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Volume - 9 - March 2018 (Special Issue)
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 01-05
Sheela Kharkwal and *Hamid Nazir
Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India *Department of Animal Husbandry Extension, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out in Kumaon hills of Uttarakhand state to identify typical dairy production systems and its relationship with farm and socio-economic characteristics of farm households. The study area comprised of five randomly selected villages from three Tehsils in each of two hill districts of Kumaon division, viz. Nainital and Almora. A total of 300 households constituted the ultimate sampling units for the study. Farm household typologies were constructed by using two multivariate statistical techniques, viz. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA). PCA was used to transform linearly an original set of 20 variables, representing farm and socioeconomic characteristics, into a smaller set of uncorrelated variables (factors) that represents most of the information in the original set. The factors retained from the PCA were used for cluster analysis. Four homogenous groups (clusters) were obtained. Cluster I (28.42%) was defined as households with low land holding, high stock of buffalo and low degree of technology adoption. Cluster II (40.75%) was defined as households with high land holding, high degree of technology adoption, and high buffalo stock with low farm family labour involvement. Cluster III (22.60%) was defined as households with low intensity of Market Participation in Dairying and Cluster IV (8.22%) was defined as households with high intensity of market participation, high stock of crossbred animals and high degree of technology adoption.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 06-10
P V Sathya Gopal, K Shireesha and N P Eswara Reddy
ICAR Extramural Research Project, Department of Agricultural Extension, S. V. Agricultural College (Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in agricultural education has paramount importance to bring reality to the teaching learning process. In spite of committed efforts, the utilization of ICT tools in agricultural education is still not reaching to the expectations of the stakeholders. Ample numbers of ICT tools were also been regularly designed and refined to suit to the teaching learning process in agricultural education. But the focus on the valid gaps for underutilization of ICTs has not been made by the researchers in agricultural education system. To explore such gaps and to bring a modest approach to the faculty members to learn and efficiently utilize the ICT in their teaching endeavor, the present study was taken up under ICAR extramural research project during the year 2016-17 with the objective of identifying and analyzing the gaps in ICT utilization by the faculty members in State Agricultural UniversitiesThe study revealed that there was thirty two per cent gap existed between Awareness and Frequency of Use of ICTs among the faculty members and was found as major gap followed by 28 per cent gap was found between Awareness and Application proficiency, 25.00 per cent gap between Awareness and Knowledge and 19.00 per cent gap between Accessibility and Frequency of Use of ICT by the faculty members. The Chi square test revealed that the personal factors viz., age, gender, academic qualification, designation, experience didn’t have any impact on ICT utilization by the faculty members. The process factors like Awareness, accessibility, knowledge, application proficiency and attitude had strong impact on extent of ICT utilization by the faculty members. The ‘R2’ value of 0.893 depicted that all the selected ten factors put together explained about 89.60 per cent variation in the utilization of ICT by the faculty members. Further, the process factors viz., knowledge and application proficiency significantly contributed to most of the variation in the utilization of ICT by the faculty members.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 11-13
Teerth Singh Shandilya, *Rameshwar Kumar and D K Suryawanshi
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India *Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, College of Agriculture, Rewa, JNKVV, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted during the year 2014-15 in the Korea district of the Chhattisgarh state. The information on attitude of tribal youth towards different on-farm activities that most of the respondents 53.47 per cent were moderately favourable of attitude, followed by 25.69 per cent of the respondents had less favorable of attitude and 20.83 per cent of the respondents were more favourable of attitude towards participation of different on-farm activities. The information on attitude of tribal youth towards different off-farm activities that majority 65.97 per cent of the respondents were moderately favorable of attitude, followed by 18.06 per cent of the respondents had less favorable of attitude and about 15.97 per cent respondents were more favorable of attitude towards participation of tribal youth in different off-farm activities.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 14-17
Lingaraj Dip, Hundekar A R and Shamrao Jahagirdar
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Different species of Trichoderma viz. T. harzianum Rifai, T. viride Persex. Fr., T. virens Miller, T. koningii, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were tested in vitro against Alternaria alternata causing brown leaf spot of tobacco by using dual culture technique developed by Dennis and Webster in 1971. T. harzianum was found significantly superior over all other bio-agents tested with 78.26 per cent inhibition zone followed T. koningii (64.8 per cent inhibition zone). This finding revealed that Trichoderma harzianum is a promising antagonist of Alternaria alternata and it could be employed against management of brown leaf spot disease of tobacco.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 18-23
Sunil A Nair
Department of Plantation Crops and Spices, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
The experiment was carried out on tomato var. Naveen during Kharif season to assess the effect of mulching on growth, yield and quality of tomato. The treatments comprised of polyethylene mulches of various thickness and their alignment, straw mulch and control. The results showed that plant height, number of primary branches per plant, fruit yield, and average fruit weight recorded highest values under black polyethylene mulch whereas mulches failed to cause significant effect on fruit quality parameters. Days to 50 % flowering and days to marketable maturity was earliest under black polyethylene mulch. Fifty micron thickness of black polyethylene mulch was effective in obtaining maximum values for characters like plant height, number of primary branches, fruit yield and average fruit weight. It also recorded earliest values for characters like fifty percent flowering and marketable maturity. Alignment of mulches caused significant effect on number of branches per plant and days to marketable maturity. Intra row was superior when compared to inter row mulch in effecting yield attributes. Economics of different mulches revealed that maximum yield (675.89 q/ha), maximum net return (₹ 1, 97,212.83/ha) as well as B:C ratio (2.70) were obtained in intra row alignment at 50 micron thickness of black polyethylene mulch.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 24-26
Rabi Ghosh and *O P Sonvanee
Department of Agribusiness Management, *Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An attempt has been made in this study to examine the biotic and abiotic factor affects on regeneration of Sal (Shorea robusta) in Bastar Plateau of Chhattisgarh. The study was conducted in Kanker and Jagdalpur circle of Chhattisgarh state for its economical value which is beneficial for local villagers to generate income. For the study we have worked on the basis of multistage sampling, and the sample is collected randomly, for that we took 2 X 2 sq.mt. A large amount of seed during mid May to end of June is removed by way of seed collection for the use in industries. Sal seedling dieback occurs only in natural forests and the period of dieback or stagnation varies, considerably while studying the impact assessment of borer epidemic on the regeneration status of Sal forests concluded that borer affected Sal forests exhibited highly insufficient established regeneration while the fresh regeneration is found in abundance that is yet to be established. The protection against grazing, insect and fire, soil and moisture conservation measures and silvicultural operations can bring about considerable improvement in establishment of seedlings of Sal and its associates both qualitatively and quantitatively in natural Sal Forests.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 27-31
Savita F Hullur and R V Koti
Department of Crop Physiology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate hundred soybean genotypes with and without P fertilizer application. The experiment was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, MARS, UAS, Dharwad. The released 100 soybean genotypes in the country with some local checks and mutants that represent wide collection of germplasm that are cultivated across India were selected. Two levels of P (with P and without P) were applied to each genotype in a factorial RCBD with two replications. Application of RDF (@ 80 kg/ha resulted in significantly higher growth and yield parameters compared to without P application. There was 16% increase in the yield with application of Phosphorus. The mean seed yield per ha was significantly higher in +P condition as compared to –P condition. The soybean genotypes varied significantly for plant height, number of pods per plant and grain yield with the application of P fertilizer. Correlation studies revealed that number of pods per plant has significantly positive correlation with grain yield per plant while plant height showed significantly negative correlation with grain yield. Among the genotypes evaluated CO-1 recorded the highest grain yield of 17.1 g/plant while CO-3 recorded the least (5.3 g/plant). Therefore CO-1 and Lee had greater adaptation for low soil P conditions than the other genotypes and hence more suitable to resource poor farmer.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 32-35
J V Ekale, M V Kulkarni, Pravin N Chavhan and H S Dudhal
Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agriculture University, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Parbhani district from Marathwada region of Maharashtra State. For this study, A randomly lottery method was used to select district and two talukas, Total 120 respondents selected from villages, they were interviewed, personally to collect the data with the help of structured interview schedule. The study revealed that majority (61.67%) of the respondents had young age group, majority of (43.33%) them were illiterate, majority of (93.33%) them were married, majority of (55.83%) them had medium size of family, majority of (55.00%) them had from joint type of family, majority of (85.83%) respondents had annual income up to Rs. 40,000/-, majority of the respondents (73.33%) expressed average satisfaction about working conditions. Majority of (73.33%) the respondents were having 'low' social participation and (95.00%), (80.33%) of respondents were engaged season wise, as well as employed for more than 120 days respectively. Study revealed that majority of the respondents had high level of drudgery in performing farm operations. Also, majority of women labourer were faced most drudgery in the activities of cutting of standing crop, threshing of crop, weeding, stubble collection, winnowing, and sowing.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 36-42
Amit Handoo, Anil Bhat, Jyoti Kachroo, Sushil Sharma, S P Singh and Naveed Hamid
Division of Agricultural Economics and ABM, *Division of Agricultural Engineering, **Division of Food Science Technology, S.K. University of Agricultural Sciences Technology of Jammu, Chatha - 180 009, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
The rapid growth of Indian meat industry is driven by a combination of rising incomes, young and urbanization population and declining real poultry prices. The vertical integration in the meat industry and the retail boom in India are paving way to organized retailing. Although, many studies existed on meat consumption, most of them were focused on urban household. To collect the relevant information among the respondents in Jammu, the present study makes use of a descriptive type of research design. A purposive sampling procedure has been adopted for selecting sample households. To collect the data from the respondents in totally, 100 respondents were collected from the four selected area. In addition to this 5 Retailers from four areas were selected. The findings of the study revealed that a majority of the households consumed chicken and mutton for the preparations like Curry, Biryani, Fry, Kabab etc. Meat consumption decisions were made by the husbands in a majority of rural and urban households across all income groups. The average household consumption of meat showed a positive relationship with income. The overall average family monthly income was found to be ₹ 27520, ₹ 28636, ₹ 26868 and ₹ 28232 respectively, for the Gandhi Nagar, Gangyal, Janipur and Talab Tillo area of Jammu. The results found that out of 25 households in each region, majority of the households belong to income group II. The positive relationship was found high in case of the chicken, where the consumption varied from lower income group to higher income group. In addition to this while determining the factors responsible for making preference and consuming meat, the taste appears to be having rank first in Gandhi Nagar and Talab Tillo whereas fat content the least. On the other hand, nutritional value appears to be highest rank in Gangyal and Janipur whereas price and easy availability the least.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 43-46
Shikha Singh and Neelam Bhardwaj
Department of Agricultural Communication, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
In recent decades, as a consequence of natural resources degradation and poor resource management in hilly areas of Uttarakhand forced men to out migrate in search of better livelihood options. Looking into the problems, Government has realized the significance of taking up watershed based planning and given high priority to increase the productivity and income of the rural inhabitants in the rainfed areas of the state through sustainable management of the natural resources. The success of the project depends on degree of peoples’ participation in the project and at what extend people adopted. Women carry the major workforce responsibility, the entire domestic and agricultural burden falls upon womenfolk, who are considered as a major stakeholder in Integrated Watershed Management. Hence, it is utmost importance to quantifying the role and participation of women in IWMP. The present paper focuses on perception about gender sensitive indicators in Integrated Watershed Management Project, refers to the identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the important of gender inclusion in development projects. The study uses primary data collected through survey in Uttarkashi and Bageshwar district of Uttarakhand (India). Therefore, the key objective of the study is to find out the perception of beneficiaries on gender sensitive indicators in Integrated Watershed Management Project. It was found from the study that 54 per cent showed medium perception, 32.66 per cent of beneficiaries indicated high perception whereas 13.33 per cent depicted low perception about gender sensitive indicators under integrated watershed management project.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 47-49
Anuj Mamgain, Mohan Kumar Biswas and *Narottam Dey
Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan - 731 236, West Bengal *Department of Biotechnology, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan - 731 235, West Bengal
Abstract
India being the fourth largest oil economy in the world after U.S., China and Brazil accounting for 6.7 percent of world production still has low productivity of rapeseed and mustard owing to many constraints in its enhanced productivity. Among the various constraints, Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. has been recognized as the most potent constraint in the increased production of many Brassicaceae crops not only in India but all across the world. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate various bio-control agents against Alternaria blight under in vitro conditions. The various bio-control agents used were Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma virens and Aspergillus niger which acted as antagonists to the growth of Alternaria brassicae. The results revealed that the antagonists significantly reduce the growth of Alternaria brassicae either by over growing or by exhibiting inhibition zones. Of all the bio control agents evaluated against Alternaria brassicae, T. viridae (80.68% inhibition) was found to be the most effective treatment than the other treatments. This was followed by T. harzianum, T. virens and finally Aspergillus niger with 78.4 percent, 75 percent and 55.68 percent inhibition respectively. Aspergillus niger was least effective among the antagonists tested against A.brassicae and exhibited minimum mycelial growth inhibition (55.68%). These results can be attributed to higher competitive ability of these bio-control agents and also due to the production of volatile antibiotics by the bio-control agents as mentioned by earlier works on management of Alternaria brassicae under in vitro conditions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 50-52
Binit Kumar, Chanchila Kumari and Manish Kumar
ICAR-NRRI-CRURRS-KVK, Jainagar, Koderma - 825 324, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
Supplementation of substrate at casing with bio-inoculants (Pseudomonas putida) to increase the yield and biochemical content of white button mushroom is an important and improved practice in commercial production of mushroom. This investigation was started with three treatment composition of casing mixture along with application of P. putida, which was followed as GLS + FYM + Vermicompost (2:1:1) + P. putida (1×108c.f.u/ml), GLS + FYM + Waste tea leaves (2:1:1) + P. putida (1×108c.f.u/ml) and GLS + FYM + Sand (2:1:1) + P. putida (1×108c.f.u/ml). The casing composition GLS + FYM + Vermicompost (2:1:1) + P. putida (1×108c.f.u/ml) found best over all other combination of casing in minimum days required for mycelium run 15.62 days, number of fruiting bodies harvested per bag 95.36, maximum number of fresh weight 1.86 kg per bag, protein content 0.38 mg per 10g, carbohydrate content 0.28 mg per 10g and moisture content 88%. The treatment combination GLS + FYM (2:1) with only water spray was taken as control. There were significant differences between supplemented and non-supplemented substrates in all the parameters including biological efficiency (20.16%) and yield per bag. Conversion of agricultural waste product into valuable high rich protein source of mushroom (A. bisporus)may be achieved by addition of bio-inoculants in casing mixture.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 53-55
Krishan Yadav and Rajesh Kumar
Directorate of Extension Education, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
In the present paper an attempt has been made to study to acquire information regarding behaviour and feedback of farmers visiting farmers’ fair of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar. The present study was conducted at CCSHAU, Hisar main campus. It was concluded that the main source of information about farmers’ fair was friends and relatives (41.50%) followed by fellow farmers (37%). However in case knowledge level of farmers regarding farmers’ fair activities was seeds sale (84.00%) followed by agro-industrial exhibition (83.50%). In case of purpose of visiting farmers’ fair to purchase high yielding varieties of seeds (53.50%) was the main purpose followed by visit to agro-industrial exhibition (51%). Private organizations ranked first with weighted mean score (2.78) followed by agro-industrial (2.41).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 56-58
Binit Kumar, Chanchila Kumari and Manish Kumar
ICAR-NRRI-CRURRS-KVK, Jainagar, Koderma - 825 324, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
The cultivation of white button mushroom was investigated for increasing yield, protein and carbohydrate content by using bio-inoculants (Pseudomonas putida) on three different combination of casing mixture which was includes saw dust, slake lime and sand. The casing mixture comprises of GLS + FYM + saw dust (2:1:1) + P. putida (1×108c.f.u/ml), GLS + FYM + slake lime (2:1:1) + P. putida (1×108c.f.u/ml) and GLS + FYM + sand (2:1:1) + P. putida (1×108c.f.u/ml). Besides these the combination of GLS + FYM (2:1) with water spray only was used as a control. The maximum linear mycelial growth after 5, 10 and 15 days respectively were observed on GLS + FYM + saw dust (2:1:1) + P. putida (1×108c.f.u/ml). The data regarding 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of spawn running of Agaricus bisporus, the significantly effective substrate was cased with sawdust followed by the other substrates. The minimum days required for complete mycelia run was took placed within 13.62 days, maximum number of fruiting bodies harvested 83.25 per bag, maximum yield was recorded 1.94 kg per bag and maximum content of protein and carbohydrate were calculated 0.36mg/10g and 0.26mg/10g respectively. White button mushroom showed relatively more yield, protein and carbohydrate content on sawdust treatment as compared to other substrates. The maximum biological efficiency was obtained in sawdust which was 20.21 %. Among all substrates, sawdust proved the best substrates for the effective cultivation of white button mushroom.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 59-63
Shalu Devi Thakur
Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Benhama, District Ganderbal - 191 201, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
A socio-economic survey was conducted from March, 2016 to October, 2017 to enumerate the diversity of traditionally used plants with socio-economic importance in biodiversity rich temperate Himalayan ranges of Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Socio-economic data was gathered using semi-structured interviews, group discussions and walk-in-the-woods with local knowledgeable elders, tribal (Gujjars and Bakkerwals) and traditional practitioners. Result revealed that 71 plant species belonging to 70 genera and 41 different families were traditionally used for various purposes. Out of 71 maximum numbers of plants i.e. 44 are used for health disorders. Majority of the species were perennial herbs but reports of annual and biennial herbs were also not uncommon. The highest number of socio economic plants were recorded in two families viz. Asteraceae (7 species) and Apiaceae and Rosaceae (6 species each). The shrinking population of these plants on account of very high demand is a matter of great concern as these plants are the backbone of our traditional system with a large population still depending on these traditional plants for various purposes. Therefore the need to conserve these plants is of utmost importance and if necessary conservation measures are not taken at the earliest, the day will not be far when these God gifted resources will get completely depleted from their natural habitats.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 64-68
Parveen Kumar
National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture, Directorate of Extension, SKUAST-Jammu, Main Campus Chatha - 181 103, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
The present research work of was carried out in the subtropical rainfed locally called ‘Kandi’ belt of Jammu region. It is an analysis of the agriculture scenario of the region. The study conducted with a sample size of 240 respondents revealed that the 72.50 per cent of the farmers belong to the marginal category. The major crops grown were Maize both as pure as well as mix crop with Cowpea Bajra, Mash, Til and Moong in the Kharif season whereas in the Rabi season the crops grown were Wheat both as a pure as well as a mixed crop with Mustard. Crops like maize and wheat had a much lower b: c ratio than Pulse crop (Mash), and oil seed crop (Mustard). As far as livestock population is concerned 73.75 percent and 72.50 percent of the respondents had local breed of cows and buffaloes respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 69-72
Rameshwar Kumar and *Teerth Singh Shandilya
Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India *Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted at Durg block in Durg district of Chhattisgarh. A sample of 60 respondents in the ratio of 20:20:20 was selected randomly. The respondents were classified into three groups viz. small (>2.00 hectares), medium (2.01- 4.00 hectares) and large (4.01 hectares and above) farms. Yield, returns, marketing costs, constraints of production and marketing data were collected from the sample respondents as well as from different market functionaries through the pre-tested schedule for the year 2015-16. It was found that the marketing cost and margins conclusion is that as the marketing functionaries reduced the share of the producer in consumer paid price on one side and on the other size increased the consumer’s paid price indicate that share of producer price tend to decline as per increase in the number of marketing functionaries and compelled the consumers to pay higher prices for the same quantity of banana without any relief. On the basis of above comparative statement it was found that when there is involvement of higher number of marketing functionaries in the dealing of banana marketing tend to decrease the producer’s share in ultimate consumer’s paid price one side and forced the ultimate consumers to pay higher price for the same quantity of banana as a consequence of incurring of various costs and margins recovered by market functionaries for their rendered services in the trading of this commodity. the marketing efficiency is higher in channel-I as compare to channel-II and channel-III.Cost and margin of various agencies in the marketing of banana in Channel-I.The share of producer in consumer’s paid price was maximum as approaching nearly 94 percent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 73-77
Sakshi Bajaj
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out during 2015-16 and 2016-17 at the Instructional cum Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur. Fifteen treatment combinations (viz., five tillage practices and three weed management) were tested in split plot design with three replications to assess the productivity of maize under rice - maize cropping system. The result exhibited that both tillage and weed management practices had significant influence on yield attributes and yield of maize during both the years. Among tillage practices CT (DSR) - CT i.e. conventional tillage direct seeded rice and conventional tillage in maize resulted in the maximum number of cobs plant-1 (1.17) coupled with highest length of cob (15.62 cm) with girth of cob (16.61 cm), number of grains cob-1 (495.65), weight of cob (187.04 g) and higher seed index (23.98 g) in highest grain yield (4.16 t ha-1) and stover yield (12.24 t ha-1) which was comparable with CT / ZT - direct seeded rice after zero tillage in maize and these were significantly superior over transplanted rice after both tillage system. Among weed management treatments, application of atrazine 1.0 kg ha-1 PE recorded the maximum number of cobs plant-1 (1.29), length of cob (15.68 cm), girth of cob (16.64 cm), number of grains cob-1 (498.33), weight of cob (188.93) and higher seed index (24.15 g) which consequently resulted in highest grain yield (4.51 t ha-1), stover yield (13.09 t ha-1) being significantly superior over other weed management practices. The highest grain yield (5.01 t ha-1) and stover yield (19.58 t ha-1) obtained under combination of CT (DSR) – CT with atrazine 1.0 kg ha-1 PE.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 78-83
Navneet Seth and *Rohit Markan
Department of Applied Sciences, Baba Hira Singh Bhattal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Lehragaga, Sangrur - 148 031, Punjab *Management Department, UICM, Sant Baba Bhag Singh University, Jalandhar, Punjab
Abstract
MGNREGS has raised many eyebrows since its inception in 2006. Many economists have announced the scheme as a suitable policy for providing employment at the rural level while others have criticized it. However, it has made an adverse impact on agricultural sector especially in the agricultural developed state of Punjab. The study has analyzed the impact of MGNREGS in two districts of Punjab namely Sangrur and Mansa. The research observed that this scheme is responsible for enhancing the wages of farm labors. The farmers have criticized the scheme as it has made shortage of labor in the farms especially in the sowing time period, which also led to increase their cost of production. In the present going season of paddy, the rate of one acre of contract for sowing paddy has been arisen to 2400 INR to 2600 INR. Although, majority of the farmers are of view that if the scheme is attached with the agricultural sector then it will surely enhance the productivity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 84-87
Pragya Yadav and *V K Yadav
Department of Zoology, M. L. B. Government P/G. College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh *College of Agriculture, Pathari, Ganj Basoda - 464 221, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract
Defoliators causing a serious menace on soybean production in Bundelkhand zone of Madhya Pradesh. Therefore, some botanicals were tested for their relative efficacy against these insects. Insecticide quinalphos 0.2% was found more effective than botanicals but neem oil 2 per cent and NSKE 3% had the potential of overcoming the defoliators to a great extent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 88-90
G J Chaithra, N S Shivalinge Gowda and V Govinda Gowda
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was undertaken in two taluks of Tumkur district viz. Gubbi and Sira. Three panchayath were selected from Gubbitaluk and three panchayath from Sirataluk. 45 SHG respondents from 8 SHG Group from each taluk and 45 non SHG respondents from each taluk was choosen thus making total respondents for the study 180. 37.78 per cent of SHG members had medium level of livelihood security followed by high (33.33%) and low (28.89%). Whereas, 53.33 per cent of non-members had low livelihood security followed by medium and high (24.44% and 22.23) livelihood security respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 91-93
Atturi Krishna Murthy, Dhanalakshmi Guduru and *Y G Prasad
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Yagantipalle, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh *Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute, Zone-X, Hyderabad
Abstract
Hydroponic fodder production plays significant role in augmenting fodder shortage of small holder dairy production system in scarce rainfall areas. The present experiment was conducted in the adopted villages of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Yagantipalle, Kurnool dist., A.P. to assess the effect of hydroponic maize fodder (HMF) on production performance in the milch buffaloes. A low cost hydroponic fodder production devise (Krishi Fodder Master) was fabricated and utilized in the experiment. Twenty graded murrah buffaloes of 2nd and 3rd lactation were equally divided into two groups (T1&T2). First group fed with 5kg sorghum straw per day along with recommended quantity of concentrates and the second group fed with 5kg sorghum straw and 12kg HMF per day. Data on HMF production, milk yield/day, % fat in milk and 3.5% FCM/day was collected for 60 days trial period. 7.2kg HMF was obtained from one kilogram of maize seed within 7 days without using any nutrients in the irrigated water. The DM, CP, CF, EE, TA and NFE contents in HMF were 14.3 15.8, 12.62, 3.74, 3.27 and 64.57 respectively. The data revealed that 6.5% increased mean milk yield/day was recorded in T2 (6.88±0.47) as compared to T1 (6.46±0.49). The mean % fat and SNF in T1 and T2 were recorded as 6.78±0.19, 8.86±0.16 and 7.08±0.23, 9.14±0.12 respectively. The gross income per day was 13.05% more in T2 (₹250.47±17.31) than T1 (₹ 221.55±15.49). The data revealed that saving of ₹ 15.61/buffalo/day on concentrate feeding and increased net returns of ₹ 44.58/buffalo/day were recorded on supplementing HMF. These results were found significant at 5% (p<0.5). Feeding of HMF to buffaloes produced under Krishi Fodder Master was found to be economical for medium producing animals in low rain fall areas.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 94-100
Sharmila Dessai and *Seema P Rath
Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India *Government College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Khandola, Marcela - 403 107, Goa
Abstract
In Goa, agriculture sector provided employment to about 60 per cent of the total workforce in 1960-61 which showed continuous decline in the successive years. The closure of mining from 2013-14 forced the farmers to focus on farming activities. Goa recorded the highest percentage increase in the number of operational holdings (47.71%) in India in 2010-11 compared to 2005-06 showing an optimistic signal for agricultural development. Therefore it is essential to know the problems faced by farmers to improve agriculture sector and making it an attractive occupation. The views of farmers have been acquired by selecting agriculturally significant Ponda Taluka as the unit of study. The primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire directly from 313 farmers that accounted for over 3 percent of operational holdings. The prevalence of small size holdings, tenancy farming, lack of awareness among farmers and shortage and high cost of labour are the major obstacles in agriculture development. Large areas of cultivable waste land can be reclaimed and made fit for cultivation. Efforts also could be made to overcome the loopholes existing in the Land Legislations so as to distribute the surplus land among the small and marginal farmers. Watershed approach needs strengthening.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 101-103
J R Patil, *Vijaysingh Thakur, **Raju G Teggelli and ***Deepak
Dean (Agriculture), College of Agriculture, Kalaburgi - 585 101, Karnataka, India *Project Assistant, College of Agriculture, Kalaburgi - 585 101, Karnataka, India **Senior Scientist and Head, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburgi - 585 101, Karnataka ***Scientist (Home Science), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburgi - 585 101, Karnataka
Abstract
Greengram is most important short duration pulse crop in Kalaburagi district of Karnataka. Yield of greengram is decreasing due to many reasons and one among them is flower drop and poor pod setting in climatic vulnerability situation. To enhance the yield of Greengram, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi has undertaken 100 demonstrations in farmer’s field of Kalaburagi district during kharif 2017-18 to enhance the yield of Greengram through pulse magic spray under National Food Security Mission (NFSM). On an average, yield obtained is 9.1 q/ ha under demo plots (T1: pulse magic sprayed field) as compared (7.5 q/ha) to check (T2: no pulse magic spray). On an average the Demo plots recorded higher yield parameter viz. no. of pods/plant (17), no. of seeds/pod (9.8), 1000 seed weight (53.5 g) and higher net returns (Rs.11792) compared to check (11,7, 45.4 g and Rs.7150, respectively).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 104-106
G Mohan Naidu
Department of Statistics and Mathematics, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
An attempt was made to develop nonlinear statistical models for studying area, production and productivity of pulse crop in India. To this end, eleven nonlinear statistical models viz., linear, quadratic, cubic, exponential, compound, logarithmic, inverse, power, S-curve, growth, logistic were considered. Parameters of these models were estimated by using nonlinear regression option of SPSS PC version 20. Appropriateness of a model was judged by adjusted R2, MSE, RMSE and MAD, respectively, We found that, cubic model came out to be the best model among the eleven models considered for projecting the pulse crop area, production and productivity of India. Future projection of pulse crop in India by using cubic model revealed that a increasing trend in area, production and productivity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 107-110
Amit Pippal and *R Asokan
Advanced Center for Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangaluru, Karnataka *Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangaluru, Karnataka, India
Abstract
RNA interference (RNAi) is the sequence specific down regulation of cognate genes mediated by endogenous/ exogenous delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This degradation is mediated through the production of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) formed from the dsRNA by the action of dsRNA-specific endonuclease called Dicer (RNaseIII). The resulting siRNAs are of 21 bp length carrying two base extensions at 3’ end of each strand. One strand of the siRNA is act as guide strand and is assembled into an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) in conjunction with the Argonaute multi-domain protein, which contains an RNaseH-like domain, responsible for mRNA degradation. In the present study, potential of RNAi through the delivery of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) for the cypP450 and vATPase genes were tested for the management of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Yponomeutidae: Lepidoptera). The two genes viz. cypP4506BF1V1 and vATPase-E were cloned, sequenced from P. xylostella. Suitable off target minimized, dsRNAs region was identified based on the online software dsCheck. dsRNAs of 500 bp length were in vitro transcribed for the above two genes and quantified spectrophotometrically. Effectiveness of the dsRNAs was tested by insect bioassay studies on neonate larvae P. xylostella. The dsRNAs were individually smeared on to the cabbage leaf discs and five neonate larvae were released replication. Observations showed that cyp6BF1v1 gene caused 82 per cent mortality, where as 80 per cent by vATPase-E.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 111-113
K Naresh and R D Ahire
Department of Extension Education, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted purposively in selected Kinwat and Mahur tahsil of Nanded district as Kinwat taluka having highest tribal population in Marathwada region. Total of 120 respondents were selected as sample respondents for this study. Data were collected through personal interview schedule. Result show that, most of the tribal farmers (64.17 per cent) were from middle age group, followed by old age group (20.00 per cent) and young age group (15.83 per cent) category. In case of education most of the tribal farmers (40.83 per cent) were primary school, followed by 23.33 per cent of them were educated upto illiterate level. About 21.67 per cent of them were educated upto middle school level. Followed by 14.17 per cent of them were educated up to high school level. For management orientation more than half 80.00 per cent of respondents had medium level of management orientation, followed by low (11.67%) and high (08.33 %) level of management orientation. As scientific orientation majority of the tribal farmers (87.50%) had medium scientific orientation followed by high (07.50%) and low (05.00%) level of scientific orientation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 114-116
P Nagarjuna Reddy and Jagadeesh G Angadi
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study examined the energy use pattern of maize farmers in Belgaum district of Karnataka. Data was gathered from a sample of 80 farmers through a structured interview schedule. Energy consumption was high in ploughing operation (1112.78 MJ ha-1) followed by other harrowing (802.75 MJ ha-1). There was significant difference between small and large farmers in energy consumption through ploughing, harrowing, sowing, weeding, harvesting and threshing operations. Energy consumption through inorganic fertilizers was found to be the dominant source in all farm sizes. There was significant difference between small and large farmers in energy consumption through machinery and inorganic fertilizers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 117-120
S Angles and *M Chinnadurai
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Eachangkottai, Thanjavur - 614 902, Tamil Nadu *Centre for Agricultural and Rural Development Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agriculture has been the backbone of India and 58 per cent of the population still depends on agriculture. The efforts in production could be converted into income only if the reasonable price is realized. It could be made possible if the producers are empowered through providing the information on marketing of produces and inputs as well. The present study was done in Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu state in India with sample size of 120 farmers on the impact and importance of market intelligence. The result of the study revealed that the factors such as age, education, financial facility, motivation and intension were significantly influencing factors in the use of Market Intelligence (MI) information. Due to the use of market intelligence information in agriculture, the employment increased (24.73%), total income increased (26.55%), new asset is added, savings rate and consumption expenditure also increased. There was high potential to increase the profit and livelihood condition of the farmers. Training in market intelligence to the rural farmers will empower the farmers to access and use the market intelligence to increase their profit.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 121-126
Manish Kumar, *A Kumar, **N P Mandal, C Kumari and ***V K Singh
ICAR-NRRI-CRURRS-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Koderma - 825 334, Jharkhand, India *Department of Botany, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag - 825 301, Jharkhand, India **Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Central Rainfed Rice Research Station, Hazaribag, Jharkhand ***Division of Agronomy, Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow - 226 002, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
Drought stress is a major abiotic stress factor, constraining rice production and quality worldwide. Several drought indices were used to identify drought-tolerant lines among 109 recombinant lines of Heera x Brown gora. It is observed that the line having lower value of stress susceptibility index (SSI),tolerance (TOL), sensitivity drought index (SDI), stress susceptibility percentage index (SSPI) and larger value of geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean (HAM), drought resistance index (DI), yield susceptibility index(YSI), yield index (YI), stress tolerance index (STI) and Sensitivity drought index (SDI) are more drought tolerant. It is observed that mean grain yield under stress and non-stress environments were highly correlated with the MP, GMP, STI, YI, HAM, DRI, and modified stress tolerance index (STI). We found that MP, GMP and STI were considered the best indices for the selection of the relatively tolerant lines. Correlation analysis indicated that eleven indices were positively correlated to yield under stress and two indices were negatively correlated to non stress.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 127-129
S A Samoon and K S Kirand
Division of Horticulture, Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Naini, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The investigation was carried out during 2007-08 with nitrogen at 0 kg ha-1 100 kg ha-1 and 150 kg ha-1 and 200 kg ha-1 and Phosphorus 0 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1, 80 kg ha-1 and 110 kg ha-1 respectively. The results obtained showed that nitrogen and phosphorus had significantly influence on growth parameters of calendula. Nitrogen at 150 kg ha-1 proved superior to other treatments in term of plant height (32.82 cm), number of leaves per plant (227.80), number of branches per plant (50.97), and the same treatment recorded maximum plant spread (38.71 cm). Phosphorus at 80 kg ha-1 was found superior among all treatments in case of growth parameters in calendula in terms of plant height (33.37 cm), number of leaves per plant (234.03), number of branches per plant (51.33), and plant spread (38.71 cm). Phosphorus at 80 kg ha-1 was found among all treatments in case of growth parameters in calendula in terms of plant height (33.37 cm), number of leaves per plant (234.03), number of braches per plant (51.33), and plant spread (38.74 cm). Interaction between 150 kg of N and 80 kg of P exhibited superior influence on plant height (34.44 cm), number of leaves per plant (254.22), number of branches per plant (57.22) and plant spread (41.61 cm). The treatments N2 P2 (150 kg N + 80 kg P) also showed highest C:B ratio and net return.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 130-135
Chandan Kumar Rai, *Khajan Singh and **Mukesh Bhakat
Dairy Extension Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India *Livestock Production Management Division, **D E S & M, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The present study christened the systematic approach to assess climate change awareness among the tribal dairy farmers of Himachal Pradesh which is imperative to get information to improve the livelihoods of “Gujjar Tribes”. In this perspective, a Likert’s type scale was constructed to measure the tribal dairy farmers’ awareness towards climate change. A list of 34 positive and negative (60:40) statements representing the awareness towards climate change was prepared and on the basis of fourteen criteria suggested by Edward (1969), ten statements were deleted and remaining 24 statements sent to the 60expertshaving vast knowledge in the field of climate change and environment for rating on five point continuums. For finalization of scale value aggregate statement score were calculated based on individual expert’s score for each statement. The highest twenty five percent of aggregate statement value with highest score and lowest twenty-five percent of aggregate statement value with lowest score were considered for the scale. On the basis of calculated ‘t’ values, 20 statements were retained in the final scale and finally reliability and validity of the scale was also checked to know the important characteristics indicate the consistency of the results.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 136-138
Ritesh, R Munirajappa and V Manjunath
Department of Agricultural Statistics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The models of the trends in area, production and productivity of Small millets in India are obtained using 64 years data. Small millets include the Finger millet, Little millet, Kodo millet, Foxtail millet, Barnyard millet and Proso millet. For the present study secondary data on area, production and productivity of Small millets were utilized. Appropriate linear and non-linear regression models are tested on area, production and productivity of Small millets in India. Among studied models, suitable models were selected based on the significance of estimates of parameter, root mean square error (RMSE). The models indicated that the area and production has a decreasing trend, and the productivity established the increasing trend over the study period.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 139-141
A Srinivas, V Govardhanrao and R V S K Reddy
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University, Pandirimamidi - 533 288, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
The Paddy Variety MTU-1075 recorded higher plant height, number of effective tillers per hill, length of panicle, number of grains per panicle and test weight than the local check (RGL-2538). It has also recorded 38.52% higher yield than local check (RGL-2538) with a harvest index of 47.2% over the years of study. The improved technology of Paddy variety gave higher gross returns with a benefit cost ratio of 3:1 as compared to local check. In spite of the increased yield with improved technology, the technological gap, extension gap and technology index existed which was 5.43q ha-1, 19.55q ha-1 and 10% respectively Hence the existing medium duration Paddy variety RGL-2538 (Vasundhara) can be replaced with medium duration Paddy variety MTU-1075 (Pushyami) since it fits in to the existing farming situation for higher productivity and income.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 142-145
Ravi Dupdal and C S Avinash
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Study was conducted to estimate the marketing efficiency, price spread and constraints involved in marketing of cotton in Dharwad district of Karnataka. Three stage random sampling was employed to collect primary data on cotton from purposively selected district of a state.The Shepherds marketing efficiency equation were employed and different marketing channel of cotton were explored and it was found that channel-I (91.75%) was more efficient with high percentage of price received by producer in miller’s price followed by channel-II (88%) and channel-III (87.50%), respectively. The channel-I i.e. Producer → Ginning mill exhibit higher Marketing efficiency (ME) of 11.12 compared to other marketing channels. This is mainly due to absence of market intermediaries, the study further revealed that prices received per quintal of cotton are low, if cotton were sold immediately after harvest. Prices received were high as the sales were delayed. Garrett’s ranking technique was employed to identify and rank the production and marketing constraints. The result found that non availability of timely farm inputs (GS: 81), proper marketing facilities (GS: 77) and unavailability of credit facilities (GS:72) were the major constraints confronted by most farmers in the region. Apart from that farmers also facing various socio-economic, infrastructural and technological constraints. Government policy focus towards market infrastructure and transparency by way of minimizing malpractices in order to improves the efficiency of market especially for cotton crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 146-149
D Supriya, *B Krishnamurthy and **Nagaraj
Grassland Science and Renewable Plant Resources, University of Kassel, Kassel - 34109, Germany *Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka
Abstract
The study was conducted in Kodagu District of Karnataka state to assess the extent of work participation of farm women in management of coffee plantation. Nighty farm women of coffee growers from Somwarpet, Madikeri and Virajpet talukas were interviewed using a structured interview schedule. The results indicated that, most of the farm women had medium (45.56%) to low (33.33%) level of work participation in coffee plantation. Education, land holding, economic orientation, extension contact, extension participation, mass media exposure, achievement motivation, management orientation and innovativeness of farm women had a positive and significant relationship with their extent of work participation. The personal, socio-economic, communication and psychological variables of farm women contributed to the extent 59.99 per cent of the variation in work participation. Further, analysis of Work participation of Farm Women in different operations reveal that they were involved mainly in labour intensive, strenuous, delicate and time-consuming activities involving more of manual labour.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 150-153
Shalu Devi Thakur
Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Benhama, District Ganderbal - 191 201, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
In the hilly areas of Indian Himalaya, the inhabitants largely depend on plants for curing various diseases. The indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants is vanishing fast. Therefore, the study was aimed to document indigenous uses of some important medicinal plants of Dachigam National Park. Information on 57 species of medicinal plants belonging to 35 families and 57 genera was recorded. Of all species, various plant parts such as leaves (11 spp.), roots (10), flowers (9) and fruits (08), bark (7) and seeds (04) were used in curing various diseases. We recommend further studies on habitat ecology of the species, mass multiplication of commercially viable species through conventional and in vitro methods, and their establishment in the in situandex situ conditions. Furthermore, it is important to develop farming techniques of commercially viable species and disseminate knowledge among stakeholders through education and awareness raising.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 154-156
Darling B Suji, M Kavaskar and A M Sathish Kumar
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Eco- friendly farming is the process of producing food naturally. This method avoids the use of synthetic chemicals and genetically modified organisms to influence the growth of crops. The main idea behind eco-friendly farming is zero impact on environment. It works in harmony with nature rather than against it. This involves using techniques to achieve good crop yields without harming the natural environment or the people who live and work in it. The Study was conducted in Salem district with the sample size of 120 farmers. The study revealed that 47.50 per cent were found to possess medium level of adoption. The findings on adoption of the farmers would help the extension worker to formulate strategies for the adoption of eco-friendly practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 157-160
Pooja S Bhat, *T N Venkata Reddy and *P K Mandanna
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Marketing, Co-operation and Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The variety of dishes produced and consumed in India are infinite. Restaurants are recognized for their superiority over particular dishes and this may be the reason for recognizing particular restaurants given the popularity of a particular dish and this is true in the case of American Food Restaurants (AFR’s) also; given that 25 per cent of the Indian population eats out at least twice a month. In the present study conducted in Bengaluru city, 90 consumers frequenting American Food Restaurants were interviewed using a schedule. Also data was collected from the employees of the AFR’s. Data procured from the consumer respondents were analyzed using percentage analysis and Chi Square technique to check if there was any role of monthly income, family type, family size and food habit on consumers decisions of eating out at branded AFR’s. There is impact of income level, family type and family size and no impact of food habit on the consumers most preferred brand of AFR for eating out. The study recommends the AFR’s to include more promotional and advertising measures to maintain their brand recall and to increase their market share.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 161-165
Krishna Gudadur and Jahanara
Department of Agricultural Extension Education and Communication, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Farm mechanization implies the use of various power sources, improved farm tools and equipment, with a view to reduce the drudgery of the human beings and draught animals, thereby increasing crop production and productivity. About 65 per cent of the Indian population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. In recent years, non availability of farm laboures and fragmentation of land holdings (smaller land holdings) are forcing many farmers to mechanize their farms and over the last few years, there has been considerable progress in agriculture mechanization. Mechanization in agriculture is predominantly taking place mainly for operations where traditional practices have failed to achieve the precision in operations. This is mainly due to the fact that agricultural labour available in Indian farms is becoming scarce day by day. The 50.00 to 60.00 per cent of farmers adapting hire accept sickle spade broadcaster. Impact of farm mechanization on socio-economic life of paddy growers, reflected that farm mechanization had produced positive results reflected by farm mechanization had positive impact on improving the socioeconomic life of the paddy growers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 166-169
P D Shivagangavva and *B S Reddy
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru -560 065, Karnataka *College of Agriculture (UAS Raichur), Gulbarga - 585 102, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Pulses are the basic ingredient in the diets of a vast majority of the Indian population. The growth in production lagged behind the population growth rate which has resulted in to a decline in per capita availability of pulses from 65g/day/capita during 1965 to 33g/day/capita during 2005. This changing scenario of consumption and production will have significant influence on the demand supply prospects pulses. The results of the study revealed that significant growth in area, yield and production of pulses were observed during overall study period in the Gulbarga districts, but not in the Bidar district. Among the pulses, greengram and blackgram registered higher growth in production in Gulbarga, NEK region. The total supply of pulses exceeds its demand in the study area as well as in NEK region and also gap between demand and supply are widening over the years. Thus, we need to have necessary policy initiatives to increase the supply in the long run. The country will need to focus on productivity enhancement for bridging gap. This play important role in the food security of the country and also helps to minimize the import.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 170-173
P Shobha Rani and A Latha
Department of Agronomy, Kerala Agricultural University, KAU Main Campus, KAU P. O. Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala
Abstract
Kole lands are the low lying wet land tracts located 0.5-0.1m below mean sea level and spread over Thrissur and Malappuram districts of Kerala. The cyclical nutrient recharging of the wetland during the flood season rendered the areas one of the most fertile soils of Kerala. Soil acidity, toxicity of iron and manganese are the major soil factors limiting productivity of rice in kole lands. A study was conducted out in farmer’s field at Ponnamutha Kole padavu of Venkitangu Panchayath in Thrissur District during November, 2013 to March, 2014. Seven treatments including the soil test based nutrient application, package of practices recommendation (POPR) of Kerala Agricultural University for rice, absolute control, use of soil ameliorants such as borax and use of different sources of silica with lime and without lime were applied in the crop in a randomized block design with three replications so as to provide a nutrient management strategy for soil amelioration and balanced supply of nutrients which can enhance the productivity of rice in Kole lands. Application of boron and sodium silicate along with lime recorded highest yields of 7.67 t ha-1 and 7.62 t ha-1, respectively. Sodium silicate application also resulted in higher nutrient content except Fe and Mn both in plant and soil and there by more nutrient uptake. Application of ameliorants along with lime reduced the soil acidity and alleviated the toxicity of Fe and Mn and thereby enhanced the productivity of rice in Kole lands.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 174-183
D Lakshminarayana, *R Chandrasekhar and P Prasanth
College of Horticulture, (S. K. Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University), Mojerla - 509 382, Telangana *Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Mojerla, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Telangana during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The gladiolus cultivar White prosperity was used to study the influence of different horticultural practices (Sphagnom mass, Chilling and Ambient conditions with two corm natures) on growth, flowering and corm characters. All growth parameters except number of corms per plant were significantly affected during the two experimental years. Plant height at 90 DAP, number of leaves, fresh weight of cut spike, corm and cormel yield attributing characters and propagation coefficient were significantly higher in without tunic corms stored at 20c whereas, lower in with tunic corms with wet sphagnum moss at 10c during both the years of study. However, the least number of days taken to sprouting was recorded with with tunic corms stored with wet sphagnum moss at 10c and it was maximum in without tunic corms stored at 20c .Finally it was concluded that, cold storage of without tunic dry corms at 20c is the best practice to produce the good quality spikes along with the better corm and cormel yield figures.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 184-186
Krishna Gudadur and Jahanara
Department of Agricultural Extension Education and Communication, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Farm mechanization implies the use of various power sources, improved farm tools and equipment, with a view to reduce the drudgery of the human beings and draught animals, thereby increasing crop production and productivity. About 65 per cent of the Indian population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. In recent years, non availability of farm laboures and fragmentation of land holdings (smaller land holdings) are forcing many farmers to mechanize their farms and over the last few years, there has been considerable progress in agriculture mechanization. Mechanization in agriculture is predominantly taking place mainly for operations where traditional practices have failed to achieve the precision in operations. This is mainly due to the fact that agricultural labour available in Indian farms is becoming scarce day by day. The 50.00 to 60.00 per cent of farmers adapting hire accept sickle spade broadcaster. Impact of farm mechanization on socio-economic life of paddy growers, reflected that farm mechanization had produced positive results reflected by farm mechanization had positive impact on improving the socioeconomic life of the paddy growers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 187-190
Dileshwari, M P Tripathi and *Mansingh Banjare
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, *Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
This paper deals with water balance studies on monsoon week or month carried out in micro watershed of the Chhokra Nala watershed in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh state. A water balance studies are used to describe the flow of water in and out of a hydrological system such as watershed, drainage basin. In this study all the hydrological components were analyzes extracted information about periodic shortages or surpluses of soil moisture. It was found that Negative values of soil moisture during 23rd SMW (-47.35mm) and 24th (-25.31) SMW as well as after 38th SMW (-0.35) indicates depletion of moisture. Based on this crop and water resource management plan are suggested in for the micro watershed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 191-193
Shashank Sharma, Megh Raj Chandrakar and Homendra Siwana
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An attempt has been made in the study to examine the cost and returns and major constraints of seed production of soybean in Kabirdham district. The present study was conducted in the Kabirdham district of Chhattisgarh. 49 farmers were selected from two blocks Kawardha and Lohara of Kabirdham district. The results revealed that the average cost of cultivation per hectare of soybean was Rs. 28469.02, an average the cost of production was Rs. 1674.65 and an average the input-output ratio was 1:3.05. The average per ha yield was 17 qt. and net returns was Rs. 58530.98. Family labour income was 59557.67. Farm business income was Rs. 65671.73. Farm investment income was Rs. 64645.73. The response of farmers about seed production constraints namely Unavailability of labour in crop season, Time factor (Delay in payment), Natural calamities (Rainfall occur during the harvesting and threshing), Low adoption of recommended package and practices of the crop, Ignorance of severs infestation of insect-pest disease control, Unavailability of proper training and guidance, lack of literacy and technological problem in farm production (low productivity).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 194-196
U Harikrishna and R Vijayakumari
Department of Agricultural Economics, Prof. Jayashankar Telanagana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) serves as an effective institutional mechanism to cope with production risks. Majority of insured farmers were found satisfied with NAIS. However, they have shown discontent towards delay in payment of claims, present basis of rainfall for fixing compensation, inadequate amount of compensation, high premium rates and number of crops covered under the scheme. A similar response for these shortcomings was reported by the non-insurance group also.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 197-199
Sant Kumar Namdev, Rahul Dongre and P N Siloriya
College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract
High genetic variability was observed for number of locules per fruit, TSS, fruit yield per plant (kg), fruit weight (g), number of flower/cluster, number of branch per plant and number of fruit per plant. While the lowest value recorded for days to first picking, percentage of fruit set, days to first fruit set, days to 50% flowering and plant height 60 DAT. Heritability was high for all the yield contributing characters except percentage of fruit set. Number of fruit per plant, fruit yield per ha., fruit weight, plant height at 90 DAT and fruit yield per plot, exhibited high heritability with high genetic advance. Where days to 50% flowering, days to first fruit set, days to first picking, percentage of fruit set and number of flower and fruit per cluster exhibited high heritability with moderate genetic advance. Hence it could be concluded that the indirect selection for number of flower per cluster, number of fruit per cluster, number of branches per plant and number of fruit per plant will having genetic improvement of tomato.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 200-203
Pramod Parwate and *M L Sharma
Department of Extension Education, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sakoli, District Bhandara, Maharashtra *Department of Agricultural Extension, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh
Abstract
Kisan Credit Card (KCC) emerged as an innovative credit delivery mechanism to meet out production credit requirements of the farmers in a timely and adequate manner. Realizing its potential for simplifications of loan procedures and in reducing the drudgery of cumbersome documentations to issue the Kisan Credit Cards to farmers on the basis of their holding for uniform adoption by the banks so that the farmers may use them to readily purchase agricultural inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc., and draw cash for their production needs. The present investigation was carried out during the year 2009, in two purposively selected block of Raipur district of Chhattisgarh state with 120 KCC holders. The results revealed that the, credit acquisition was concerned cent per cent respondents acquired credit through KCC for the short term period through Cooperative Bank in kharif season. While, only 19.16 per cent acquired credit for rabi season. About 24.1 per cent of the respondents were also acquired short term loan from other sources like friends, moneylenders, etc. Out of total demand of credit among the farmers for agricultural purposes about 79 per cent was fulfilled by Kisan Credit Card and 16.7 per cent by other sources. However, more than 4 per cent of the credit demand remains unfulfilled. Out of the total KCC holders, 87 per cent of them repaid loan, while only 12.50 per cent respondents were defaulters by not returning loan, in spite of the due date of recovery. Majority of the respondents (74.28%) repaid their loan by kind on yearly basis (75.24%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 204-206
Rekha Sansanwal
Department of Microbiology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Mungbean is an inseparable ingredient in the diets of vast majority of population in the Indian subcontinent. The germinated seeds of Mungbean have good nutritional value as there is an increase in the concentration of thiamine, niacin and ascorbic acid with sprouting. Endophytic bacteria have been reported for various plant growth promoting traits which colonize the internal tissue of the plant without showing any negative effect on their host. So aim of present study is to make the crop immune to diseases, salt and temperature stress. So, these isolates were screened for growth promoting activities viz. IAA, phosphate solubilisation and siderophore production. Only four isolates showed all indole acetic acid production activity, phosphate solubilising activity and siderophore production under in-vitro conditions. So these endophytic bacteria with growth promoting traits could be further assessed for growth promotion and yield enhancement in leguminous crops.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 207-209
Rekha Sansanwal and Leela Wati
Department of Microbiology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Potassium (K) is a vital macronutrient and most abundantly absorbed cation that play an important role in the growth, metabolism and development of plants. Deprived of sufficient potassium, the plants will have poorly developed roots, grow slowly, produce small seeds and have lesser yields. Plants absorb potassium only from the soil and most of it is unavailable for plant uptake because it is present in insoluble form. The potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) are found to dissolve potassium, K-bearing minerals such as micas, illite and orthoclases. In the present forty one bacterial endophytes were isolated using Tryptone soya agar medium and they were screened for potassium solubilisation trait. Out of these total bacterial endophytes, only ten isolates were solubilizing potassium as indicated by zone of solubilization on modified Aleksandrov medium. The isolates were having potassium solubilizing traits so these isolates can be used as potential candidates for solubising potassium in limited conditions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 210-212
Dujeshwer Kurrey, R K Singh and *Rahul Singh Rajput
Department of Agronomy, *Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for millions of people in the world, particularly in the Asian countries. It is grown in all continents except Antarctica, occupying an area of 163 million ha, and producing 755 million tonnes paddy (FAO, 2014-15)
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 213-214
Pushpendra Singh, *T Tirkey, Durga Prasad Moharana and **Vivek Kumar Kurrey
Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India *Department of Horticulture, **Department of Vegetable Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Pointed gourd is one of the immense versatile cucurbitaceous vegetables, also known as the “King of gourds”. It is a perennial, dioecious plant which grows as a vine having highly cross pollination mechanisms producing fruits for about 7-8 month except the winters when plants undergo dormancy (Pathak and Singh 1950).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 215-220
Ashwarya L Tandon and *S D Chaliganjewar
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Research Station (IGKV), Janjgir Champa - 495 668, Chhattisgarh *Department of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 006, Chhattisgarh
Abstract
Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is one of the most important fruits in India. It is a sub-tropical fruit, which is suitable for dry-land area and grown as perennial crop. It is a rich source of vitamin ‘C’ and its content of ascorbic acid, which is protected by high polyphenols content during storage and processing. The fruit is widely used in Ayurvedic preparation due to its pharmacological properties. It is also used as diuretic, refrigerant and laxative. Aonla is affected by many diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses after harvesting (Morton, 1987).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 221-230
Abrar Yousuf and *Anil Bhardwaj
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab *Regional Research Station (Punjab Agricultural University), Ballowal Saunkhri, SBS Nagar - 144 521, Punjab
Abstract
The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was initiated in August 1985 by Agricultural Research Service, USDA to produce new-generation water erosion prediction technology for use by federal action agencies involved in soil and water conservation and environmental planning and assessment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 231-235
Rekha Sansanwal
Department of Microbiology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Downstream processing refers to the recovery and purification of biosynthetic products, particularly pharmaceuticals, from natural sources such as animal or plant tissue or fermentation broth, including the recycling of salvageable components and the proper treatment and disposal of waste. It is an essential step in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics, hormones (e.g. insulin and human growth hormone), antibodies (e.g. infliximab and abciximab) and vaccines; antibodies and enzymes used in diagnostics; industrial enzymes; and natural fragrance and flavor compounds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 236-240
Rekha Sansanwal
Department of Microbiology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
A liposome is a tiny bubble (vesicle), made out of the same material as a cell membrane. Liposomes can be filled with drugs, and used to deliver drugs for cancer and other diseases. The name liposome is derived from two Greek words: 'Lipos' meaning fat and 'Soma' meaning body. Structurally, liposomes are concentric bleeder vesicles in which an aqueous volume is entirely enclosed by a membraneous lipid bilayer. Membranes are usually made of phospholipids, which are molecules that have a hydrophilic head group and a hydrophobic tail group.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 241-243
Bindiya Painkra, L K Srivastava, Bharat Lal, *Madhulika Singh and **Pushpendra Singh
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, *Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidhyalya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India **Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important cereal crop that has been referred as “Global Grain” because of its use as staple food for most of the world population. Zinc, iron, iodine, protein and vitamins deficiency in human is a serious problem for health of individual but also economy of developing countries. Zinc is required in small but critical concentrations to allow several key plant physiological pathways to function normally.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 244-246
Urmila Bhagat and K N S Banafa
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur – 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study is based on an economic analysis of production and marketing of aromatic rice to work out the cost and returns of aromatic rice in the study area. The present study was conducted in Balrampur district of northern hills of Chhattisgarh. Out of six blocks of the district, three blocks, namely Balrampur, Shankargarh, and Kusmi were selected randomly for the study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 247-251
M S Kishore and C Murthy
Department of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in 2016-17 with the objective of assessing the performance of two coconuts based processing units viz. coir unit and matting unit with respect to investment pattern, cost of production, marketing their products and value addition taking place in the units. Primary data was used for the study by personal interview method.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 252-255
Jaisingh Khandekar and A K Dubey
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of different plant leaf extract against mustard aphid. It is difficult to procure that much quantity of plant leaf extract for pest management in large area. Cow urine may play important role in increasing the potency of different leaf extract.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 256-259
Mukesh Kumar Maurya, V Kamalvanshi, *Satish Yamnal, S Kushwaha and C Sen
Department of Agricultural Economics,*Department of Farm Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
This paper investigates the determinants of household consumption expenditure of farmers in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Varanasi and Sonbhadra districts were purposively selected because these districts are having differences with respect to irrigated and rain-fed farming systems respectively. To address the objective set forth for the study, primary data were collected from 200 randomly selected farmers for the period 2016-17 through personal interviews.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 260-262
Jaisingh Khandekar and A K Dubey
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The Oxydemeton methyl 25% EC @ 0.04% was found toxic to Coccinellid by causing 50.0% mortality after 24 hr of application followed by Cow urine + Neem leaf extract i.e.15.0% when applied @1lit/50gm solution. Grub stage of Coccinellid beetle was found more vulnerable to chemical insecticide and plant leaf extract as compared to adult stage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 263-266
Pooja S Bhat, T N Venkata Reddy and *P K Mandanna
Department of Agricultural and Rural Development, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Marketing, Co-operation and Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
American Food Restaurant (AFR) food price ranging from Rs.100 to Rs.500 are light on pocket and AFR’s large sized outlets, music and western food seem to be luring youngsters in the present day world. Each middle class household’s expenditure on eating out in tier two and tier three cities has increased to Rs. 5,200 whereas in metro’s, the amount is much higher. The study aims to modestly highlight the consumers expenditure on eating American foods (per visit) as influenced by age, gender, domicile status and occupation / profession. The study was conducted in Bengaluru city, for which 90 consumers of American style foods were surveyed using a schedule and seven AFR’s viz. McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, Domino’s, KFC, Papa Johns, Subway and Taco Bell were studied. The data collected was analyzed using percentage analysis and Chi Square technique. There is impact of age, domicile status, occupation/ profession and no impact of gender on consumers expenditure on eating American foods (per visit). There is a general perception among the consumers that American foods are expensive than ethnic foods and so efforts must be made to overcome this perception by advertisements.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 267-270
A K Dubey and Jaisingh Khandekar
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy of different plant leaf extract against mustard aphid. It is difficult to procure that much quantity of plant leaf extract for pest management in large area. Cow urine may play important role in increasing the potency of different leaf extract. This will be also helpful in increasing the efficacy of leaf extract and minimizing the leaf quantity. Role of aphid ophagous insect is important in the crop ecosystem, the effect of plant extract must be known for this organism also. In comparative bio-efficacy testing of different plant leaf extract with cow urine Oxydemeton methyl 25% EC @ 0.04% given the best results against aphids i.e. 94.0% mortality followed by combination of cow urine + Neem leaf extract i.e. 95.0% mortality and then the Cow urine + Tabacco leaf extract i.e. 91.0% mortality within 10 DAS.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 271-273
S Suganya and R Jeya
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The investigation was undertaken to study the relationship between selected characteristics of sugarcane growers and their extent of adoption of sugarcane cultivation practices. Seventeen practices were taken up for the study to measure the extent of adoption of a sample size of 120 sugarcane growers. The study revealed that most of the farmers did not adopted the practices namely inter-cropping, trash mulching and application of bio-control agents. Among the fifteen characteristics, five characteristics namely educational status, extension agency contact, innovativeness, risk orientation and economic motivation had shown positive relationship with extent of adoption of sugarcane cultivation practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 274-276
Sayali Dabhole, *P M Mandavkar and **Rohit Shelar
Sayali Dabhole, *P M Mandavkar and **Rohit Shelar
Abstract
Rejuvenation is the process of pruning and after pruning management of the plants to make them productive by utilizing the existing root system, which mean restoring the productive capacity of the fruit trees. The study was conducted in Deogad, Kudal and Vengurla tahsils of Sindhudurg district of Konkan region with an objective, to document technologies of rejuvenation adopted by mango growers on their own farm. The sample was constituted of 52 mango growers from different villages. The respondents were interviewed with the help of specially designed schedule. Most of the mango growers had ‘medium’ level of overall adoption of rejuvenation techniques of mango. In case of technique wise adoption, technique of ‘shoot management’ was fully adopted by 78.85 per cent and partially adopted by 21.15 per cent. Technique of ‘plant protection’ was fully adopted by 67.30 per cent of the respondents and partially adopted by 32.70 respondents.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 277-280
D K Suresh, D Nanjappa and M A Yashashwini
Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out in Mandya district of Karnataka state. Thirty Farmers who are practicing sericulture were considered as the sample and 30 non practicing farmers were selected through random sampling method from 3 taluks viz. K.R. Pet, Mandya and Maddur of Mandya district. Results revealed that the difference in the mean score among the farmers practicing sericulture as a subsidiary occupation and farmers not practicing dairy as a subsidiary occupation can be seen in characteristics viz. education level (1.33), type of house (0.38), organizational participation (7.97), mass media participation (1.30), extension participation (7.73), annual income (0.46) and material possession (5.60). The study indicated that the farmers who are practicing sericulture facing some serious constraints such as lack of resources in the area and lack of labour at the peak season. Hence, development department should consider these issues to make sericulture a sustainable practice in the area. The farmers also suggested for providing better price for their output and making availability of the credit facilities on time.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 281-286
B T Rayudu, M K Akshatha, Y H Prabhuswam, D V S Reddy and Sreenath Dixit
ICAR-Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute, Zone XI, Hebbal, Bengaluru - 560 024, Karnataka
Abstract
Greengram (Vigna radiate (L). Wilczek) variety Co (Gg) 8 was demonstrated through 885 Cluster Frontline demonstrations (CFLDs) in 354 ha under NFSM by 16 KVKs in 47 clusters of Tamil Nadu during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The performance of the variety varied with year, season and districts across the state. During rabi of both years, highest demo average yield (10.50 q/ha) was obtained in Villupuram (2015-16) and 11.23 q/ha in Thiruvallur (2016-17) as against check with 7.50 q/ha and 9.22 q/ha, respectively. During kharif 2016-17, average demonstration yield was more in Salem (7.77 q/ha) as against check (7.21 q/ha). Similarly, average demonstration yield at Thiruvarur district was 4.97 q/ha as compared to check (4.32 q/ha) during summer 2016-17. Highest percentage increase in net returns was noticed during rabi 2016-17 which is in accordance with the yield obtained. Lowest technology gap in Thiruvallur and highest extension gap in Vellore were also observed. Technology index percentage was in accordance with technology gap. Farmers opined that Co (Gg) 8 and other production technologies were suitable to their farming situations and gave better yield. Thus, improved variety coupled with production technologies reduced the technology gap thereby increased productivity and production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 287-290
S M Mutanal, S M Ghatanatti, M V Mokashi and K N Pawar
AICRP on Agroforestry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Agroforestry system has potential to incorporate timber and fruit tree species along with cultivated crops and became economically and ecologically sustainable. Hence an experiment on compatibility of timber with sapota based agroforestry system was initiated in Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad under rainfed conditions from 2006. Timber trees viz. Pterocarpus marsupium, Tectona grandis, Terminalia paniculata, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Terminalia alata were planted 8 x 8 m apart. Sapota was planted in between two plants trees. Field crops viz. Soybean and Safflower were grown in alleys. Among the timber trees, growth of Pterocarpus marsupium and Tectona grandis has higher height, diameter of breast height and biomass as compared to other tree species. Marketable timber volume was significantly higher in Tectona grandis, Lagerstroemia lanceolata as compared to other tree species. Sapota growth and productivity was higher in association with Lagerstroemia lanceolata and Tectona grandis. Sapota fruit yield significantly higher when grown with Pterocarpus marsupium (1418.4 kg/ha) followed by Tectona grandis (1380.6 kg/ha) and lowest was with Terminalia paniculata (808.1 kg/ha). Both Soybean and safflower yields decreased as age of the tree advanced. The reduction of soybean yield was 34.8%, 36.8% with Terminalia alata + sapota and Terminalia paniculata + sapota as compared to other species. The safflower yield was reduced by 59.3% with Terminalia alata + sapota. Both trees Tectona grandis and Lagerstroemia lanceolata can be successfully grown in associate with sapota and field crops.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 291-295
T Arthi, *R Lalitha and **S Vallalkannan
Ph. D. Scholar, *Professor, **Assistant Professor, Department of SWC&AST, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kumulur – 621 712, Trichy, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during January to April 2017 in Eastern farm of AEC&RI, Kumulur, to evaluate yield, crop response factor and water productivity of paddy under deficit irrigation condition. The experiment was carried for both flooded and drip irrigation condition. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Two levels of deficit irrigation (20% and 40%) was provided for two different growth stages of paddy (Stress at vegetative stage, reproductive stage and both stages). The results revealed that, control and 80% irrigated plot with deficit in vegetative stage gave maximum yield under flooded condition. In drip irrigation, control gave maximum yield, while others showed more reduction in yield in deficit condition. Meanwhile drip irrigation (control) gave maximum yield with minimum water used. (flood irrigation:980mm,6458 kg/ha (control) and 6195.8 kg/ha (20% deficit in vegetative stage) and drip irrigation: 783mm,6208 kg/ha (control). In flood irrigation, higher water productivity of 0.78 kg/m3 (control) and lower water productivity of 0.66 kg/m3 (40% deficit with stress at both stages). In drip irrigation, higher water productivity of 0.73 kg/m3 (control) and lower water productivity of 0.61 kg/m3 (40% deficit with stress at both stages). In flood irrigation condition, 20% deficit at both the stages and 40% deficit at both stages gave crop response factor equal to 1 (yield reduction is directly proportional to water reduction) while other treatments gave value greater than 1 (larger yield reduction). In drip irrigation condition, 20% deficit at both the stages and 40% deficit at both stages and in reproductive stage alone gave crop response factor equal to 1 (yield reduction is directly proportional to water reduction) while other treatments gave value greater than 1 (larger yield reduction). From the research, it can be concluded that, deficit irrigation when applied at appropriate growth stage can result in good yield when water availability is very low (with minimal usage of water and with lesser yield reduction). Large scale adaptation of deficit irrigation for rice crop in irrigation projects has potential to save significant quantities of water and improve water productivity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 296-298
Bilal Ahmad Wani, T H Masoodi, Shahida Iqbal, Shabeer Ahmad, *Bilal Ahmad Zargar, *Towseef Ahmad Wani, Deldon Namgyal and *Ringzin Sapal
High Mountain Arid Agriculture Research Institute (SKUAST-Kashmir), Leh, Jammu and Kashmir *Krishi Vigyan Kandra, Leh, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted at the High Mountain Arid Agriculture Research Institute Leh, SKUAST-Kashmir during 2017. The main objective of the experiment was to evaluate the different varieties of onion for Yield, Neck diameter (regarded as storability parameter) and maggot incidence under arid hill conditions of Ladakh. Treatments were four onion varieties, namely Brown Spanish, Yellow Globe, Liberty, Red Corle and Local as Check with three replications. The observations were recorded on plant height, No. of leaves/plant, days to maturity, Pseudo length, Bulb diameter, Neck diameter, Bulb weight (fresh), yield/ha and maggot incidence. All the varieties have showed significant differences for all the traits under study. Brown Spanish showed highest plant height (49.26 cm) whereas red corel exhibited lowest plant height (45.66 cm). For number of leaves/plant yellow Globe was at 1st number with 14.36/plant flowed by Brown Spanish (11.50/plant). Among the 5 varieties including check Red Corel was early in maturity (139.33 days) followed by Liberty (148.66 days) highest yield/ha was exhibited by red corel (19.07 q/ha) followed by Local (17.86 q/ha) where as lowest yield/ha was observed in liberty (16.77 q/ha). Maggot pest incidence was observed lowest in Red corel (11.0%) followed by Local (14.66%) similarly highest maggot incidence was observed in the variety Liberty (23.00%). Among the five varieties Red corel exhibits highest yield and lowest maggot incidence followed by Local variety under cold arid conditions of Ladakh. Further Neck diameter which is regarded as storability parameter was lowest in Red corel (9.60mm) followed by Liberty (11.36 mm).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 299-302
Anusha Punia and Sushma Kaushik
Department of Extension Education and Communication Management, I. C. College of Home Science, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana
Abstract
Media in the modern world are a force to reckon with. No task in the world today can be accomplished successfully and adequately without media support. The study was conducted in two districts namely Sonipat and Karnal by random selection and by selecting one block from each selected district and two villages from each of the selected block at random. From the selected four villages a sample of 300 respondents i.e. 75 small and marginal farm families from each village was drawn at random. Audio quality, visual quality and content importance of Video Compact Disc (VCD) related to clean water were perceived to be high. Presentation of various messages related to clean water had been well presented.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 303-305
Punam Saikia and Pradip Mahanta
Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 785 013, Assam, India
Abstract
Current and predicted pattern of climate change is a major concern in many areas and also major threat for biodiversity and ecosystem function of plants. Interrelationship of orchids with various biotas in the ecosystem is well documented. Orchid's Epiphytic orchids, more exposed to the atmosphere than the terrestrial biota, remain dependent on climatic variables, making them particularly susceptible to climate change. Dependence on other biota and their co existence for several important processes such as pollination, dispersal and sustenance is well known. Natural and manmade changes have influenced the climate and in turn the ecosystem through several of its parameters such as rainfall and temperature. One of the direct effects of this, change in the plant structure and composition. This has forced the plant species to shift to more congenial climate for its survival and eventually affecting the coexisting biota. Adapting to stress condition, some of the epiphytic orchids utilize suites of morphological and anatomical adaptations in their leaves, stems, and roots including thickened cuticles, sunken stomata, aerial root, pseudo bulb and CAM photosynthesis. Therefore, before planning any conservation strategies the reasons for threat (especially manmade) to these indicator species must be understood. We believe that, ideal long term orchid conservation approaches must lay emphasis not only on the species but also on its fragile habitat.


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