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Volume - 9 - March-April (2018)
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 237-243
Raj Kumar, A K Bhatia and *Davinder Singh
Department of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India *Department of Vegetable Science, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of 2013-14 to evaluate the effect of weed flora on the quality of potato tuber under different practices of weed control. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and replicated thrice. The experiment comprised of different weed management practices, where in herbicides like paraquat @ 750, pendimethalin @ 1000 g/ha, oxyflurfen @ 100 g/ha + pinoxaden @ 50 g/ha, metribuzin @ 350 g/ha, atrazine @ 250 g/ha and atrazine @ 125 g/ha + metribuzin @ 175 g/ha as pre-emergence and metribuzin @ 350 g/ha, atrazine @ 125 g/ha + paraquat @ 175 g/ha as post-emergence imposed. Maximum yield of A & B- grade tuber was recorded with weed free treatment (129.5 q/ha and 270.1 q/ha, respectively) significantly followed by pre-emergence application of atrazine @ 250 g/ha (118.8 q/ha and 262.0 q/ha, respectively) with highest weed control efficiency (99.1%) followed by pre-emergence application of pendimathalin @ 1000 g/ha and metribuzin @ 350 g/ha. Among hand weeding treatments, hand weeding at 30 DAP have been found most efficient in producing of A (>125g) & B (>75-125g) grade potato tubers yield (61.8 q/ha and 149.5 q/ha, respectively). The maximum concentration of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (NPK) in weed flora recorded in weedy check treatment. While maximum concentration of NPK in potato haulm and tuber have been found in weed free treatment followed by pre-emergence application of atrazine @ 250 g/ha.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 244-249
P P Singh, *Neeraj, B P S Raghubanshi and Reeta Mishra
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Rajmata Vijayaraje Sciendia Krishi Vishwavidyalaya), Morena, Madhya Pradesh, India *Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Naini, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
A study was carried out to find out various buffalo management practices adopted by the farmers in Morena district of M.P. Approximately half of the farmers under survey 46.67 were able to provide insemination or natural service to their animals in heat at the right time, while 53.33% of farmers were unable to inseminate their animals in time due to various reasons. Only 8.33% farmers utilized the facility of artificial insemination, while 82.5% farmers opted for natural service. About 81.67% farmers fed green and dry roughage in combination and provided clean drinking water to their animals, but none of the farmer practiced silage making or other special treatments like chaffing, soaking or urea treating of wheat/paddy straw. Most of the farmers collected fodder from the fields. About 32.5% farmers fed additional concentrates to pregnant animals; the rest did not do this. As a part of summer management, only 12.50% farmers allowed their buffaloes to wallow in the village tanks while the 87.50% farmers practiced manual water splashing of buffalo during the hotter parts of the day. Washing of the animals and of their udders before milking were practiced by 10.28 and 98.40% farmers, respectively. Graded Murrah buffaloes were predominant in this region and the majority of the farmers were poor in certain aspects of scientific feeding, breeding, housing, milking and health care practices and needed to be educated.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 250-255
Leena Thakur, N Lakpale, P K Tiwari and Ashish Pradhan
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Chhattisgarh state (popularly known as Rice Bowl) is the most congenial for rice cultivation. Like other crops, rice crop is also known to suffer by many biotic and abiotic stresses and among biotic stresses, diseases are pivotal one. Correlation between sheath blight and weather variables was studied and it appears from the pooled correlation analysis between weather parameters and sheath blight disease severity that Tmax and SSH from 16 September to 30 October were found positively correlated in all three dates of sowing over four years kharif season under study. During this period of time, crop growth stage was in maximum tillering to panicle initiation stage coincide with the Tmax range (30.5-32.6oC) and SSH range (4.2-9.6) which favours the maximum sheath blight disease progression. During 16 September to 15 October in first and second dates of sowing, RHm suppose to influence the development of sheath blight disease. Year wise correlation analysis between weather variables and sheath blight disease severity suggest that Tmax and SSH had positive effect in the development of sheath blight disease of rice during kharif season.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 256-260
Tej Lal Kashyap, S N Khajanji, Chandu Lal Thakur and R Lakpale
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The field experiment was carried out at the Research-Cum-Instructional Farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) to evaluate the effect of different tillage practices and irrigation schedule on the growth, yield and economics of linseed under rice linseed cropping system during two consecutive rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11. The experiment was laid out in strip-plot design with three replications. The horizontal strip treatments consisted of four tillage practices viz., zero tillage (T0), harrowing once (T1), rotavator once (T2) and conventional tillage (T3) and vertical strip treatments consisted of four irrigation schedules viz., one at after seeding (I0), one at 35 DAS (I1), two at 35 and 75 DAS (I2) and three at 0, 35 and 75 DAS (I3). Results revealed that the yield attributes i.e. number of seeds capsule-1, number of capsules plant-1, 1000-seed weight (g), seed yield (q ha-1), stalk yield (q ha-1), biological yield (q ha-1), harvest index (%) and economics i.e. gross returns, net returns and B: C ratio were found significantly higher under conventional tillage (T3) as compared to others. Among the irrigation schedules, treatment I3 (three irrigations at 0, 35 and 75 DAS) recorded significantly maximum yield attributes i.e. number of seeds capsule-1, number of capsules plant-1, 1000-seed weight (g), seed yield (q ha-1), stalk yield (q ha-1), biological yield (q ha-1), harvest index (%) and economics i.e. gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 261-268
M Ramesh and *S Ram Reddy
National Institute of Plant Health Management, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *Department of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Telangana, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, Warangal to study the distribution and characterization of plant growth promoting nitrogen fixing Azotobacter from three agroforestry tree species viz. Pongamia pinnata, Albizzia lebbeck and Acacia nilotica. The native population of Azotobacter in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere varied from soil to soil and also with the tree species under investigation and a maximum Azotobacter population (67.41 × 105 CFU/g) was found in Kesamudram soils supporting the growth of P. pinnata. In a particular soil, in response to particular host root leachates, Azotobacters count was found to be on increasing side. The relative efficacy of PGP traits of P. pinnata isolates varied with the Azotobacter with maximum number of traits in AZETPP-1, AZKNPP-7, AZIDPP-9 and AZBLPP-13. Ammonia, GA, and IAA production were observed in 63.3 percent isolates. 70 percent of the isolates produced siderphores. Chitinase and β-1,3 glucanase production was recorded in very few isolates. Almost the same trend was observed in the isolates of A. lebbeck and A. nilotica. Azotobacter with an ability to produce more number of siderophores have exhibited a corresponding large zone on CAS agar. A temperature of 35°C was found to be suitable for most Azotobacter isolates. Azotobacter was able to tolerate 5.5-8.5 pH. Among all isolates, only five and three isolates have shown growth at 0.8 and 1 percent NaCl concentrations.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 269-272
Avinash Kumar and M K Singh
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The experimental material comprised of 20 genotypes of pigeonpea including 9 check were grown in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during rabi 2016-17 at Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.). The data were recorded on 13 quantitative and one qualititative traits to study Genetic analysis for seed yield and its components in rabi pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.). Results of variability analysis revealed that sufficient variability present among all yield contributing characters. The highest heritability was recorded for the character seed yield Kg/ha followed by number of pods per plant, days to 50% flowering, days to flower initiation, protein content %, number of secondary branches per plant, plant height, seed yield per plant and days to maturity. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was found for seed yield per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant. Correlation coefficient studies revealed that seed yield (Kg/ha) showed the highest significant positive correlation with number of seed per pod followed by number of secondary branches per plant, seed yield per plant, plant height and 100 seed weight. Path coefficient analysis revealed that number of secondary branches per plant exhibited maximum positive direct effect on seed yield followed by seed yield per plant, 100 seed weight, number of primary branches per plant, plant height, pod length cm, days to 50% flowering and days to flower initiation, whereas number of pods per plant, protein content % and number of seeds per pod) had negative but significant direct effect on seed yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 273-276
Dinesh K Gautam, *Mamtesh Kumari, **Rohan J D’souza and Rajneesh K Agnihotri
Department of Botany, S. L. S., Khandari, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra - 282 002, Uttar Pradesh, India *Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee - 247 667, Uttarakhand, India **Department of Botany, St. John’s College, Agra - 282 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of two weeds Chenopodium murale L. and Coronopus didymus L. on germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Hot and cold aqueous shoot and root extracts of both weeds were applied at 50% and 100% concentrations to test seeds in Petri dish. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized design with three replicates. C. murale was found most effective on all the parameters (Germination percentage, GVI, SVI, shoot/root length and dry biomass) of barley seedlings. Cold root leachates of C. didymus were found to positively affect the root length and dry biomass of seedlings. Shoot leachates were more effective than root leachates while the hot water leachates were more effective than cold water leachates. Degree of inhibition increased with the increasing concentrations of applied doses.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 277-280
E Jeevana Lakshmi, *P V Ramesh Babu, G Prabhakara Reddy and **P Umamaheswari
Department of Agronomy, S. V. Agricultural College, District Chittoor, Tirupathi - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Agronomy, **Department of Crop Physiology, Agricultural College (ANGRAU), Mahanandi - 518 501, Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi, 2016-17 on sandy loam soils of College Farm, Agricultural College, Mahanandi to study the effect of foliar sprays of secondary nutrients and zinc nutrition on nutrient uptake of blackgram. The experiment comprised of eight treatments viz. control (T1), RDF (20-50-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1) (T2), RDF + foliar application of one per cent CaNO3 (T3), RDF + foliar application of one per cent MgNO3 (T4), RDF + foliar application of one per cent Sulphur (T5), RDF + foliar application of one per cent each of CaNO3, MgNO3 and Sulphur (T6), RDF + foliar application of ZnSO4 @ 0.2 per cent (T7), T6 + foliar application of ZnSO4 @ 0.2 per cent (T8). The results revealed that among all the treatments, foliar spray of secondary nutrients (Ca, Mg and Sulphur) and zinc at 25 and 45 DAS along with recommended dose of fertilizers (T8) recorded the higher dry matter, seed yield, haulm yield and nutrient uptake values while control treatment recorded the lower values.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 281-284
Sangeeta Dwivedi, *Reeta Mishra and **Y D Mishra
Upadhi (P/G) Mahavidhyalay, Pilibhit - 262 001, Uttar Pradesh, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV), A. B. Road, Morena - 476 001, Madhya Pradesh, India **Directorate of Extension Services, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, M. P.
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Regional Agriculture Testing and Demonstration Station Bilwa, Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the influence of fertilization on yield and quality on growth, yield and seed quality of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar Kranti. Fifteen treatments consisting of 100, 75 and 50 % of the recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) either alone or with successive addition of farmyard manure (FYM 10 t/ha, sulphur @ 40 kg S/ha, zinc @ 25 kg ZnSO4/ha, boron@1 kg/B/ha) were tested. Application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizers along with farmyard manure resulted in maximum seed weight (22.7 g/plant), 1000-seed weight (4.6 g), seed yield (2348 Kg/ha), oil yield (915 kg/ha) and ash content ((5.10% on dry weight basis). The maximum oil content (41.15%) was recorded in treatment T15. The variations in growth and yield between 100, 75 and 50% recommended dose of fertilizers with farmyard manure, were significant. Significantly higher oil content was recorded at 50% recommended dose of fertilizers with farmyard manure, than over control. Hence, the farmer’s could economic benefit could be achieved with recommended doses of sulphur, zinc, boron along with farm yard manure.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 285-289
M Sreekanth
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam Farm, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Ravages of lepidopteran pod borers during flowering and pod formation stage and pod fly during pod formation stage are the major bottlenecks in attainment of desired productivity levels of pigeonpea. Present study was framed to device cost effective and farmer friendly module for the management of pod borer complex in pigeonpea. Evaluation of eleven modules along with a control revealed superiority of the module 4 (spinosad 3.0 ml/ 10 L at 50% flowering stage - flubendiamide 480 SC 2.0 ml/ 10 L at 10 days after 1st spray - chlorantraniliprole 20 SC 3.0 ml/ 10 L at 20 days after 2nd spray), followed by module 8 (azadirachtin 10000 ppm 10 ml/ 10 L at 50% flowering stage -flubendiamide 480 SC 2.0 ml/ 10 L at 10 days after 1st spray- chlorantraniliprole 20 SC 3.0 ml/ 10 L at 20 days after 2nd spray), which registered lowest pod damage due to pod borer complex with highest monetary returns of ₹ 33399 and 27573 per ha respectively. However, the highest incremental cost benefit ratio of 1: 5.7 was obtained with module 8, followed by module 4 (1:5.1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 290-294
Khan Mohd Sarim, Kamlesh Kukreja and *Ruchi Shrivastava
Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India *Department of Biological Sciences, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - , Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
The fascinating colorful dyes have increased the degree of pollution and exert serious problems in plant and animal life. The present work was centered to study the microbial decolorization of commonly used but recalcitrant textile dye Yellow 5G and textile effluent. Out of 68 bacterial isolates obtained, TS-1 and ES-27 was selected based on their efficiency to decolorize Yellow 5G and BTM effluent respectively, and exploited for further study. Initial decolorization of Yellow 5G and BTM by TS-1 and ES-27 was 50.9 and 46.9% respectively, whereas, on optimization of different culture conditions, percent decolorization was significantly increased up to 72.4 and 60.0%, but the combined action of TS-1 and ES-27 was even more efficient than the individual bacterial isolates. In account of optimized culture conditions, most preferred carbon and nitrogen sources were sucrose and ammonium chloride respectively. Decolorization was highest at pH 7.0 and temperature 35ºC with an inoculum size of 1.0%. Toxicity study also suggested that bacteria are able to decolorize the high concentration of dye and effluent. Moreover, immobilization potentially influenced the dye and effluent decolorization. Thus, both the bacterial isolates individually as well as in combination can be the potential candidates for cleaning up dye containing effluent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 295-299
P Aruna, N Sunitha and *C Yasmin
Department Agronomy, S. V. Agricultural College (Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University), Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh *Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College, Naira, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati to assess the impact of graded nutrient levels on three aerobic rice based cropping systems, comprising sunhemp during the summer, aerobic rice during kharif and three different crops in rabi, in terms of their nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium status of soil. Inclusion of legumes in the cropping system and higher level of graded nutrient levels improved the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium status of soil. The crop sequences sunhemp-rice-groundnut and sunhemp-rice-maize showed a positive nutrient balance of soil and sunhemp-rice-sunflower reduced the nutrient status of soil, the maximum observed sunhemp-rice-groundnut. Inclusion of sunhemp and groundnut in sequence after aerobic rice increased the post harvest status of soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 300-306
B T Jain, *A K Sarial and Hari Kesh
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125004, Haryana *Vice-Chancellor, CSK Himachal Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur - 176 062, Himachal Pradesh
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is such a wonder crop that it can be grown under diversified edaphic condition like aerobic to anaerobic (amphibian in nature). In the present era of energy crisis and dearth of water, we cannot proceed with transplanted rice (TPR) on long path. Alternate to transplanted rice with water saving technology such as direct seeded rice, System of Rice Intensification. For this experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in four environments created agronomically, termed production systems of rice. They are conventional transplanted rice (TPR) and non-conventional viz. system of rice intensification (SRI), direct seeded dry (DSR, dry) and direct seeded wet (DSR, wet). Genotype Basmati 370 produced maximum plant height in all production system. Pusa Basmati-1121 has highest no. of effective tiller in all production system. Genotype Improved Pusa Basmati-1 had longest (28.47 cm) panicle in TPR and DSR (wet) (26.87 cm), Haryana Basmati-1 (28.94 cm) in SRI and Basmati-370 (27.51 cm) in DSR (dry). Pusa Sugandh-2 had heaviest (3.37g) panicle in TPR, SRI (3.55gm), and DSR (wet) (2.20 g) while Pusa RH-10 (2.10 g) in DSR (dry). PusaSugandh-3 had the maximum (21.23 g) grain yield in TPR, Pusa Basmati-6 (28.41 g) in SRI followed by Pusa Basmati-1121 (27.16 g), HKR 08-417 (22.42 g) in DSR (wet) and Pusa RH-10 (17.44 g) in DSR (dry). CSR-30 recorded the minimum grain yield in all production systems except SRI. SRI was the best production system in which eighteen genotypes performed better than TPR conventional.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 307-309
P Chakradhar, Mamta Bohra and Parul Punetha
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali, Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Bharsar, Pauri - 246 123, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at Floriculture and Landscaping Block, College of Horticulture, VCSG, Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Bharsar during March- September month of the year 2016. The experiment consists of eight treatments which replicated thrice in a randomized complete bock design. The treatment consists of PSB @ 2 ml/L, Azotobacter @ 25 g/l, VAM @ 20 g/l and their combinations along with control. In all the treatments RDF (120:150:150 kg/ha) was applied as a common basal dose. The results of the study revealed that maximum number of sprouts per corm (2.20), plant height (73.40 cm) and number of leaves per plant (18.00) were recorded from the corms inoculated with PSB @ 2ml/l + Azotobacter @ 25 g/l + VAM @ 20 g/l + RDF. Similarly, minimum days taken to spike emergence (99.06) and maximum spike length (90.87 cm), number of florets per spike (16.33) length of floret (9.30 cm) and vase life (10.63 days) were also recorded in the same treatment. The results revealed application of biofertilizers had a non significant effect on number of days taken to full bloom of florets. Thus, it can be concluded that application of PSB @ 2ml/l + Azotobacter @ 25 g/l + VAM @ 20 g/l + RDF can be recommended for the commercial cultivation of gladiolus var. Arka Amar.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 310-313
Pinki Seth, T Chikkaramappa, N C Navya and M K Akshatha
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Seven pedons were selected based on the variation in the soil site characteristics and studied for production potential and land use planning of Kumachahalli micro-watershed of Chamarajanagar district. The data were interpreted using qualitative methods of land evaluation. Qualitative methods included USDA land capability classification and FAO land suitability classification. The results obtained by land evaluation methods indicate the information on production potentials of soils. The study area was classified under land capability classes viz. II and III based on their susceptibility to erosion, soil depth, slope and climate limitation. The site characteristics of the mapping units of the study area (cultivable land) were matched with the soil-site suitability requirements for important crops. The FAO land suitability evaluation revealed the suitability for soils for sorghum, maize, groundnut, ragi, cotton, coconut and chilli. The mapping units on midlands were moderately to marginally suitable for majority of the crops because of limitations of drainage, climate and organic matter. In essence, of all the mapping units, some were not suitable for crops just because of the permanent limitation of soil depth. The results obtained in the present study will be helpful for preparing action plan of the study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 314-315
Reeta Lakra and D K Rana
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Evaluated the nature of brown plant hopper resistance in two hundred sixty wild rice germplasm (Oryza nivara, O. officinalis, O. latifolia, O. nivara var. fatua) species collected from different location in Chhattisgarh using standard seed box screening test. Ptb 33 (Resistant), TN1 (Susceptible) were used as check varieties. BPH culture maintained at the Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidylaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) on the TN1 was used for the test. BPH damage was scored (0-9 scale) according to the standard evaluation system for rice, developed by International Rice Research Institute. According to the results thirteen wild rice germplasm recorded as highly resistant (scale 0-1), thirty wild rice germplasm as resistant (score 1.1-3), thirty eight wild rice germplasm as moderately resistant (score 3.1-5), twenty five wild rice germplasm as moderately susceptible (score 5.1-7) and rest as susceptible to the BPH indicating potential of using wild rice germplasm as a source of BPH resistance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 316-321
Surendra Gopal K
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 565, Kerala
Abstract
A study was conducted to evaluate the liquid formulations of Azospirillum sp. and PSB using amaranth as a test crop under field conditions. Based on the plant height, number of leaves, number of days taken for flowering and total biomass of the plant, the PSB (liquid formulation) was the most promising biofertilizer for enhancing the growth of amaranth. While comparing the performance of liquid and carrier based formulations of Azospirillum sp. and PSB, the liquid formulations of the two biofertilizers performed better than carrier based formulations. Results of the present studies indicated that liquid biofertilizers are better than carrier based formulations as the liquid formulations have better shelf-life and higher population of the bacterial isolate.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 322-324
Usha Yadav, Ruchira Tiwari and *Vijay Kumar Mishra
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand *Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The laboratory experiments were conducted to study on feeding orientation of C. cephalonica on treated wheat grains using choice method carried out during 2015-16 in the Department of Entomology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. Relative attractancy of 30 days old larvae of C. cephalonica towards treated wheat grains after 24, 48 and 72 h of release. After 24 h of release of larvae of C. cephalonica, ash powder and Rynaxypyr (Coragen) treated wheat grains were found highly effective as no any larvae were found oriented towards the treated grains with negligible number of larvae attracted towards sand (0.67), chopped neem leaves and talcum powder (3.00 each) followed by ajwain seed powder (3.67), saw dust (4.33) followed by garlic capsules (5.00), salt (6.00), cow urine (7.33), cow dung cake powder (8.00) with highest attractancy of larvae was found towards untreated control (9.00). Similarly, after 72 h of release of C. cephalonica larvae on treated wheat grains, again ash powder and coragen showed no larval orientation towards them followed by sand (2.00), chopped neem leaves (2.33), ajwain seed powder (3.00), talcum powder (3.67), salt (5.67) and saw dust (4.33). Among the treatments, the maximum number of rice moth larvae oriented towards garlic capsules (5.33), cow dung cake powder (6.00), cow urine (7.33) and untreated control (10.33). After 48 h of release of C. cephalonica larvae for orientation among the treated wheat grains, movement of no larvae was observed again towards ash powder and Rynaxypyr (Coragen) treated wheat grains with the least number of rice moth larvae was attracted again towards sand (1.67) treated wheat grains followed by saw dust (2.67) and chopped neem leaves (2.67 each), talcum powder (3.67), cow dung cake powder (4.00), cow urine and salt (6.00 each), garlic capsules (6.67) with maximum number of larvae oriented towards untreated wheat grains (12.33).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 325-334
Mohammad Munib
Division of Entomology, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
Infestation percentage of below ground insect pests at Baramulla districts revealed that white grub exhibits highest 19.00 and 17.77 per cent on number and weight basis, respectively at Kunzer whereas, 9.00 and 8.59 per cent for wireworm and 8.00 and 8.54 per cent infested tubers for earwig on number and weight basis, respectively at Pattan on white peeled tubers. For Kupwara district 19.00 and 18.00 per cent; 20.00 and 21.17 per cent infested tubers were recorded due to white grub and wireworm at Budnambal on number and weight basis, respectively. Whereas, for earwigs the highest per cent infested tubers were 9.0 and 8.62 per cent at Yonus on both number and weight basis on white peeled tubers. High tuber infestation percentage of 17.00 and 18.49 per cent was recorded at Ajas by white grub on both number and weight basis followed by earwig with 11.00 and 9.65 per cent at Sumbal on number and weight basis in Bandipora district. Further red peeled tubers were significantly resistant to tuber feeders than white peeled tubers. Severity of tuber feeding insect pests range from 2.94 per cent at Sumbal to 4.94 per cent at Ajas (Bandipora) for white grub; 1.08 per cent at Gurez (Bandipora) to 4.02 per cent at Budnambal (Kupwara) for wireworm and 3.48 per cent at Handwara (Kupwara) to 5.28 per cent at Sumbal (Bandipora) for earwig at all locations of northern Kashmir (Scale-1 tuber damage from 1-20 %). However, earwig and wireworms were completely absent at Kunzer and Yarikha locations of Baramulla district. Whereas, earwigs were also absent at Budnambal (Kupwara) and Gurez (Bandipora).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 335-338
Ashwini H Gudigar and Manjunatha Hebbara
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 339-343
P Hemalatha and K B Mohapatra
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
Pleurotus mushroom, generally referred to as ‘Oyster mushroom or Dhingri’ in India is relatively new to the mushroom industry. In India, Odisha is a leading state in terms of oyster mushroom production. The condition in most of agro-climatic situation in Odisha are suitable for growing oyster mushroom from month of July to February comprising of the rainy and winter season. Pleurotus pulmonarius is a potential protein source especially in developing countries, besides having minerals and vitamins. Besides its edibility it has also got pharmaceutical properties. Hence, Pleurotus pulmonarius could well be incorporated in to the mushroom farming system during winter season besides the ruling species, as this species was not in cultivation earlier. Four different substrate pasteurization methods along with untreated done (control) were evaluated for their yield potential and superiority of steam treatment of substrate in terms of realization of mushroom yield (98.90%) was established in the investigation. However, yield obtained (96.63%) out of the treatment pasteurized with chemical was statistically at par with the steam treatment, through it was associated with longer incubation period (17.50 d) and crop duration (24.25 d). The untreated substrate (control) produced the lowest yield (79.28%). Nine organic supplements including control were evaluated for their influence on yield and yield attributing parameters of Pleurotus pulmonarius. The biological efficiency was reported numerically highest (93.37%) in boiled wheat which was at par with the yields realized from chicken manure (93.07%), boiled maize (92.53%), rice bran (92.33%), untreated control (91.07%), maize meal (91.10%) and bengal gram powder (90.99%). Among the six diverse bag dimensions, 30 × 25 cm bag accommodating 1500g substrate was superior in respect of biological efficiency.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 344-346
C Ramesh Naidu, G Krishna Reddy, V Sumathi and P Venkatrama Muni Reddy
Department of Agronomy, S. V. Agricultural College (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University), Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh) during rabi 2015-16 to study the effect of time of sowing and varieties on the performance of soybean. It was comprised of 16 treatments with four sowing dates (16th September (D1), first October (D2), 16th October (D3) and 1st November (D4) and four varieties (Basar, JS-93-05, Bheem and JS-335) replicated thrice. The present study concludes that Variety JS-335 (V4) recorded the highest seed yield while sowing on second fortnight of September (D1) created ideal weather for crop growth and development resulting in higher oil, protein content and seed yields of soybean. The highest pod yield of 1417 kg ha-1 was recorded with sowings on second fortnight of September.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 347-351
Kamlesh Kumar Yadav, *Prem Nath and *Vineet Kumar
Department of Soil Science, Cordia College of Educational Institute, Sanghol - 140 802, Punjab, India *Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut - 250 110, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season 2013-14 and 2014-15 on sandy loam soil to study on Crop Research Centre Chirori of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology; Meerut (U.P.). The results revealed that application of 120% RDF of NPK were significantly higher plant height, number of spikelet’s spike-1, number of grains spike-1, test weight (g) than the other treatments during both the years. Application of 125% RDF recorded significantly highest grain yield 49.73 to 47.75 q ha-1 during 2013-14 and 2014-15, respectively. Among the various treatments where 125% NPK was applied proved to be superior and it statistically at par with T2 and T11 in terms of growth, yield attributes and yields during first and second years. Moreover the application of organic in integration with inorganic fertilizers could also maintain the soil fertility which is much important for sustainable crop production. The organic carbon and available NPK soil after harvest increase with the combined application of organic and inorganic with Biofertilizer. Integration of 75% NPK with VC @ 2.5 t ha-1 + PSB + Azotobacter was found better by improving the residual soil fertility status after the harvest of wheat crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 352-357
S Pradeep, M Y Ullasa, *A H Kumar Naik, Ganapathi and M Divya
Organic Farming Research Centre, Navile, Shivamogga - 577 204, Karnataka, India *AICRP on Groundnut, ZAHRS, Babbur Farm, Hiriyur, Chitradurga - 577 598, Karnataka, India.
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2016 to study the effect of organic nutrient management practices on growth and yield of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) in sandy loam soils of Zonal Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station, Navile, Shivamogga, Karnataka. Among the different nutrient management treatments, application of recommended dose of FYM (7.5 t ha-1) along with 100 percent N equivalent vermi-compost (2 t ha-1) has recorded significantly higher grain yield (10.89 q/ha) as compared to rest of the treatments. Similarly higher pods per plant (223.3 pods/plant) test weight (11.3 g/100 seeds) yield per plant (84 g/plant) also recorded with the same treatment and it was closely followed by the treatment which received recommended dose of FYM (7.5 t ha-1) along with application of 100 percent N equivalent FYM (5 t ha-1). Maximum soil microbial population at different growth stages were also observed in the treatment which received recommended dose of FYM along with 100 percent N equivalent vermi-compost. The same treatment recorded built up in available nutrient status as compared to initial levels. Hence, application of 2 ton vermi-compost along with 7.5 ton FYM is optimum for obtaining highest yield of pigeon pea under organic farming condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 358-361
Munish Sharma and R P Sharma
Department of Soil Science, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur - 176 062, Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
The long-term effect of fertilizers and amendments on some forms of potassium with available potassium was studied in a long-term fertilizer experiment at experimental farm of Department of Soil Science, CSKHPKV, Palampur (India). Continuous application of chemical fertilizers either alone or in combination with FYM or lime for forty years influenced some fractions of potassium significantly. Available potassium had significant positive relationship with exchangeable-K, water soluble-K, non exchangeable-K and 0.5 N HCl extractable-K indicating their importance in replenishing available potassium in soil. Exchangeable potassium exhibited highest correlation with available potassium in surface as well as sub-surface soil layer.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 362-365
Chitralekha Shyam, P K Chandrakar, Umakant Banjare, N K Rastogi and Hemant Jena
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indira Gandhi Krishivishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Wheat is the second major food crop of the world in importance next to rice. The experiment was conducted at Research Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishivishwavidyalaya, Raipur during rabi 2013-14. Twenty two wheat genotypes including checks were grown in randomized block design with three replications. The objective of this study was to establish genetic variability in wheat. The present experiment was conducted and estimates of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV). The genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) was found maximum for seed yield per plot (22.08) followed by number of seeds per plant (21.06), number of tillers per plant (15.80), biological yield per plot (14.74), plant height (14.19), spike length (14.03) whereas, genotypic coefficient of variation was lowest for days to maturity (5.09). Heritability in broad sense was calculated for each character. The characters days to 50% flowering (99.2), 1000-seed weight (96.6), days to maturity (96.2), plant height (82.1), number of seeds per plant (78.5), spike length (76.2) and seed yield per plot (73.3) exhibited high heritability whereas, biological yield per plot (66.1), number of seeds per spike (55.9) had moderate heritability. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percentage of mean was observed for seed yield per plot (38.92, 73.3), number of seeds per plant (38.43, 78.5), plant height (26.48, 82.1) and spike length (25.21, 76.2). Therefore, these characters should be given top priority during selection breeding in wheat.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 366-371
Basavaraja Dasappa, *Janardan Bhima Kambale and **Durgappa Kenchappa Hadimani
Department of Environmental Science, *Department of Agricultural Engineering, **Department of Sericulture, College of Agriculture (UAS Raichur) Bheemarayanagudi - 585 287, District Yadgir, Karnataka
Abstract
The primary objective of the paper is to study the spatial analysis of groundwater quality in Shahapur town and its surrounding area of Yadgir district, Karnataka State. Groundwater samples were collected from fifteen randomly selected bore wells in and around Shahapur town for a period of two seasons in the year 2013. The collected water samples were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics like pH, EC, TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, sulphate, chloride and fluoride as per the standard methods. The concentrations of various parameters recorded in the following range; pH 6.96-7.75, EC 599-4510 µS/cm, TDS 274-2350 mg/L, alkalinity 192-1228 mg/L, total hardness 138-714 mg/L, chloride 66.66-2354.34 mg/L, sulphate 91.77-416.25 mg/L and fluoride 0.01-4.85 mg/L. The Geographic information system based groundwater quality mapping was prepared using ArcGIS software to know spatial variation in physico-chemical parameters of groundwater. The results shows that the quality of groundwater varies spatially for both pre and post monsoon season. Further, water quality index reveals that groundwater belongs to good, poor and very poor category. According to Bureau of Indian Standards, few water quality parameters exceeded the permissible level.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 372-374
K Shruthi*, P Balakrishna and K Naveena
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to examine the effect of seed deterioration on viability of Kalmegh seeds by subjected them to accelerated ageing at 45° C temperature and 100% relative humidity for 10 days. Various physiological parameters (moisture content, germination percentage, seedling vigor index I&II) and biochemical parameter (electrical conductivity) were explored. The results indicated that seed aging had significant effects on seed quality parameters of Kalmegh with an outcome of decreased speed and percentage of germination and decreased percentage of normal seedlings along with increased electrical conductivity and moisture content progressively with the increment in ageing period (7, 8, 9 and 10 DAA). Prolongation of ageing led to deterioration of both germinability and seed viability.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 375-377
Sumitra Upendi, N K Motiramani and Anjali Toppo
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Thirty three F1 rice hybrids along with complete set of 14 parents and checks were evaluated for variability, heritability and genetic advance in different yield and yield contributing traits. The data were recorded on five randomly selected plants for fifteen quantitative characters. The treatment, i.e. mean sum of squares due to genotypes showed significant differences for 14 characters studied, indicating the presence of high genetic variability among the genotypes. The estimates of GCV were lower than the respective PCV, indicating the influence of environmental factors on the expression of the traits studied. Biological yield per plant and grain yield per plant (98.65 and 98.58), followed by 1000 grain weight (98.48), pollen fertility % (98.36), number of fertile spikelet per panicle (96.62), number of sterile spikelets per panicle (96.08), and total spikelet per panicle (95.03) showed high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of mean, suggesting that selection for the improvement of these characters may be rewarding. This also indicates greater role of non-additive gene action in their inheritance suggesting heterosis breeding could be used to improve these traits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 378-381
Manisha Netam and V K Koshta
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out with 106 brinjal germplasm lines at Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (Chhattisgarh) to see the effect of physico-morphic characters of plants on the infestation of shoot and fruit borer. In kharif season, it was observed that among the characters influencing fruit infestation on number and weight basis by L. orbonalis had negative non significant correlations values with several fruit characters viz. fruit length (r= -0.16 and r= -0.18), fruit weight (r= -0.014 and r= -0.029), leaf blade length (r= -0.075 and r= -0.041), leaf blade width (r= -0.069 and r= -0.059), calyx length (r= -0.059 and r= -0.086), pedicle length (r= -0.07 and r= - 0.099), pedicle thickness (r= -0.095 and r= -0.049) respectively. The study of these traits will be helpful in understanding the level of resistance developed by this pest in future.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 382-388
Majjiga Komala, N Meenakshi Ganesan and M Kumar
Department of Cotton, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agriculture College & Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The development of cotton hybrids which can offer the great yields and quality fibre is the current research in cotton plant breeding. For the first time, here we investigated the expression of heterosis in plant crop (PC) and ratoon crop (RC) for yield component traits and fibre quality traits in thirty novel interspecific cotton hybrids. It revealed that the F1 hybrids of both PC and RC were showed significant and positive relative heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis which are maximum for the number bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield per plant and minimum for 2.5% span length, bundle strength and elongation percentage. The hybrids TCH 1716 × SUVIN (PC) andMCU 9 × TCB 26 (RC) were showed highest significant relative heterosis for seed cotton yield per plant. For fibre strength, the hybrids COD 5-1-2 × SUVIN (PC) and SVPR 4 × SUVIN (RC) were expressed highest significant relative heterosis
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 389-393
Devendra Kumar* and Jagtendra Singh
Department of Chemistry, Institute of Basic Sciences, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Khandari Campus, Agra - 282 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Eighteen organochlorine pesticides including isomers of benzene hexachloride (α-BHC, β-BHC, γ-BHC and δ-BHC), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, γ-chlordane, endosulfan-I +α-chlordane, dieldrin+p, p`-DDE, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endosulfan II, endosulfan sulphate, p, p`-DDD, p, p`-DDT and methoxychlor were monitored in five vegetables (ridge gourd, brinjal, cauliflower, pumpkin and bottle gourd) by using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (ECD). Ridge gourd was found contaminated with α-BHC, γ-BHC, endosulfan-I +α-chlordane, p, p`-DDD and p, p`-DDT; Brinjal was found contaminated with heptachlor, endosulfan-I +α-chlordane, p, p`-DDD and p, p`-DDT; Cauliflower was found contaminated with endosulfan-I +α-chlordane, p, p`-DDD and p, p`-DDT; Pumpkin was found contaminated with α-BHC and p, p`-DDD; Bottle gourd was found contaminated with α-BHC, endosulfan-I +α-chlordane and p, p`-DDT. However, the concentrations of detected pesticides were far below the maximum residue limit (MRL) values, but continuous consumption of such vegetables can cause serious diseases in human being.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 394-398
Gurwinder Singh and S K Singh
Department of Agriculture, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib - 140 407, Punjab, India
Abstract
The field experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm, Department of Agriculture, Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib, during rabi season, 2016-17. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications comprising of nine treatments viz. T1 (Control), T2 (100% RDF), T3 (80% RDF), T4 (60% RDF), T5 (40% RDF), T6 (100% RDF + Azotobacter @ 5 kg/ha + PSB @ 5 kg/ha), T7 (80% RDF + Azotobacter @ 5 kg/ha + PSB @ 5 kg/ha), T8 (60% RDF + Azotobacter @ 5 kg/ha + PSB @ 5 kg/ha) and T9 (40% RDF + Azotobacter @ 5 kg/ha + PSB @ 5 kg/ha). Application of bio-inoculants and NPK increase the growth, yield and quality of garlic. Morphological parameters, yield (147.08 q ha-1) and yield attributes and quality attributes were recorded maximum under T6 treatment. Besides, maximum soil pH (7.53) was noted under control. Regarding soil nutrient availability, maximum available N (200.32 kg ha-1), P (31.94 kg ha-1) and K (119.43 kg ha-1) in soil after harvesting was found in T6 treatment. Looking to economics of various treatments, maximum net return (₹ 3,01,940.00) and B:C ratio (2.17:1) was obtained from T6 treatment. Whereas, minimum B:C ratio (1.14:1) was recorded under control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 399-403
Rupan Raghuvanshi, M A Ansari, Amardeep and *Arjun P Verma
Department of Agriculture Communication, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand, India *Division of Dairy Extension, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - Haryana
Abstract
Climate has emerged as one of the primary determinants of agriculture productivity. Since agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy, climate change poses serious threat to India’s food security and development. Adaptation strategies are responses to climate change that require deliberate policy decisions. Consequently, the scientists and policy makers are concerned about the adverse impact of climate change, and the need to develop the adaptation measures. The present study was undertaken to assess the adaptation of agricultural practices adopted by farmers to cope-up with climate change in Tehri Garhwal region of Uttarakhand state, India which is deemed to be vulnerable to climate change. Data for the study were collected from 110 farmers selected by using simple random sampling. The study findings indicated that majority of the respondents (92.73%) used adaptation practices to climate change. It was also found that change in crop varieties (71.81%), reduced number of livestock (70.90 %) and changes in sowing date (60.81%) were some of the adaptation measures followed by most of the farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 404-408
S K Renuka and M R Shylaja
Centre for Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Byadagi chilli is a famous chilli type grown in Karnataka, known for its deep red colour and zero pungency. Molecular characterization of Byadagi chilli (Capsicum annuumL.) was carried out using two different marker systems viz. RAPD and ISSR to identify specific markers linked to colour and pungency. Two KAU varieties viz. Ujwala and Anugraha were also included in the study for comparison with Byadagi chilli genotypes. The RAPD marker system could generate a total of 155 amplicons with fourteen primers and the ISSR marker system could generate a total of 103 amplicons with eleven primers. The dendrogram generated with RAPD and ISSR profiles grouped Byadagi cultivars and KAU varieties in separate clusters. Eight amplicons resolved with five primers (S12, S13, OPA06, OPA10 and OPE18) in RAPD marker system and twelve amplicons resolved with seven primers (2UBCS2, ISSR05, ISSR08, ISSR15, UBC823, UBC840 and 17899A) in ISSR marker system were found specific to Byadagi Kaddi and Byadagi Dabbi. Molecular characterization attempted in the study distinguishes the Byadagi cultivars from the KAU varieties with respect to colour and pungency. In depth investigations on the unique amplicons identified specific to Byadagi cultivars will give further insight into the genes involved in colour and pungency of chilli, which could be utilized further in marker assisted selection, metabolic pathway engineering and secondary metabolite production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 409-413
Bonu Rama Devi and Yashwant Singh
Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out in kharif seasons of 2015 and 2016 at Research Farm, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and weed management practices on weeds, yield attributes and yield in direct-seeded rice (DSR). The dominant weed flora during the experimentation were grasses as Echinocloa colonum, Echinocloa crusgalli, Cynodon dactylon, sedges as Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria and broad- leaved weeds like Caesulia auxillaries and Eclipta alba. Appilcation of ¼ N at basal + ¼ at active tillering stage + ¼ N at panicle initiation stage + ¼ at heading stage had minimum density and dry weight of weeds, weed index and maximum weed control efficiency, yield attributes and grain yield both the years. Among weed management practices, application of Bispyribac at 25 g a.i. ha-1 + Azimsulfuron at 17.5 g a.i. ha-1 + NIS (0.25%) at 15-20 DAS proved to be most effective in minimizing the density of weeds and their dry weight, weed index and in enhancing the weed control efficiency, yield attributes and grain yield and was at par with hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS during both the years of experimentation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 414-419
Kumari Jyoti and M L Sharma
Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh to compare the information sources being utilized by the tribal and non- tribal respondents. 112 respondents (56 tribal and 56 non- tribal) were considered for this study. Respondents were interviewed through personal interview. Collected data were analyzed with the help of suitable statistical methods. The study revealed that majority of respondents belongs to middle age group (36 to 50 years), educated up to primary school level (up to 5th class) and had medium family size (5 to 8 members). Mainly male members were found to be family head (76.78%). Majority of the respondents had membership of more than three organizations. Maximum respondents were undergoing through 1st tenure (91.96%) with 50.89 per cent having more than 5 years of experience in politics. As regards to material possession, most of the respondents (57.14%) were possessing 16 to 30 scored materials. Maximum number of respondents was having land holding of 1.1 to 2 ha and their annual income was found to be within 160001 to 320000. Majority of the respondents (63.17%) had the ownership of two properties. Most of the respondents (50.00%) were categorized under high (7 to 9 sources) usage of information sources from which cent percent of the respondents received information from Tehsil and Zila Parishad office.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 420-424
A Reshma, V Raja Rajeswari, P Latha, M Reddi Sekhar and V Chandrika
Department of Crop Physiology, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A laboratory experiment was conducted during kharif, 2015 at Department of Crop Physiology, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati in completely randomized design with thirty maize genotypes. Maize genotypes were screened for seedling traits such as germination percentage, seedling vigour index (SVI), co-efficient of velocity of germination (CVG), root length and shoot length using Polyethylene Glycol- 6000. Two levels of osmotic stress (-5 and -10 bars) were created and performances were monitored against control. Genotypes were significantly varied for germination per cent, SVI and CVG. Results showed that the percentage of germination, SVI and CVG, root length and shoot length were decreased with increase in osmotic stress. At -10 bar, highest germination percentage was observed in PDM 1452, PDM 1485 which was at par with PDM 1409, PDM 1415, PDM 1428, PDM 1465, PDM 1479 and PDM 1468. Higher SVI at -10 bar was observed in PDM 1452 (609.00) which was at par with PDM 1488 (524.67), PDM 1474 (507.33) and PDM 1465 (502.60). Ten moisture stress tolerant genotypes (PDM 1409, PDM 1415, PDM 1428, PDM 1452, PDM 1465, PDM 1474, PDM 1479, PDM 1485, PDM 1488, PDM 1498) were selected from 30 maize genotypes through PEG experiment based on differences in seed germination and SVI. These ten genotypes were referred as tolerant having good germination percentage, SVI and CVG in control and moisture stress treatments (-5 bar and -10 bar).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 425-428
Praveenkumar Angadi, K M Indiresh and A Mohan Rao
Department of Horticulture, College of Horticulture, Bengaluru, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot - 587 104, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is one of the most popular and widely cultivated native vegetable crop of India. It is known as poor man’s vegetable and also called as eggplant. Many of the yield contributing characters is interacting in desirable and undesirable directions. Hence, the knowledge regarding the direct and indirect effect of various characters among themselves and with economic characters is necessary for making indirect selection for improvement of economic traits. Therefore the study has been taken up to analyze the path coefficient analysis in brinjal genotypes for seed content, fruit yield and its associated traits at College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, Bengaluru. Results obtained from path coefficient analysis studies computed among eighteen characters revealed that Number of fruits per plant had highest positive and direct effect on fruit yield per plant followed by pulp to seed ratio, fruit length, per cent fruit set, seed yield per fruit, plant height, average fruit weight, placental length, days to fifty per cent flowering and fruit diameter. Average fruit weight had highest positive and direct effect on fruit yield per plant followed by number of fruits per plant, fruit length, per cent fruit set, number of flowers per cluster, seed yield per fruit, pulp to seed ratio, plant height and days to fifty per cent flowering at both genotypic and phenotypic levels respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 429-432
V S Sethulakshmi and G Rajasree
Department of Agronomy, Kerala Agriculture University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
The investigation was conducted at College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram during July to October 2016. Nine treatments viz. T1- spraying fermented cow dung water mixture (10%), T2- spraying citric acid (0.2%), T3- spraying sorghum water extract (5%), T4- spraying humic acid (1%), T5- spraying yeast extract (2%), T6- spraying moringa leaf extract (3%), T7- spraying salicylic acid (100 ppm), T8- spraying water and T9- no stress treatment were evaluated to assess their efficacy on inducing moisture stress tolerance and the effect on yield and irrigation requirement of container grown okra in urban homesteads. Among the organic preparations and biostimulants, spraying of sorghum water extract- 5 per cent recorded highest fruit weight (19.20 g fruit-1) while the fruit yield plant-1 was significantly higher (0.25 kg) on spraying citric acid or humic acid. Irrigation requirement was the lowest (19.04 L plant-1) and irrigation interval was highest (5.5 days) with spraying of citric acid while it produced water use efficiency which did not vary from no stress treatment. Spraying of citric acid was found to be the best treatment for inducing moisture stress tolerance and producing moderate yield expending less water.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 433-436
P R Somashekharappa, *T Sheshadri and **H M Jayadeva
Agricultural Research Station (University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK), Arasikere, District Hassan, Karnataka *Directorate of Research, **Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A study was conducted to know the effect of different organic manures integrated with inorganic fertilizers on yield and economics in maize + Frenchbean / cowpea – groundnut cropping system at the Agricultural Research Station, Kathalagere, Davanagere district during kharif and rabi 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 in red clay loam soil. The data on two cropping systems revealed that, maize + cowpea - groundnut system has recorded significantly higher maize equivalent yield (99.76 q ha-1), soil available N, P and K after harvest of groundnut (297.25, 22.75 and 247.45 kg ha-1, respectively) as compared to maize + Frenchbean - groundnut system. With respect to nutrient management practices, application of 100% recommended. NPK + poultry manure (Recommended FYM equivalent on N basis) noticed higher maize equivalent yield (113.01 q ha-1), soil pH (7.16), soil organic carbon (0.75%) and soil available NPK after harvest of groundnut (298.15, 23.00 and 250.15 kg ha-1, respectively). Highest gross returns (₹ 73,946 ha-1), net returns (₹ 42,772 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.37) were obtained by maize + cowpea-groundnut system with application of 100 % recommended NPK + poultry manure @ recommended FYM equivalent on N basis to maize.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 437-439
D V Bhola, *Shabir Ahmad Dar, B G Chudasama and A N Sayani
College of Fisheries, Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval - 362 265, Gujarat, India *Government Degree College Baramulla - 193 103, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
The purpose of the present paper was to observe the effects of edible oil on turbo (Turbo brunneus) pickle. The study show that the location of sample collection, preparation of sample, gravy preparation and preparation of pickle with different oils. After each trial the sample was subjected to sensory evaluation by judges consisting of three members who had previous experience of acting as panel members. Several trials were carried out to arrive at a final recipe as judged best by the taste panel. Utilizing this final recipe, a product was prepared and subjected to find pH, peroxide value and sensory evaluation. After sensory analysis (odor, taste, color and appearance) of all samples shows that groundnut oil pickle is better than mustard oil pickle. In the following project the pH of both products varies groundnut oil (4.3pH) and mustard oil (3.8pH) therefore according to the preservation aspects mustard oil pickle is good to consume for a longer time periods. As per the estimation of peroxide value of both the products has shown (2.26 meq/kg) for groundnut oil pickle and (2.4meq/kg) mustard oil pickle therefore the rancidity of groundnut oil pickle is higher than the mustard.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 440-443
P R Somashekharappa, *T Sheshadri and **H M Jayadeva
Agricultural Research Station (University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK), Arasikere, District Hassan, Karnataka *Directorate of Research, **Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to know the effect system based nutrient management on yield and economics in maize based cropping system at the Agricultural Research Station, Kathalagere, Davanagere district during kharif and rabi 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 in red clay loam soil. The pooled data reveals that significantly higher maize equivalent yield (108.93 q ha-1) was recorded with application of 100% recommended NPK + green leaf manuring @ 150% recommended FYM equivalent on N basis to maize and 50% N and 100% PK to groundnut (T6) followed by recommended package of practices for both crops (105.46 q ha-1). Improvement in soil pH, soil OC, soil available nutrients after harvest of groundnut was due to application of 100% recommended NPK + green leaf manuring @ 150% recommended FYM equivalent on N basis to maize and 50% N and 100% PK to groundnut. Similarly, highest gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio (₹ 70,806, 41,239 ha-1 and 2.34, respectively) were recorded with the application of 100% recommended NPK + green leaf manure @ 150% recommended FYM equivalent on N basis to maize and 50% N and 100% PK to groundnut.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 444-447
Sangram D Rakshe, S R Patil and *Surekha Ghule
Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India *Department of Horticulture, Dr. VNMKV, Parbhani - 431 401, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The experiment was carried out during the year 2014-15 at Horticulture Botanical Garden, Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola with the objectives to evaluate the effect of different rooting media on success and survival of guava air layers and to find out the suitable combination of rooting media for higher success and survival of guava layers. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eight treatments (rooting media) viz. T1- Cocopeat, T2- Sphagnum moss, T3- Vermicompost, T4- Cocopeat + Sphagnum moss, T5- Cocopeat + Vermicompost, T6- Sphagnum moss + Vermicompost, T7- Cocopeat + Sphagnum moss + Vermicompost and T8- Control (only sphagnum moss) replicated three times. The results from present investigation revealed that, at 120 days after transplanting of air layers in polybags the maximum, number primary roots (20.23), number of secondary roots (60.47), length of primary root (18.04 cm), length of secondary root (10.20 cm), fresh weight of roots (3.87 g), dry weight of roots (3.39 g), root density (2.83 ml), number of shoots (7.70), length of shoot (5.94 cm), number of leaves (16.89), final survival percentage (76.00%) was observed when guava air layers treated with Sphagnum moss + Cocopeat rooting media (1:1 V).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 448-451
B Nethravathi, *R C Gowda, **Netravati, Saraswati and ***M Ashwini
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga - 577 204, Karnataka, India *Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, ***Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga - 577 204, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out at Main Research Station (MRS), University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore during kharif season of 2010 to study the effect of matured compost on growth and yield of maize. The aquatic weed compost was evaluated under field conditions by using maize as a test crop. There were 15 treatments comprising of recommended dose of fertilizers, FYM, compost @ 5t and 10 t/ha applied individually and in combinations. The yield of maize was statistically on par with 100% RDF + water hyacinth compost @ 10 t ha-1 compared to 100% RDF + FYM @ 10 t ha-1. The plots treated with 100% RDF alone performed better in growth and yield as compared to plots treated with 50% RDF + compost of alligator weed @ 5 t/ha + compost of water hyacinth @ 5 t/ha, compost of water hyacinth @ 10 t/ha and compost of alligator weed @ 10 t/ha. The treatment of 100% RDF + water hyacinth compost @ 10 t ha-1 was found to be superior and economically viable than rest of the treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 452-454
Y V Ingle, N S Satpute, S S Munje, M S Dandge and Y R Sable
Regional Research Center (Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth), Morshi Road, Amravati - 444 603, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A field experiment was undertaken to find out the effective biorational component in alternation with chemical insecticide against major pests of soybean. Results revealed that treatment T5 comprise seed treatment (ST) of Imidacloprid 48% FS @ 1.25 ml ml/kg seed + first spray of NSE @ 5% at 30 DAS followed by 2nd spray of Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC @ 150 ml/ha at 45 DAS recorded lowest pest population of leaf defoliators, least per cent infestation of girdle beetle and minimum stem fly infestation in field. Yield of soybean as influenced by various treatments in the insecticidal schedule shown that maximum yield of 1590 kg/ha was recorded in treatment T5 while minimum yield (1090 kg/ha) was observed in untreated control treatment T8.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 455-458
T Arthi, R Lalitha, K Shanmugasundaram and S Vallalkannan
Department of Soil Water Conservation and AST, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur, Pallapuram Post, Trichy - 621 712, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Experiments were conducted to find the various factors like evaporation, evapotranspiration (reference and crop) and deep percolation. By using the observed factor Kc value for the paddy was found. For this the technique used is the drum culture technique. Three drum culture techniques were conducted during the cropping period. Four drums of same size were selected out of which bottom of three drum were removed. A 2mm hole is made at the centre of the drum and covered with a rubber cork so that it can be closed and opened for entry and removal of water. A known volume of water is filled daily in all the drum and amount of water lost is observed both in the morning and afternoon. Amount of water lost from each drum gives the various components. Using that ET0 and ETc were reckoned. By dividing potential evapotranspiration (ETc) by reference evapotranspiration (ET0), Kc value can be determined. The average Kc value found from the three experiments conducted was 1.01, 1.16 and 0.9 receptively. Kc value found using the drum culture technique was similar with the FAO Kc value.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 459-461
Polu Parameshwar, P S Joshi and D H Paithankar
Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeet, Akola - 44 4104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Fruit quality of eight sweet orange, (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) varieties was evaluated at All India Coordinated Research Project on Tropical Fruits (Citrus), Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola 2012-13. At the maturity physiochemical analysis of fruit of these plants was carried out. The varieties included were; Pera, Pineapple, Jaffa, Washington navel, Hamlin, Valencia late, Sathgudi and Blood red malta are evaluated. On the basis of study, the maximum fruit weight (258.5 g) and fruit diameter (9.64 cm) was recorded in pineapple, maximum juice percentage (53.13) in Valencia Late and minimum acidity (0.51%) was recorded in Sathgudi. Minimum number of seeds per fruit (7.90) and maximum number of fruits per plant (232.76) was recorded in Valencia Late.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 462-464
S L Lekshmi and I Sreelathakumary
Department of Olericulture, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 522, Kerala
Abstract
C hilli [Capsicum annuum (L.) (2n = 24) family Solanaceae] is an important vegetable cum spice crop rich in vitamins yielding capsaicin, oleoresin and extractable colour. Paprika is the high coloured low pungent chilli. Paprika is defined in the world market as non-pungent brilliant red ground capsicum powder, derived from the dried red pods, with most of the seeds and veins removed. This is mainly used for its rich red colour although in fresh form it contributes a special delicate flavor
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 465-467
A A Bhagat, *S R Lohate and **V S Supe
Department of Statistics, National Agricultural Research Project, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 067, Maharashtra, India *Department of Plant Pathology, National Agricultural Research Project, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 067, Maharashtra, India **Associate Director of Research, National Agricultural Research Project, Ganeshkhind, Pune - 411 067, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
P igeon pea (Arhar) commonly known as red gram or tur is a very old crop of this country. After gram, arhar is the second most important pulse crop in the country. It accounts for about 11.8% of the total pulse area and 17% of total pulse production of the country. It is a rich source of protein and supplies a major share of the protein requirement of the vegetarian population of the country. India ranked first in area and production in the world with 74% and 63% of world area and production respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 468-470
D N Damse, M N Bhalekar, P K Pawar and K G Shinde
All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, District Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
G arlic (Allium sativum L.) belongs to family Alliaceae is the second important bulb crop after onion, widely used as spice for its nutritive values, it is also included in Indian system of medicines. India ranked second in area and production of garlic in the world. The productivity of this crop is quite low i.e. 5.27 t ha-1 (Anonymous 2011) which is far less than that of China and Egypt. This may be due to its unscientific cultivation particularly nutrient management.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 2 ; 471-472
Pankaj Bhargav, Bhanu Pratap Katlam and *Pushpendra Singh
Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India *Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
R abi oilseed crop, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is next in importance to rapeseed and mustard in area as well as in production. India contributes about 10.81% and 5.31% to world area and production. The major linseed growing state of country are Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar Orissa Jharkhand West Bengal Nagaland and Assam according for about 97% of total area of nation. Its continued cultivation on marginal and sub marginal soil under input starved condition being the major factor leading to low production of crops however the area under crop in the country is reducing having the socio-economic interdisciplinary attachment of the crop (Anonymous 2017).


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