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Volume - 9 - September-October (2018)
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 945-950
Ravi Nandi, *Nithya Vishwanath Gowdru and Muttanna
National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Hyderabad, Telengana *National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayat Raj, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Hyderabad, Telengana
Abstract
The state of food and nutrition security in the world marks the foundation of a regular monitoring of advancement towards achieving food and nutritional security through household. India is facing complex nutrition problems and malnutrition remains an important public health issue. India itself is a home for the largest under-nourished and hungry population. Healthy and high-quality diets require consumption of a wide range of food categories in the right quantities. India achieved food security; however, achieving nutrition security requires an adequately diversified diet in terms of macronutrients and micronutrients. Fruits and vegetables are the good sources of micronutrients which are needed for healthier diets. India is a second largest producer of fruits and Vegetable in the world. During the year 2014-15 India produced 169.478 million metric tons of vegetables and 86.602 million metric tons of fruits. Majority of Indian population resides in rural areas and practicing agriculture and allied activities. To address such nutrition issues there is need for promoting nutrition sensitive production and advisory system in rural area. In recent years, the interest in leveraging agriculture to improve nutritional outcomes has been increased, especially at institutional level. Hence, to emphasis on nutritional aspects of rural people is possible through Agricultural Extension workers. There is global interest of leveraging better Agriculture Extension and advisory services as a basis of food and nutritional security. Connecting extension and rural advisory services with health has the potential to improve sustainability through fruits and vegetables as a source of nutrition. Agricultural extension and advisory workers are probably the best source to help to achieve nutritional education to farmers, through bio fortification, farm school, convergence of actors, participatory methodologies and Information Communication Technologies (ICT’s). The review paper aims at explaining the possibility of how nutrition can be integrated into extension and advisory services to reach rural people through Agricultural extension and rural advisory services (RAS) to address malnutrition in rural area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 951-954
G Mathiyazhagan, K Kalpana, E G Ebenezar and *C Vanniarajan
Department of Plant Pathology, *Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Rice grain discolouration disease was caused by fungal complex. In the present study, fungi associated with grain discolouration of rice were isolated. The fungus isolates was confirmed by morphological observation as Curvularia lunata. In vitro screening of organic amendments viz. different oil cake extract (10%) and plant oil resulted in inhibition of mycelial growth of Curvularia lunata. Among the oil cake extracts, mahua cake extract showed maximum inhibition of 62.96 percent. Complete inhibition was obtained in the plates treated with eucalyptus oil (3%) under in vitro condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 955-959
Chinju Saju and V Ravikumar
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, TNAU, Kumulur, Trichy - 621 712, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Estimation of Runoff is essential for planning and designing of soil and water conservation structures and computing the same practically from the field is tedious and time consuming process. Application of Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) eradicates the complexities of estimating the Runoff which projects out hydrologic responses of rainfall-runoff processes. The present work deals with application of SWMM in a catchment area of farm tank located at AEC&RI Kumulur, Tamil Nadu, India where physical characteristics of the catchment area derived readily by using Arc GIS 10.1 which processes the elevation data collected from total station, generates Digital Elevation Model and delineates the catchment area. Land Use Map generated in Geographic information system (Arc GIS 10.1) is used as a backdrop image for compartmentalizing sub-catchments. The whole area is divided into six sub-catchments. The 20 year Precipitation data is collected from meteorological laboratory is segregated to hourly events using Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) reduction formulae and hydrographs are generated for the whole system. Runoff harvesting potential for 20 year over the catchment area is found out and statistical analysis had been done. Identification of years with abundant, average and arid rainfall and analysis of hydrologic processes such as precipitation, runoff, evaporation and infiltration depth during this years has been done. Calibration of runoff from a sub-catchment has also been done by installing stage level recorder in front of a weir and a runoff coefficient of 0.58 is obtained. SWMM is found to be a reliable methodology for estimating runoff from a semi urbanized catchment area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 960-962
P Indhu Kavi and J S Amarnath
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Farmers perception towards economic, environmental and social aspects in the adoption of Bt cotton and constraints towards the adoption of Bt cotton study was taken in Dharmaputi district of Tamil Nadu by surveying 120 farmers. The results showed that the perception of farmers towards economic, environmental and social aspects favoured Bt cotton. The major production constraint was lack of availability of pure and quality seeds, high incidence of sucking pests other than bollworm and the major marketing constraint were low price for the produce which should be taken care of by the State Government by implementing suitable price and distribution policy advocacy.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 963-967
M Arulsamy, *K Sethuraman, S Harish and **P P Mahendran
Department of Plant Pathology, **Department of Soils and Environment, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Plant Pathology, Maize Research Station, Vagarai - 624 623, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Sunflower is affected by many diseases, of which Macrophomina phaseolina cause huge economical loss to the farmers. In this study, six isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina was isolated from infected root and maintained in pure culture. The isolates produced two types of mycelium viz. fluffy and oppressed with varied colony colour viz. deep black and blackish grey. The size of the sclerotia also varied among the isolates (Length 96.98 - 32.95µm: Breadth 55.71 - 28.35 µm). Pathogenicity test conducted using sand maize medium indicated that among the six isolates, the isolate OCM3 produced maximum disease incidence (72.37%). The virulent isolate OCM3 recorded maximum mycelial growth in potato dextrose agar medium (9.00 cm). The isolate was able to produce more mycelial growth in dextrose (8.94 cm) and maltose (8.83 cm) amended medium when compared to control. Similarly, the isolate produced maximum mycelial growth in urea (8.78 cm) and ammonium sulphate (7.12 cm) amended medium. This paper outlines the pathogenicity, morphological and cultural characters of Macrophomina phaseolina infecting sunflower.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 968-972
V Vidhya, *K Manonmani, S Thiruvudainambi and **R Arun Kumar
Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Aruppukottai, Tamil Nadu, India **Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Mango powdery mildew incited by Oidium mangiferae Berthet is the most destructive disease attacking leaves, flowers and young fruits resulting in heavy yield loss upto 70%. Powdery mildew fungus is a biotrophic and high sugar demanding pathogen which grows only in the living tissues. Hence, it is difficult to grow and maintain the culture under laboratory condition. The present attempt has been carried out for evaluating the effective method of culturing the pathogen under in vitro condition. Four different isolation and inoculation techniques were evaluated using the susceptible mango cultivar Alphonso. The results showed that leaf twig bioassay method was found to be an effective isolation method under laboratory condition compared to spore suspension method using modified Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium. Under greenhouse condition, spraying of conidial suspension was found to be the best method which recorded highest Percent Disease Index (PDI) of 52.22 during fourth week of pathogen inoculation, whereas leaf stapling method showed least PDI. Higher conidial germination is always favored by the presence of thin film of water on the leaf surface. Spraying of conidial suspension method provided the uniform spread of conidia along with water which resulted in the maximum PDI.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 973-975
Uzma Iqbal, G M Mir and Owais Nisar
College of Agricultural Engineering, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
An automatic irrigation control system has been designed to facilitate the automatic supply of adequate of water from a reservoir to field or domestic crops in all agricultural seasons. The objective is to remove human intervention for automatically maintaining the requisite moisture content of to optimize use of water in the process. The method employed is to continuously monitor the soil moisture level and to decide whether irrigation is needed or not. The adequate amount of moisture content can not only increase the yield but can result in water saving also. So the implementation of automation in irrigation is need of the hour but the technology should be affordable by common masses.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 976-979
S Senthilkumar, *I Yesu Raja, *M Ananthan and E G Ebenezar
Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Horticultural Research Station, Thadiankudisai, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A survey was conducted in different lablab growing areas of Lower Pulney hills of Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu. The pathogen associated with root rot diseased plants was isolated and identified as Macrophomina phaseolina. The maximum root rot incidence of 43.40 per cent was recorded in Periyur village. Seven pathogenic isolates of M. phaseolina were compared for their virulence; morphological and cultural characters and the differences were observed and documented. The Periyur isolate (Mp5) was identified as a virulent isolate. Nine organic amendments were tested against the pathogen, among these; neem cake extract (10%) and mahua cake extract (10%) effectively reduced the mycelial growth of 64.54 and 63.48 per cent respectively. This paper outlines the pathogenicity, morphological and cultural characters and effect of organic amendments against Macrophomina phaseolina inciting Lablab.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 980-984
Shabir Ahmad Dar, *A Y Desai and *A N Sayani
Government Degree College, Kokernag - 192 202, Jammu and Kashmir, India *College of Fisheries Junagadh Agricultural University, Veraval - 362 265, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out from February 2012 – April 2013 to assess the design features of gillnetters along the selected centers of Junagadh, district Gujarath. In Junagadh district, gill nets were made up of PA monofilament of diameter 0.24 to 0.26 mm with mean of 0.22 mm. The selvedge material used for the Mackerel gill nets was of PA multifilament of 210d × 2 × 3 and PE of diameter 1 to 1.5 mm. The mesh size ranged between 60 to 160 mm. PA monofilament of diameter 0.24 to 0.26 mm was used as webbing material for both drift type of mackerel gill net respectively. The mesh size for the mackerel drift gill nets ranged between 52 to 60 mm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 985-989
P Venkatesh, N Revathy, *K Manonmani and **P Balasubramanian
Department of Plant Pathology, **Department of Farm Management, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Aruppukottai, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Growth requirement of different strains of milky mushroom were studied in this experiment. Various physical and chemical factors were influencing the growth of milky mushroom under in vitro. Five carbon sources (sucrose, dextrose, lactose, maltose and starch) and six nitrogen sources (peptone, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate and potassium nitrate) were tested for the growth of different strains of milky mushroom viz. CI-1, CI-2, CI-3, MG-4, CI-5 and APK-2 in the study. Maximum radial growth of different strains of milky mushroom was recorded in sucrose (8.10 cm) and peptone (7.82 cm). Among the media tested potato dextrose medium (PDA) recoded the maximum mean mycelial growth of 8.37 cm. The pH 8.0 was most suitable for the growth of different strains of milky mushroom under in vitro condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 990-992
Ashwani Rawat, Geeta Gaur and Pooja Kaintura
Ashwani Rawat, Geeta Gaur and Pooja Kaintura
Abstract
Anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum capsici is a major disease in India, resulting a challenge for profitable cultivation of chilli in all most all the major chilli growing regions of India. An experiment was conducted in the department of plant pathology, Uttaranchal College of Agricultural and Sciences, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, to study effective Bio-agents were evaluate against Colletotrichum capsici. Three Bio-agents namely Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma asperellum were evaluated in-vitro condition by using Dual culture techniques for their antagonist's activity against Colletotrichum capsici. Among the three antagonists, Trichoderma viride showed 56.34% inhibition followed by Trichoderma harzianum (50.67%). The least inhibition (34.0%) was recorded in Trichoderma asperellum.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 993-996
Pooja S Bhat, *T N Venkata Reddy and P K Mandanna
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Marketing, Co-operation and Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The high consumption of American food is a worldwide phenomenon. American fast foods are often termed as Foods Away From Home (FAFH). The study was undertaken with a major aim to examine the influence of age, gender, domicile status and occupation on the important American dishes consumed in American Food Restaurants (AFR’s) in Bengaluru city. Primary data was collected from 90 consumers of American dishes using a survey schedule in the year 2015 from McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, Domino’s, KFC, Papa Johns, Subway and Taco Bell and then analyzed using Chi-Square test. It could be inferred that there is impact of age and domicile status while there was no impact of gender and occupation/ profession on important American dishes consumed in AFR’s. This study will be useful for product development and marketing aspects as it gives a proper survey of the market and the tastes and needs of consumers of various ages, genders, domicile statuses and occupations.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 997-1001
S Snehapriya, *A Karthikeyan, E G Ebenezar and *S Thangeswari
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Coconut Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Veppankulam - 614 906, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Sesame is one of the ancient and most important oil seed crop and it has been called “Queen of Oilseed crops” by virtue of the excellent quality of its oil. Sesame crop is vulnerable to a number of diseases caused by a number of pathogens. Leaf blight caused by Alternaria sesami (Kawamura) Mohanty and Behera has become a serious problem. The causal organism of leaf blight of sesamum was identified as Alternaria sesami based on the colony morphology and spore characters. Bio efficacy of twenty antagonists, fifteen plant extracts (10%) and six different botanical oils (3%) were evaluated on the growth of Alternaria sesami causing leaf blight disease of sesamum under in vitro. Among the twenty antagonists, Pseudomonas spp. (PSA5) and Bacillus spp. (BNE4) were highly effective against A. sesami by 60.00 and 61.11 per cent respectively. Neem (Azadirachta indica) extract and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oil showed the maximum of 80.00 and 64.44 per cent inhibition of mycelial growth of A. sesami at 10 and 3 per cent concentration respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1002-1004
S Ruby Fathima, P Balaguru, S Venkatesan and K Sujatha
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
A field trial was conducted to identify the effect of primed, coated and primed + coated seeds of low vigour lots of tomato. The low vigour lot of tomato (germination percentage-58%) were primed and coated in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The primed, coated and primed + coated seeds along with the control were tested for its seed quality and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that, primed + coated seeds recorded higher physiological quality, higher enzyme activities and minimum values in electrical conductivity, amino acids and sugars.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1005-1009
S Dhivya, *A Rohini, *S Angles and *M Pandiyan
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Agricultural College and Research Institute, Eachangkottai, Thanjavur - 614 902, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study has examined the opportunities for the new marketing tie up model for stabilizing prices of vegetables in Thanjavur District. The sample respondents include vegetable producing farmers, retailers and wholesalers. The study reveals that the cost of cultivation of brinjal was ₹ 50,038 per ha and bhendi was ₹ 43,913 per ha in Thanjavur district during 2018. With respect to the price prevailing among three identified channels for brinjal and bhendi, farmers received highest price in channel II. Retailers procured vegetables from wholesalers and farmers but relied more on wholesalers in the vegetable markets and procure less quantity from the farmers. For stabilizing vegetable prices, fixing fair price for the whole year and establishment of procurement centers at common places was the idea perceived by the farmers about initiating a tie up marketing. Regular supply of graded vegetables and in required quantity were the most perceived factors by the retailers about tie-up marketing. Consistent supply and acceptance of produce as per the agreement was the expectations of the both farmers and retailers in the new marketing tie up arrangement. Lack of co-ordination among producers to increase their bargaining power was the most important problem faced by farmers. To promote tie-up marketing the awareness level among the farmers need to be enhanced, creating collection points at feasible places and fixing fair price consent to both are the major suggestions for tie-up marketing of brinjal and bhendi.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1010-1013
N Rukmani, J Prabhaharan, K Senthil, S Thiyageshwari and *S Banumathy
Department of Soils and Environment, *Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted at ‘B’ block of Agricultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Madurai in 2017-18 during rabi season to evaluate the interaction of Zn with cationic micronutrients on Typic Haplustalf with rice (TKM 13) as a test crop. The DTPA extractable Zn concentration in soil was greater with chelated Zn compared with ZnSO4 application. The maximum Zn concentration in active tillering, panicle initiation, heading and post harvest stages was found to be 10.62, 11.23, 10.02 and 8.82 mg kg-1, respectively, noticed in the treatment received 15 kg Zn ha-1 as Zn lysinate + RDF. The DTPA extractable iron, copper and manganese were found to be maximum in the treatment received RDF alone at all growth stages of rice. The maximum DTPA extractable Fe, Cu and Mn at post harvest stage soil were recorded as 11.9, 2.0 and 3.07 mg kg-1 respectively in RDF alone.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1014-1017
K Saravanakumari, *R Arunkumar and S Thiruvudainambi
Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Horticulture, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this study thirty isolates of Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of onion cultivated in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India. The antagonistic potential of thirty isolates of Trichoderma spp. was tested against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae. Trichoderma sp. (T M2) recorded the maximum (85.66%) inhibition on the mycelial growth (1.29 cm) followed by T M4 with 80.88 per cent inhibition respectively. The Competitive Saprophytic ability (CSA) and colonization of Trichoderma sp. isolates were assessed with the effective twenty isolates, screened for antifungal activity. Among the twenty isolates tested, T M2 registered 88.09 per cent colonization followed by T M4 with 85.62 per cent colonization. All the other isolates were inferior to T M2 in its saprophytic ability. The antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma sp. were also tested for production of antifungal volatiles and their effect on the growth of F.o f.sp. cepae. All the isolates were found to produce volatile compounds, which inhibited the mycelial growth of test pathogen at varying levels from 19.11 to 70.33 per cent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1019-1021
A Suresh and S Selvam
Department of Social Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study focused on cost and return and technical efficiency of castor in Namakkal district. Three stage stratified random sampling method was used to select the samples and the total sample size was 75. The results revealed that cost of cultivation of castor (cost C) was ₹ 74269.61/ha. Cost B was estimated to ₹ 65761.16/ha. The estimated gross income was ₹ 82016.00/ha. The net income was ₹ 7746.39/ha. The seed rate was technically efficient and positive significant at one per cent level and adoption of optimal seed rate in enhancing the productivity of castor in the Namakkal district. The variation in the levels of efficiency of castor growers ranged from 84.35 to 97.99 with mean technical efficiency of 94.82 per cent. The results implied that effectively applying inputs and resources could increase the farm efficiency.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1022-1027
H R Raveendra and A Nagaraja
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Finger millet is one of the important millet crops widely cultivated across India. Although, it is known to be one of the hardiest crops, is affected by many diseases, of which foot rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii has been on the rise especially under irrigated and high rainfall situations. Nine Trichoderma spp. and 10 Pseudomonas spp. isolated from cultivated soils of Mandya, Karnataka, India were screened in in-vitro against S. rolfsii. Among the bio-agents Chandagalu isolate (CT) of Trichoderma and Kannahatty isolate (KP) of Pseudomonas were found to be very effective in suppressing the foot rot of finger millet in susceptible variety Indaf-5. These two potential bio-agents when tested in different delivery methods under greenhouse conditions, seedling root dip followed by soil application of Trichoderma (CT) and Pseudomonas (KP) were significantly superior over other methods in reducing foot rot incidence, besides enhancing seedling growth parameters and grain yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1028-1031
M Shobharani and S Sundareswaran
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Shankhapushpi is a medicinal herb with diverse medicinal properties having a consistent demand in pharmaceutical industries. Traditionally it is propagated through seeds. This plant is facing difficulties in propagation because of poor seed germination. Therefore, an efficient and simple protocol for the evaluation of seed germination is essential. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of media, temperature and counting time in seed germination of Shankhapushpi. The following treatments were used in tests which include three different media viz. top of paper, between paper and sand. These media were combined to the constant temperatures of 20°C, 25°C and 30°C and alternate temperature of 20/30°C. Normal seedlings, abnormal seedlings and dead sees were counted until stabilized. From the results, between paper method and constant temperature of 30°C was found suitable for seed germination test which recorded the highest germination (85%), speed of germination (4.1), root length (18.0 cm), shoot length (16.5 cm), dry matter production (566 mg 10 seedling-1) and vigour index (2933). The revealed that, it would be appropriate to take first count on 5th day and the final count would be on 16th day in Shankhapushpi.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1032-1034
P Sanjeevi and K Mahandrakumar
P Sanjeevi and K Mahandrakumar
Abstract
In India, monsoon failure is experienced in many parts of the state almost every year. Government had implemented various schemes and polices for farmers to cope up with the risk and uncertainty in agriculture due to monsoon failure. The study was conducted in Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu state, with the objective to identify and document extent of awareness and availing of benefits from the Schemes and policies of drought mitigation strategies by the farmers to overcome drought situations. Simple random sampling method was used in selection of 100 farmers each 50 belongs to annual and seasonal crops cultivators respectively. Considering various polices and schemes, the awareness and availing of benefits by farmers were collected and the data were analyzed using percentage analysis. The findings revealed that the extent of awareness of availability of availing benefits from the schemes and polices promoted by the government to mitigate the drought was found to be higher. As more than 75.00 per cent of them express their awareness about the schemes and policies related to drought mitigation. In order to derive benefits from the centrally sponsored schemes like Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) and Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) one has to go through rigorous formalities and procedures within a stipulated time. This might be the reasons that less number of farmers availed benefit from centrally sponsored schemes compared to the state sponsored schemes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1035-1037
R Sathya, K Rajappan, *N Revathy and **S Suresh
Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu *Department of Plant Pathology, **Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
To study the morphological characters of rice sheath blight pathogen and disease severity assessment by stem bit inoculation method on rice, the experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Rice Research institute, Aduthurai. The study consisted five isolates of R. solani collected from different rice growing areas of Tamil Nadu, isolates were cultured and their morphological characters of mycelium and colour and arrangement pattern of sclerotia were observed, under in vitro conditions. Among the five isolates, Rs2 produced flat, light brown mycelium and the sclerotia were arranged in periphery manner. To test its severity, the isolates were inoculated on rice plants, by stem bit inoculation technique. All the isolates were inoculated on rice plants at panicle initiation stage, for uniform sheath blight disease development (15 days old pathogen inoculated) 3 to 4 stem bits were placed inside the sheath, just above the water line. Disease severity was assessed based on lesion length using disease grade chart. Among the five isolates, Rs2, showed the maximum severity by the production of lesions when compared to all other isolates.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1038-1040
M S Rathore, M Chandrashekharaiah, R B Sinha and Alok Sahay
Basic Tasar Silkworm Seed Organization, Central Silk Board, Bilaspur - 495 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present communication is highlighting the achievements made for tasar silkworm seed sector involving the private tasar silkworm seed rearers. Besides meeting the requirement of seed cocoons for production of desired quantities of nucleus and basic seed, the approach also led in improvement of socio-economic status of tribal families, linked to the programme. Data of 2005-2017 indicated an increase in adopted rearers (ARs) coverage from 475 during 2005 to 1857 during 2017. A positive trend was recorded between dfls brushed and seed cocoon produced over the year. The average cocoons produced per dfl ranged from 41.03 to 53.24 with an average of 46.98. Seed cocoons produced in each year were utilized for preparation of basic and nucleus seeds. Positive correlation with an increasing trend was also observed between seed cocoons processed and dfls produced. The cocoon dfl ratio recovery was ranged from 3.50 to 5.58 with an average of 4.12. The contribution of dfls to the total tasar seed production in the country was increased positively over the years. The overall impact of adapted rearers model on raw silk production was directly linked.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1041-1045
B Ajithkumar and Arjun Vysakh
Department of Agricultural Meteorology, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Monthly rainfall data for the 14 districts of Kerala from 1985 to 2014 were used in the present analysis to compute the annual and seasonal rainfall. IITM's Sub divisional monthly rainfall data from 1951-2014 has been also used to get a clear picture of the El Niño effect on rainfall variability in Kerala. District-wise area, production and productivity data of two major crops paddy and coconut and state wise area, production and productivity data of other crops such as banana, pepper, tea, coffee, cashew and cardamom is collected from the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of Kerala for the period 1985 to 2014. The weak El Niño was showing a positive influence on the crop yields of coffee, cardamom, banana and cashew, while a negative influence on 2nd and 3rd crop of paddy and tea and neutral effect on coconut and 1st paddy crop. The crop yields of coconut, black pepper, tea, coffee, cardamom, banana, and cashew were negatively influenced by moderate El Niño episodes. The strong El Niño episodes was showing a negative impact on the crop yields of coconut, rice, black pepper, coffee, cardamom and cashew and a positive impact on the crop yields of tea and banana.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1046-1051
B Jhala Kishorsinh and D Bandhiya Rajeshkumar
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
India ranks second in production of fruit in the world. In traditional harvester (Vedo) mango fruits are harvested by jerk and pulling of the harvester so that fruits get out from the harvester or while detaching a liquid is spread out. This can cause skin or eye injury. More over the traditional harvesting method is time consuming also sometimes harvested fruits may be spilled out of the basket and get damaged due to impact while falling on the ground and only 5 to 7 fruits are harvested because the device needed to be emptied for minimizing the weight on hand. In order to overcome the problem and limitations of the traditional harvesting method (Vedo), a manually operated harvesting device was designed, developed and compared with the traditional harvesting method (Vedo). The harvesting capacities of the developed device and traditional harvesting device were found 73.33 kg/h and 55.00 kg/h up to 3 m of harvesting height and 55.66 kg/h and 44.00 kg/h beyond 3 m of harvesting height respectively. The harvesting losses of the developed device and traditional harvesting device were found 3.5% and 14.90% up to 3 m of harvesting height and 5.41% and 26.60% beyond 3 m of harvesting height respectively. The harvesting cost of the developed device and traditional harvesting device were found 0.43 ₹/kg and 0.57 ₹/kg up to 3 m of harvesting height and 0.57 ₹/kg and 0.72 ₹/kg beyond 3 m of harvesting height respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1052-1054
A Rai, D Mahata, S Bandyopadhyay, D Halder and *D S Gupta
Department of Agronomy, *Department of Agricultural Statistics, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, P.O. Pundibari - 7316 165, District Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The data of rabi rapeseed mustard yield and weather parameters of twenty five years (1998-2011) were used for the developing the statistical model for the four districts of West Bengal state. The pre-harvest forecasting models were developed for rapeseed mustard yield for Coochbehar, Jalpaiguri, North Dinajpur and South Dinajpur districts respectively. The mean deviation for all the districts for the two years (5.88 and 7.25%) shows over estimation of yield. However, the forecasted yield for 2014 was lower than the average yield of all the districts. The results revels that the lower or higher prediction of yield for rapeseed and mustard was highly influenced by the combination of weather parameters. The lower yield prediction for 2014 for most of the districts may be due to increase in minimum temperature as the model is purely weather based and the minimum temperature has relation with good seed germination.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1055-1058
N K Sathyamoorthy, *A Gurusamy, T Ragavan, J Prabhaharan and P Prakash
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Agricultural College and Research Institute, Kudumiyanmalai - 622 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Furrow irrigated raised bed system being proposed for aerobic rice to increase productivity and to save water. Objective of the study were influence of the irrigation regimes and crop geometry on production performance of rice varieties/culture under aerobic condition. Keeping this as view, A field experiment was conducted at Agriculture College and Research Institute, Madurai, TNAU during 2014 and 2015 two consecutive years. The experiment was laid out in split split plot design with three factors viz. furrow irrigated raised bed system with three different levels of irrigation and crop geometry which is tested with six different varieties/cultures. The growth attributes viz. LAI and DMP at flowering stage and yield attributes (number of panicles and number of filled grains panicle 1), grain and straw yield were calculated. In both the years, among the different treatment combinations, the variety MAS IWM Saltol (V6) irrigated once in four days with close spacing of 20 x 10 cm (I1G1V6) recorded significantly higher LAI compared to other combinations. The variety APO1 (V2) irrigated once in four days with close spacing of 20 x 10 cm recorded significantly higher DMP. Among the treatment combinations, I1G1V6 was recorded significantly higher number of panicles/m2 and number of filled grains panicle-1compared to other treatment combinations. The highest grain and straw yield were recorded, variety APO1 grown in spacing of 20 x 10 cm and irrigated once in four days (I1G1V2) which is on par with I1G1V6.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1059-1063
G Gogulan and *C Velavan
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Social Sciences, Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 009, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Tomato is a seasonal and highly perishable crop which is preferred for culinary purpose in South India. Due to price volatility, the crop was either un-remunerative to the farmers or unaffordable to the consumers. Hence, this study was conducted to analyze the trend and seasonal variations of tomato prices in selected markets of South India. Time series data on monthly wholesale prices of tomato were used from 2008 to 2017 to study the price variations. The result of linear trend analysis showed that the existence of positive trend in all the selected tomato markets and the price significantly increased over the years. The result of seasonal variations showed that the tomato price reached the peak level during the month of May to July and October to December.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1064-1066
P A Shruthi and V Palanimuthu
Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Physical and engineering properties like moisture content, longitudinal and transverse diameter, weight of thousand grains, bulk density, true density, porosity, specific gravity and frictional properties like angle of repose and static coefficient of friction on different surfaces were determined for unhulled grains and dehulled rice grains of four small millets namely, little, foxtail, kodo and proso millets. Moisture content ranged from 11.6 to 12.2% and 8.7 to 10.8%, longitudinal diameter ranged from 1.59 ± 0.012 to 2.92 ± 0.01 mm and 1.54 ± 0.015 to 2.89 ± 0.011, transverse diameter ranged from 1.42 ± 0.013 to 2.78 ± 0.016 mm and 1.40 ± 0.018 to 2.71 ± 0.015 mm, bulk density ranged from 790.4 ± 1.30 to 892.6 ± 1.02 kg/m3 and 845.4 ± 1.23 to 950 ± 1.26 kg/m3, true density ranged from 1300.5 ± 1.19 to 1750.4 ± 1.06 kg/m3 and 1380.8 ± 1.09 to 1800.5 ± 1.1 kg/m3, porosity ranged from 39.22 ± 0.59 to 49 ± 0.89% and 38.77 ± 0.68 to 47.23 ± 0.35%, angle of repose ranged from 21° 07' to 27° 32' and 26° 09' to 30° 32' and coefficient of static friction on different surface ranged from 0.3364 to 0.6448 and 0.3443 to 0.6745 for unhulled small millet grains and dehulled small millet rice grains respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1067-1071
Chinmay Jangam, Mahesh Kothari and Mangal Patil
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, College of Technology and Engineering, MPUAT, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Climate change impacts are assessed by the General Circulation Models (GCMs), which simulate large scale climate variables globally incorporating the green house emissions. This study is motivated to evaluate the performance of Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) developed for precipitation downscaling from Global Climate Models (GCMs) over the Southeastern region of Rajasthan. Global Climate Models (GCMs), HadCM3 is used to project future precipitation. The study included the calibration and validation with large-scale National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data, and the projection of future rainfall corresponding to the GCMs variables (HadCM3 A2 and B2). Large scale atmospheric variables of HadCM3 under different emission scenarios and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis datasets are downscaled using Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM). Variability and changes in precipitation under scenarios A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model are presented for future periods: 2020s (2011-2040), 2050s (2041-2070) and 2080s (2071-2099). This is followed by decrease in annual mean precipitation for Sangod station and Increase in Udaipur Station under A2 and B2 of HadCM3 model for future periods.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1073-1075
M Leelavathi, Basavaraj Beerannavar and C Kavyashree
Department of Extension, College of Agriculture, University of Agriculture and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga - 577 225, Karnataka, India
Abstract
This paper gives a description of research in the field of Vocational Training programme conducted by KVK, Shivamogga. A total of 120 trainees were considered as sample for the study. The study revealed that majority of the respondents possessed low (55.00%) and high (41.67%) knowledge level before and after training. The respondents had low (60.83%) and high (40.84%) adoption level before and after intervention of training. The training programme brought about significant gain in acquisition of skills by the respondents. Only seven respondents (5.83%) were professional coconut tree climbers before undergoing training and it was enhanced to 20 percent after training. There is an average additional gain of earnings by ₹ 55,812/- per annum by the professional coconut tree climbers after training. An average net profit of ₹ 620/- per tree per year was obtained before training and it was increased to ₹ 950/- per tree per year was obtained after undergoing training by the coconut growers. Overall, the training impacted in increase in knowledge and adoption level regarding improved cultivation practices, acquisition of skills, employment generation, enhancement of income level of professional coconut tree climbers and coconut growers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1076-1078
A Mohana Priya, P Saravana Pandian, P P Mahendran and T Ragavan
Department of Soil Science, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was carried out on black soils at farmer’s field, Pudhupatti village, Virudhunagar district under irrigated conditions to study the effect of Magnesium as a natural and synthetic chelated form on growth and yield attributes of cotton. Influence of Magnesium as a natural and synthetic chelated form on plant height, number of bolls, boll weight, seed cotton yield were found to be significant. Highest seed cotton yield of 24.20 q ha-1 was recorded with the application of MgSO4 @ 37.5 kg incubated with 375 kg vermicompost in addition to N, P2O5 and K2O on STCR basis.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1079-1082
M Divya and *D Saraladevi
Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women (TNAU), Tiruchirappalli - 620 027, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out College Orchard, Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tiruchirappalli during 2017-2018. Correlation and path analysis studies were carried out on 20 growth parameters, viz. earliness, yield and quality traits in 46 genotypes of pumpkin. There was the highest significant positive association of fruit yield per vine with fruit weight followed by fruit girth, flesh thickness, fruit length, vine length, days to first harvest and 100 seed weight. Path analysis revealed that vine length, number of male flower per vine, fruit length, fruit girth, days to first harvest, number of fruits per vine, ascorbic acid and β-carotene content registered positive direct effect on yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1083-1087
M Kavya and P Pandiyarajan
Department of Microbiology (Agriculture), Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Trichirapalli - 620 027, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the predominant microorganisms present in the treated effluent and also to assess the physico-chemical and biological properties of treated effluent from the Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL Unit II) located at Manapparai Taluk,Tiruchirappalli. The colour of treated effluent was colourless. The pH of treated effluent is slightly alkaline and it ranged from 7.48 to 8.75. It recorded an EC of 1.52 dS m-1. The effluent had considerable amount of cations like calcium (256 mg L-1), magnesium (31.2 mg L-1), sodium (162 mg L-1) and potassium (81.32 mg L-1) along with anions like bicarbonate (549 mg L-1) and sulphate (85.2 mg L-1), respectively. The BOD and COD values of treated effluent were 28.0 and 94 mg L-1, respectively. The paper mill effluent supported a considerable amount of microbial population. The present study reveals that the dominant microorganisms in the treated effluent belonged to the phyla Firmicutes. Hence, the present study revealed the predominant microorganisms present in treated effluent was belonged to the genus of Bacillus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1088-1095
G Sudhagar, R Arun Kumar, T N Balamohan and G Anand
Department of Horticulture, *Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Ash gourd, a monotypic genus belongs to the genera Benincasa and one of the long duration crops of Cucurbitace family. In North India, it’s cultivated in river bed system owing to its extensive roots system and a common summer season vegetable. Drought is considered to be more destructive for production of crops compared to other stress. Hence 23 tolerant genotypes were obtained from NBPGR, Thrissur to study the effect of season, genotypes, stress and their interaction during 201718 with regard to biochemical parameters viz. proline content, total phenol content, nitrate reductase activity and catalase activity. From the pooled results it was observed that the proline content increased in stressed condition than non-stressed conditions. The total phenol content ranged between 0.95 to 1.71 mg/100g and 0.63 to 1.41 mg per 100g in stressed and non stressed conditions respectively. The nitrate reductase and catalase activity were found to reduce as the stress increased. The interaction between genotype and stress were non significant in both the seasons indicating the influence of genotype on the expression of these parameters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1096-1100
N V Veena, R Renuka and R Nagganatha Suganthan
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken with an aim of understanding mechanism of salinity tolerance in sea shore ecotype of Clerodendrum inerme. In vitro culture of seashore ecotype was carried out using nodal explants, which were inoculated on varied levels of NaCl concentrations (control, 50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM, 200 mM, 250 mM and 300 mM). The performance of tissue cultured plants was recorded after 20 and 30 days of inoculation, whereas leaf area, leaf thickness and other physiological parameters were recorded after 90 days of inoculation. Salinity stress was found to have significant effect on the shoot length, leaf area and leaf thickness in NaCl stressed plants. Leaf thickness was found to increase in salinity stressed plants. Physiological studies revealed decrease in chlorophyll a/b ratio, total chlorophyll and potassium content in salinity stressed plants. On the other hand, salinity stress had increased proline content, catalase activity and sodium content in the stressed plants. The study revealed that seashore ecotype of C. inerme can grow under in vitro conditions up to 150 mM NaCl, exhibiting morphological and physiological adaptations.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1101-1106
C Monicashree and *P Amala Balu
Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, *Department of Cotton, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted in Department of Cotton, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, TNAU, Coimbatore aiming towards the identification of the extent and nature of association between yield contributing, economically important and fibre quality traits to improve yield and fibre quality in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In this experiment, 104 genotypes of upland cotton involving both parents and hybrids were studied for correlation and path co-efficient analysis. Eighty four crosses obtained by crossing 12 lines with seven testers in line x tester fashion were evaluated for 16 biometric traits. The outcomes of correlation analysis studies, revealed that single plant yield displayed high significant and positive association with important yield traits such as number of sympodial branches per plant, number of bolls per plant, number of fruiting nodes per plant along with plant height, number of monopodial branches per plant, lint index, ginning out turn and fibre fineness and hence, selection for these characters will help in selecting genotypes with high yield. Based on path analysis, most of the traits expressed both direct and indirect effects on yield, between yield and yield components, which forms the basis for selection of genotypes and high yielding cultivars for an effective crop improvement programme.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1107-1109
N Mohan Raj, K Subrahmaniyan, C Umamageswari and K Vanitha
Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai - 612 101, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TRRI) Aduthurai, during Kharif (Kuruvai) 2017 season to evaluate suitable land configuration and assess the influence of foliar nutrition on growth and yield of irrigated blackgram. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with the treatments comprised of three land configurations (L1: Flat beds, L2: Ridges and furrows and L3: Broad bed and furrows) in main plot and five foliar nutrients (T1: 2% DAP, T2: 1% urea, T3: 1% MAP, T4: 1% 19:19:19 NPK WSF and T5: 1% pulse wonder) in sub-plot. The growth parameters, yield attributes and nutrient uptake were significantly higher in ridges and furrows system and foliar spray of 1% urea respectively among the different land configurations and foliar nutrients. As a result higher yield of 851 kg ha-1 was obtained with ridges and furrows system of land configuration which was 13.2 and 39.2 per cent higher than broad bed and furrows and flatbed system respectively. Foliar spray of 1% urea produced higher grain yield of 792 kg ha-1 which was comparable 1% pulse wonder (773 kg ha-1). The highest gross return (₹ 51482 ha-1), net return (₹ 26473 ha-1) and B:C ratio (2.06) were obtained with ridges and furrows system of land configuration applied with 1% urea.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1110-1113
Ashwini M Mallapur and Ganga V Yenagi
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted to assess the adjustment pattern of male and female emerging adults in urban and rural areas. The random sample consisting of 110 urban (males 48.18% and females 52%) and 110 rural (males 47.27% and females 53%) areas were selected from Dharwad district of Northern Karnataka. The study was emphasized on adjustment pattern of male and female emerging adults. Adjustment pattern scale was used to assess the adjustment pattern of male and female emerging adults in urban and rural areas. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant association between home adjustment of male and female urban emerging adults. With respective of social, emotional and educational was not significantly associated to the gender of urban and rural emerging adults.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1114-1118
M Priyadharcini, N Rajinimala, R Akila, R Kannan and *M L Mini
Department of Plant Pathology, *Department of Biochemistry, Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Killikulam, Vallanad - 628 252, Tuticorin District, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Morphological variability of four isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii (SR1, SR2, SR3 and SR4) collected from various jasmine fields of Thoothukudi and Kanyakumari districts were studied on Potato dextrose agar medium based on colony type, sclerotial colour, growth rate of the mycelium (cm/day), number of sclerotia per plate and sclerotial weight (mg). The isolate SR1 produced the maximum mycelial growth (2.9 cm/day) and maximum sclerotia (6.2 mg/plate). In vitro studies were conducted to test the effect of different media, carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature and pH levels on the growth of the virulent isolate SR1. Potato dextrose agar medium recorded the maximum mycelial growth and dry weight of S. rolfsii (9.00 cm and 6.96 mg). Among the carbon and nitrogen sources tested sucrose and peptone recorded the maximum mycelial growth of S. rolfsii. Of the various temperature and pH levels tested, the growth of S. rolfsii was maximum at pH 6.00 and at temperature 30°C.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1119-1122
V Kaviya, N K Sathyamoorthy, *M Rajeswari and **C R Chinnamuthu
Department of Agronomy, *Department of Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India **Directorate of Planning and Monitoring, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, TNAU, Tamil Nadu, during rabi season (2017-2018) to study the effects of deficit irrigation (DI) on growth and yield of sunflower under drip system. The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design with seven treatments and three replication, used TNAU sunflower hybrid CO 2 as a test crop. The treatments comprised of conventional drip irrigation at 100% ETc (T1) and 75% ETc (T2) , Irrigation at 100 and 75% ETc as alternate irrigation cycle (T3), Irrigation at 75% ETc in alternate irrigation cycle (once in six days, T4), T5, T6 and T7- Irrigation at 75% ETc skip during button initiation, flowering and seed filling, respectively. Among the different irrigation treatments, the higher yield parameters were registered with drip irrigation at 100% ETc (T1) followed by 100 and 75% ETc alternate irrigation cycle (T3). Total water use was higher in 100% ETc (T1) and higher water use efficiency and water productivity was observed in irrigation at 75% ETc (T7) skip during seed filling stage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1123-1126
B Akila, *R Vijayalakshmi and **R Arunkumar
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, *Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Community Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India **Department of Horticulture, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, TNAU, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Medicinal plant formulations are basically used as a source for pharmaceutical biochemicals, fragrances, food colours and flavours in different countries especially in India. Herbal drugs or herbal medicines are largely manufactured from crude plant extracts, which comprise a complex mixture of different phytochemical elements such as plant secondary metabolites. The chemical features of these elements differ considerably among different plant species. Psidium guajava or guava is used as an important folk medicine around the world. In the present study guava leaf based herbal tea was developed and the methanolic extract has been subjected to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis. Totally fifty compounds have been identified by GC-MS. Most of the identified compounds in the methanolic extracts are basically biologically important.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1127-1130
G Gopi and *K Shanmugasundaram
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, *Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kumulur, Trichy Distirct, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Runoff generated from the catchment area is very important in various activities of water resources development, management and construction of rainwater harvesting structures. In India the cultivating land will diminish throughout the years in light of the fact that the usage of land and water assets is to be created. Runoff is the most imperative parameter in water resources applications. The investigation was directed in Mahilambadi watershed in Trichy district has been taken a contextual analysis for estimation of runoff by SCS-CN Method, by importing in topographical study information into Arc-GIS 10.2.1. The topographical study was led on study area and from acquired Data new DEM was made utilizing ARC-GIS. At long last, watershed has been created as a catchment area for runoff estimation. To check the existing structures has been capacity to store the runoff generated from the contributing area. The contributing area of existing structure 1 is 37 ha, and existing structure 2 is 7 ha. The runoff generated from the catchment area assessed from the year 2000 to 2017. The most extreme runoff produced in 2005 and least in 2015. The runoff contributing area is 132 ha occupied by three different land cover conditions such as agricultural land, barren land, orchard. The study area was sandy loamy soil texture. The sandy loamy soils are grouped under Hydrological Soil Group (HSG) A. In view of evaluated runoff from catchment area the pond was plan for irrigating crops in downstream side farming command area. In the command area crop water requirement was assessed for the pond was outlined.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1131-1136
M Sowmiya and *K Prabakaran
Department of Physical Sciences and Information Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Computing the growth of any entity over a time period is important for understanding the past behavior and for future planning. Linear growth rate and compound growth rate are the frequently used methods for calculating the growth rate. The study was carried out using different growth models viz., linear, logarithmic, inverse, quadratic, cubic, compound, S- curve, growth, power and exponential models to project the area, production and productivity of mango crops in Tamil Nadu for the study period 1990-91 to 2016-17. For mango crop the study revealed that through all models exhibited significant; cubic model is the best fitted one because of highest R2, adjusted R2 and least MAPE values. Decreasing trend with respect to mango area and increasing future projection trend with respect to mango production and productivity. Temporal variation within cluster for productivity of mango was 0 to 1 per cent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1137-1139
Md Afjal Ahmad and Pravin Prakash
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, BHU, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
An experiment was performed in the Laboratory of the Department of Plant Physiology for two consecutive years to study the impact of high night temperature stress in wheat crop with respect to yield attributes and certain biochemical parameters in wheat taking two genotypes viz. HUW-234 (relatively heat tolerant) and Sonalika (relatively heat susceptible). Significant differences were observed with respect to yield attributes where number of ear per plant, number of grain per ear, number of spikelet per ear, test weight, yield and harvest index was found to decrease in the plants kept under stressed condition (25°C/24°C day and night) than those kept under control (25°C/15°C day and night). Similar results were obtained with regard to biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll ‘a’, ‘b’ and total chlorophyll content except for total carotenoid content which showed an increasing trend in response to night temperature stress. In almost all cases, the variety HUW-234 was found to be more tolerant to night temperature stress than the variety Sonalika.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1140-1145
Rabia Latif, Vaseem Yousuf, Z A Bhat, Z A Badri, Misba Majeed, Taibah Bashir and Rovidha S Rasool
Division of Plant Pathology, Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Stemphylium blight is one of the most important diseases of onion throughout the world. In view of the destructive nature of the disease, studies were carried out to find the efficacy of various fungitoxicants and bio-agents against the pathogen (S. vesicarium) under in vitro and in vivo. Under in vitro, the maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of test fungus was achieved by Tebuconazole 25.9 EC (98.38%), Captan 50 WP (90.55%) and Trichoderma viride (74.64%), respectively. The treatments found most promising under in vitro studies when tested under field conditions in different combinations, seed treatment and seedling dip with T. viride and two foliar sprays of Tebuconazole 25.9 EC @ 0.05% at 20 days interval starting from the initiation of the disease, proved most effective with least disease incidence (25.44%), intensity (13.43%) and maximum yield (2.9 Kg/plot). Both fungitoxicants and antagonists tested were found effective to reduce disease incidence and intensity, attempt increased the bulb yield over unsprayed control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1146-1150
Javid Iqbal Chishti, F A Aga, Qurat ul Ain Aga and Mehraj din Shah
Division of Agronomy, Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out at experimental farm of Division of Agronomy, SKUAST-Kashmir during; 2012-13, to study the performance of various agronomic practices and herbicidal treatments on growth and yield of Garlic. Twelve treatments were tried in randomized block design with three replications. The results revealed that there was a significant difference in growth and yield characters in control v/s rest, highest growth and yield attributes were recorded in the weed free plots registering plant height (59.86 cm), green area index (0.97), biomass of top (89.76 g), biomass of bulb (28.43 g), number of bulbs harvested (304), average bulb weight (30.81 g), clove number per bulb (8.86), average clove weight (3.45 g), fresh bulb weight (186.10 qha-1) and dry bulb yield (168.13 qha-1), followed by Pendimethaline + one manual weeding and Pendimethaline 33% EC (3 ml/l) as pre emergence treatment. It was concluded that Pendimethaline + one manual weeding after 135 days of sowing showed superiority on all other treatment combinations in terms of growth and yield of garlic except weed free plots.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1151-1156
Rahul Dev Kurre and M P Tripathi
Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, S. V. College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology (IGKV), Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
In this study, mathematical models SRFR 4.06 with zero inertia (ZI) and kinematic wave (KW) model were tested using the data from field experiment from both border and furrow irrigation system. The treatment included were four main treatments of method of Raised bed furrow irrigation M1 (15 cm furrow depth), M2 (20 cm furrow depth), M3 (25 cm furrow depth) and M4 (border irrigation system (control)) under the three sub-treatments of maximum allowable depletion (MAD) T1: Irrigation at 40% MAD, T2: Irrigation at 50% MAD and T3: Irrigation at 60% MAD in four row crop. Zero inertia and kinematic wave model applied to predict advance and recession time in furrow irrigated raised bed system and border and then compared with observed data. Zero inertia and Kinematic wave model under estimated the advance and recession time for furrow irrigated raised bed system and border (λ<1). The average value of slope of best fit line (λ), percentage deviation (PD) and standard error (SE) for predicted and observed advance time were found to be 0.97, 2.35 and 0.028 in zero inertia model and 1.03, 6.24 and 0.14 in kinematic wave model. The zero inertia model gave less percentage deviation and standard error comparison to kinematic wave model. Therefore, zero inertia model is more reliable in predicting advance time in furrow irrigated bed system and border system. The predicted recession time was under estimated by both the models. Zero inertia model predict more reliable results than kinematic wave model.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1157-1159
B Jhansi, P Radhika and Seema
School of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashanker Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
The study revealed that the brand loyalty and switching pattern of consumers for branded basmati rice and red gram, in case of branded basmati rice brand loyalty towards India gate, Dawaath and Patanjali brand was high and in case of branded red gram brand loyalty towards Tata Sampan and Patanjali brand was high. Switching pattern from India gate to Patanjali was high in branded basmati rice, switching pattern from 24 mantra to tata sampan was high in branded red gram.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1160-1162
B Jhansi, P Radhika and Seema
School of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashanker Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana
Abstract
This study has been undertaken to know the consumer preference and buying behaviour of branded basmati rice in Hyderabad. The study revealed that the major brands according to consumer preference are India Gate, Dawaath and Kohinoor in branded basmati rice. Study also revealed that important factors considered while purchasing branded basmati rice are quality, health aspects and price. Attributes considered while purchasing of branded basmati rice are aroma, taste, quality and texture. Most of the respondents are aware about India Gate, Daawath and Kohinoor brands.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1163-1165
M Chandrashekharaiah, M S Rathore, R B Sinha and Alok Sahay
Basic Tasar Silkworm Seed Organization, Central Silk Board, Bilaspur - 495 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Tasar silkworm host plant is susceptible to variety of insect’s pests. Among all, sucking insects are very dangerous due to their feeding behavior and alteration of nutrition level of host plants, in which tasar silkworm is being reared under field conditions. Field observations revealed that the occurrence of Rhiphiphorothrips cruentatus Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), plant louse, Trioza fletcheri minor Crawford (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), spittlebug, Clovia sp. (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) and leaf hoppers (LH), Hishimonus indicus (Sohi) and H. viraktamathi Knight (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) at Bilaspur region. Random sampling of T. arjuna branches/leaves during July, 2018 revealed that all most all the plants were infested by R. cruentatus, Clovia sp., H. indicus and T. f. minor either alone or in combinations. Mean (±SD) of 11.75±5.30 R. cruentatus, 3.08±2.43 Clovia sp., 15.32±7.03 LH and 19.5±13.40 leaf galls per branch were observed. Detail study on population dynamic of sucking pests in relation to abiotic factors and nutrient status of plant may be studied for better understanding and development of Integrated Sucking-Pests Management practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1166-1167
S Pozhilarasi, R Geetha and K Sujatha
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Amaranthus polygonides is a leafy vegetable rich in vitamins A and C, propagated through seeds. Seeds are tiny in nature hence separation of empty or immature seeds requires attention for higher productivity. Hence studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of grading on seed quality. Bulk seeds were graded using different BSS wiremesh sieves. The results revealed that size graded seeds retained in BSS 22 × 22 sieve recorded highest seed recovery of 61.6 per cent with higher germination (94%) and vigour index (900) values. Hence, Amaranthus polygonoides var . PLR 1 could be graded using BSS 22 × 22 sieve for obtaining high quality seeds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1168-1170
Deepa Indoria and *Mani Ram
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rithola, Chittorgarh - 312 001, Rajasthan, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra (MPUAT), Rajasamand - 313 342, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
This study was conducted in Rajsamand and Chittorgarh District of Rajasthan. Two Panchayat samities selected from each district and again two villages selected from each Panchayat samiti. This selection was done through the random sampling method. Both the district divided into group "A" and group "B" on the basis of complete sanitation program. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that majority of the respondents from group A possessed fair knowledge and practices about handling of drinking water as compare to group B, both the groups had good knowledge regarding major aspects of handling drinking for except covering water with lid where there was a significant different between group A and group B. As regards practice there was no significant difference between the both groups since both inspired of having good knowledge did not practice. Regarding their knowledge and practice about disposal of waste water that both the groups had knowledge, there was a significance difference between disposal of waste water in soakage pit group A and group B. As regards practice there was no significant difference between the both groups.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1171-1177
Anjum Ayoub, Jagmohan Singh, Fozia Hameed and *Naveed Hamid
Division of Food Science and Technology, *Division of Agricultural Economics and ABM, Faculty of Agriculture, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Chatha - 180 009, J & K
Abstract
Formal assessment of the economic impacts of regulation is an increasing component of governments’ desire for evidence-based policy making. In particular in the area of food safety there is a lack of detailed policy guidance for the formal and systematic consideration of the distribution of risks, costs and benefits (environmental, economic and social), and consequently there is a lack of transparency how such considerations are weighed into decision making) Markets work by coordinating the tastes and technology of consumers, producers, middlemen, and sellers given well-established property rights set by government. Markets exist for all types of foods (e.g. burgers, chips, restaurant meals, take away, food ingredients); and markets also exist for gyms, taxis, bicycles, health services, weight-loss clinics, and insurance. Measuring costs and benefits of a policy intervention is easier said than done; by definition there is not a market whereby people demonstrate how much they are willing to pay by buying or not buying a product and whereby firms can respond if their costs are covered. Alternative procedures are needed. Cost–benefit assessment may be applied ex ante to aid the decision whether to introduce a regulation or ex post to determine if it has been successful. Economics makes the point that when markets work, they work well—they lead people to decisions that maximize the benefits to society. If all the key conditions to support a well-functioning market exist, economics tells us markets should be left alone and the final market equilibrium would reflect the best possible outcome for society given the distribution of income. In the SAFE FOODS framework, these correspond to assessment and evaluation; and monitoring, respectively. The ethical matrix could serve to structure the evaluation process. The use of QALYs (Quality Adjusted Life Year) is becoming widely acceptable and either computing the cost per QALY gained from an intervention or using a monetary value for a QALY in cost–benefit analysis are realistic evaluation tools, especially since available secondary sources are now able to relate an increasing number of health states to utility levels. QALYs also benefit from not being biased towards the better off, like traditional willingness to pay approaches.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 5 ; 1178-1180
Uzma Iqbal, G M Mir and Owais Nisar
College of Agricultural Engineering, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Abstract
The agricultural sector consumes about 70% of the planet's accessible fresh water more than twice that of industry (23%), and dwarfing municipal use (8%). Many big food producing countries like US, China, India, Pakistan, Australia and Spain have reached, or are close to reaching, their renewable water resource limits. Unsustainable water use harms the environment by changing the water table or depleting ground water supplies. Sustainable management of water in agriculture is critical to increase agricultural production, ensure water can be shared with other users and maintain the environmental and social benefits of water systems. The need is to improve the economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness that seek to improve water resource use efficiency and reduce water pollution from agricultural systems. Excessive irrigation can also increase soil salinity and wash pollutant and sediment into rivers, causing damage to fresh water ecosystems and species as well as those further downstream, including coral reef sand and coastal fish breeding grounds.


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