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Volume - 10-May-June 2019

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Volume - 9 - May- June (2018)
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 473-479
K Sankara Rao, *Anju Padmanabhan and **R Vishnupriya
Department of Entomology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India *Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Kerala **Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Phytophagus mites are the most important group of pests distributed worldwide. Indiscriminate use of acaricides and other chemical pesticides to manage them results in destruction of natural enemies, pesticide resistance and pesticide residues in crops. Hence, exploitation of natural enemies like predatory mites as a tool in pest management programmes has been the main focus of research in recent times. Among the predatory mites, the family Phytoseiidae is known to have potential predators which have proved their efficacy against several mite pests in different crop ecosystems. Classical, augmentative and conservation biocontrol programmes using some of the important phytoseiid mites remained as success stories in developed countries. Meanwhile, the potential of phytoseiids as biocontrol agents of mite pests are yet to be exploited in developing countries like India. Therefore, through the present review, the updated information on the basic as well as applied aspects of predatory mites covering biology, food habits, foraging behavior, feeding potential, mass rearing strategies and their compatibility with other pest management approaches are included.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 480-487
H P Ranjitha and *N Nethra
Department of Seed Science and Technology, *NSP, Seed Research Unit, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Seeds die inevitably but unexpectedly during storage and current understanding of seed quality and storage conditions do not allow reliable means to predict or prevent this critical problem. Seed deterioration is an irresistible physiological phenomenon. This process is a separate event from seed development and germination. Deterioration caused by field weathering is directly related to seed exposure to adverse conditions. Losses in seed quality occur during field weathering, harvesting and storage. The change of seed deterioration occurs in almost every system, and affects many kinds of enzyme and almost all organelle, as a result, the seed loses its vigor. Seeds are highly susceptible to damage and mechanical injury during post-harvest handling. Several environmental factors contribute to seed deterioration and these conditions make very difficult to maintain viability during storage. Seed quality is depends upon initial seed quality, temperature, moisture content and mycoflora. Chemical degradation of seed components likely occurs through oxidative damage, but the rate of these reactions is dominated by properties of seed that are affected by temperature and moisture. These visco-elastic properties contribute to the structure of seeds as amorphous solids. Rapid deterioration occurs due to these environmental conditions make very difficult to maintain its viability during storage. However, the seed quality and viability during storage depend upon the initial quality of seed and the manner in which it is stored. Seed deterioration is associated with various cellular, metabolic and chemical alterations including lipid peroxidation, membrane disruption, DNA damage, impairment of RNA and protein synthesis and cause several detrimental effects on seed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 488-494
Gulzar S Sanghera and Rajan Bhatt
Regional Research Station, Punjab Agriculture University, Kapurthala - 144 601, Punjab, India
Abstract
Thirty sugarcane elite clones/varieties were evaluated for different sugar yield and component traits under two water regimes revealed significant differences among clones tested for different characters in both normal (E1) and water stress (E2) environments. Reduction in brix percent ranged from 3.43 to 23.76 and 3.82 to 18.80 per cent with a mean value of 12.27 and 8.53 percent under stressed (E2) environment at 10 and 12 months, respectively. However, under E2 pol percent reduction in juice varied from 4.72 to 30.43 (%) and 12.59 to 17.38 at 10 and 12 months, respectively. A good range of fibre percent was recorded E1 (11.36 to 14.97%) and (8.50 to 12.24%) under E2 environment. Commercial cane sugar (CCS%) decreased in E2 and drought susceptibility index (DSI) for this trait was lowest for the genotype Co238 followed by ISH159, CoPb12182, CoPb13182 and ISH135 (S <0.75). DSI value for pol (%) cane at harvest ranged from 0.50 to 1.88. In this study, it was inferred that cane yield was more sensitive to water stress than quality traits and clones namely KV2012-2, KV2012-3, KV2012-4, ISH148, ISH07 and ISH135 have ability to withstand water stress conditions with minimum effect on sugar yield traits, and could be considered as drought tolerant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 495-501
Axita C Patel
College of Food Processing Technology & Bio Energy, Anand Agriculture University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat
Abstract
Ethanol is one of the alternative renewable sources of energy with high efficiency and low environmental impact. Various raw materials have been used as carbon sources for ethanol production. Present study was to develop and optimize consolidated bioprocessing to convert the potato processing waste into ethanol using amylolytic strain of S. cerevisiae ETGS1. The fermentation variables significantly affecting the bioethanol production were screened out using Plackett-Burman factorial design. These results identified starch concentration, peptone, yeast extract and incubation time as the key determinants to optimize the process, while MgSO4, temperature, pH and inoculum size had a negative effect (p-value ˂ 0.05).The optimized medium composition for maximum ethanol production was obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Central Composite Design (CCD). Based on results of RSM, a medium consisting PPW having starch concentration 8.5 g% (i.e. 700 ml effluent mixed with 300 g of gelatinised potato mash), peptone 10 g/l, yeast extract 2 g/l was found optimal and yielded 37.17 g/l of ethanol at 35°C after 84 h of fermentation. The optimized process showed 1.15 fold increase in ethanol yield and 11.5% increase in overall fermentation process efficiency. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that potato processing waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 502-505
M A Yashashwini, *D Nanjappa and **D K Suresh
Institute of Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Directorate of Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Institute of Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India **Directorate of Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 506-511
Manpreet Kaur and S S Dhumal
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture (Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth), Kolhapur - 416 004, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Key words: Fresh-cut lettuce, Modified atmosphere packaging, Browning, Microbial count, Shelf-life The effect of different modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) treatments on the physico-chemical and microbiological attributes of fresh-cut lettuce cv. GKL-2 during refrigerated storage (5±1°C) was studied at postharvest laboratory of horticulture section, college of agriculture, Kolhapur. Five different MAP packaging’s viz., 100% nitrogen (N2), 95% nitrogen (N2) and 5% oxygen (O2), 10% carbon dioxide and 3% oxygen, and perforated film packagings (10 holes @ 1.5 mm per packet) including air (Passive MAP) as control treatment were undertaken for study. The changes in physico-chemical parameters viz. percent moisture, physiological loss in weight, browning, percent decay, ascorbic acid and polyphenol content were slow in the fresh-cut lettuce packaged with 10% carbon dioxide and 3% oxygen upto 15 days at 5±10C. MAP with 10% carbon dioxide plus 3% oxygen flushing and MAP with 100% nitrogen flushing extended shelf life of pretreated fresh cut lettuce up to 12-15 days when stored at 5±1°C. Decrease in percent moisture, ascorbic acid, polyphenol, while increase in physiological loss in weight, percent decay and microbial count was recorded in all MAP conditions. Pretreated fresh-cut lettuce packaged in perforated bags recorded shelf life up to 6 days only. The control (air/passive MAP) treatment reco
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 512-514
Okram Bijaya Devi, W Ingo Meitei, Okram Abemsana Devi and Loitongbam Sulochana Devi
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Central Agriculture University, Imphal West - 795 004, Manipur, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out to assess the effect of different types of pruning on yield in 6years old Thompson Seedless vines spaced at 4 × 2m during the year of 2015-2016 under Rain shelter condition. To obtain this goal, the vines were subjected to seven different levels of pruning treatments (T1= pruning at 2-buds, T2= pruning at 6-buds, T3= pruning at 10-buds, T4= pruning at 14-buds, T5= pruning at 18-buds, T6= pruning at 22-buds and T7= control or no pruning). The result revealed that all the vines pruned at 10-buds (T3) registered significant effect on yield parameters like number of berries/bunch, bunch weight, number of bunches per vine, bunch yield. The maximum value for number of berries per bunch (81.60), bunch weight (194.00 gm), number of bunches per vine (22.67), fruit yield or bunch yield (4.40 kg) were recorded from T3 while the minimum were recorded from T7 (Control).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 515-518
Vivek Verma, D P Dubey and Punit Tiwari
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture (JNKVV), Rewa - 486 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2014 at All India Coordinated Research Project for Dry land Agriculture, Kuthulia Farm, College of Agriculture, Rewa (M. P.). The experiment was aimed to find out suitable variety for existing agro-climatic conditions of Kymore plateau and Satpura hills zone of Madhya Pradesh. The soil of the experimental field was clay loam having pH 6.72, electrical conductively 0.14 ds/m, organic carbon 0.51%, available N 232.40 kg/ha, P2O5 10.60 kg/ha, and available K2O 229.50 kg/ha. The treatments comprised sixteen urdbean genotypes were laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The urdbean genotype IVU 466 produced the significantly higher grain yield up to 1169 kg/ha as well as straw yield up to 1559 kg/ha. The maximum (44.56%) harvest index was recorded with JU 2. Among the urdbean genotypes, IVU 466 proved highly profitable giving net income up to ₹ 32290/ha with B:C ratio up to 3.01. The other best genotypes were PDU 1 and TU 57, which gave net income up to ₹ 31788/ha and ₹ 30677 with B:C ratio 2.98 and 2.91, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 519-522
Swathi Yadav Kattula and H V Pandya
Department of Entomology, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry (Navsari Agricultural University), Navsari, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Different combinations of insecticides tested at different intervals on cowpea crop against aphids during 2012-2014 and revealed that imidacloprid 17.8 SL in combination with spinosad 45 SC was the best in reducing the jassid population with 0.44 jassid per leaf. Acetamiprid 20 SP in combination with spinosad 45 SC (0.63 jassid/leaf) and imidacloprid 17.8 SL in combination with novaluron 10 EC (1.01 jassids/leaf) were found to be the next effective treatments. Among all the combinations, maximum pod yield (31.30 q/ha) and maximum per cent increase of yield over control (98.89%) was recorded in the treatment imidacloprid 17.8 SL in combination with spinosad 45 SC. With respect to BCR, highest BCR (1:8.70) was registered in the treatment imidacloprid 17.8 SL in combination with indoxacarb 14.5 SC which was followed by thiamethoxam 25 WG in combination with indoxacarb 14.5 SC (1:6.52) and acetamiprid 20 SP in combination with indoxacarb 14.5 SC (1:6.43).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 523-528
Maqsooda Akhter, *Imtiyaz Qayoom and *Sameena Khan
Department of Aquaculture and Zoology, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal - 190 006, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir *Division of Aquatic Environmental Management, Faculty of Fisheries, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Rangil - 190 006, Ganderbal, J & K
Abstract
Present study was undertaken to assess the trophic status of Dal Lake of Kashmir valley and its relationship with the population dynamics of cladoceran population. Four sampling sites of Dal Lake viz. Hazratbal basin (site-I), Nishat basin (site-II), Gagribal basin (site-III) and Brarinambal basin ((site-IV) were selected for the collection of cladocera and water samples. The standard methodology was used for carrying out the physico-chemical parameters of water and calculation of cladocera population. The results obtained in the study revealed that Dal Lake has under gone deterioration which has directly influenced the distribution of cladocera at all the sites. Conclusion drawn from the study is that the entry of pollutants through point and non-point sources must be restricted immediately which will help in the rehabilitation of the lake.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 529-531
P S Wadaskar and D M Jethva
Biocontrol Research Laboratory, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effective dose of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on chickpea. The result revealed that the higher dose of B. bassiana 1.15% WP @ 5.0 g/litre followed by B. bassiana 1.15% WP @ 4.0 g/litre was effective against all stages of tested insect.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 532-542
*Parag Babaji Jadhav and Nikhil Pradip Gurav
*Agricultural Research Expert, Agricultural Research Associate, Ecofrost Technologies Private Limited, Jeevan Nagar, Tathawade, Pune - 411 033, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The postharvest changes in strawberry fruit cv. “Sweet Charlie” at room temperature (RT) and in cold storage (4°C and 95% Relative Humidity (RH)) were studied during the winter season (January-2018) in Pune, Maharashtra, India. The shelf life, pre-cooled shelf-life, cold storage life and post-storage shelf-life of fruit cv. “Sweet Charlie” was observed to be 2.79 days in room temperature (RT), 2.97 days at RT, 4 days in cold storage i.e. Ecofrost at 4°C with 95% RH followed by 1.90 days at RT, respectively. Average weight loss percentage of 0.58% per day (5.82 kg/ 1000 kg/day), shrinkage percentage of 73.33% at the end of sixth day, abrasion injury percentage of 10% and 23.33% at the end of day 3 and 4, respectively of strawberries were recorded in Ecofrost. Fresh fruit weight loss percentage was recorded at ordinary RT as 5.51% at the end of day 1, 6.08% at the end of day 2 and 6.18% at the end of the day 3 and 20% shriveling was observed at the end of day 3. Firmness (N/cm²) decreased with increasing storage periods. The TSS, ascorbic acid content (mg/100g of pulp) and decay % of fruit cv. “Sweet Charlie” was observed to increase during the storage period.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 543-545
Ali Hosseinpoor Zelti, Mansoor Ahamad Rather, *Anaytullah Chestie and Romisa Gull
Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar - 585 401, Karnataka, India *Faculty of Fisheries (SKUAST-Kashmir), Rangil - 190 006, Ganderbal, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding attractant glycine on the growth and feed conversion of juvenile Huso huso (Beluga). The experiment was carried out on the juveniles with an average initial weight of 26.04 ± 0.43g at Shahid Marjani center of Sturgeon Hatchery and Cultivation in Golestan province of Iran. After 54 days the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily growth index (DCI), daily growth rate (DGR), specific growth rate (SGR) and condition factor were analyzed and were found to be higher in beluga juveniles fed with glycine incorporated diets as compared to the control feed. Among the glycine added diets, juveniles fed glycine of 5, 10, 15 g Kg-1 level showed highest weight gain (134g) by registering 136.6% in growth over control and higher feed intake (7.34) and good FCR (2.20). The weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), daily growth index (DCI) varied significantly between the three treatments and the control, however, no significant difference (P>0.05) was found in survival between the different treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 546-551
B Manjunatha, C Malleshappa and B Niranjana Kumara
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Agricultural and Horticultural Research Station (UAHS), Kathalagere, Davanagere - 577 219, Karnataka
Abstract
The present investigation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was undertaken during Kharif, 2015 at Agriculture and Horticulture Research Station, Kathalagere, India to study the path analysis, character association, variability parameters and identification of transgressive segregants in respect of grain yield and its component traits in F2 population of ‘BPT5204 × IET21075’ cross. The distribution pattern of F2 population indicated large number of genes with dominance based complementary interaction in the inheritance of total tillers per plant, number of panicles per plant, number of grains per panicle, grain yield per plant and L:B ratio in both crosses but duplicate type of interaction was noticed for days to 50 per cent flowering, panicle length, number of spikelets per panicle, spikelets fertility, test weight, grain length and grain breadth in ‘BPT5204 × IET21075’. GCV and PCV values were relatively higher with high heritability coupled with high genetic advance for total tillers per plant, productive tillers per plant and grain yield per plant in both the crosses indicating additive gene action in their genetic control. Grain yield per plant was exhibited significant positive correlation with plant height, total tillers per plant, number of panicles per plant, panicle length, number of spikelets per panicle, number of grains per plant and spikelet fertility. Path analysis in F2 generation indicated the positive direct effect of total tillers per plant, number of panicles per plant, grains per panicle, panicle length and harvest index on grain yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 552-556
Renuka S Herkal, Shweeta Kademani and D I Jirali
Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2011-12 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad to evaluate the effect of heat stress on growth, physiology and productivity in different wheat species under normal irrigated conditions. The experiment consisted of 12 genotypes (UAS-320, NIAW-1415, NIAW-34, HI-1571, DWR-1006, UAS-415, UAS-428, UAS-439, DDK-1025, DDK-1029, MACS-2971 and HW-1098) belonging to cultivated species viz. Triticum aestivum, Triticum durum and Triticum dicoccum and were laid out in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The different temperature regimes were maintained by manipulating the date of sowing. Significant differences were observed in morphological, growth, physiological, biochemical, yield and yield parameters with different temperature regimes. Among the treatments, low temperature regime exhibited superiority over high temperature regime, while giving a better response to most of the yield contributing characters such as more number of branches, more number of nodes, more leaf area, more TDM, higher percentage of dry matter partitioning into economically useful parts, higher AGR, CGR, SLW, LAI, LAD, BMD, ultimately resulting into more number of spikes, more spike length and weight and 1000-grain weight, thus resulting in higher grain yield. The genotypes UAS-439, UAS-415 and UAS-428 performed better both in low and high temperature regimes, thus indicating their use in breeding the wheat genotypes for tolerance to heat stress.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 557-561
Tushar Singh Thakur, *Amit Kanawjia, **Rajesh K Kanawjia, ***Rakesh K Saket and Noopur Jaysawal
School of Agriculture, ITM University Jhansi Road, Gwalior - 475 001, Madhya Pradesh, India *Scientist, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jalaun, Uttar Pradesh, India **Scientist, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dariyapur, Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh, India ***College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most important spice crops in India. Garlic is a bulbiferous crop belonging to the family Alliaceae. The present study entitled was conducted at Research field, Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture, ITM University Gwalior. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 8 different INM combinations viz. T1- Control, T2- 100% Vermicompost, T3- 100% FYM, T4- 75% RDF + 25% FYM, T5-75% RDF + 25% Vermicompost, T6- 50% RDF + 50% Vermicompost, T7- 50% RDF + 50% FYM and T8- 50% FYM + 50% Vermicompost. The results of experiment revealed that the treatment T5- 75% RDF + 25% Vermicompost was found to be the best among all the treatments in reference to growth and yield parameter. It was followed by T6- 50% RDF + 50% Vermicompost and T7- 50% RDF + 50% FYM.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 562-565
R K Bhende, R N Katkar and R S Chavan
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted during the 2014-15. Geo-referenced surface soil samples representing different tehsil were collected from Thane district. The latitude, longitude and altitude of sampling sites were recorded using global positioning system (GPS). The soil sampling sites were located in the fields of major crops in seven tehsils of Thane district. The deficiency or sufficiency of each analyzed nutrients were determined based on critical limits. The nutrient indices were calculated. The maps of available zinc, iron, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum, sulphur, calcium, magnesium were prepared by using geographical information system (GIS). The soils of Thane district were found to be acidic to neutral in nature with the pH range of 5.17 to 6.96. The organic carbon content varied from 2.90 to 9.45 g kg-1 was medium to high. The EC ranged of 0.10 to 0.28 dSm-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 566-569
N S Nysanth, K S Meenakumari, P Subha, S Vigi and Bindhu R Raj
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Agriculture (Kerala Agricultural University), Vellayani - 695 522, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Abstract
As part of the study conducted in the Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) were isolated from the phyllosphere of paddy collected from different agro climatic conditions of Kerala by leaf imprint method using Ammonium Mineral Salt (AMS) agar media supplemented with 0.5% methanol and cycloheximide. In all, 46 isolates were obtained. The isolates were obtained from different districts of Kerala such as Thiruvananthapuram, Alappuzha and Palakkad including Attappadi hill tract. The isolates were subjected to morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization studies. In the present investigation the antagonistic efficiency of all the 46 isolates were assessed against the most important fungal and bacterial pathogens inciting various diseases in different crops grown in Kerala by dual culture technique. The fungal and bacterial pathogens selected for the study were Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia oryzae, Alternaria alternata, Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum gleosporoides, Fusarium oxysporum and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Out of forty six isolates tested, the isolates PPFM3, PPFM7, PPFM10, PPFM36, PPFM44, and PPFM46 exhibited inhibition against the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Four isolates (PPFM9, PPFM11, PPFM14, PPFM24) showed antagonistic activity against Pyricularia oryzae. PPFM24 inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. Among all the isolates tested, four Methylobacterium isolates (PPFM1, PPFM5, PPFM10, PPFM28) inhibited Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. PPFM24 and PPFM37 exhibited antagonism against Colletotrichum gleosporoides. The isolates PPFM19, PPFM24, PPFM26, and PPFM33, inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum under in vitro conditions and PPFM3, PPFM4, PPFM9, and PPFM22 exhibited antagonistic activity against Phytophthora capsici.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 570-572
D Meena and G Sivanarayana
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The paper mainly focuses on studying profile of the beneficiaries of the Agricultural Extension Programmes. The study was conducted in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. The programmes which had more number of the beneficiaries in the study area were selected viz. Farm Mechanization, National Food Security Mission (pulses) and Soil Testing Programme. Total 120 farmers were selected randomly as the beneficiaries for the study. The variables selected to study the profile of the beneficiaries were age, education, land holding, farming experience, extension contact, social participation, socio-economic status, mass media exposure, training received and scientific orientation, risk orientation and innovativeness. The results revealed that the profile of the beneficiaries indicated that majority of the beneficiaries were middle age (35.00%), with high school level (24.17%) education, semi- medium (35.00%) land holding, 40.83 per cent with 21-30 years of farming experience, medium level of extension contact (73.34%), social participation (49.17%), socio-economic status (68.34%), mass media exposure (72.50%), received 1-2 trainings (43.33%), with medium scientific orientation (75.84%), risk orientation (75.00%) and innovativeness (71.68%) respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 573-577
K Shivaramu, K Venkataranga Naika and D K Suresh
Directorate of Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru - 560 024, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out in College of Agriculture, Bengaluru and Mandya in Karnataka. In total 80 students and 30 teachers constituted sample size of the study. Ex-post facto research design was employed. Majority of both teachers and students perceived that RAWEP provided; more opportunity to students for practical exposure, organize demonstrations in the framers field, village stay coincides with cropping season as the important merits. Less stipend, inadequate funds to conduct RAWEP activities were as the major constraints. Increase stipend amount, more financial assistance to RAWEP and timely disbursement of stipend amount were the important suggestions to improve RAWEP.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 578-583
K Swetha, M Madhavi, G Pratibha and T Ramprakash Department of Agronomy,
Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Hyderabad, Telangana
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in sandy loamy soils at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide mixtures with and without adjuvants in maize crop during kharif 2014. Higher maize grain and straw yields were recorded under hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS which was at par with topramezone + atrazine @ 25.2 + 250 g a.i ha-1 + MSO as PoE and tembotrione + atrazine @ 105 + 250 g a.i ha-1 + stefes mero as PoE. Lowest weed dry matter was recorded with hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS followed by topramezone + atrazine @ 25.2 + 250 g a.i ha-1 + MSO as PoE and tembotrione + atrazine @ 105 + 250 g a.i ha-1 + stefes mero as PoE at 20 DAS. Weed management practices also exerted significance influence on growth, yield attributes, yield and economics in maize.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 584-587
G Sai Prasanna, *A Bhagwan, **A Kiran Kumar, K Ravinder Reddy and P Saidaiah Department of Fruit Science,
College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India *Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy, Telangana, India **Registrar and Comptroller, SKLTSHU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Abstract
A study conducted on “Effects of pre-harvest sprays on fruit development, yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Lucknow-49” at Fruit Research Station, Sangareddy district during 2016-17. Di-potassium ortho phosphate (K2HPO4) 1%, potassium nitrate (KNO3) 1%, calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 4%, Borax (B) 1%, zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) 0.8% are used as pre-harvest sprays and control. Among the pre-harvest sprays, zinc sulphate at 0.8% has increased number of fruits per tree and yield per tree (kg/tree) and also improved the fruit quality parameters like total soluble solids, reducing sugars (%), total sugars (%), non-reducing sugars, acidity, TSS: Acid ratio, specific gravity. Calcium nitrate at 0.8% has extended the shelf life of 13.26 days over the control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 588-590
Sant Kumar Namdev and Rahul Dongre
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur- 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Estimation of genetic correlation of 33 genotypes revealed positive significant association of fruit yield per plant (kg) with number of fruit per plant (0.7102), plant height at 90 DAT (0.4517), fruit yield per hectare (0.4433) and fruit yield per plot (0.4354), path coefficient showed that yield per plot (0.4354), path coefficient showed that, number of fruit per cluster, fruit yield per ha (q/ha), days to 50% flowering, plant height at 60 DAT, and number of fruits per plant, made maximum direct contribution for fruit yield in tomato.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 591-599
Sumaira Shafi, Uzma Bashir, Masrat Maqbool and *Ambreena Din
Division of Soil Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Kashmir *Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Horticulture, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Kashmir
Abstract
The experiment was carried out at Mountain Research Centre for Field Crops, Khudwani and was laid out in randomized block design with eleven treatments replicated thrice during kharif season (2014). The soil of experimental site at harvest was silty clay loam in texture. Incorporation of organic and inorganic fertilizers (T6) enhanced the fractions of zinc in soil and their availability in plants and obviously, their uptake in plant and grain and straw at harvest in comparison to rest of the treatments. Various organic sources significantly increased the contents and the uptake of respective micronutrients in plant at various growth stages over the control (T1), the maximum improvement in the contents and uptake of micronutrients were recorded in organic and inorganic treatments (T6). Application of organic and inorganic sources of nutrient in combination [50% NPK + 50% N (FYM) T6] remarkably increased nutrient content, uptake and yield of rice than control. Dry matter accumulation at tillering, panicle initiation and at harvest was 39.54, 67.10 and 160.22 q ha-1, respectively than control. Zn uptake at tillering, panicle initiation and at harvest was 0.22 and 0.36 kg ha-1, straw (0.21 kg ha-1) and grain (0.15 kg ha-1) in comparison to control. Higher straw and grain yield 10.81 and 6.87 t ha-1 was also in treatment T6. Water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound and organic bound and total Zn showed positive significant correlation with Zn content and uptake at different growth stages and yield respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 600-603
G Lakpathi and *M Rajkumar
Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Hyderabad, Telangana, India *Fruit Research Station (Dr. YSRHU), Sangareddy - 502 001, Telangana, India
Abstract
The correlation studies in Guava cv. Allahabad Safeda with different physical factors under high density planting were carried out during 2013. The fruit yield per tree was significantly and positively correlated with average fruit weight. Number of vegetative buds per pruned shoot was significantly and positively correlated with number of new shoots per pruned shoot, number of flower buds per new shoot, number of fruits per new shoot. Cumulative length of new shoots was significantly and positively correlated with leaf area, number of flowers at first leaf pair, number of flowers at second leaf pair, number of flower buds per new shoot, number of fruits per new shoot, fruit diameter and average fruit weight. Leaf area was significantly and positively correlated with number of flowers at second leaf pair, number of flowers at third leaf pair, number of flower buds per new shoot, number of fruits per new shoot, fruit diameter and average fruit weight. Number of fruits per new shoot was significantly and positively correlated with number of flowers at second leaf pair, number of flowers at third leaf pair and number of flowers per new shoot. Number of vegetative buds per pruned shoot was significantly and negatively correlated with number of days for first flower bud appearance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 604-606
M J Zala, V R Jinjala, R S Patel and K P Zala
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2014-15 at Junagadh Agricultural university, Junagadh (Gujarat) to study the effect of integrated nitrogen management on growth, yield attributes and yield of rabi popcorn. Application of 75% RDN + 25% nitrogen through vermicompost recorded significantly higher grain (3733 kg ha-1) and fodder yields (7763 kg ha-1). While lower grain and fodder yields were recorded with control. But different treatments were failed to express any significant influence on harvest index in popcorn. The maximum net realization of 52997 Rs ha-1 and benefit: cost ratio of 2.43 was obtained in treatment of 75% RDN + 25% nitrogen through vermicompost.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 607-611
K Swetha, M Madhavi, G Pratibha and T Ramprakash
Department of Agronomy, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Hyderabad, Telangana
Abstract
Ten treatments involving tank-mix combinations of atrazine with 4 hydroxy-phenyl pyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD) inhibiting herbicides with and without adjuvants as post-emergence was applied at 15 DAS, atrazine as pre-emergence followed by intercultivation at 30 DAS, hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, intercultivation at 20 and 40 DAS and unweeded control were tested in maize during kharif 2014 at College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The predominant weed species observed in experimental site were Cynodon dactylon L., Digitaria sanguinalis L., Dactyloctenium aegyptium L., Echinocloa spp and Rottboellia exaltata L among grasses; Parthenium hysterophorus L., Commelina benghalensis L., Amaranthus viridis L., Euphorbia geniculata L., Digera arvensis L and Trianthema portulacastrum L among the broadleaved weeds and sedge Cyperus rotundus L. Hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS, tank mix application of topramezone + atrazine @ 25.2 + 250 g/ha + MSO, tembotrione + atrazine @ 105 + 250 g/ha + stefes mero recorded lowest weed dry matter and higher weed control efficiency, these treatments also recorded higher grain and stover yield in maize.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 612-615
R S Patil, *R G Deshmukh, **A N Borkar and ***S W Jahagirdar
Lokmangal College of Agriculture, Wadala - 413 222, Maharashtra, India *Department of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, Dr. PDKV, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India **Don Bosco College of Agricultural Sulcorna - 403 704, Goa, India ***Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli - 415 712, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present study entitled, change in cost of production and contribution of subsidized inputs in cotton crop with objectives of estimation of change in cost of production due to subsidized inputs and contribution of subsidized inputs in monetary output of cotton crop. From study it was revealed that, cost C of with subsidy availed farmers of cotton crop was ₹ 50301.52. Gross returns from cotton crop were ₹ 64264.73. Benefit Cost ratio at cost C was 1.28. In case of without subsidy availed farmers of cotton crop, cost C was ₹ 54197.10. Gross returns obtained from cotton crop were ₹ 64264.73. Benefit Cost ratio at cost C was 1.19. It was observed that, reduction in cost of ₹ 295.12 for subsidy availed farmers of cotton crop in comparison with without subsidy availed farmers of cotton crop. It was found that, credit subsidy contribute major share i.e. 96.04 per cent followed by 3.96 per cent of fertilizer subsidy in monetary output of cotton crop. Concluding that credit play important role in cotton crop production. Hence it is need to provide more credit/loan for cotton growers for increasing yield of crop by adoption of new and modern technology in their field.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 616-618
Deepak, *Raju G Teggelli and **Vijaysingh Thakur
Scientist (Home Science), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi - 585 101, Karnataka, India *Senior Scientist and Head, Kalaburagi - 585 101, Karnataka, India **Project Assistant, College of Agriculture, Kalaburagi - 585 101, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Intercropping leads to higher yields and increase the economic returns and greater crop equivalent yield as compared to sole cropping. Intercropping system offers increased cropping intensity as two or more crops occupy the land simultaneously. In intercropping system foxtail millet is most important short duration cereal crop. Yield of foxtail millet is decreasing due to many reasons and one among them is use of local varieties and nutrient supply at the field level. To enhance the yield of foxtail millet, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi has conducted frontline demonstration in farmer’s field of Kalaburagi district during kharif 2017-18, pigeonpea based millet intercropping system with use of improved Foxtail millet variety (SIA-2644). On an average, yield obtained was 19.2 q/ha under demo plots that is (T1: SIA-2644) as compared (14.5 q/ha) to check (T2: local verity). On an average the Demo plots recorded higher yield parameter viz. number of tillers per plant was (7.6), panicle length and 1000 seed weight was (17.2 cm and 2.55 g) respectively, and higher net returns was in improved variety (₹ 12804.1/ha) compared to check that is local verity (₹ 9151.6/ha, respectively).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 619-622
Anju Padmanabhan and Ambily Paul
Department of Agricultural Entomology, AINP on Pesticide Residues, College of Agriculture (Kerala Agricultural University), Vellayani - 695 522, Kerala, India
Abstract
Dissipation studies of acetamiprid in cauliflower were conducted in two agro climatic regions of Kerala during 2017. The residues of acetamiprid were persisted up to 7 and 5 days under plains and hills respectively at a recommended dose of 15 g.i ha-1. Half-life of acetamiprid on cauliflower was 2.98 and 2.50 days respectively under plains and hills respectively. Risk assessment study reveals that consumption of cauliflower treated with acetamiprid does not pose any health risk on human even on the day of spraying at recommended dose.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 623-629
Deepa Kumari Kumawat and R C Kumawat
Department of Agricultural Economics, S. K. N. College of Agriculture, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner - 303 329, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Rajasthan is one of the major fenugreek producing states, which is used in cooking as seed spices. It is indicated as medicine for digestive problems such as loss of appetite, upset stomach, constipation, inflammation of the stomach (gastritis). Costs with reference to cost of cultivation in agriculture play a significant role in making the farm sector economically viable and feasible. The current reading was intended to conclude the comparative study of cost of cultivation of fenugreek in Sikar and Jaipur. The fenugreek growing farmers of the selected villages within the catchment area were divided into marginal, small, semi-medium, medium and large and the primary data were collected and processed statistically. The per hectare average total cost (cost C2) of cultivation of fenugreek on Jaipur and Sikar farms were ₹ 24137.66 and 23399.93 per hectare, respectively. The average overhead costs were ₹ 7197.96 (29.82%) on Jaipur farms and ₹ 6547.91 (27.98) on Sikar Farms. The net income ranged from ₹ 18108.06 on marginal farms to ₹ 27440.74 on large farms under Jaipur farms and from ₹ 18257.92 to ₹ 28096.08 on the same categories of Sikar farms. The per rupee return from cultivation of fenugreek crop ranged from ₹ 1.79 on marginal sized farms to ₹ 2.11 on large sized farm with an average of ₹ 1.91 on Jaipur farms and there range were 1.86 (marginal) to 2.12 (large) with an average of ₹ 1.94 on Sikar farms. The overall cost of production per quintal of fenugreek crop was ₹ 1154.25 on Jaipur farms and ₹ 1111.78 on Sikar farms.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 630-633
Reshma Kumari, Baneeta Mishra, Gangadhar Chakor, *Ritu Saxena and Satish Verulkar
Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, *Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Krishak Nagar, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Drought is a major limiting factor which directly affects the yield in rice production. qDTY12.1 is a locus which has a tremendous effect on grain yield under drought in rice. MAS is a time saving DNA marker based technology which had been used to transfer qDTY12.1 from drought tolerant parent IR90019-17-159-B to Swarna sub 1, a mega variety but susceptible to drought. The population was evaluated under TSD and rainfed condition. 11 linked SSR markers were used for foreground selection where 5 found to be polymorphic (RM511, RM1261, RM7195, RM28099 and RM28130). Significant amount of variability was observed for all the yield and yield attributing trails under study. However, maximum variability was observed for grain yield. Correlation analysis indicated that grain yield had significant association with biological yield, harvest index followed by effective tillers, panicle length and plant height. Overall, 30 lines were observed to exhibited qDTY12.1 for all the five polymorphic markers but out of 30 only 15 lines (line N0o. 731, 736, 793, 817, 835, 836, 890, 910, 918, 939, 969, 1005, 1010, 1016, and 1061) were possessing Swarna background.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 634-636
Rohit Shelar, *D P Hardikar and *Sujitkumar Roham
Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India *Dr. B. S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli - 415 712, District Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Socio-economic status is measurement of economic and social position of an individual in the society. It influences the accessibility to the resources, livelihood pattern, food and nutritional security. The investigation was conducted in Jawhar and Mokhada tahsils of Palghar district of Konkan region of Maharashtra with the objective, to know the socio-economic profile of Khurasani growers. The sample was constituted 150 Khurasani growers drawn from two tahsils. The respondents were interviewed with the help of a specially designed schedule. The exploratory survey design was used for the present study. The analysis of data revealed that majority of the respondents were ‘middle age’ with ‘secondary’ education, majority of the Khurasani growers having ‘small’ land holding with ‘medium’ area under cultivation, had ‘medium’ farming experience in Khurasani cultivation, had ‘medium’ annual income, had ‘medium’ extension contact and had ‘medium’ market orientation were observed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 637-641
K Shivaramu, K Venkataranga Naika and D K Suresh
Directorate of Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru - 560 024, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out in College of Agriculture, GKVK, Bengaluru and College of Agriculture, V. C. Farm, Mandya in order to analyze the perception of students and teachers on SWOT of Rural Agricultural Work Experience Programme (RAWEP) of 12 weeks stay in villages. In total 80 students and 30 teachers constituted sample size of the study. Both the teachers and students perceived; increase in knowledge, increase in skill, builds self confidence, participation of farmers and use of different teaching methods were as the highly important strengths. Lack of financial support and less transport facility were as the highly important weaknesses. Improvement in communication and leadership skills and better field orientation as the highly important opportunities; and lack of cooperation from contract farmers/ local leaders/ officials of local institutions may lead to poor participation by students as the highly important threats of RAWEP under 12 weeks village stay.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 642-646
K S Meenakumari, S Vigi and P Subha
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani - 695 522, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken in the Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. As part of the study 25 isolates of Azospirillum and 12 isolates of Azotobacter were isolated from the soil samples collected from undisturbed forest areas of Attappady hill tract. All these isolates were screened for nitrogen fixing capacity and indole acetic acid production under in vitro conditions. The in vitro nitrogen fixing capacity of Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. ranged between 10.38 to 19.97 mg N g-1 malate and 11.40 to 15.31 mg N g-1 malate, respectively. The IAA production of Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. Ranged from14.83 µg mL-1 to 49. 74 µg mL-1 of culture filtrate and 28.95 µg mL-1 to 49. 81 µg mL-1 of culture filtrate, respectively. A pot culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the isolates obtained, with Amaranthus tricolor as the test crop. Results showed that inoculation with Azospirillum spp. recorded a maximum height of 54.00cm (30 DAT), shoot fresh weight of 232.5g and root fresh weight of 75.15g, whereas, the plants inoculated with Azotobacter spp. recorded a maximum height of 52.00 cm (30 DAT), shoot fresh weight of 207.10g and root fresh weight of 65.05g. Based on in vitro nitrogen fixation, IAA production and in vivo growth and yield enhancement in Amaranthus, 2 isolates viz. Az-16 and Ao-3 were selected as superior isolates and were subjected to morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 647-649
Uzma Iqbal, G M Mir and Owais Nisar
College of Agricultural Engineering, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
The traditional method of cracking walnut in Kashmir is hammering the walnut by any tool including stone which is not only laborious, slow and tedious but results in wastage because of damage caused to kernels by excessive force. A low cost prototype machine was developed to crack the walnuts wherein walnuts are passed between two wooden rollers. Graded walnuts are passed between two wooden cylindrical rollers which exert uniform force to walnuts and crack their shells which are then removed manually. The uniform force ensures less damage to walnut kernels thereby increasing the productivity of end result. This portable machine can be used by small scale entrepreneurs for extracting kernels for marketing.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 650-657
A Rohini, *P Flowrine Olive and *N Deepa
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Eachangkottai, Thanjavur - 614 902, Tamil Nadu *Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Centre for Agricultural and Rural Development Studies, TNAU, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Financial decision-making for investing in portfolio shares are gaining significance in recent days. This study analyses the validity of Fama French Three Factor model and Capital asset pricing model in portfolio investment in Indian stock market. To maximize share price, it is important to assess two key determinants viz. risk and return. The objective of the study is to compare the validity of the capital asset pricing model and Fama French three factor model in portfolio assets of Indian stock market. The index selected for the study is S&P BSE 200 and within this 120 companies were selected as the sample for conducting the study. To understand the basic type of risk, the stocks are selected from S&P BSE 200 index. The firm specific risk is diversified by grouping the stocks of companies into portfolios. This leads to estimate more accurate returns. A size (market capitalization) and value (P/E ratio) sorted portfolio is constructed for further analysis. Six portfolios were constructed namely, S/L, S/M, S/H, B/L, B/M and B/H. The result shows that B/L and B/M portfolio are giving higher return when compared with other portfolio in the model. The study confirms the reliability of size and value factor for the Indian equity market. Hence the findings are supportive of the Fama French model applied to Indian equities.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 658-661
Rekha Sethi and Daisy Sabal
Department of Environmental Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The effects of vermicomopost on Pea (Pisum sativum) were executed through pot experiments. Seeds of Pisum sativum L. var. Azad P-1 were exposed to different levels of vermicompost i.e. 125g, 250g, 500g, 750g, 1000g and a control level (soil without vermicompost). Plants were harvested at three different stages i.e. pre, peak and post-flowering stages. Result of experiment indicates that chlorophyll content of test specie (Pisum sativum) increased with the increasing levels of vermicompost.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 662-664
Supriya P Patil and Shobha Nagnur
Department of Extension and Communication Management, College of Rural Home Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Karnataka is the second largest grower of chilli in India, next only to Andhra Pradesh. In Karnataka Dharwad district and more specifically Kundgol taluk is world renowned for the Byadagi variety of chillies. The present investigation was undertaken to study the socio- personal characteristics and knowledge level of women involved in chilli cultivation. This study was conducted in Kundgol taluk of Dharwad district in Karnataka purposively as it is the highest chilli growing area. Five villages were selected randomly and from each village 30 farm women were selected making a sample of 150. Personal interview method was used to collect the data and suitable statistical tools like mean, frequency, percentage, correlation and knowledge index were used for analyzing the data. The study revealed that, majority of the respondents were within the age group of 36-50 years, belonged to forward caste and had education upto primary level. More than fifty per cent of the farm women belonged to joint and medium sized family. Cent per cent of the respondents family occupation is agriculture of which 36.00 per cent of the respondents families possessed small land holding and most (59.33%) of the respondents had an annual family income upto ₹ 1,32,000 i.e. low category. The study also revealed that 55.30 per cent of farm women had medium knowledge about chilli cultivation practices. Cent per cent of them had knowledge about yield per acre of chilli and 99.33 per cent of them had knowledge about interval for picking chilli. Knowledge of farm women was seen positive significant relationship with extension participation, social participation and contact with extension agency but showed a negative and significant relationship with annual income.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 665-668
Pooran Pragnya, B W Bhuwibhar and Tapre Praveen Bake Nagraj
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering Technology (VNMKV), Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Climate is one of the most important driving parameter that causes year to year variability for short and long terms influences the water requirement, water availability and social water needs. Any change in climate will cause increase the uncertainty in water resource planning. Parbhani is intersected by 19°08’ N latitude and 76°50’ E longitude. The average annual rainfall at Parbhani station is 750-800mm, which is mostly received from south-west monsoon. The dates of onset and end of effective monsoon were determined for individual years by applying the criteria stated by Ashok Raj (1979) along with dry spell analysis. It was revealed that the average annual number of rainy days for Parbhani station was found out to be 38.The mean date of Onset of Monsoon was found to be 21st June and withdrawal of monsoon was 3rd October. Probability of 100% wet spell was found in 35th meteorological week (27 Aug-02 Sep) and probability of 100% dry spell was found in 42nd and 43rd standard meteorological week. First critical dry spell generally commenced in 30th week (2-3rd, August) with mean duration of 14 days. Second critical dry spell generally commenced in 40th week (4-5th, October) with mean duration of 21 days. Total 152 days of dry spell occurred in last five years with mean of 30 days per year.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 669-672
Gopi Chand Balusu, Krishnaveni Gamidi and M Harika
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kampasagar, District Nalgonda - 508 207, Telangana, India
Abstract
A study was designed to evaluate the view of farmers and extension agents on WhatsApp, the most trending tool of ICT. Both purposive and random sampling followed for a sample of ninety farmers and twenty extension functionaries. The findings of the study revealed that majority WhatsApp using farmers opined that high level of message content/quality, in time delivery, extent of query addressing, motivation status of messages delivered, change in perception towards innovations and high overall perception towards WhatsApp. It also stated that the majority extension agents agreed on WhatsApp as akey to create awareness to farmers, time for other activities restricts the usage, helps in disaster management, explore information from any location, effective in contact with farmers, bypass many stages in communicating with farmers, need in government support, enhancement of farm women usage for holistic development, working style of organization restricts its use and passive users. Government supportive policies accompanied by supportive staff, developing linkages with network agencies, training women, encouraging passive members to participate and continuous feedback mechanism will enhance the WhatsApp use in more efficient way.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 673-676
Uzma Iqbal, G M Mir and Owais Nisar
College of Agricultural Engineering, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
Grading is the assessment of various parameters of food to obtain its overall quality. The health awareness has focused food industry to give more attention for quality and homogeneity of the product. Grading is of utmost priority for consumer with assured quality to fetch better price for the seller. The market demand gives great emphasis on quality assessment which gives primary importance for grading. Grading of agricultural products is accomplished on the basis of appearance, texture, shape, and size. Manual grading is based on traditional visual quality, inspection performed by human a operator, which is tedious, time consuming, slow, non consistent and uneconomical. An economic grading requires good speed and accurate grading which can be achieved with machinevision assisted grading. In recent ten years, operations in grading systems for fruits and vegetables become highly automated with mechatronics. The machine vision technique is expensive and a trade off is to be looked into for high adoption of technology by common masses. This paper presents a low cost expanding pitch type grader for Walnuts with size based grading. As walnuts move over expanding moving belts they fall under gravity process in accordance with their sizes and are separated in different grades.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 677-680
S Sofia, D M Reddy, M Shanti Priya and *P Latha
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Frontier Technology, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh
Abstract
Sixty three selection indices were constructed on six characters using thirty five genotypes of mungbean by discriminant function analysis. For constructing the selection indices the characters viz. seed yield per plant, harvest index, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, days to maturity and plant height were considered. Discriminant function analysis indicated that selection efficiency of function was improved by increasing the number of characters in the index. For indirect selection, the index involving the combination of five characters viz. seed yield per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, days to maturity and plant height which exhibited maximum relative efficiency and genetic advance of 854.70% and 15.65g, respectively followed by an index based on four characters viz. seed yield per plant, number of pods per plant, days to maturity and plant height which exhibited maximum relative efficiency and genetic advance of 787.09% and 14.42g, respectively could be considered for selection schemes to improve seed yield in mungbean.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 681-683
M Lakshmi Durga, *A Srinivasa Rao, **A Ashok Kumar and Ch Someswara Rao
Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India *Department of Processing and Food Engineering, **Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, Madakasira - 515 301, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Development of a single row semi-automatic transplanter for transplanting of tomato and brinjal seedling is the main aim of present study. The developed machine consist of main frame, revolving magazine type metering system, seedling delivery tube with a parabolic cut at lower end, double disc type furrow opener and revolving type press wheels for soil compaction. The performance of the developed transplanter in terms of quality parameters was assessed at different forwards speeds of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 km h-1. Results obtained as seedling to seedling spacing varied from 44.26 cm to 41.46 cm for tomato and 44.71 cm to 40.26 cm for brinjal respectively and the transplanting efficiency obtained as 88-61% for tomato and 90–68% for brinjal crop respectively with respect to varying forward speed. The field capacity of developed machine was 0.05, 0.089 and 0.11 ha h-1 with field efficiency was 83.3, 75.55 and 73.3 with respect to forward speed of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 km h-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 684-686
Anil Kumar, V M Prasad, Devi Singh, Vijay Bahadur, Arun A David and *Vikas Yadav
Department of Soil Science, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh *Central Horticultural Experiment Station (ICAR-CIAH), Vejalpur - 389 340, Panchmahal, Gujarat
Abstract
The present study was conducted at SHUATS, Allahabad during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to study the effect of bio-fertilizers, vermicompost and Trichoderma on fruit quality and NPK residual in field of strawberry (Fragaria x annanasa Duch.) cv. Sweet Charlie. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with twelve treatments and three replications. The maximum total soluble solids (6.69°Brix) was recorded in T11 (5 kg ha-1 Trichoderma + 2.5 t ha-1 Vermicompost + 7 kg ha-1 Azotobactor + 6 kg ha-1 PSB + 10 kg ha-1 VAM) followed by (6.28°Brix) with T10 (5 kg ha-1 Trichoderma + 2.5 t ha-1 Vermicompost + 6 kg ha-1 PSB + 10 kg ha-1 VAM). The maximum acidity (0.72%) was also observed with T11 followed by T7 and T10 while the least (0.58) was observed with T0 (RDF through chemical fertilizers). The ascorbic acid and total sugars were also found maximum in T11 (55.96mg and 8.12% respectively). In 2013-14 the maximum residual NPK among the treatments was noticed 267.41 kg ha-1 with T11 among the treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 687-690
M Srikala, I Bhavani Devi, S Rajeswari and G Mohan Naidu
Department of Agricultural Economics, Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in selected paddy markets viz. Nizamabad and Suryapet (Andhra Pradesh), Sindhanur (Karnataka) and Toofanganj (West Bengal). The data pertained to the period from January 2000 to December 2015 for Nizamabad, Suryapet and Sindhanur markets and from January 2005 to December 2015 for Toofanganj market. There was an increasing trend in the prices of paddy in all the selected markets and were highly significant at 5 per cent level of significance. The monthly increase in prices of paddy was found to be highest in Toofanganj market, where as it was the lowest in Nizamabad market. In respect maize in monthly increase in prices was highest Udumalpet market, where as it was lowest in Nizamabad market. The results of seasonal indices indicated that the highest seasonal indices of prices were observed in the months of July and September in Nizamabad market followed by Suryapet in the months of February and September, and October and February in Sindhanur market and September and October in Toofanganj market for paddy. The lowest seasonal indices of prices were observed in the month of in Nizamabad and Suryapet markets followed by June in Sindhanur and Toofanganj markets respectively. No price cycles were discernible in the selected markets of paddy as well as maize. The irregular fluctuations in prices did not exhibit any definite periodicity in any of the selected markets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 691-695
Priyanka Bagri, *Rakesh Pandey and **Bicky Kumar
Doon Business School, College of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, Selaqui, Dehradun - 248 001, Uttarakhand *ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012, India **Universal Group of Institutions, Dera Bassi - 140 501, Punjab, India
Abstract
The biologically active compounds present in smoke are now emerging as potential growth regulators. In the present study maize seeds were imbibed with - water, diluted plant derived smoke water and diluted filter paper derived smoke water for 14 hours. It was observed that the germination percentage and seedling growth of different maize genotypes were enhanced in seeds treated with smoke water (derived from filter paper and plant residues) as compared to seeds treated with water. This enhancement is partially due to changes in water uptake pattern and seed reserve mobilization.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 696-699
Dinesh Singh, Rakesh Kumar and K K Kundu
Department of Agricultural Economics, C. C. S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
An attempt has been made to examine the carry over stock, production, and consumption pattern, marketed and marketable surplus of pearl millet on different farm sizes and to study the factor affecting the marketed and marketable surplus. Primary as well as secondary data were used for the study. Primary data were collected during the year 2011-12 on pre-structured schedules. Pre-testing of the schedules was done by collection of data from few farmers through personal interview method. Secondary data in respect of area, production, yield, were obtained from Deputy Director of Agriculture, internet and various issues of statistical abstract of Haryana. The analysis of marketable and marketed surplus of pearl millet revealed that overall marketable and marketed surplus was 5343.25 kg/acre and 4630.25 kg/acre in Mohindergarh and Bhiwani districts, respectively. It was observed that there was no difference between marketed surplus and marketable surplus in both the districts. It was because no distress sale was recorded and no stock was retained by the farmers for the next year. With the increase in the size of holding among the different component of the total consumption, livestock consumption forms the major portion of total consumption followed by family consumption in both the district. Production, area under crop showed positive relationship with marketable & marketed surplus whereas livestock consumption, family consumption, family size showed the negative relationship with marketable and marketed surplus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 700-701
Loitongbam S Devi, Momoko Thokchom, A K Bijaya Devi, Okram Bijaya Devi and K James Singh
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Lamphel - 795 004, Imphal, Manipur, India
Abstract
Greater yam (Dioscorea alata L.) is a climbing monocotyledonous tuber crop belongs to the family of Dioscoreaceae and it is reported to be an old crop species native to South East Asia (Burkill 1951). Several environmental factors affect the growth of yam, in particular, the development of the flowers, tubers and bulbils. Tuber growth in yam is slow immediately after initiation and then it becomes very rapid at full canopy formation and finally slows down during maturation with a loss in dry matter (Onwueme 1978).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 702-703
Jeya R
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Cotton, often referred to as the White Gold, is an important cash crop of India and it plays a key role in the Indian economy. It provides livelihood to more than 60 million people by way of support in agriculture, processing and use of cotton in textile (Barwale et al. 2004). Cotton occupies a predominent place among cash crops touching the country’s economy at several points by generating direct and indirect employment in the agricultural and industrial sectors. It is being cultivated over an area of about 9.5 million hectares, which represents approximately a quarter of the global cotton area of 35 million hectares. Despite low productivity, India has become the largest producer as well as consumer of cotton, next only to China.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 3 ; 704-708
Rabeesh Kumar Verma and *Shivani Jha
Department of Agricultural Extension, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012 *Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Samastipur - 848 125, Bihar, India
Abstract
Agri- based industry primarily concerned with agriculture and business activities related to allied sector. Agro based industries involved in the production, processing, marketing and transportation of agricultural produce. Agribusiness activities covers a variety of industrial manufacturing and processing activities based on agricultural raw materials as also activities and services that go as inputs to agriculture. Agriculture can be transformed into more attractive from passive stage and can create huge employment opportunities through forward and backward linkage by development of agri-based industries and agribusiness. Under this paper an attempt was made to explore the various opportunities offered by agro-based industries. Agri-based industries can play a very significant role in generation of various employment opportunities for rural youth in villages itself and has lot of potential to contribute and enhance rural income which consequently helps in improving standard of living of rural people and also helps in checking the migration of rural youth from rural areas to urban centers. There is need to review the above mentioned situation of agribusiness sector or industries based on agriculture in totality and present it from comprehensive perspective which include detailed analysis from production to marketing aspects of agroindustry and alleviate the constraints faced by agro-industries.


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4.54

ISSN (Print)
0976-1675
ISSN (Online)
2249-4538
Visitor Number
956092