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Volume - 9 - July - August (2018)
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 709-715
K B Ramappa and M A Yashashwini
Agricultural Development and Rural Transformation Centre, Institute of Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bengaluru - 560 072, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Indian agriculture has been mainly instrumental in supporting the livelihood of more than 50 per cent of the population besides accounting for 17 per cent of the country’s’ to the GDP. A majority (>85%) of the Indian farmers belong to small and marginal categories with an average holding 1.16 ha land even as it continues to show a declining trend. Moreover, more than 80 per cent of the poor in rural areas are largely dependent on farming. Although small holdings exhibit a higher productivity than medium and large farms, their per hectare cost of production is much higher. The imperfect market conditions, inaccessibility to credit, suboptimal investment decisions, unskilled human resource base, inadequate access to extension services and poor technological know-how are some of the major problems confronting small and marginal farmers in this era of competitive and unstable environment. In this context, the Government of India has consistently striving hard in terms of evolving better policies aimed at ensuring a better price to farmers’ produce. Going by the experience and success stories of the new-form collectives, the concept of Producer Organizations (POs) has come to be well accepted by the Government of India, acknowledging the year of 2014 as the ‘Year of Farmer Producer Organizations’ (FPOs). These organizations aim at enhancing farmers' competitiveness and their relative position in the context of emerging market opportunities. However, like cooperatives and any older form of collectives, FPOs may encounter various issues and challenges as part of their further evolution. In this study an effort was made to analyze the opportunities and challenges besides coming up with a future roadmap based on observations and suggestions made by various researchers over time with respect to the promotion and development of FPOs in this country.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 716-720
S H Ramya and C T Subbarayappa
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Two field experiments were conducted during 2015-16 and 2016-17 in four year old pomegranate var. Bhagwa with seventeen treatments and three replications in randomized block design at Marganahalli village of Chikkaballapur district (Karnataka) to know the influence of different sources and levels of boron in combination with zinc metalosate on growth and yield of pomegranate. A significant improvement in growth and yield parameters of pomegranate was observed due to treatments effect. Among different sources, boron metalosate at 0.017 per cent boron level in combination with 0.050 per cent zinc through zinc metalosate significantly increased the plant height (218.95cm), number of fruits per shoot (5.37), number of fruits per plant (90.82), total weight of fruit per shoot (1839.03 g), length (10.54 cm) breadth (13.51 cm), weight of fruit, (350.71 g) yield per plant (29.49 kg) and yield per hectare (26.97 t) compared to control (T3: NPK + FYM) and other treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 721-723
Sunil Kumar Taram, Jayalaxmi Ganguli and Anil Kumar
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The current experiment on, the biology of Tuta absoluta was carried out during 2015-16 at the Biocontrol Laboratory College of Agriculture, IGKV, Raipur on cut leaves of tomato. Data were recorded on the duration and size of egg, larvae, pupae and adults. In case of larvae size of head capsule and duration of each instar was also measured. Incubation period of egg was observed to be 6 days with an average of 0.4±0.1 mm length and 0.2±00 mm breadth, with a fecundity of 135 eggs. Larval period (1st instar) was of 3.16 days with length and width of head capsule 0.23±0.01 and 0.37±00 mm respectively. 2nd instar larval stage was completed within 2.75 days, the length of head capsule was 0.45±0.02 mm and 0.64±0.00 mm breadth. The period of 3rd instar larvae was 3.0 days with a head capsule length and width of 0.64±0.01 mm and 0.91±0.1 mm respectively. The larval duration of 4th instar larvae was 3.5 days with head capsule measurement of 0.83±0.03 mm and 1.57±0.05 mm length and width respectively. The total larval duration of Tuta absoluta was found to be of 12.41 days. There was a prepupal period when it was preparing to pupate. It stopped to feeding for about 1 day then pupated under silken cocoon. A change in colour from light green to brown was also noticed. The average pupal period was 9.3 days with mean length and breadth of 4.37±0.10 and 1.42±0.08 mm respectively. The average adult longevity of 8.5 days. Total life cycle was completed in 37.21 days.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 724-729
J S Minimol, B Suma, P G Chithira, E Shahanas and Juby Baby
Cocoa Research Centre, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Cocoa is an important commercial crop whose demand is increasing at a rate of 15-20 per cent every year. Systematic breeding programmes envisaged by Kerala Agricultural University, India, resulted in the release of five superior hybrids namely CCRP 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 during the year 2015. Genetic potential of these varieties are found to be superior to existing varieties. All these hybrids excelled in performance than the existing check varieties indicating the potential of using them as budded plants for commercial cultivation. Preponderance of medium to high heritability and genetic advance is a good indicator pointing out the scope of employing these varieties as parental material for establishment of polyclonal garden which is the ensured source of quality planting material.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 730-732
Ranjan Kumar Singh, Joydip Mandal and *Bikash Das
Department of Crop Improvement Horticulture and Agricultural Botany, Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati (A Central University), Sriniketan - 731 236, West Bengal, India *ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region Research Centre, Plandu, Ranchi - 834 010, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
Chironji is an important non-wood tree species found in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India. It is a multipurpose tree and very important plant for rural and tribal economy. It is used as a fuel, fodder, alternative host for Kusmi lac insect, and also used in cosmetic items and soaps. Seeds/ kernel are nutritional, palatable and used as a substitute of almonds in confectionery. Chironji is not cultivated commercially. However, it contributes 10% of total forest product in collection based livelihood of forest dwellers of this region. Realizing the importance of chironji in tribal economy a study has been conducted to know the marketing system of this forest species. The study was based on the survey method conducted during April-July 2014. Primary data has been collected through personal interview to a group of sampled individuals by the help of structured survey schedule specially prepared for this purpose. Palamu (Ghagra and Bisunpur Block) and Latehar (Netarhat and Mahuatand Block) districts has been purposively selected for the present study as the study area had an extensive area under chironji. The study revealed that chironji fruit collection starts from mid April and ends by mid June. First fortnight of June registered maximum market arrival. In many areas fruits are often harvested before ripening. As a result, it fetches much lower price in the marked because of small seed size and low seed quality. Chironji fruit is been marketed through different intermediaries. Five marketing channel has been identified. Channel II [Collector - Commission Agent (In Market Haat) - Wholesaler - Retailer – Consumer] contribute maximum (44.21%) in chironji marketing system. However, Channel IV was identified as the best marketing channel (Collector – SHG - Wholesaler - Retailer – Consumer) as this is hassle free and collectors received maximum monetary benefits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 733-735
Daisy Sabal and Rekha Sethi
Department of Environmental Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Agricultural crops grown in fluoride contaminated areas have recently been observed as an important cause for several fluoride related health problems. A pot experiment has been conducted in which we studied the impact of different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 ppm) of NaF solutions on Trigonellafoenum-graecum, var. RMt-1. The physiological parameters assessed after 40, 55 and 100 days of treatments. The study reveals that fluoride hinders the growth parameters. Seeds produced were also of poor quality. Thus, adversely affecting their nutrient status.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 736-742
M Sivaprasad, *Sangama and *D V Sudhakar Rao
College of Horticulture, Mojerla, SKLTS Horticultural University, District Mahabubnagar - 509 382, Telangana *Division of Post Harvest Technology and Engineering, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post Office, Bangalore - 560 089, Karnataka
Abstract
Cut flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivar ‘Pink Donna’ harvested at tight bud, cross bud, paint brush and fully open maturity stages and treated with bud opening solution, prior to storage for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 weeks at 2°C. Preconditioning in a bud opening solution containing 10 per cent sucrose + 200 ppm HQS + 25 ppm AgNO3 + 75 ppm Al2 (SO4)3 enhanced the quality of flowers, opened after low temperature storage. Fully open flowers were stored in good condition up to 2 weeks, when preconditioned with the bud opening solution than untreated ones. Paint brush and cross bud stages were stored up to 4 and 6 weeks respectively. The quality of flowers deteriorated with the storage duration in terms of the intensity of colour, stem bending and physiological loss in weight, but the flower diameter was similar to freshly harvested flowers. Ethylene peak and rate of respiration increased with the storage duration and with the advancement of maturity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 743-746
R Bhat1, Shahid B Dar2, N Jabeen3, Z Rashid2, S Mufti3 and Parmeet Singh4
1Division of Vegetable Sciences, 2Division of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, SKUAST - Kashmir, Wadura - 193 201, Sopore, Jammu and Kashmir 3Division of Vegetable Sciences, Faculty of Horticulture, SKUAST - Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir 4Krishi Vigyan Kendra, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shopian - 192 303, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The present study analyses the effect of level and source of sulphur on growth attributes, head yield and seed yield in cabbage. The experiment was laid in a randomized block design with three replications. Three sources of sulphur i.e. Gypsum, Elemental sulphur and Potassium Sulphate with three levels i.e. 40, 70 and 100 kg S ha-1 for each source were tried. Potassium sulphate as a source of sulphur recorded significantly the highest growth attributes viz. plant height (26.5cm), plant spread (47.8 cm), number of non wrapper (12.6), lowest number of days taken to edible maturity of head (79.0) and lowest core length (7.9 cm) and head yield attributes viz. plant weight (2.5 kg), head length (20.7 cm), head diameter (18.8 cm), head weight (1.103 kg), head yield plot-1 (30.8 kg) and head yield ha-1 (408.4 q ha-1), followed by gypsum. Further increasing levels of sulphur up to 70 kg S ha-1, there was a significant increase in growth characters as plant height (25.5 cm), plant spread (47.3 cm), number of non wrapper leaves (12) decrease in days taken to edible maturity of head (83.1), and core length (9.1cm). However, application of sulphur at 100 kg S ha-1 significantly increases the head weight (1.004 kg), head yield plot-1 (28.00 kg) and head yield ha-1 (371.90 q ha-1) but, at par with 70 kg S ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 747-750
E Suriyapriya, M Kavaskar and Santha Govin
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agriculture is the main occupation of the majority of rural households in India. More than 75 per cent of the population in India depends on agriculture. Farmer Producer Organization (FPO) is one type of producer organization where the members are farmers. The main aim of Farmer Producer Organization (FPO) is to ensure better income for the producers through an organization of their own. Mobile based advisory services can help to reach poor farmers in remote rural areas. Over the past few years, India witnessed several experiments on agro-advisory service delivery through mobile phone. Keeping this in mind, a study was taken up to determine the utilization pattern of the respondents on mobile agro advisory service. The study was taken up in Kanchipuram District with a sample of 120 registered members of Chennai Horticulture Produce Producer Company by using random sampling technique. Usefulness of information through mobile service was measured under two dimensions viz. utilized and not utilized. Simple percentage was calculated based on their response. The findings on overall utilization revealed that medium to high level of utilization pattern of mobile advisory service was observed among majority of the respondents. More than three-fourth (86.00%) of the respondents had utilized the plant protection measures.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 751-755
H Bhavana, Veena Joshi and *M Sreedhar
College of Horticulture, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Telangana, India *Genetics and Plant Breeding, MFPI-Quality Control Laboratory, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
Apple ber (Zizyphus mauritiana) is a Thailand variety ber belongs to the family Rhamnaceae. Apple ber is developed by grafting Thailand green apple with Thai local ber. As this is a newly developed fruit no proper information is available about its nutritional composition. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient composition of Apple ber which was carried out at College of Horticulture, SKLTSHU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during the year 2016-2017. The physico-chemical characters of fresh apple ber were recorded as shape-round/ovoid, light yellowish green colour with firmness and weight of 12.86 kg/cm2 and 95.37g respectively. Apple ber has 93.90% edible matter with TSS of 10.21 ºB, titrable acidity-0.6% and total sugars-9.75%. Nutritional composition of apple ber fruits revealed that apple ber fruit is nutritious than ber, apple and citrus in term of vitamin-C (92.4 mg/100g in apple ber) and it is also rich in minerals. It has carbohydrates-29g/100g, protein-0.87/100g and fat-0.34%.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 756-758
K Asha, D Nanjappa, Shivani Dechamma and M B Shanabhoga
Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The Self-Help Group movement became a silent revolution within a short span in the rural credit delivery system in many parts of the world. It has been documented that nearly 53 developing countries including India, have taken up this on a large scale. The Government of India is supporting the SHG movement. At present in India there are about 73 lakh SHGs, among that 60 lakh are women SHGs and within that 20 lakh are Government initiated SHGs.The study was conducted in Ramanagara district of Karnataka. Channapatna and Magaditaluks were purposively selected based on highest and lowest number of women SHGs respectively. Hence, eight women groups were selected. In each of the SHG 15 members were there inclusive of president and secretary constituting a sample size of 120 for the study. The Ex-post-facto research design has been adopted in the present study. It shows that all the SHGs are showing high performance with respect to the indicators viz. number of members, accumulated savings, type of members, attendance of members, utilization of savings amount, loan recoveries, maintenance of books, knowledge of rules and regulations, literacy level of members. Performance of SHGs was found associated with independent variables like cosmopoliteness and management orientation at 0.05 per cent level whereas variables like age, family type, family size, marital status and social participation were found associated at 0.01 per cent level. Opposition from family members and inability to attend training were the major constraints perceived by the members of the SHGs. Convincing the family members and changing the time and places of training were the major suggestions provided by the members of the SHGs to overcome the constraints.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 759-761
G M Mir, Uzma Iqbal and Owais Nisar
College of Agricultural Engineering, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
Grading is one of the most important factors associated with the quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables. Common criteria for grading include physical attributes such as size, skin colour, shape and solid contents. Among these size has been recognised as an acceptable maturity and quality index. Grading the important aspect of all the agricultural produce is used to enhance its apanage of trade. Usually, fruit growers grade the fruits manually, however this process is lengthy, tedious, inconsistent, laborious and time consuming. Huge amount of energy is also invested in this operation and the produce is handled for number of times in this operation, which results in increasing of wastage and may decrease marketing value. There may also be a shortage of labour during peak seasons thus, it becomes necessary to switch to use some improvements, which may overcome these limitations especially during the peak seasons. Grading of fruits is also very important operation as it fetches high price to the grower and improves the post harvest processes like packaging, handling and brings an overall improvement in marketing system. The fruits are generally graded for value addition on basis of size and graded fruits are more welcome in export market. Grading could reduce handling losses during transportation as well. A low cost walnut grading machine has been fabricated in College of Engineering under DST sponsored project.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 762-765
D Balu, M Kavaskar and Santha Govind
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The research study was conducted in Tiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu. The study was taken up in twelve villages which were selected based on the maximum number of farm youth involved in farmer interest groups of ATMA. A sample size of 120 respondents was selected from twelve revenue village based on random sampling method. Perception in the study referred to the amount to which the respondent perceived the usefulness of the information communicated through the ICT. Usefulness of information through ICT tools were measured under two dimensions viz. useful and not useful. Utilization pattern was operationalised in terms of frequency and duration of usage of ICT tools. Based on the total scores, the respondents were classified into three categories namely low, medium and high. Majority (70.00%) of the respondents felt that the internet was a useful source of agricultural information followed by (57.50%) of the respondents who felt that the message was reliable and accurate. Nearly half the proportion (48.33%) of the respondents had medium level of ICT utilization pattern followed by low (32.50%) and high levels (19.17%) of ICT utilization pattern. Farm youth frequently utilized the ICT tools viz. television (88.33%), smartphone (85.00%) and social network (83.30%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 766-770
A Reshma, V Raja Rajeswari, P Latha, M Reddi Sekhar and V Chandrika
Department of Crop Physiology, Sri Venkateswara Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Effect of moisture stress on growth, dry matter and yield of 12 maize genotypes were evaluated under field conditions during rabi 2015-16 and rabi 2016-17. Moisture stress at soft dough stage i.e. from 60-80 DAS decreased mean plant height significantly. The extent of decrease in total dry matter was 29 and 26.9 per cent at 100 DAS during rabi 2015-16 and 2016-17, respectively compared to irrigated control. Among the genotypes PDM 1452 (262.17, 228.52 g plant-1), PDM 1465 (254.41, 236.70 g plant-1) and PDM 1498 (247.54, 241.16 g plant-1) recorded significantly higher total dry matter during rabi 2015-16 and rabi 2016-17. Genotypes, PDM 1452 and 1465 found tolerant with lesser per cent reduction in leaf area due to stress effect. The extent of decrease in leaf area index was 21 and 28 per cent at 100 DAS compared to irrigated control during rabi 2015-16 and 2016-17 respectively. Moisture stress at soft dough stage also reduced CGR significantly. Due to moisture stress mean cob yield was significantly reduced to the extent of 43 and 48 per cent during rabi, 2015-16 and 2016-17 respectively. The genotypes, PDM 1452, PDM 1465 and PDM 1498 which maintained higher leaf area and dry matter also recorded superior growth and high yield compared to other entries.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 771-774
Santosh Swamy
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka
Abstract
Experiments were conducted to study the population dynamics of azide resistant mutants of Azospirillum in the endorhizosphere and rhizosphere on maize crop variety DMH-2, during the year 2014 and 2015. Isolated strains of Azospirillum brasilense ACD-7 and ACD-8 and their respective azide resistant mutants ACD-701 and ACD-802 developed through NTG mutagenesis and a reference strain ACD-15 were used in the study. The study showed that the population of mutant strains was significantly higher than their wild type counter parts and the population was found higher when the crop was supplied with the 100% dose of the Recommended Nitrogenous fertilizer.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 775-779
G B Supriya, T V K Singh, *V Sunitha and **S K Vinod
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Prof. Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana *All India Network Project on Vertebrate Pest Management, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030 **International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Hyderabad
Abstract
This research mainly focused on the effect of castor on growth and reproductive parameters of S. litura. The impact of castor leaves on the developmental rate, life history parameters, fertility, contribution of immature stages to crop damage and life expectancy was examined over three consecutive generations. Among the three generations calculated the generation III recorded more values compared to other two generations due to mortality of larvae during Generation-I because of NPV (Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus). Survivorship curves are stair step indicated that mortalities will be higher at transition from one stage to other. The values of generation-III was recorded as net reproductive value (R0) 369.85, with mean generation time (Tc) 31.34 days, the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) 0.189 females/female, finite rate of increase was (λ) 1.208♀♀/♀/ day, the weekly multiplication rate (WMR) was 3.76, the doubling time (DT) of the insect was 3.65 and annual rate of increase (ARI) was 1.0537 x 1030 indicating the pest can produce 30 generations per year. During generation-III life expectancy (ex) was more 24.17 days of newly deposited eggs. The present study accomplished that castor has been proved as suitable host for development and maximum survival.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 780-783
J Harshini and A Daniel Viswasam Samuel
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agriculture College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
India per se being leader nation in coconut production, only 2 per cent hardly utilized for value addition. To discern the pull factors causing consumer preference for coconut products, a study was conducted among different income group of consumers from Madurai city of Tamil Nadu. Five coconut value added products like desiccated coconut, processed tender coconut, skimmed coconut milk, skimmed coconut milk powder and neera were selected for the study. The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance and specific factor influencing the marketing of selected coconut products and to study the market opportunities of the selected coconut product based on the consumer preference. Conjoint analyses, Multi-log linear function, Dummy variable model, ANOVA with two qualitative variable model were used in the study to find the factors influencing the marketing of selected coconut product. The result from all the analysis conclusively showed that income is the main factor influencing the market opportunities of selected coconut products.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 784-790
Jyoti V Vastrad and *Shweta Mariyappanavar
College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India *All India Coordinated Research Project-Home Science (Clothing and Textile), University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Mucilage is generally found within the inner layer (endosperm) of grains, legumes, nuts and seeds. Some gums are extruded on the surface of plants such as gum arabic, gum karaya and gum tragacanth. Cassia tora is mucilage present in legumes and is most widely used in food and textile industries. Henceforth in the present study, affect of storage on quality of Cassia tora mucilage under favourable and unfavourable storage conditions resulting into physicochemical changes in specifically a viscosity and ash content that leads to significant product qualitative and quantitative losses. Cassia tora seed mucilage was stored for 3 and 6 months using different package materials viz. polythene cover (120 gauge, 30 micron), self locking cover (200 gauge, 50 micron) and cotton cloth bag (grey cloth) respectively. The stored seeds and mucilage were assessed for visual changes, physicochemical properties and colour strength at different temperatures. The results revealed that, reduced viscosity of Cassia tora mucilage on storage makes mucilage undesirable for printing of textile material. Thus, the use of fresh Cassia tora seed mucilage as binder and thickener in printing paste will result in better consistence and throw light on eco-friendly approach in the present scenario.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 791-794
Ch Prashanthi, P Laxminarayana, G E Ch Vidyasagar and *S Harish Kumar Sharma
Department of Agronomy, *Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during the kharif, 2014 at College Farm, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad to study the bio-efficacy of various herbicides on weeds, yield and economics of direct seeded rice. The weed flora emerged during experimentation were: grasses like Echinocloa colonam L., Cynodon dactylon L., Eleusine indica; sedges like Cyperus rotundus L; and broad-leaved weeds like Eclipta alba L., Commelina bengalensis L., Ipomoea purpurea, Alternanthera sessillis, Physalis minima, Bacopa monnieri, Cyanotis cristata, Corchorus, Phyllanthus niruri, Ageratum conyzoides. Among seeding methods the highest gross returns (₹ 47280), net returns (₹ 17544) and B: C ratio (1.57) were obtained with line sowing than broadcasting. Among weed management practices highest gross returns (₹ 47770) were with T6 treatment and highest net returns (₹ 15826) with T5 treatment where as highest B:C ratio (1.56) with T3 and T4 treatments was obtained which were superior to other treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 795-800
S Deepika, *R Rejani, *K V Rao and A P Mukherjee
Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India *ICAR- Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Abstract
Weather data is very essential to estimate irrigation requirement in arid and semi-arid regions for planning optimal irrigation schedules. In this study, an attempt was done to estimate the annual, seasonal, effective precipitation, reference evapotranspiration (ET0), crop water requirement (CWR), deficit precipitation and irrigation water requirement through micro irrigation system (MIS) of the major crops grown in Ananthapur district of Andhra Pradesh. ET0 is estimated by using Hargreaves equation for 30 years and relative CWR for major crops of Ananthapur district are assessed for kharif and rabi seasons. Effective rainfall (Peff) is calculated and categorized according to IMD classification. The year is categorized as severe drought moderately drought, mild drought, normal rainfall and excess rainfall years. Crop wise irrigation water required is estimated for groundnut, maize, tomato, cotton, green gram, pigeon pea and paddy. Average deficit water for the categorized years for the selected crops during kharif and rabi seasons and corresponding irrigation water required with sprinkler and drip irrigation system are also calculated. This data can be used in planning irrigation schedules for effective management of irrigation water along with enhancement in the crop yields.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 801-803
M Anandh, *N Deepa, **A Rohini and P Balaji
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003, Tamil Nadu, India *Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India **Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Echankottai, Thanjavur - 613006, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was conducted to identify the consumer’s preference over coconut chips in Coimbatore city. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to collect the primary data from 100 households. Coconut chips samples were used to test the attitude of the consumers and consumer preference related to coconut chips. About 57 per cent of the sample respondents preferred super/hyper market for the purchase of chips. So the case firm could make necessary measures to utilize these modes for communicating the brand within the store to attract more customers. On analyzing the sources of information about the chips, in-store product displays became the major sources of information. Package with mean score of 3.78 was the major factor that influenced the purchase of coconut chips among the sample respondents. Majority of the chips buyers (83%) showed their willingness to buy the coconut chips in future. Most of the respondents prefer taste and flavor of the product followed by quality and hygiene and liked to purchase chips in evening hours. Hence, the firm should concentrate on these factors.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 804-808
S Dhivyalakshmi, A Daniel Viswasam Samuel and B Siva Sankari
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agriculture is the major occupation in rural areas. But it is declining nowadays and there occurs a changes in rural employment. Due to many factors, farmers and agricultural labours engaged in non-farm activities and some people shifted from agriculture to non-agriculture. In this view, this paper used Chow test to find the structural instability in number of cultivators and agricultural labours in Erode district and Tamil Nadu, Logit model to identify the factors influencing the participation in non-farm activities of cultivators and agricultural labours and Standard of living function to analyze the impact of changes in employment. The results revealed that there occurs a structural changes among cultivators and agricultural labours in Erode district and Tamil Nadu, individual and household characteristics influences the participation in non-farm activities and the after non-farm consumption expenditure influences the standard of living.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 809-811
Tamana Kohisatani, S V Prasad, P V Satya Gopal and G Prabhakara Reddy
Department of Agricultural Extension, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, District Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in four villages on Mahmud-i-Raqi district of Kapisa one of the province of Afghanistan with the sample size of 120 maize farmers. Results indicated that the majority of maize farmers had medium level of extent of adoption of package of practices of maize. The study highlights that there are various problems which affect the process of adoption, however, few of them are most important one which affect the extent of adoption of recommended package of practices of maize. The most important problems were ‘Inadequate extension services’, ‘Difficulty in getting loans’, ‘Lack of improved seed or hybrids’, ‘Shortage of extension personnel’, ‘High cost of inputs’, ‘Lack of training programmes’, ‘Illiteracy’, ‘Non availability of fertilizers in correct time and quantities’, ‘Lack of awareness about latest technologies’, ‘Non availability of technologies for small farms’, ‘Poor access to information sources’, ‘Lack of credit facilities’, ‘Lack of ICTs’, ‘Lack of suitable farm implements and machinery’ and ‘Lack of drudgery reduction technologies. Moreover, with the decrease in number of problems there is increase in extent of adoption of package of practices of maize.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 812-815
P Dhananjaya, *K Bhanuprakash, **V Ramya, Ashok Surwenshi and **B C Channakeshava
Department of Biotechnology and Crop Improvement, College of Horticulture, Bidar - 585 401, Karnataka *Division of Seed Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka **University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka
Abstract
Characterization and evaluation is necessary for the identification of cultivars, to carry out DUS test and also seed genetic purity testing. The present study includes the identification of different genotypes (9) of vegetable soybean on the basis of their protein and isozyme profile. By SDS-PAGE, the total soluble seed proteins could be fractionated in to 15 bands, the highest number of bands (15) was observed in AGS-434 and AGS-439 followed by AGS-436, AGS-438 (14) bands and least number of bands (12) was observed in remaining genotypes, which indicated heterogeneity among different genotypes. Esterase isozyme showed high polymorphism in profiles with respect to number, position and intensity of bands was noticed among genotypes. AGS-433 genotypes exhibited low intensity band at Rm value 0.090 and 0.230, similarly AGS-438 produced a dark band at Rm value 0.410 which is absent in remaining genotypes. For malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isozyme, the genotype AGS-432 exhibited a dark band at Rm value 0.447, which was not present in other genotypes. Similarly, for peroxidase (POX) isozyme AGS-433 did not exhibited any band, which can be easily differentiated from other genotypes. Thus the biochemical markers could able to give discrete differences among the genotypes within a short period of time and be successfully utilized efficiently for characterization, documentation and identification of vegetable soybean genotypes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 816-820
D D Khedkar and A V Shejul
Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Dr. A. S. Collage of Agricultural Engineering, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, Maharashtra
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted to determine the best irrigation and fertigation scheduling through drip irrigation in a saline soil to optimize green pea yield, field water use efficiency and fertilizer use efficiency. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four main treatments, four sub-treatments and three replications. The irrigation levels comprised based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) viz. I1: 100% ETc, I2: 85% ETc, I3: 70% ETc and I4: 55% ETc. The irrigation water was applied at an alternate day under drip irrigation as per the treatments. The Fertigation levels (water soluble fertilizers) viz. F1: 125% RD, F2: 100% RD, F3: 75% RD and F4: 50% RD through drip irrigation. The results showed that the irrigation level I3 (70% ETC) obtained maximum yield (34.47 q/ha) as compared to the other levels of irrigation and the fertigation level F3 (75% of RD) obtained maximum yield (30.24 q/ha) as compared to the other levels of fertigation. The treatment combinations of I3F3 produced maximum yield (38.19 q/ha) and significantly superior over other treatment combinations in saline soil. Among the different irrigation levels I4 (55 % ETc) resulted maximum and significantly superior water use efficiency (2.27 t/ha-cm) over other irrigation levels and which is at par with irrigation level I3 (70% ETc) i.e. (2.09 t/ha-cm). In case of fertigation F3 level showed the maximum water use efficiency (2.05 t/ha-cm) and which was significantly superior over others fertigation levels. The treatment combination of I3F4 showed maximum water use efficiency (2.84 t/ha-cm) and significantly superior over other treatment combinations and at par with I3F3 (2.63 t/ha-cm) in saline soil. The irrigation level I3 (70% ETc) resulted maximum and significantly superior fertilizer use efficiency (28.06) over other irrigation levels. In case of fertigation F4 showed the maximum fertilizer use efficiency (35.52) and which was significantly superior over others fertigation levels. The treatment combination of I4F3 observed maximum fertilizer use efficiency (45.50) and which was significantly superior over other treatment combinations in saline soil. As overall result it indicates that green pea crop irrigated with irrigation level I3 (70% ETC) and fertigation level F3 (75% of RD) with irrigation scheduling at an alternate day under drip irrigation in saline soil showed better result in respect of yield and water use for Rahuri regions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 821-825
K Sadhasivam, R Geetha, S Lakshmi and *R Anandham
Department of Seed Science and Technology, *Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Agricultural Collage and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Biopriming is a process of biological seed treatment that refers combination of seed hydration and inoculation of seed with beneficial organism to protect seed. Seed treatment viz. duration of soaking hours, concentration let to be standardize for better results. Since different crop species respond differently. Hence this experiment was conducted to standardize the duration of soaking and concentration for the bioagents in cluster bean var. MDU 1. Graded seeds of cluster bean were primed with various liquid biopriming agents viz. rhizobium, Phosphobacteria and sulphur oxidizing bacteria at 1%, 2% and 5% for different duration 8, 9 and 10 hours. The results of the experiments revealed that seeds bioprimed with rhizobium @ 5%, Phosphobacteria @ 2%, SOB @ 2% germinated earlier and expressed its vigour in terms of increased speed of germination, germination percentage, shoot and root length and vigour index compared to other treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 826-829
E Jalapathi, S Lakshimi, K Sujatha and K Kalpana
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Biopriming is a very important seed invigoration technique for rapid germination. In order to utilize the biopriming influence on germination in brinjal seeds (Solanum melongena L.), this experiment was conducted to study the seed biopriming with liquid Bacillus subtilis. Brinjal seeds were bioprimed with liquid Bacillus subtilis in different concentration (1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) for 6 h. For hydropriming, water was used for soaking and nonprimed seeds formed the control. The experimental results showed that brinjal seeds bioprimed with liquid formulation of Bacillus subtilis at 8% concentration for 6 h seed recorded higher speed of germination of 8.5, germination (88%), shoot length (4.7 cm), root length (8.3 cm), vigour index (1144), dry matter production (0.036g seedlings-10) and population of biocontrol agents (28 × 108 cfu ml-1) respectively when compared to other treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 830-832
Ch. Srilatha Vani
Regional Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Anakapalle - 531 001, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Farmers cultivating sugarcane are facing multiple problems. To increase output and profitability in the sector, there is need to increase on-farm production and productivity of cane and to increase the recovery rate of sugar in mills. Also, there is need to improve the efficiency and to reduce the costs of cultivation by adopting the latest technologies. Raising nursery by using single bud is one of the important technologies which reduces the seed cost. This technology is gaining momentum among cane growers and the present study was conducted to get the feedback of farmers about the various issues concerned with this technology. The study was conducted using ex-post-facto research with 90 cane growers chosen from nine Mandals of North coastal zone (Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram and Srikakulam) districts of Andhra Pradesh. The reasons for promoting bud chip technology include reduced seed rate, reduced cost of cultivation and increase in cane yield. The other positive factors as perceived by the farmers are synchronized tillers, more number of millable canes, good root establishment, and ease of intercultural operations and possibility of multi ratooning. The major constraints in adoption of this technology were lack of awareness, non-availability of buds of the required sugarcane variety, scarcity of trained labourers and dearth of settlings when needed for planting. The study helps for better understanding of farmer’s perception and knowledge of farmers towards bud chip technology.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 833-835
Vijaylaxmi B Somanatti, *J G Angadi and Praveen Kote
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad - 580 0065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in Gadag district of Karnataka during 2014-15 with a sample of 120. Considering maximum area under watershed, four taluks were selected purposively. Forty one per cent of the farmers belonged to medium level of awareness about drought mitigation practices. More than ninety per cent of the farmers were aware of practices such as organic matter incorporation, seed treatment, mulching, live bunds and secondary tillage/hoeing. Less than fifty per cent of the farmers were aware of practices viz. contingent crop plans, conservation furrows at 15-20 cm, paired row spacing, protective irrigation and agri-pastoral systems. Thirty eight per cent of the farmers belonged to medium level adoption of drought mitigation practices. Majority of the farmers adopted practices like organic matter incorporation, mulching, live bunds, farm ponds, off season tillage, secondary tillage/hoeing and vermi-composting. Very less percentage of the farmers adopted conservation furrows, wider row spacing, paired row spacing and tank silt application.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 836-838
G Pavani and P Chandrasekhar Rao
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
An experiment was conducted in the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural chemistry, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. Results revealed that Toluene has been found to be the most effective and useful agent for inhibiting microbial activities during the determination of extracellular enzyme activities. The autolyzing action of toluene leads to negligible or no increase in some enzymatic activities. The enzyme L-glutaminase in soils hydrolyses L-glutamine to glutamic acid and ammonium, thus it is important in making the amide form of nitrogen available to plants. The assay used for the estimation this enzyme was steam distillation method. Here in this experiment the use of toluene to the soil samples of l-glutaminase have indicated the suppression of microorganisms and there by resulting in lesser activity of L-glutaminase thus indicating that toluene could be used as an inhibitory agent for growth of microorganisms. And also studied the effect of KNO3 and Glucose + KNO3 have indicated that the maximum activity of L-glutaminase was observed in soil samples treated with glucose + KNO3 compared to only KNO3 samples. This indicated that glucose in the glucose + KNO3 treated samples acts as a substrate and source of carbon and energy for the microbes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 839-844
V Soumya Krishnan and A P Mohankumar
Department of Farm Machinery and Bio-Energy, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kumulur, Trichy - 621 712, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The heavy weight limits the use of agricultural machineries in lowland puddling. The float assisted puddlers have gain much importance in puddling in waterlogged areas. The self propelled unit consists of two tilling wheels attached on the front side of the frame which is supported by floats. A comparative evaluation of different tilling wheels have been carried out in order to improve the puddling quality and machine performance of the existing model. The best tilling wheel was choosed by optimizing the variables such as the blade shape, peripheral velocity and number of pass. Single tilling wheel having straight blade with rectangular spikes, straight blade with triangular spikes and helical blade were designed and tested directly in a sandy clay loam field using a testrig. The selected variables of peripheral velocities were 2.9, 3.7, 4.4 and 5.1 m/s respectively. For the testrig evaluation two number of passes were considerd. The S-Type load cell, wattmeter, cone penetrometer and variable speed drive were the different instruments used for measuring draft, axle power, cone index and speed respectively. A negative draft was obtained since the tilling wheel is a rotating unit. The highest average performance index of 1330.8 m3/MJ was obtained for the modified straight blade triangular puddler at 4.4 m/s during second pass which is 81% higher than that of existing model. At higher peripheral velocity, the performance of the helical blade was more satisfactory than straight blade with rectangular spikes. Statistical analysis showed that, the performance index, soil cutting force, infiltration rate, and puddling index were significantly affected by the combination of blade shape, peripheral velocity and number of pass.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 845-850
S Vishnaadevi and *K Prabakaran
Department of Physical Sciences and Information Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
This paper describes the plot size of paddy crop in Madurai district. The uniformity trial was conducted in paddy with an area of 288 m2. The basic unit 1m x 1m was used (totally 288 basic units) and the yield data were recorded separately. Descriptive statistics showed that most of the characters were symmetrical, low variation and platykurtosis. The optimum plot size was determined by maximum curvarture technique and the soil heterogeneity was determined by Fairfield smith’s variance law. The computed soil heterogeneity index was 0.32 indicated that the soil heterogeneity was relatively low. The optimum plot size found at 4m x 4m for TKM 13 paddy cultivation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 851-855
P Prathima, S Thiruvudainambi, S Harish, *R Arun Kumar and K Kalpana
Department of Plant Pathology, *Department of Horticulture, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Marigold is considered to be one of the most profitable cultivated flower crops to the farmers in Southern Tamil Nadu, India. The crop is affected by various diseases, among which leaf blight caused by Alternaria alternate considered to be most important. From the infected leaves the fungus was isolated, and pure culture was maintained on potato dextrose agar medium. The molecular detection of Alternaria was at genus level was done using ITS primer pairs (ITS1 and ITS4). Morphological characters of A. alternate in six different culture media, seven pH levels, seven carbon and six nitrogen sources were tested. The results revealed that, potato dextrose agar medium (90.00mm) recorded significantly highest growth and rose Bengal agar showed least mycelial growth (36.18mm). Among the seven carbon sources tested, starch showed the highest mycelial growth of the fungus (90.00mm) and fructose (79.00 mm) was found to be less suitable for the growth of the fungus over the untreated control (69.15 mm). Peptone as a nitrogen source exhibited better mycelial growth (90.00mm) of the fungus and least mycelial growth of (26.65mm) was observed in ammonium sulphate over untreated control (15.00mm). It revealed that maximum mean growth recorded at pH 7.5 (90.0 mm) and pH 8.5 (45.18mm) was found to be least suitable for the growth of A. alternata.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 856-859
C Anand, N Revathy, *K Manonmani and **P Balasubramanian
Department of Plant Pathology, *Department of Farm Management, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India **Krishi Vigyan Kendra, District Virudhunagar, Aruppukottai - 626 107, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum L.), the golden flower is one of the most beautiful and oldest flowering plants commercially grown in different parts of the world. This crop is usually affected by several diseases. Among all the diseases, the wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Chrysanthemi is the major disease causing heavy yield loss. The present investigation has been carried out for identifying the fungus through morphology, cultural characters and pathogenic characters. The pathogen produces colourless, septate and branched mycelium and also produces three different spores viz. macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydospores under in vitro conditions. The isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. Chrysanthemi were tested for the growth in different carbon sources. Among the carbon sources, glucose supported the maximum growth whereas, lactose supported the least growth in the solid media. While considering the nitrogen sources, urea supported the maximum growth while ammonium sulphate was the least favorable. The optimum range of pH for the growth of all the isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. Chrysanthemi was 5.5 to 7.5.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 860-863
M Priyadharsini and *A Beaulah
Department of Horticulture, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the possible effect of macro (N,P,K) and micro nutrients (B and Ca) with different concentration levels as a foliar application on the vegetative growth, and yield of cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicium var cerasifomae. The experiment was carried out under split plot design with two replicates. The important parameters encompassed in the study were plant height (cm), days to 50 percent flowering, number of fruits per plant, fruit length (cm), fruit diameter (cm), average fruit weight (g). Although all the treatments of macro nutrient showed a positive effect on growth, and yield but, M4 revealed most significant influence on all parameters under study as compared to M5 and S3 showed significant influence on growth and yield parameter. The present investigation showed that the application of 200: 125:100 kg of NPK/ha and the application of boron (1%) as foliar spray increased the growth and yield parameter.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 864-870
Ripi Doni and A K Chauhan
Department of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted at a cooperative milk plant having the capacity of 1.1 lakh Litre/day (LPD). The investigation was carried out to study the cost and return of manufacturing different dairy products and to analyze the breakeven point. During the study it was found that total production of Ghee, Dhahi, salted lassi, kajupinni, skimmed milk powder, double tonned milk, standardized milk and full cream milk in the study period were 600109kg, 614790 cups, 123222.4 litres, 61790.49kg, 1688150, 1328259 litre, 2328443 litre and 168253.50 litre respectively. The cost of manufacturing was found to be ₹ 333.30 per kg for ghee, ₹ 10.35 per unit for dahi, ₹ 29.08 per litre for salted lassi, ₹ 221.21 per unit for kajupinni, ₹ 223.70 per kg for skimmed milk powder, ₹ 29.39 for double tonned milk, ₹ 36.48 per litre for standardized milk and, ₹ 43.12 per litre for full cream. Break-Even level of Standardized Milk, DTM, SMP, Dahi, FCM, Salted Lassi, Ghee, Kaju Pinni and Paneer were found to be 2.11 crore litre, 1.05 crore litre, 1.57 crore kg, 48.91 lakh cups, 16.81 lakh litre, 10.77 lakh litre, 54.136 lakh kg, 5.64 lakh kg and 1.25 lakh kg, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 871-874
K Vinoth Kumar
Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Increasing application of nanotechnology highlights the need to clarify nanotoxicity. Plants need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. Toxic potential of three different metal oxide nanoparticles viz. Zinc oxide (ZnO), Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and Titanium oxide (TiO2) were investigated using tomato as test plants through germination study. The surface morphology of metal oxides was determined using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A significant toxic effect was observed on growth parameters like germination percentage, root length, shoot length and vigour index of tomato plant. Among the tested concentrations of three different metal oxide nanoparticles, the concentration of 2000 mg L-1 displayed highest toxic effect followed by 1000 mg L-1. The toxic effect of metal oxide nanoparticles was in the order of ZnO>TiO2>Al2O3.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 875-878
J M Jeyakumar and J S Amarnath
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was taken in Sivagangai district of Tamil Nadu by surveying 120 farmers to analyze the economic performance, cost and returns and constraints of insured farmers without claim and insured farmers with claim and uninsured farmers. The results showed that economic performance and returns is more for insured farmers without claim than insured farmers with claim and uninsured farmers. The cropping intensity was highest in insured farmers without claim with 116.72 per cent followed by insured farmers with claim with 112.56 per cent agricultural insurance resulted in higher employment generation especially in harvesting, irrigation and intercultural operations. Farm assets was higher with 24.31 per cent and 14.27 per cent in insured farmers without claim and with claim as compared to uninsured farmers. The net income was also higher in insured farms without claim and insured farms with claim by 40.77 per cent, 30.40 per cent, respectively than uninsured farms. The major constraints for adoption of crop insurance for insured farmers is availability of crop insurance only for notified crops, long time for clearance of claims, lengthy procedures, difficulties in opening bank account, less claim received which should be set right by proper policy advocacy. For uninsured farmers the major constraints for adoption of crop insurance is lack of awareness about crop insurance, difficulties in opening bank account, lack of premium paying capacity which should be corrected by conducting awareness programmes by the State Govt.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 879-882
Darling B Suji
Department of Agricultural Extension, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A Study was conducted in Kanayakumari district to find out the knowledge of irrigation management practices. The study reveals that 53.67 per cent were found to possess medium level of knowledge. Age showed a positive and significant relationship towards their knowledge. “Neerindramaiyathu Vulagu” said the ancient Tamil saint Thiruvalluvar. Without water the world does not live and the earth cannot exist only as a dead planet like others in the solar system. Water and land are the two important assets of any country and proper utilization of them can bring prosperity to living society. A future gain in irrigation depends on increasing water use efficiency, rather than increasing water supply. This means using more efficient, low-cost and locally-adapted technologies to reduce water loss. Small-scale irrigation can help farmers to increase yields. Drip irrigation can cut water use by 70 per cent on high-value fruit and vegetable crops.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 883-885
Ashruti Kesherwani, N Lakpale, N Khare and P K Tiwari
Department of Plant Pathology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Healthy seed is the foundation of healthy plant, a necessary condition for good yield. Seed health is affected by various factors, among which the most important is seed borne fungi that cause reduction in seed germination and seed vigour. Pea varieties were also found to be associated with several seed borne mycoflora. In the present study, comparative efficacy of four incubation methods viz. standard blotter, agar plate, roll paper towel and deep freeze methods in detecting seed borne mycoflora in seven varieties of pea were analyzed. Among them agar plate method was found to the best for routine seed health evaluation of pea.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 886-891
Srishti Thakur and C Murthy
Department of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Uttar Kannada district 2017-18, the major timber producing district of north Karnataka. For the study, three major forest timber depots were selected and multistage random sampling in the study area. The cost incurred by various activities done in the jungle point to the auctioning point was analyzed in tabular analysis. In case of extraction of timber from jungle point to auctioning point, the cost incurred in the construction of new path was highest i.e. ₹ 12,379.39 per km. In case of transportation of timber from jungle point to auctioning point by different means, the cost incurred in transportation of timber upto 10 km distance by elephants in extremely steep and extremely slopy areas was highest i.e. ₹ 783.51per m3. But in case of extraction and transportation of poles, grade-Ia category poles (7 m × 80cm) have highest cost in all the activities. In transportation of firewood/billets upto 10 km distance from tractors charges was highest of ₹ 111.67per m3. The cost incurred in clearance of vegetative growth in the stocked area was highest ₹ 1,820.48 in the study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 892-894
K Balakrishnan, *A Subbiah, P Balaguru and **J Rajangam
Department of Crop Physiology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Horticulture, Grapes Research Station, District Theni, Royappanpatti - 625 526, Tamil Nadu **Department of Fruit Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam - 625 604, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during 2016-17 to study the effects of bunch feeding of nutrients and growth regulators on yield and quality of Grand Naine banana. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications having nine treatments. 250 ml of solutions covering nutrients and growth regulators were fed in blue coloured 100 gauge thickness of poly bags to the cut end of the bunch 15 days after opening of the hand by removing the male flower bud. The results revealed that among the treatments, the treatment T9, (1% K2SO4 + 0.1% urea + 0.25% boric acid + 0.25% ZnSO4 + 0.1% FeSO4 + 0.0125% citric acid and salicylic acid 100 ppm + ascorbic acid 100 ppm + brassinosteroids 0.1 ppm + GA3 50 ppm) significantly recorded a bunch of yield of 79.53 t/ha as against control which recorded 65.0 t/ha. The TSS (obrix) and total sugar were also found to be higher in T9 than the other treatments and control. Thus, it can be concluded from the previous investigation that the bunch feeding of nutrients and growth regulators solutions (T9) can be recommended for commercial cultivation of banana.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 895-897
T Tamilselvi and *N Deepa
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Behavioural finance is the fast growing area around past few decades in finance sector as it studies the psychology of the investors in decision making. The investment decision by the individual investors was considered to be more rational and influenced by various factors like availability of information, past performance of the institution, knowledge of the investors, surrounding environment, market fluctuations, risk tolerance level and various other demographic characters. The results indicated that majority of the investors were male of middle and young age with under graduate degree and belonging to the nuclear family. Among the factors, the most influencing in investment decision was maximum or higher returns followed by the easy liquidity of the financial instruments. The most important factor which influences the investor decision is the high returns with a mean score of 2.13 which indicates most of the investors agreed that they are investing their money in order to have a maximum return. This study helps the institutions in identifying rational behavior of investors and also helps to find out the progressive clients. The study can facilitate the investment product designers to design products which can cater to the investors with different risk tolerance level.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 898-900
Praneeth Kukatla and *N Deepa
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
In recent years organic food market is considered as one of the super growing markets in worldwide. Some consumers buy the organic produce because they seek the environmental friendly products yet some of them choose for health reasons. Fruits and vegetables market is very peculiar because of perishable nature of the products and these are very essential for every day diet. Still definition of organic fruits and vegetables are not yet defined clearly from both consumer and producer side. It is also reported that the growth in sales by organic stores tends to lag behind the growth in sales of organic fruits and vegetables in supermarkets. Consumer preference have shifted away from organic cereals and moved towards organic fruits and vegetables. At present increase in economic standards, urbanization, international market integration and trade liberalization increase the demand for organic fruits and vegetables. This study was conducted in two tier Hyderabad city. This city has huge potential for organic fruits and vegetables. The survey was conducted among 120 samples of organic consumers and selected by choosing 20 samples per store during 2017-2018. Six organic stores in and around Kukatpally and Mehadipatnam areas are selected purposively for the study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 901-903
P Nagarjun and G N Dhanapal
Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Main Research Station, Hebbal, Bengaluru during Kharif, 2016 and Kharif 2017 to study the effect of different herbicide combinations and weed management methods on growth and yield of dry direct seeded rice. The experiment consisted 12 treatments and replicated thrice in RCBD design. Among various weed management treatments hand weeding at 20, 40 and 60 DAS recorded significantly highest growth and yield parameters however, it was on par with herbicide combinations bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor as pre-emergence fb bispyribac sodium and bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor as pre-emergence fb triafamone + ethoxysulfurn. Significantly higher paddy grain and straw yield was recorded in hand weeding at 20, 40 and 60 DAS (5.50 and 7.22 t ha-1, respectively) and found on par with application of bensulfuron-methyl + pretilachlor as pre-emergence fb bispyribac sodium (5.39 t ha-1 and 7.16 t ha-1, respectively). Weedy check recorded significantly lowest yield (1.40 t ha-1 and 2.32 t ha-1, respectively).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 904-907
D D Khedkar, S D Gorantiwar and *P S Bodake
Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, *AICRP on Irrigation Water Management, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Grain yield and water use efficiency of wheat in semi arid environments can be improved by applying irrigation selectively to allow soil water deficits to develop at non-critical stages of crop development. Field experiments were conducted at Instructional Farm of the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, during the rabi seasons of 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13. The experiment was carried out in factorial randomized block design with sixteen treatments based on different combinations of the irrigation interval and application depth. Irrigation intervals were based on different frequency of application of water i.e. I1: 1 week, I2: 2 weeks, I3: 3 weeks and I4: 4 weeks. The application depths for irrigation were based on different proportion of wheat crop evapotranspiration (ETc) i.e. D1: 100%, D2: 90%, D3: 80% and D4: 70% of ETc. The total depth of water applied in treatments with levels of 100%, 90%, 80% and 70% of ETc worked out to be 380.55, 347.49, 314.43 and 281.39 mm during 2010-11, 392.08, 361.47, 330.86, 300.25 mm during 2011-12 and 422.82, 389.54, 356.25, 322.97 mm during the year the 2012-13, respectively. The treatment I1D2 resulted in maximum yield with irrigation depth varying from 15 to 33 mm per irrigation. These depths are very low to be applied uniformly under surface irrigation method. The next best treatment combination for higher yield is I2D2. The treatment I2D2 resulted in yield 37.66 qt/ha with irrigation depth varying from 32 to 64 mm per irrigation. These depths can be applied in the field by surface irrigation method. The interaction I1D4 i.e. one week irrigation interval and 30% stress level produced maximum water use efficiency (11.35 kg/ha-mm) and which was at par with I1D3 (11.34 kg/ha-mm) and I2D4 (11.31 kg/ha-mm). Based on the results of the experiment, under surface irrigation method, application of water at the rate 90% of ETc (10% stress) and irrigation interval of two weeks is recommended for maximum yield for wheat crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 908-911
K Abinaya and M Prahadeeswaran
Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Maize, queen of cereals globally is showing an increasing trend in area, production and productivity due to its demand in poultry and cattle feed. So, an analysis was made to estimate cost and returns and marketing of maize in Ariyalur district. The study was made for both rainfed and irrigated farming system of maize. The results revealed that the total cost of cultivation was ₹ 22169.82 and ₹ 32806.79 per acre. The net returns obtained over cost were ₹ 2030.18 with benefit cost ratio 1.09 in rainfed and ₹ 3509.00 with benefit cost ratio 1.11 in irrigated system of maize cultivation. The marketing channels functioning in the study area were Farmer-Regulated Market-Wholesalers-Feed Industries (channel I), Farmer- Commission agent - Wholesalers-Feed Industries (channel II) and Farmer- Wholesalers- Retailer- Consumers (channel III). The marketing channel I (7.70) was found to be more efficient than other two channels. Erratic rainfall and damages caused by birds was the major problem in rainfed and irrigated maize production respectively, whereas in marketing price fluctuations were the major problem.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 912-915
Bhawani Singh Prajapat, *Ram A Jat, Atul Dhansil and Deen Dayal Bairwa
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agriculture University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India *ICAR-Directorate of Groundnut Research, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2015-16 at Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture JAU, Junagadh to identification of suitable date of sowing and variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for South Saurashtra, Gujarat under changing climatic conditions. The experiment consisting of 12 treatment combinations of four dates of sowing in main plots (05th November, 15th November, 25th November and 05th December) and three varieties in sub plots (GW 322, GW 366 and GW 173) was carried out in split plot design with three replications. Total Growing Degree Days, Helio Thermal Unit, and Photo Thermal Unit was found maximum with sowing on 05th November and canopy temperature at 60 DAS and soil temperature, at emergence, at 7.5 and 15 cm depth was also observed significantly higher with sowing on 05th November. Heat use efficiency was significantly higher with sowing of GW 366 on 15th November. Occurrence of phenological stages viz. CRI, tillering, jointing, anthesis, milking, soft dough and physiological maturity took significantly maximum number of days with sowing of GW 366 on 05th November. Number of irrigations applied was significantly higher at 05th November sowing and water use efficiency was significantly higher with sowing of GW 366 on 15th November.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 916-919
Soniya Ningombam, Dinesh Kumar and NG Joykumar Singh
Department of Agricultural Economics and Agri-business Management, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Cultivation of fruit crops is labor intensive and as such they generate lot of employment opportunities for the rural population. Supply chains are principally concerned with the flow of products and information between supply chain member organizations – procurement of materials, transformation of materials into finished products, and distribution of those products to end customers. Today’s information-driven, integrated supply chains are enabling organizations to reduce inventory and costs, add product value, extend resources, accelerate time to market, and retain customers. The real measure of supply chain success is how well activities coordinate across the supply chain to create value for consumers, while increasing the profitability of every link in the supply chain. In other words, supply chain management is the integrated process of producing value for the end user or ultimate consumer. The supply chains of different agricultural commodities in India, however, are fraught with challenges stemming from the inherent problems of the agriculture sector. The Agri-supply chain system of the country is determined by different sartorial issues like dominance of small/ marginal farmers, fragmented supply chains, absence of scale economies, low level of processing/value addition, inadequacy of marketing infrastructure etc.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 920-924
R Thejeswini and *Nithin Reddy
Analyst, Fidelity Investments, EGL Tech Park, Bangalore - 560 071, Karnataka, India *Analyst, Ambertag Analytics Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore - 560 062, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Sentiment analysis was conducted on tweets regarding GST implementation which revealed that majority (59.89%) expressed positive opinion towards GST followed by negative (27.71%) and neutral (12.71%). GST has made way for better supply chain mechanism in agriculture industry and stands out as a major step for building National Agricultural Market (NAM), making the trading process simple by not collecting various taxes and cess levied in the markets. Drastic reduction on fertilizer tax (12% to 5%) has helped farmers accessing the input and also in restricting the inter-state smuggling of fertilizers which currently happens with different levels of taxes and consequent MRPs in different states. Since agriculture is not under tax, it cannot collect or reverse this tax with facility of input tax credit to buyer of their goods while buying equipment, hence manufacturers compensate the loss by increase in equipment cost. GST on food items under a comprehensive-base model would lead to atleast doubling of the tax burden on food. Implementation of GST will benefit farmers/distributors in the long run and ensure that farmers in India, who contribute the most to GDP, will be able to sell their produce for the best available price.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 925-927
N Shanuja, N S Venkataraman, T Ragavan and J Prabhaharan
Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field investigation was carried out during the year 2017 at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University to study the effect of split and foliar applied fertilizer on growth and yield of sesame. The study was designed in randomized block design with three replications involving eight treatments with different nutrient management practices. Among the different treatments imposed, split application of 125% nitrogen (50% as basal and 50% at 30 DAS) along with foliar application of NPK as 19:19:19 (WSF) at 1% during flower initiation and capsule formation stages (T8) significantly influenced growth and yield attributes viz. higher plant height, more dry matter production and maximum number of capsules plant-1 (45.3) which finally reflected on enhanced seed yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 928-932
P Rajaguruvu and *C Sekar
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Imayam Institute of Agriculture and technology, Thuraiyur, Tiruchirappalli - 621 010, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The focuses of this paper is to study the impact of lantana camera on rural livelihoods and surrounding environment of Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. This paper analyzed the factors influencing income of the lantana households, income inequality among the households of lantana dependents and lantana non dependents and impact removal of lantana camera on ecosystem. Coimbatore district and three villages namely Singampathy, Sarkarporathy and Kalkotipathy from Boluvampatty forest range under Thondamuthur block of Coimbatore district were selected purposively. Total 80 samples were selected for the study included 40 lantana dependents and 40 lantana non dependents. Regression analysis, Gini Coefficient and Lorenz Curve and Garretts Ranking Techniques was used. The majority of the lantana dependent was middle aged, belonged to female headed households and had nuclear family. Among the eight variables included in the analysis, variables like days spent on Non Timber Forest Products collection (NTFP), income from lantana craft making activity and family size were statistically significant for the LD tribal respondents and positively influenced the household income of the LD respondents. Gini Coefficient of lantana dependent (0.73) was less than lantana non dependents (0.83) indicated that the income inequality among lantana dependents was less. The removal of lantana had the greater impact on reduction of dependence on other forest species for fuel wood, increased NTFP collection, increased regeneration of native species and conservation of bamboo.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 933-936
Homendera Siwana and A K Koshta
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to study the dynamics of land-use pattern at state and Northern hills. For this, secondary data on land use statistics for 32 year’s period from 1984-85 to 20015-16 were collected from different publication of Government of Chhattisgarh. For the estimation, the data were grouped under two periods i.e. first period (1984-2000) before formation of Chhattisgarh state and second period (2001-2015) before Chhattisgarh state. Regarding temporal change in different land use categories, it was observed that during 1984-2000 net area sown was decreased (-2.88%), whereas, other categories had non-significant growth rate. 2001-2016 the forest land and permanent pasture had significant growth rate the net area sown was estimated to be significant and decreased in period 1984-2000, whereas, growth rate for permanent pasture and other fallow land were estimated to be non significant but they increased by 0.28 and 0.86 annually. In northern hills non-agricultural uses, permanent pasture and misc. tree crop had significant growth whereas, the net area sown was estimated to be non-significant and it decreased by -3.44 per cent annually in period 2001-16. In Northern hills misc, tree crop the concentration was highest in both periods. In case of cultivable waste land the concentration was high (7.47) and it was decrease in 2015-16 in 1984-85 the concentration of barren Northern hills (0.55).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 937-939
Uzma Iqbal, G M Mir and Owais Nisar
College of Agricultural Engineering, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
M ore production agriculture workers suffer musculoskeletal disorders than any other type of injury or illness. Musculoskeletal disorders can also disable individuals at rates near or above those of traumatic injury, respiratory injury, pesticide intoxication, dermatological injury or other types of injuries and illnesses, Bernard, B, 1997. Efforts to prevent musculoskeletal injuries must recognize that agricultural work is diverse and so agricultural ergonomics must bridge many specific problems with a flexible, generic approach
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 4 ; 940-944
Vijay Laxmi Rai
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, Uttarakhand
Abstract
Insect pest management is one such area where taxonomy provides the essential scientific basis, without having any claims of its own and integrating itself in such a manner that its role is difficult to delineate precisely. For scientific management of pests, the essential requirements are that one must know what is being dealt with. Correct identification of the target pest and natural enemies is important and is essential before initiating an integrated pest management programme.


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