (202 mg) of A. helianthi. Radial growth of A. helianthi was significantly affected by culture filtrates of bioagents. Maximum reduction in radial growth of A. helianthi was recorded due to T. viride (2.5 cm) followed T. harzianum (3.16 cm). T. viride strain 60 culture filtrates were least effective in inhibiting radial growth of A. helianthi (4.6 cm).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 164-171
Dhananjay N Gawande
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In present study two released and popular hybrids viz. Phule-388 and NHH-44 were evaluated along with their six generations through generation mean analysis to study gene action present for yield and fibre quality traits. The six parameter model was employed for those characters where either of three scales (A, B & C) found significant. Inheritance of the characters like seed cotton yield, lint yield, seed weight per plant, bolls per plant, boll weight, sympodia per plant, monopodia per plant, 100 seed weight and short fibre percent in both crosses; plant height in Phule-388 and 2.5% span length, fibre strength, ginning percent and oil content in NHH-44 was under the control of simple gene effect as well as higher order inter-allelic interactions. Fibre elongation percent in both the crosses and seeds per boll in NHH-44 were solely under the control of dominance gene effect. For oil content in Phule-388 whereas for uniformity ratio, micronaire and plant height in NHH-44 preponderance of the additive effect and additive x additive inter-allelic interaction was evident. In Phule-388, predominance of higher order epistatic interactions was observed for uniformity ratio, micronaire, 2.5% span length, fibre strength as well as for seeds per boll and ginning percent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 172-174
Arsha Balakrishnan, Sheela Kharkwal, G Balaganesh and A K Chauhan
Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The present study attempts to assess the role of Rubber Producers’ Societies in income enhancement of small holder rubber farmers in Kerala. Small holdings sector face several problems like prevalence of traditional and uneconomic methods of cultivation and resultant low productivity, absence of collective bargaining power and problems in processing and marketing etc. In order to cater the need of these small holdings, Rubber Board has promoted Rubber Producers’ Societies (RPS) at village level. A sample of 80 rubber farmers was chosen, consisting 40 RPS members and 40 non-members, for the study. Cost of rubber cultivation and returns were calculated. Results showed that formation of RPS improved the socio-economic status of small farmers. Members of RPS got benefits in terms of lesser cost of cultivation by 14 per cent compared to non members. They incurred lesser processing cost and cost of production too. The group processing facilities ensured better quality produce and thereby higher price. The gross return was found around 10 per cent higher for RPS members compared to non members. Return per rupee of cost was 2.68 for members whereas it was only 2.08 for non-members.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 175-177
Pabitra Adhikary, *Partha Sarathi Patra and Ananda Hansda
North 24 Parganas Krishi Vigyan Kendra, WBUAFS, Ashokenagar - 743223, West Bengal, India *Department of Agronomy, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, West Bengal
Abstract
A filed experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 and 2015-16 at Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Farm, Ashokenagar (North 24 Pargana), West Bengal on a sandy loam soil to assess the effect of phosphorus with PSB on growth, yield and quality of lentil. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications. Results revealed that grain and straw yield increased significantly with increasing rate of phosphorus, from 45 kg to 90 kg with PSB over control. Protein content in lentil grain and straw increased significantly. Application of biofertilizer (PSB) recorded 4.80% higher grain yield and 3.69% straw yield over control. The maximum grain (1.05 t ha-1) and straw (1.91 t ha-1) yields and protein content 24.09 % were recorded with 90 kg ha-1 phosphorous and PSB inoculated plots.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 178-182
Anannya Chakraborty and S K Acharya
Department of Agricultural Extension, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, District Nadia, Mohanpur - 741 252, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Agricultural production and productivity is largely dependent on the number of rainy days in a particular cropping season. The monsoon rain deviation hampers the agricultural production by reducing the normal crop yield or by destroying the crops by disease- pest, flood or drought. Not only the crop production or productivity is hampered by deviated monsoon rain but also the marketability of the crops or amount of marketable surplus of the farmers is also hampered. The present study is conducted in Ghoragachha village under Saguna gram panchayet, Nadia, West Bengal. The number of respondents was 60 and they were selected randomly. The data were collected through pilot survey, structured interview and focused group interview. The statistical tools used for data analysis are correlation coefficient, step down regression, path analysis and factor analysis. Family size (X3), size of holding (X4), homestead land (X5),cropping intensity (X8), livestock (X10), yield of rice (X11), yield of pulses (X12) are some of the variables those have created a significant impact on the market. The variables which were retained after step down regression are education (X2), size of holding (X4), cropping intensity (X8), homestead land (X5) yield of rice (X11), yield of vegetables (X13), exposure to media (X14) that means these are the most important causal variables which affect the consequent variable.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 183-188
Dhananjay N Gawande
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Two released and popular hybrids viz. Phule-388 and NHH-44 along with their six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 & B2) were evaluated to isolate high yielding segregants with better fibre quality. In F2 generation of Phule-388, highest transgression was observed for oil content (53.33%) followed by plant height (45%), monopodia (40.83%), ginning percent (40%), seeds per boll (25%), sympodia (22.5%), bolls per plant (8.3%), while 6.67% transgressants each were observed for seed cotton yield, lint yield and seed weight per plant. In F2 generation of NHH-44 highest transgression was recorded for 100 seed weight (75.83%) followed by plant height (70.83%), seeds per boll (60.83%), oil % (43.33%), sympodia per plant (37.5%), bolls per plant (25%), seed cotton yield (10%), lint weight (10%), seed weight (10%), boll weight (6.67%) and ginning percent (5.83%). For fibre attributes in Phule-388 highest transgression was noticed for uniformity ratio (33.3%) while in NHH-44 highest transgression was recorded for 2.5% span length and short fibre percentage (86.67%). In B1 generation of Phule-388, the transgressive segregants were more than B2 for the important traits like symopodia per plant, bolls per plant, seed cotton yield per plant, lint weight per plant, seed weight per plant and oil percentage for which the recurrent parent was better parent (P1). Same was true for the traits like plant height and 2.5% span length in B2 where transgression was more than the B1 due to higher dose of recurrent parent and better parent P2 for these character. Increased blood level of the better parent in back crosses resulted into increased recovery of transgressants for the given traits. It is also evident in B1 of NHH-44 for the characters like plant height, monopodia per plant, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, 100 seed weight, seed cotton yield per plant, lint weight per plant, seed weight per plant, ginning %, micronaire and fibre strength where P1 was better parent for these traits. More transgressive segregants were observed in B2 than B1 for seed per boll and 2.5% span length due to the high dose of better parent for respective characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 189-192
G Bhavani and V Manoj Kumar
Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Studies were conducted to determine the rate of sap transmission of Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) and to ascertain the effect of trisodium orthophosphate (16%) and hot water treatment (at 50°C for ten minutes) against ULCV through seed treatment of infected seeds, under controlled conditions during rabi 2014-15. Sap transmission studies revealed that, out of four crop species belonging to Leguminosae tested for their reaction to ULCV by sap incoulation method, only Vigna mungo (LBG 623) expressed disease symptoms with 63.33% sap transmission. Seed treatment studies revealed significantly lower incidence (20.00%) of ULCV with hot water treatment (at 50°C for ten minutes) than that with trisodium orthophosphate at the rate of 16% (35.00%) when compared to untreated control (38.33%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 193-197
Praveenkumar Angadi, K M Indiresh, H B Lingaiah and A Mohan Rao
Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot - 587 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The investigations were undertaken during Kharif 2014 to Rabi 2015 at the College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences Campus, Bengaluru, on genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for growth, yield and seed parameters in brinjal. The study was mainly envisaged to assess variability for seed content, fruit yield and its attributes in local and working collections of brinjal genotypes. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among nine genotypes evaluated for different growth, yield and seed parameters. The highest fruit yield per plant was recorded in genotype Arka Anand followed by Haritha and L-2863. Per cent fruit set was highest in L-2863. Maximum average fruit weight and lowest phenol content were recorded in Mattigulla. More pulp to seed ratio with less placental length were recorded in Mattigulla followed by Kuduchi local. In the present study, high GCV and PCV were observed for number of flowers per cluster, number of fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit diameter, average fruit weight, fruit volume and number of fruits per plant. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent over mean was recorded for the characters viz. number of branches, days to first flowering, plant height, number of flowers per cluster, number of fruits per cluster, diameter of the fruit, length of the fruit, average fruit weight, fruit volume, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant and yield per hectare.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 198-202
G T Navya, B M Dushyantha Kumar, G B Jagadeesh, T H Gowda and G K Nishanth
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga - 577 225, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Genetic diversity is a pre-requisite for crop improvement program to develop the superior recombinants. The nature and magnitude of genetic divergence were estimated in 49 local land races of rice, 11 quantitative characters were considered and assessed using Mahalanobis’ D2 statistics under drought and irrigated condition. The analysis of variance revealed highly significant difference among the rice genotypes for all the traits. All the genotypes displayed considerable amount of differences in their mean performance with respect to all the characters studied. the high magnitude of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variability was recorded for number of tillers per plant, number of productive tillers per plant, number of spikelets per panicle, number of filled grains per panicle under drought stress and irrigated condition. Based on D2 analysis 49 genotypes were grouped into 8 clusters under both drought and irrigated condition. The intra cluster distance varied from 54.19 in cluster I to a maximum distance of 107.67 in cluster V and the inter cluster distance D2 values also ranged widely with a minimum value of 85.38 between cluster I and III to a maximum value of 1466.23 between cluster IV and cluster VIII under drought stress. Among eleven characters studied filled grains per panicle (35.8%) contributed maximum towards divergence under drought followed by productive tillers per plant (25.34) and number of spikelets per panicle (11.39).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 203-205
N Jayarama Naik and Basavaraj Madhusudhan
Department of Food Technology, Davangere University, Shivagangotri, Davangere - 577 002, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Flax seed lignans concentrate is thought to be prime source of potential antioxidants of therapeutic importance. The possibility of heavy metals contamination in any given plant based extracts is not uncommon. The aim of this work was to evaluate the heavy metals in the lignans concentrates prepared from defatted flaxseed-hull fraction. The lignans concentrates prepared by two different methods were rich in SDG components as estimated HPLC analysis. The lignans concentrates method was found to be 2.4 gm/kg in comparison to Westcott method estimated to be 0.5 gm/kg of defatted hull. From both the methods, the SDG content in lignans concentrates from Elliasonet al method was found to be remarkably higher. The determination of Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Pb, As and Hg in lignans concentrates by High-Resolution Continuum Source Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS) were found within the detection limits 0.022 for Cu (324.8 nm), Cr (357.9 nm), Mn (279.5 nm), Fe (248.3 nm), Ni (232.0 nm), Cd (228.8 nm), and Pb (217.0 nm), similarly 0.0002 for As (193.7 nm) and Hg (253.7 nm), respectively, indicating negligible contamination. The purpose of preparing lignans concentrates with almost negligible limit of heavy metals for its safe use was achieved.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 206-210
G V Rohith, K S Rashmi, K R Hamsa and Afrin Zainab Bi
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
This study is pertaining to agricultural land transaction in Srirangapattana taluk of Mandya district in Karnataka. Land sale Meta data obtained from sub registrar’s office of Srirangapattana. In 2005, Bhoomi project started in Srirangapattana taluk, hence in this study the patterns of agricultural land transactions are analysed for the period 2005 to 2013. The land value mainly depends on agricultural (irrigated and non-irrigated) and non-agricultural (real estate and commercial purposes), location and type of sale (sq. feet, sq. metre, gunta, acre). The study shows that land value of sq. feet, sq. metre, gunta, acre in real terms between 2005 and 2013 increasing at the rate of 29 per cent, 27.91 per cent 16.01 per cent, 13.55 per cent, respectively. The average land area sold per person over the years increases in case of gunta and decreasing in case of acre. The average land area sold per person from 2008 onwards stagnation (normal). Higher market value in real terms accounted by irrigated land compared to rainfed land. The value of per acre of irrigated land compared to dry land is increasing over time from in real term ₹ 1, 79, 176 to ₹ 6, 98,023 increasing at the rate of18.52% and rainfed land increasing at 16.14% from ₹ 1,30,437 to ₹ 4,31,783 between 2005 and 2013. The non-agricultural land sale accounts less area because small plots and it sales in more price for commercial and residential purposes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 211-213
Megha Suman1,2, Geeta Sharma3 and Ishwar Prakash Sharma4,5
1,3Mushroom Research and Training Centre, Department of Plant Pathology, Govind Ballab Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India 2Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Science, Dehradun - 248 001, Uttarakhand, India 4Department of Biological Sciences, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Govind Ballab Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India 5Patanjali Herbal Research Department, Patanjali Research Institute, Haridwar - 249 405, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Macrocybe giganteum is an advance addition in the cultivated mushroom family. The experiments were conducted in vitro conditions to explore the potential of different media, temperature, pH and light intensity. Present study was carried out on four strains of M. giganteum (MA-1, MA-2, MA-3 and MA-4) and one of milky mushroom Calocybe indica (CI) for evaluation of their cultural characteristics on different growth media, temperatures, pH and light. Among the selected media PDA and MEA showed better mycelia growth. For analysis of temperature (30oC) for all strains and variable pH (pH-6 for MA-1, pH-9 for MA-2, pH-10 for MA-3 and pH-7 & 8 for CI) were recorded. Light is an important growth factor which has been evaluated first time for growth of selected strains, blue and yellow light has been recorded better for selected strains growth. On these bases these strains might be further enhance for commercially and economically.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 214-218
K Divya, S Rajeswari, I Bhavani Devi and P Sumathi
Department of Agricultural Economics, Department of Statistics and Mathematics, S. V. Agriculture College (ANGRAU), Tirupati - 517 502, Andhara Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study is an attempt to forecast the prices of redgram at Thandur and Kurnool markets of Andhra Pradesh, as the arrivals of redgram were found to be maximum in these markets. The secondary data pertaining to monthly prices (₹/Qtls) of redgram collected from April 2000 to December 2014 has been used for the study. For redgram in Thandur the ARIMA (1,1,1) model, Kurnool (1,1,1) model fits the data well with lowest percentage error. Forecasts were found fairly accurate when compared with real time prices. ARIMA model is an extrapolation method that requires only historical time series data on the variable under study. The Box-Jenkins model provides a verified approach for identifying and filtering most appropriate variations for the series being analyzed, for diagnosing the accuracy and the reliability of the models that have been estimated and lastly, for forecasting the price.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 219-223
Pooja S Bhat, *T N Venkata Reddy and *P K Mandanna
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Marketing, Co-operation and Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
American foods are gaining acceptance primarily from the Indian youth (below the age of 30) who account for nearly 60 per cent of the population. Socio-economic characteristics of the consumers influence the lifestyle, the emerging consumption behaviour pattern on account of the ever changing trends, preferences and environment over the years and in predicting its future outcome. The present study aims to throw light on the socio-economic and demographic profiles of the consumers consuming American foods from American Food Restaurants (AFR’s) in Bengaluru City, recommendations and suggestions and the practical utility of the study. Among the 90 respondents, nearly half of the sample consumers patronizing American foods were in the age group of below 25 years, students and had a monthly income in the range of ₹ 5,000 to 10,000 and ₹ 50,001 to 1,00,000. More than half of the consumers were post graduates, non-vegetarians, South Indians, single, females, Hindus and belonged to nuclear families having upto 4 members. The family composition of the consumers preferring American foods had on an average two males and two females.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 224-228
Bishan Rawat, Ramesh Kumar, *Navish Kumar Kamboj and **Gaurendra Gupta
Department of Agronomy, CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar - 1250 04, Haryana, India *Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India **Division of Agronomy, ICAR-Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Pusa Camous, New Delhi - 110
Abstract
The field investigation entitled nutrient management in pearl millet based intercropping systems in rainfed situation was conducted at CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Krishi Vigyan Kendra Farm, Mahendergarh during Kharif 2011. The experiment comprised of 13 treatment viz. Pearl millet sole with recommended dose of nitrogen, Pearl millet + cluster bean and Pearl millet + mung bean intercropping each with 100 per cent nitrogen to main crop (M100) and 100 per cent N to intercrop (I100), M100 I0, M75 I100, M75 I0, M50 I100 and M0 I0 nitrogen levels. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replications. Based on the research investigation it was found that Cluster bean intercropping with pearl millet with 75 to 100 per cent nitrogen dose to main crop and 100 per cent nitrogen dose to intercrop produced statistically equal yields to sole pearl millet. The N, P and K content (%) in grain and stover of sole pearl millet and pearl millet intercropping with cluster bean/mung bean grown with 100 per cent nitrogen level were statistically at par to each other. Nitrogen and potash uptake (kg ha-1) by grain, stover and total uptake in sole pearl millet and pearl millet + cluster bean/mung bean intercrops with 100 per cent recommended dose of N were statistically comparable to each other. However, phosphorus uptake in sole pearl millet and pearl millet + cluster bean was at par but that pearl millet + mung bean was significantly less than sole pearl millet crop. Maximum protein content and protein yield of pearl millet was recorded in pearl millet + cluster bean intercropping system with 100 per cent nitrogen application, which is closely followed by pearl millet + mung bean intercropping and sole pearl millet with 100 per cent recommended dose of nitrogen.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 229-230
R Rajasree, *C K Timbadia and Mukesh Choudhary
Department of Extension Education, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Farm mechanization is widely adopted in the cultivation of field crop cultivation, vegetable cultivation, plantation etc. different type of farmer and eco friendly implements have been developed and it’s being used from land preparation to post harvesting process. Often farm mechanization is mistakenly perceived as tractor mechanization. Agricultural mechanization is defined as the use of any mechanical technology and increased power to agriculture. This includes the use of tractors, animal-powered and human-powered implements and tools such as jab planters, as well as irrigation systems, food processing and related technologies, equipment and new seed varieties. Farm mechanization helps the farmers in many ways. With the help of mechanization, optimum crop production can be achieved and human drudgery can be reduced to a certain extent. During the green revolution the importance of farm mechanization gained its importance. In India, vegetable production is being a promising sector which gives better returns in short period of time. The technological interventions paved the way for higher adoption of vegetable cultivation and reducing the drudgery of the farmer. Hence considering these factors, it is worthy to conduct an investigation based on the “impact of farm mechanization in vegetable growers income” was planned and proposed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 231-233
Misba Majeed, Mir G Hassan, F A Mohiuddin, Z A Badri, *Shazia Paswal and Mudasir Hassan
Division of Plant Pathology, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu and Kashmir *Division of Plant Pathology, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Chatha - 180 018, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Chilli not only formsan indispensable culinary spice in several parts of the world but it is also used in beverages and in the preparation of medicines. India is the second largest exporter of chilli in the world (Peter 1999). Chilli crop is attacked by several diseases of bioticand abiotic nature leading to great loss to cultivators. Among those diseases, damping off of chilli incited by Pythium spp. is responsible for 90 per cent of plant death either as pre or post-emergence damping off in the nurseries and fields (Sowmini 1961).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 1 ; 234-236
Viktesh Chandra Pandey, Raghavendra Naik and Chhabi Nath Ram
Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumrghanj, Faizabad, U.P.
Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an herbaceous, annual, prostrate and sexually propagated crop plant with bisexual flowers. The genus Lycopersicon consists of short lived perennial herbaceous plants. Tomato is a typical day neutral plant and is mainly self-pollinated, but certain percentage of cross-pollination also occurs. It is one of the most popular and widely cultivated vegetable throughout the world and ranks second in importance after potato in many countries including India. Though tomato is a self pollinated crop, the unusual high heterosis observed in it has been attributed due to its evaluation/development from originally tomato genus which has later evolved into cross pollinated ancestors.


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