Current Issue

Volume - 10-May-June 2019

Volume
Archive


Volume - 9 - November-December 2018
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1181-1184
J Ann Greeshma, R Renuka, R Meera and N Nirmala
Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The demand for coconut is increasing because of its multitude of applications in industries. The gap between demand and supply can be bridged by establishing new coconut orchards and by rejuvenating existing orchards. For establishment or rejuvenation of coconut orchards, quality seedlings are a prerequiste. Conventional propagation methods do not cater to the increasing demand of quality seedlings. Hence propagation through in vitro techniques is required for mass production of quality seedlings. In this investigation, the effect of auxins and cytokinins on callusing, translucent and embryogenic structure formation in somatic embryogenesis of coconut was studied under in vitro conditions. Among the treatments studied, maximum callusing, translucent and embryogenic structures were recorded in the treatment Y3 + 450 µM 2, 4-D + 200 µM BAP (33.33%) followed by the treatment Y3 + 200 µM 2, 4-D + 200 µM BAP. These embryogenic structures on further sub-culturing will give rise to globular and coleoptilar embryos which have to be converted into plantlets.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1185-1189
C K Bhadre, M M Desai and G R Pawar
Department of Agronomy, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out during 2016-17 at Department of Agronomy, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani, to study the performance of soybean-safflower cropping sequence under different land configuration and nutrient management. Treatment consists of eighteen treatment combinations comprising three land configuration (L1- flat beds, L2- ridges and furrow and L3- Broad bed furrow) and three superabsorbent levels (S1- 0 Kg ha-1, S2- 2.5 Kg ha-1 and S3- 5.0 Kg ha-1) in main plot, two nutrient levels i.e. N1- 30:60:30 NPK kg ha-1 + 5 t FYM ha-1 and N2- 30:60:30:30 NPKS kg ha-1 + 20 kg Zn So4 + 5 t FYM ha-1 to soybean during kharif seasons as sub plot treatments were assigned in a split plot design with three replication. Broad bed furrows planting method with the application of 30:60:30:30 NPKS kg ha-1 + 20 kg Zn SO4 + 5 t FYM ha-1 to soybean recorded significantly higher growth, yield and yield attributes as well as net monetary returns during the experiment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1190-1194
A Manju and Namboodiri Raji
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture (Kerala Agricultural University), Padannakkad, Kasaragod - 671 314, Kerala
Abstract
Pollen morphology and viability studies are crucial for species identification crop improvement programme in Nymphaea spp. Since less information are available in these aspects about native Nymphaea spp. pollen morphology, fertility and viability of ten distinct Nymphaea genotypes collected from different regions of Kerala were studied. There was significant difference between the ten accessions in case of pollen fertility and pollen size, examined after 1% safranin staining. The pollen morphology of five types was spheroidal (Acc. 2, Acc. 7, Acc. 6, Acc. 8 and Acc. 9), four were prolate spheroidal (Acc. 1, Acc. 3, Acc. 5, Acc.10) and one was oblate spheroidal (Acc. 5). In vitro Pollen viability study, with various concentrations of sucrose under illumination showed the highest rate of pollen germination in medium with 10% sucrose. Acc. 4 had pollens with highest viability (51.65%) and Acc.1 had the least (0.39%). Even though there was good pollen fertility and germinating pollen grains only five accessions (Acc.3, Acc.4, Acc.5, Acc.6 and Acc.7) were exhibited seed setting. Some incompatibility mechanism may be operating in the other five accessions which fail to set seeds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1195-1198
K Balraj and V K Paulpandi
Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at Regional Research Station, TNAU, Aruppukottai to find the effect of different land configuration methods and integrated nutrient management practices on the growth and yield of green gram under rainfed agro ecosystem. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The main plots consist of three different land configuration for in situ water conservation and sub-plots consist of four integrated nutrient management practices with and without coir pith application. The result shows that combined application of 50 per cent as RDF with 50 per cent as vermicompost + foliar application of pulse wonder @ 5 kg ha-1 during pre-flowering and pod setting for green gram plants in broad bed furrows incorporated with coirpith produced higher grain yield of 813 kg ha-1 due to superior growth attributes and yield attributes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1199-1202
Ibahun Nongkynrih, K Arunadevi, K Shanmugasundaram and *S Vallal Kannan
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, *Department of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kumulur, Trichy - 621 712, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Crop coefficient of different crop is provided by Food and Agricultural Organization, although crop coefficient for black gram has not been developed so far. Therefore experiment was carried out to estimate crop evapotranspiration and to develop crop coefficient for black gram. Reference evapotranspiration was estimated by Penman-Monteith method and the crop evapotranspiration was estimated by water balance method. The estimated crop evapotranspiration of black gram for winter and summer season was 224 mm and 290 mm. The crop coefficient of black gram for initial development, middle and end-stage during winter season was 0.62, 1.17, 118, 0.56 and for the summer season was 0.63, 1.18, 1.19, 0.54 respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1203-1208
Devarapalli Vaishnavi Sankari, S Selvanayaki, A Rohini and D Murugananthi
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The organized fruits and vegetables retailing is gaining momentum in the country and they form a major category in retail chains. Consumers have wide range of retailing formats to choose for purchasing fruits and vegetables. Consumers who had been purchasing from traditional sources such as street vendors, small retail shops near the houses etc. are moving towards organized modern retail outlets. Customers those who were satisfied with the services provided by retail format were considered to be loyal. The study was conducted to analyze the factors influencing the choice of stores and customer expectations in such stores for purchase of fruits and vegetables. A sample of one hundred and twenty consumers was taken purposively to analyze the consumers buying fruits and vegetables from modern retail stores in Hyderabad. While purchasing of fruits and vegetables, one-stop shop was considered as the foremost factor with a closely followed by the ability to self-select as many of the customers preferred touch and feel while purchasing. Availability of exotic fruits (kiwi, and vegetables was ranked as third factor since the seekers formed a major share among the respondents, followed by assortment, display and ripeness. Respondents rated highly important for the attributes such as provision of baskets and trolleys, assured quality of fruits and vegetables, billing time etc, important for the attributes such as store ambience, checkout speed, understanding the specific needs and lowest mean score was given for the attribute home delivery, followed by replacement assurance, bagging material, staff knowledge about the produce and frequent shopper program.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1209-1211
M Ashok Naik, P V Ramesh Babu, M Srinivasa Reddy and *P Kavitha
Department of Agronomy, *Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College, Mahanandi - 518 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at College Farm, Agricultural College, Mahanandi on sandy loam soils to know the efficacy of different herbicides in transplanted rice. Most of the improved crop management practices in rice cultivation failed in controlling weeds due to poor and improper management. At present the use of herbicides or manual is not effective in timely controlling the weed population. Hence, the present investigation was aimed to study the influence of herbicide in combination with hand weeding on the productivity of transplanted rice. The experiment comprised of 8 treatments such as application of herbicides alone and their integration with one hand weeding, two hand weeding and unweeded check were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Among these treatments, higher growth parameters and economics were recorded under two hand weeding, which was at par with post emergence application of bispyribac sodium 20 g a.i. ha-1in combination with hand weeding at 40 DAT.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1212-1214
S Abarna and G Srinivasan
Department of Agronomy, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Tiruchirapalli - 620 027, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirapalli to study the impact of split application of nitrogen and potassium on yield and partitioning efficiency of cotton during summer 2017. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications and eight treatments. The results indicated that split application of nitrogen and potassium upto boll developmental stage (90 DAS) significantly influenced the growth, partitioning pattern and yield of cotton. Application of 50 per cent N and K as basal + 25 per cent N and K each at 60, 75 and 90 DAS (T5) was superior in terms of dry matter production. But Skipping N and 50 per cent K as basal + 25 per cent N and 50 per cent K at 45 DAS + 25 per cent N at 60 DAS + 25 per cent N at 75 DAS + 25 per cent N at 90 DAS (T8) translocated more resources towards sink (burs and kapas) and recorded the highest seed cotton yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1215-1218
M J Abhishek and S Avudaithai
Department of Agronomy, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirappalli - 620 009, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted in finger millet varieties (TRY1, CO (Ra) 15 and Paiyur 2) at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirappalli during Kharif season of 2017 to study the effect of different levels of NPK (60:30:30, 75:37.5:37.5 and 90:45:45 NPK kg ha-1) on yield and nutrient uptake of finger millet varieties under sodic soil condition. The results revealed that, under sodic soil condition variety CO (Ra) 15 recorded significantly higher grain yield which was 12 and 17 per cent increase over Paiyur 2 and TRY 1 respectively and higher nutrient uptake compare to other varieties.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1219-1222
M Leela, K Soorianathasundaram, *Mohankumar and C Kavitha
Department of Fruit crops, *Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
As sex expression in papaya is elusive for detection till flowering, studies were taken to validate the RAPD- SCAR sex linked markers in dioecious papaya varieties CO.2, TNAU Papaya CO.8 and a gynodioecious variety CO.7 for early sex determination during juvenile seedling stage itself. Among nine RAPD- SCAR markers viz. Napf-2, PKBT-4, PKBT-5, W11, SCARpm, SDP, T12, Napf-3 and T1 employed to detect the sex forms in young plants, the markers Napf-3 and T1 failed to determine the sex linked loci in any of the samples tested. The markers PKBT-4, PKBT-5, W11, SCARpm, SDP and T12 were able to detect male or bisexual plants with a reliability range of 82.4% to 92.9%. The male specific Napf-2 marker showed reliability of 88.3%. The study indicated that the makers PKBT-5, SCARpm and SDP possessing >90 per cent reliability could be utilized for early stage sex determination of dioecious and gynodioecious plants in papaya.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1223-1226
R Rathika and S Senthilnathan
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Killikulam, Vallanadu - 628 252, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study is an attempt to analyze the possibilities and prospects of increasing the net farm income by optimum farm planning through optimizing resource use at farm and village level. The study was carried out in Karungulam block of Thoothukudi district. An optimization model based on linear programming for determining optimum farm plans of irrigated and rainfed situation. The optimum farm plan considers various resource constraints such as land, labour, capital and irrigation water. The two optimum farm plans were developed to maximize the net income of farm and village level. In farm level, the optimum plans were developed for crop only whereas in village level the goat farming was introduced to use the unused land and to maximize the net income of the village.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1227-1230
Azizul Rahman Ragashtai and Swati Naik
Department of Agricultural Marketing, Cooperation and Business Management, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted with the objective of analysis on consumers buying behaviour for imported fruits in Bengaluru city. 60 consumers of imported fruits and vegetables were selected from the Bengaluru city. The consumers have given highest preference for apple (mean score of 82.33) followed by pomegranate with a mean score of 69. Nearly 41.67 per cent of the consumers prefer to buy from trusted brands. More than half of the consumers (58.33%) purchased imported fruits from modern retail formats followed by wholesalers (30%). Among the consumers, 10 per cent were purchasing apple twice in a weak which was the most purchased fruit followed by Grapes 6 per cent and orange 5.60 per cent. A vast majority (81.67%) of consumers clearly revealed that health, taste and quality were the major factors influencing the purchase of imported fruits in Bengaluru city. The consumers have been consuming and purchasing imported fruits since more than 5 years. Vast majority 81.67 per cent of consumers were satisfied by the consumption of imported fruits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1231-1235
Archana Bhatt, *S K Kashyap, **Diksha Patel and **Arjun Verma
Dairy Extension Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India *Department of Agricultural Communication, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 153, Uttarakhand, India *Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Banda University of Agriculture and Technology, Banda - 210 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Community radio is one of the best Information and Communication Technology (ICT) intervention among community media that is so far emerging out as a major role player in rural development. The information it delivers and shares plays a major role in improvement of the livelihood. A study was carried out to analyze the role Pantnagar Janvani Community Radio plays in livelihood improvement of the listeners. Focused group discussions were carried out in six selected villages with the maximum listenership. The study revealed that the community radio disseminates information in various domains of livelihood support i.e. agriculture and allied sectors, health, education, governance, social cohesion along with participatory communication and information sharing. Community radio as an ICT intervention is a very important medium in providing livelihood support to the community it serves.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1236-1240
A Mohammed Ashraf, T Ragavan, V K Paulpandi and *P P Mahendran
Department of Agronomy, *Department of Soils and Environment, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiments were conducted at Regional Research Station, Aruppukottai, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu during rabi season of 2016 and 2017 with the test variety SVPR - 2. To study the impact of insitu moisture conservation and stress management practices on seed cotton yield and resource use efficiencies of water use efficiency, rain water use efficiency and effective rain water use efficiency of cotton under rainfed vertisol. The experiments were laid out in split plot design replicated thrice. The main plot treatments consisted of different in situ moisture conservation viz. broad bed and furrows, ridges and furrows and compartmental bunding. The subplot comprises with stress management practices viz. soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1, soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of 1% KCl, soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of 5% Kaolin, soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of PPFM @ 500 ml ha-1, soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of salicylic acid 100 ppm and control. The results of this study showed that broad bed and furrow and soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of PPFM @ 500 ml ha-1 recorded higher resource use efficiencies (water use efficiency, rain water use efficiency and effective rain water use efficiency) kg ha-1 mm-1 and seed cotton yield 1,580 kg ha-1 (2016) and 1,943 kg ha-1 (2017).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1241-1244
Ravindrakumar and G Shanthakumar
Department of Genetic and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Present investigation was carried out with thirty lines and three testers with two replications at Main Agriculture Research Station, College of Agricultural College, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad during 2015–2016 in order to determine the extent to which the heterosis is manifested for fruit yield and its component traits. The results revealed highly significant differences for all the characters among the parent and genotypes studied indicating the diversity among the parents and individuals. Among all the crosses evaluated, the cross combination DOIL40 × DOIL 19 exhibited highest heterosis for most of the characters under study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1245-1247
Chowa Ram Sahu, M L Lakhera and *G Mohan Naidu
Department of Agricultural Statistics and Social Science, Indira Gandhi Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India *Department of Statistics and Computer Applications, S. V. Agricultural College, ANGRAU, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to forecast arrivals and prices of paddy through univariate Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model. The secondary data pertaining to monthly arrivals (q) and prices (₹/q) of paddy were collected from Agricultural Market Committee of Chhattisgarh for the period from 2009-10 to 2017-18 have been used for the study. The SARIMA (1,1,1) (1,1,1)12 and (2,1,1) (1,1,1)12 were found as the most suitable models to forecasts of paddy arrivals as well as prices. With these models there were made forecast for 12 months, which are from January 2018 to December 2018. The best models were chosen based on least Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) value and highest R2- value.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1248-1251
R Meenasulochani, T Rajendran, J Pushpa and S Senthilnathan
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Killikulam, Vallanad - 628 252, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was made to assess the efficiency of paddy production in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. Multi- stage random sampling was used to collect data from samples of 120 farmers through well-structured questionnaire. Stochastic frontier production function was used to analyze the data. Frontier 4.1, a computer program was used to estimate the stochastic frontier production function. Result found that the average technical efficiency, allocative efficiency and economic efficiency was 81.29 per cent, 94.41 per cent and 76.75 per cent respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1252-1257
Sunil Kumar and S S Yadav
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner - 303 328, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at agriculture farm of Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner during kharif, 2014. The treatment consisted 20 combinations of phosphorus (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) and bio-organics (Control, PSB, VAM, vermicompost at 2t ha-1 and vermicompost at 2t ha-1 + VAM). Results showed that every increase in level of phosphorus up to 40 kg ha-1 significantly increased the growth and yield attributing characters viz., plant height, no. of branches plant-1, dry matter accumulation, number and weight of root nodules plant-1, number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1 and test weight and grain, straw and biological yield and nutrient content in grain and straw of mungbean. However, it was found at par with 60 kg P2O5 ha-1, wherein the maximum values were obtained. Application of bio-organics as vermicompost at 2t ha-1 + VAM significantly increased the observed growth and yield attributing characters viz. plant height, no. of branches plant-1, dry matter accumulation, number and weight of root nodules plant-1, number of pods plant-1, number of grains pod-1 and test weight and yields and nutrient content in grain and straw of mungbean as compared to vermicompost, VAM, PSB and control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1258-1260
D Hemalatha and J Jayaraj
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The foraging peformance of Asiatic honey bee, Apis cerana indica (F.) was studied during various seasons at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai. The contribution of pollen gatherers to the foraging activity was high in winter season (15.42%) followed by summer, monsoon and post monsoon (11.24%, 10.24% and 8.17% respectively). The nectar gatherers contribution was recoded as maximum in summer (46.66%) followed by post monsoon (46.13%), winter (43.64%) and monsoon (42.53%). The outgoing bees contribution was 47.23%, 45.70% 42.10% and 40.94% respectively during monsoon, post monsoon, summer and winter seasons. In winter the outgoing bees population reached the peek (58.12%) at 49th standard week. In summer peak activity of the nectar gathereres was 51.15%, 53.66% and 55.61% respectively in 17, 18 and 21st standard weeks. In monsoon at 27th standard week the peak foraging activity of outgoing bees 58.05% and of pollen collectors was 14.87%. During the post monsoon season the nectar gatherers reached a peak activity of 54.04% in 46th standard week.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1261-1265
Pooja S Bhat and *Venkatram R
Department of Agricultural and Rural Management, *Planning and Monitoring, Directorate of Planning and Monitoring, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Vegetable production constitutes about two thirds of the total production of horticulture crops in India. Although India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world, the productivity levels are abysmally low as the efficiency of the operations are seriously constrained by poor cultivation practices, excessive post-harvest losses and higher transaction costs. This study aimed at estimating the relative efficiencies in production and marketing of two vegetables viz. knol khol and carrot. The results implied that farmers need to improve their efficiency, more particularly in the marketing stage, by reducing their transactional costs and also by taking tactical decisions while marketing. Also, the vegetable producers should pursue marketing chains with low transaction cost. The post-harvest and handling losses incurred also need to be minimized along the marketing channels as they economically affected the total value realized by the farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1266-1269
C Priyanka, B Bhakiyathu Saliha and *P P Mahendran
Department of Soils and Environment, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India *ICAR- Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Aruppukottai, Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An assessment study was conducted in three blocks of pulse growing zones of Virudhunagar district viz. Sattur, Aruppukottai and Thiruchuli. The pulse growing zones of Virudhunagar district was classified into three categories viz. low yielding (less than 400 kg ha-1), medium (400 to 700 kg ha-1) and high yielding (more than 700 kg ha-1). The key physico-chemical and biological indicators (Soil respiration rate and Dehydrogenase enzyme activity) of soil were assessed in the soil samples of each zone. The indicators assessed in the low pulse yielding zone reflected strongly alkaline pH (8.58), lower CEC (12.2 cmol (p+) kg-1) and low organic carbon content (1.74 g kg-1). The positive effects of soil physico-chemical and biological indicators on the pulse yield were well proved through the yield data of the high yielding zone. 100 percent of the farms surveyed in the high yielding zone registered an average pulse yield of 880 kg ha-1. This may be attributed to a neutral pH of 7.20, non-saline soil with an average EC of 0.39 dSm-1, maximum organic carbon status (8.55 g kg-1) and higher range of soil Cation Exchange Capacity (47.2cmol (p+) kg-1) which resulted in better soil health and maximum pulse productivity. It was concluded that regular application of enriched FYM, Azospirillum and pulse wonder along with TNAU recommended dosage of fertilizers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1270-1274
R M Nagalakshmi1, R Ravikesavan1, V Paranidharan2, N Manivannan3, H Firoz4, M Vignesh4 and N Senthil5
1Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu 2Department of Plant Pathology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, TNAU, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu 3National Pulses Research Centre, Vamban, Pudukkottai, India 4Division of Genetics, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India 5Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, TNAU, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The present scientific investigation was conducted in the backcross populations of two cross combinations UMI 1200 × CE 477 and UMI 1230 × CE 477 to identify the type of gene action and interaction among the yield contributing characters. The frequency distribution analysis in the 100 plants of BC2F2 population of UMI 1200 × CE 477 revealed 15 plants having single plant yield values distributed around the recurrent parent value of 73.06 g. Similarly, The BC2F2 population of UMI 1230 × CE 477, exhibited 12 plants with single plant yield values distributed around the recurrent parent (83.72 g). Both negative and positive skewness was observed in the backcross populations for different traits. Negative skewness was observed for plant height (-0.10), 100 grain weight (-0.03) and single plant yield (-0.04) among the BC1F1progenies of UMI 1200 × CE 477. The BC2F1 progenies of UMI 1200 × CE 477 exhibited negative skewness for plant height (-0.05), days to 50% tasseling (-0.18), days to 50% silking (-0.18), number of kernel rows per cob (-0.04), number of kernels per row (-0.05) and single plant yield (-0.07). Among the progenies of UMI 1230 × CE 477, negative skewness was obtained for plant height (-0.04) in BC1F1 and for days to 50% tasseling (-0.29), days to 50% silking (-0.29), tassel length (-0.25) and 100 grain weight in BC2F1 population. All other characters in both the populations exhibited positive skewness. Platykurtic nature of kurtosis distribution was seen widely except for plant height (0.83) in BC2F2 population of UMI 1200 × CE 477 and cob length (0.79) in BC2F2 population of UMI 1230 × CE 477.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1275-1280
R S Shaikh and R W Bharud
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The field experiment was carried out to evaluate physiological basis of drought tolerance under moisture stress during rabi 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 at Pulses Improvement Project, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. Ten sorghum varieties evaluated under different moisture regimes. Seeds were grown separately under three moisture regimes viz. moisture stress condition with irrigation applied at the time of sowing, terminal stress condition with irrigation applied at the time of sowing and panicle initiation stage and non stress condition with irrigation applied at various critical growth stages. Gas exchange parameters were recorded with the help of IRGA. Genotypes differed significantly with respect to photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and stomatal resistance and relative leaf water content. RSV 1237 and RSV 1572 under stress conditions performed better in respect of net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and stomatal resistance. Physiological parameter relative leaf water content decreased as moisture stress increased. RSV 1572 and RSV 1237 under stress recorded higher relative leaf water content. It was observed that relative leaf water content and leaf gas exchange characters were affected by moisture stress. However, some genotypes performed better under stress conditions. In those genotypes leaf water content and leaf exchange characters were superior under stress conditions. It was concluded these parameters could be reliable for screening of genotypes for drought tolerance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1281-1285
K V Manjunath, *K Shivaramu and *D K Suresh
Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India *Directorate of Extension, UAS, Hebbal, Bengaluru - 560 024, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted during 2017-18 in Mandya district of Karnataka state. Two villages each in Head reach and Tail end area of Krishna Raja Sagar (KRS) Dam were randomly selected. In each selected village twenty five paddy growers were randomly selected. Thus, 100 farmers constituted the sample for study. The data was collected from the respondents using structured interview schedule. The data collected was analyzed and tabulated using percentages, t-test, Correlation and Regression. Results reveals that, majority of the Head reach farmers have low-medium adoption level, whereas Majority of the Tail end farmers have medium-high adoption. The correlation analysis indicated a positive and significant relationship at one per cent level between the independent variables such as education, risk orientation, cosmopoliteness, scientific orientation, mass media exposure, extension participation, innovative proneness, extension contact and adoption. While the economic motivation had positive and significant relationship with adoption at five per cent level. The R2 value depicted that all the 16 independent variables had bestowed to the extent of 61.23 per cent of variation in knowledge level of farmers towards climate resilient technologies.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1286-1289
U Aarthi and S Senthilnathan
Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Killikulam, Vallanadu - 628 252, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Urbanizations become significant since it affects employment, migration, literacy, access to markets and infrastructure. Therefore, an attempt is made in this paper to analyze the relationship between urbanization and agriculture. Thoothukudi district was selected for the study as the urban population in the district increased from 42.03 per cent in 2001 to 50.28 percent in 2011. A sample of 80 respondents was drawn from 64 villages located in two blocks to represent semi urban and urban settings. Results revealed that urban villages registered the highest number of industrial establishments; they also had highest number of hotels and tea shops. The role played by the middlemen in land and real estate business aggravated the major problem of idling of lands in this locality. The semi-urban farmers considered non availability of suitable machinery as the second major constraint in agriculture in the urbanization context and they expressed that use of suitable machineries would reduce the dependence on labour in agriculture.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1290-1293
S Ajmal, C Kavitha, K Soorianathasundaram and *N Sritharan
Department of Fruit Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out to study the effect of berry thinning on bunch characters and yield in eight year old grapevines cv. Muscat Hamburg during 2017-18 at Coimbatore. The bunches in the vines were subjected to ten different thinning treatments viz. Control (T1) (without thinning); Tipping the panicle at full bloom by 1/3rd of its length (T2); Tipping the panicle at full bloom by 1/4th of its length (T3); Berry-cluster thinning at 2 mm berry diameter stage (T4), Berry-cluster thinning at 4 mm berry diameter stage (T5), Berry-cluster thinning at 6 mm berry diameter stage (T6), GA3 @ 1 ppm at 25% calyptra fall stage (T7), GA3 spray @ 2 ppm at 25% calyptra fall stage (T8), GA3 @ 4 ppm at 25% calyptra fall stage (T9) and GA3 @ 6 ppm at 25% calyptra fall stage (T10). The result revealed that all the manual thinning treatments showed good bunch quality and yield when compared to chemical thinning and control. The treatment T6 (Berry cluster thinning at 6 mm berry diameter stage) registered significant effect on bunch and yield characters viz. number of berries (91.40), number of shot berries (0.50), proportion of shot berries (0.55%), bunch weight (252.91 g), yield per vine (6.83 kg) and yield per hectare (8.54 t) when compared to the control (T1).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1294-1299
Nunna Sai Aparna Devi1, K Kumutha1, R Anandham1,2, R Krishnamoorthy1, R Babu3 and M Gnanachitra4
1Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu 3Department of Farm Management, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu 4National Pulses Research Centre, Vamban - 622 303, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Abrupt climate and unavailability of required water supply could majorly affect the productivity of agriculturally important crops which could be mitigated using plant growth traits. In this context this study was aimed to evaluate the plant growth promoting traits of firmibacteria under drought stress. Forty four firmibacteria were taken to evaluate their growth in different concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). Based on the growth at higher PEG (30%) concentration ten efficient firmibacteria were selected. Plant growth promoting traits such as IAA, biofilm formation and ACC deaminase activity in non stressed and 30% PEG stressed condition were tested for the selected drought tolerant firmibacteria. Results in terms of Plant growth promotion were found to be higher in Bacillus azotoformans MTCC2953 and Bacillus aryabhattai KSBN2K7 under stress condition compared to unstressed condition suggesting the use of firmibacteria for plant growth promotion under drought stress.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1300-1304
B R Sneha, S K Kammar, *Shivani Dechamma and *M B Shanabhoga
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur - 584 104, Karnataka, India *Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka
Abstract
Adequate nutrition is a key factor to live an active and healthy life. It is essential for human development. Malnutrition is a major problem in most of underdeveloped and developing countries, it is a condition that results from imperfect or faulty nutrition. In rural families, reasons for malnutrition are myriad. Malnutrition among pre-school children (under-five children) is a major public health problem. Poor socio economic condition of family leads to inadequate supply of nutrition therefore the present study mainly concentrated to know the socio economic profile of mothers of preschool in the Raichur district of Karnataka. An ex post facto research design was adopted. Demographic and household characteristics were documented from household survey and also preschool children were classified based on Gomez classification as normal, moderate and severe. The results of the study revealed that mothers of normal children had higher education level (41.66%) as compared to mothers of severely malnourished children (23.33%), income level of severely malnourished children family was low (61.66%) as that of normal children family. Social participation of normal children mothers was high (45.00%) as that of severely malnourished children mothers. In order to reduce this problem, health education programs and proper implementation of nutrition related programmes among the study population and multisectoral approaches are need to be carried out.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1305-1310
M P Athulya, *P Irene Vethamoni and **N Sritharan
Department of Vegetable Crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Dean (Horticulture), RVS Padmavathy College of Horticulture, Sempatti, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu **Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the influence of pruning techniques on growth and yield characters of capsicum (Capsicum annum var. grossum) under shade net condition. The study consisted of three stem pruning systems (Two main stems, four main stems, Unpruned (control) and three fruit pruning systems (One fruit per node, one fruit on alternate nodes, one fruit on every two nodes). An improvement in the growth characters was observed as the number of main stems retained decreased. Capsicum plants pruned to two main stems excelled in various growth characters like plant height (98.09 cm), days taken to flower initiation (46.42), node at which first flower appears (1.49), number of days to fruit setting (51.93), number of days to first fruit picking (76.18), whereas the plants pruned to four main stems gave more number of harvest (7.8). Fruit pruning had only negligible effect on the growth characters of capsicum variety Indra, except the plant height and number of days to first picking, which increased on decreasing the fruit number per plant with one fruit on every two nodes per plant (89.79 cm, 82.71 days). Plants pruned to four shoots with one fruit per node recorded the best results for the yield characters like number of fruits plant-1 (11.29), yield plant-1 (1.73 Kg), yield plot-1 (34.05 Kg), and yield hectare-1 (64.09 tonnnes). Unlike the yield characters, the fruit characters varied comparatively less among the treatments. The fruit characters like fruit length (7.99 cm), fruit weight (153.84 g), fruit width (7.28 cm), fruit diameter (21.57 cm), flesh thickness (0.77 cm) were highest under the shoot pruning treatment with two main shoots and fruit pruning treatments with one fruit on every two nodes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1311-1316
Manjunatha Paled and S S Guledagudda
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Haveri and Koppal districts of Karnataka. Among several vegetable seeds production, brinjal, cucumber, chilli and watermelon were selected purposively based on intensity of crop coverage area. Multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was adopted for the selection of the sample farmers. This study was based on primary data collected through personal interview method using pre-tested schedule from 32 farmers for each crop constituting a total sample size of 128 farmers. Cobb-Douglas production technique was employed. Results of the study revealed that per acre total cost incurred was ₹ 2,30,771, ₹ 2,02,044, ₹ 2,27,103 and ₹ 67,110 respectively in brinjal, cucumber, chilli and watermelon. Per acre gross returns and net returns obtained were ₹ 4,47,884 and ₹ 2,17,113 in brinjal, ₹ 4,29,728 and ₹ 2,27,684 in cucumber, ₹ 6,06,431 and ₹ 3,79,328 in chilli and ₹ 1,14,859 and ₹ 47,749 in watermelon respectively. MVP to MFC ratio revealed that human labour and irrigation were under-utilized in all four crops. Further, seedlings and FYM are also under-utilized in brinjal and cucumber and are over-utilized in chilli and watermelon. Bullock and machine labour were under-utilized in brinjal and watermelon and are over-utilized in cucumber and chilli. Except watermelon, fertilizers are over-utilized in other three crops. Plant protection chemicals are under-utilized in cucumber and chilli and are over-utilized in brinjal and watermelon.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1317-1319
J Ramachandran and R Lalitha
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kumulur - 621 712, Trichy, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The spatial variation of microclimate inside a naturally ventilated greenhouse is presented in this paper. The temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) within the greenhouse is recorded using a handheld temperature and relative humidity recorder at different locations, horizontally and vertically within the greenhouse at 27 points. Using the Surfer software, T and RH contours were prepared. Three vertical and horizontal profile variation of T and RH were studied. The vertical profiles near the east and west sides of greenhouse showed higher relative humidity compared to the middle vertical profile whereas temperature variation was similar in all the three vertical profiles. In case of horizontal profiles, temperature within the greenhouse varied along the length of greenhouse and relative humidity within the greenhouse varied vertically. The RH variation was between 62 to 75% within the greenhouse and temperature variation was between 28oC and 34oC. Predicting the microclimate variation inside a greenhouse can help growers to manage crop production and designers to improve the ventilation and heating systems.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1320-1323
R Sivakalai, J Renugadevi and R Umarani
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiments conducted to arrest pre-harvest sprouting by inducing seed dormancy in rice variety CO 48 revealed that foliar spray with abscisic acid (ABA) and maleic hydrazide (MH) at various concentrations at the time of initiation of flowering were found to be effective in inducing dormancy. Among the various concentrations tried, ABA @250 ppm and MH @ 10000 ppm were found to be effective in inducing dormancy which was persisted over a period of 30 days.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1324-1326
T Vijayalakshmi, C Kavitha, R M Vijayakumar, *M Senthil Kumar and *R Shanmugasundaram
Department of Fruit Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India *Department of Agricultural Microbiology, **Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore- 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out at farmer’s field, to study the effect of biofertilizers on the growth and yield of grape cv. Muscat Hamburg during 2017-18. The biofertilizers viz. Azotobacter, phosphate solubilising bacteria and potash releasing bacteria were supplied at the rate of 100g, 200g and 300g each along with the combination of 75% and 100% RDF and control. Among the treatments, the application of 100% RDF along with 300 g each of Azotobacter, phosphate solubilising bacteria, potash releasing bacteria was found to have impact on the growth attributes of grapevine viz. shoot length, internodal length, total leaf area per shoot and number of days taken from flowering to harvest. The same treatment also registered higher number of bunches (32.05 per vine), maximum bunch weight (275.81 g) and maximum yield (8.84 kg/vine). Therefore, application of biofertilizers along with 100% RDF seemed to have better impact on growth and yield attributes of grapevines.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1327-1332
A Ambikabathy1, N Senthil2, C Vanniarajan1, G Karthikeyan3, D Thirusendura Selvi4, N Jegadeesh Selvam5, A Karthikeyan5, V G Renganathan1, M Kanimoli Mathivathana1 and M Paranthaman1
1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 2Department of Biotechnology, 3Department of Plant Pathology, 5Department of Biotechnology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India 4Agricultural Research Station, Vaigaidam, Theni - 625 562, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays) is an important cereal crop of India. It belongs to the family poaceae and is highly cross pollinated crop. Maize has high nutritive value as it as the only cereal have appreciaple amount of caroteniods. β-carotene enriched maize inbreds contain high amount of provitamin A as compared to normal maize inbreds, and can minimize the risk of vitamin A deficiency among communities increasingly dependent on maize as their stable food. Hybrid cultivars have played a vital role in increasing acreage and productivity of maize. This study was undertaken to access the performances of β-carotene enriched hybrids, and estimate heterosis and combining ability for grain yield, agronomic traits and β-carotene content. The present study was conducted using 13 parents and 22 F1 cross combinations of β-carotene during rabi 2016 with objective to identify the best parental genotypes and cross combinations with high beta carotene content. The confirmation of F1 along with their parents had done using crtRB1 gene specific primer. Inbred lines UMI 1200-7-25-1-6-1, VIM 61 and VIM 58 were found good general combiners for direct yield attributing traits whereas inbreds UMI 1200-7-25-1-6-1 contributed maximum genes for β-carotene content. Among the hybrids, UMI 1200-4-26-9-5-1 × UMI 285, UMI 1200-7-25-1-6-1 × UMI 61 and UMI 1200-7-25-1-6-1 × VIM 58 exhibited positive and significant specific combining ability effects for cob weight. High standard heterosis values were observed for β-carotene content over standard check.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1333-1335
V Sabareeshwari, P Balasubramaniam, *V Geethalakshmi and **K Senthilraja
Department of Soil Science, *Department of Agronomy, **Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The water holding capacity of any particular soil is greater importance for practical agriculture, because it provides a simple means of determining moisture contents required for soils for good plant growth. Infiltration rate of soil is another important dynamic flow processes in the hydrological cycle. This information is used for water management and conservation studies. Hence a study was undertaken to determine the influence of soil physical properties on the infiltration characteristics and water holding capacity of five major soil series covering 1830 acres viz., Kunnattur, Eliyattur, Manapparai, Tiruchengode and Pilamedu were identified for the pedological investigations and physical constraint identifications. The soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, water holding capacity, hydraulic conductivity and infiltration were determined horizon wise for five pedons. The lowest infiltration and hydraulic conductivity was observed in Pilamedu soil series due to lower sandy texture and also high available water holding capacity was noticed in Manapparai and Pilamedu soil series due to presence of clay. Soils with good percentage of clay withhold better soil moisture and favours good crop production. Selection of crop based on physical characterisitics always helps to achieve the targeted yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1336-1339
N Bommayasamy and *C R Chinnamuthu
ICAR-Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair - 744 101, Andaman and Nicobar Islands *Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was carried out during Kharif 2016 at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai to find out the efficacy of entrapped oxadiargyl herbicide formulations on weed, growth and yield of rice in Vaigai-Periyar command areas of Tamil Nadu. The phytotoxicity symptom of pre-emergence oxadiargyl encapsulated herbicide formulations caused moderate crop damage with a rating of 5 at 7 days after herbicide application (DAHA). The phytoxicity symptom was visualized even at 21 DAHA, a complete recovery of affected plants could be observed thereafter. The lowest weed density and weed dry matter accumulation was noticed with the application of butachlor at 1.25 kg/ha on 3 DAT fb HW on 40 DAT at 60 DAT and harvest stage. The least nutrient depletion of 42.0, 46.5, 53.9% of NPK was recorded with the application of oxadiargyl loaded in zeolite on 3 DAT compared to weedy check at harvest stage. Application of butachlor at 1.25 kg/ha on 3 DAT fb HW on 40 DAT and application of oxadiargyl loaded in zeolite on 3 DAT has recorded higher grain and straw yield of 86.7, 77.1 and 39.6, 37.6% respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1340-1344
Bharathi Pukalenthy1, Dhasarathan Manickam2, Karthikeyan Adhimoolam2, Kavithapushpam Arunachalam2, Hemalatha Ganapathyswamy3, Vanniarajan Chocklingam1 and Senthil Natesan4
1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 2Department of Biotechnology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Community Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India 4Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics, Center for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The knowledge of the number of gene controlling the trait and nature of gene action is the important in selecting the individual. Thus, the objective of this study was to study analyze the skewness and kurtosis of the backcross population derived from two independent crosses of maize inbreds (UMI 1200 × VQL1 and UMI 1230 × VQL1). The mean values of yield and its attributes were exposed to descriptive statics analysis to find out the distribution. In BC2F2 population of both the crosses, the traits single plant yield and number of kernel rows per cob exhibited positively skewed and platykurtic distribution. This indicates that traits are governed by large number of genes and most of the genes exhibit dominant × dominant based complimentary interaction suggesting to follow rigorous selection to achieve genetic gain in single plant yield and number of kernels rows per cob. The traits days to tasseling, ear height, tassel length, leaf length and number of kernels per row were negatively skewed and platykurtic and these traits are governed by large number of gene having duplicate type of epistasis and mild selection is sufficient to get rapid genetic gain.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1345-1349
Puniyamoorthy Sheela, *Shanmugavel Kanchana, Thiyagamoorthy Uma Maheswari and Ganapathysamy Hemalatha
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, *Department of Human Development, Community Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 014, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this study, five minor millets viz. foxtail millet, little millet, kodo millet, proso millet and barnyard millet were selected. The soaking and germination time was optimized as 8h and 18h using response surface methodology for extraction of milk from millets. A maximum range of 75 to 85ml of millet milk can be extracted after 8h of soaking and 18h of germination of millets. The nutritional composition of all the five millets was analyzed at different stages of processing viz. raw grains, germinated grains and in millet milk. During processing of millets, there is a great reduction in phytic acid, ash, crude fibre and fat, slight reduction in protein and carbohydrate whereas moisture content and total sugars got increased. Extracted millet milk can be used to making value added products either alone or combinations.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1350-1353
Hemant Kumar Sinha*, J L Chaudhary, *N Manikandan and Sakharam Shori
Department of Agricultural Meteorology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India *ICAR- Indian Institute of Water management, Bhubaneshwar - 751 023, Odisha, India
Abstract
Correlation analysis between SPI values and yield of rice, maize and pigeon pea was carried out in the present study. The results revealed that all the districts except Dhamtari, Durg, Janjgir champa, Korba and Suguja showed positive relationship either at 1% or at 5% significance level between June to October SPI values and rice yield. No significant relationship between rice yield and seasonal SPI was noticed in districts like Dhamtari and Korba districts which might be attributed to low dependency on rainfall as these districts benefitted from canal irrigation projects. In the case of maize and pigeon- pea no concrete results emerged as there is no significant positive or negative association with monthly SPI values with their yield in most of the districts of Chhattisgarh state.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1354-1356
S Sasikumar and S Somasundaram
Department of Agronomy, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirrappali - 620 009, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirappalli during summer irrigated season 2017 to study the effect of compact cotton genotype with different spacing levels under sodic soil. Treatments consists of combination of two compact genotype viz. TCH 1705 and TCH 1819 with five different plant spacing of 75 × 30 cm, 80 × 10 cm, 80 × 20 cm, 100 × 10 cm, 100 × 20 cm. The yield attributing characters such as number of sympodial branches plant-1 and m-2, number of bolls plant-1 and m-2 were significantly higher in the genotype TCH 1819. Highest seed cotton yield was significantly registered by combination of genotype TCH 1819 with the high density spacing of 80 × 10 cm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1357-1362
T Suganya and P Muthulakshmi
Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Banana (Musa spp) is an important fruit crop which cultivated throughout the world. Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Synder and Hansen) is considered as a major destructive disease of banana. To develop an efficient biocontrol method for management of Fusarium wilt, twenty four endophytic bacterial isolates were isolated from healthy root and rhizome plant parts of banana viz. Grand Naine, Poovan, Ney Poovan and Karpooravalli at different growth stage (3rd,5th, 7th month after planting of different banana cultivar). The two effective endophytic isolates viz. Bacillus subtilis (GNBS3) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KVPf1) were screened against Foc under in vitro condition by using Dual culture technique (GNBS3, KVPf1 -73.33, 84.44% inhibition over control) and Agar well diffusion assay (GNBS3, KVPf1 -62.22, 56.66 inhibition percentage) respectively. The effect of selected endophytes against Foc was evaluated under glass house condition. Among the different combinations used, Pseudomonas fluorescens (KVPf1) + TNAU BS1 showed the lowest wilt incidence of 27.09 Per cent whereas the highest wilt incidence of 75.27 Per cent was observed in untreated control. The enzymatic activities on treated plants were observed at different days to evaluate the induction of defense related enzymes viz. PO, PPO, PAL and Catalase. The maximum enzymatic activities were recorded in plants after 7 days of inoculation, thereafter the enzyme activity found to be decreased progressively. The studies on defense related enzymes will provide a better understanding of resistant mechanism by plants against the pathogen.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1363-1367
D Narayanasamy and V Vakeswaran
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted on Rice variety TKM 13 in Wetland Farm, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2017 to study the effect of different plant growth regulators (Cycocel 1000 ppm, Paclobutrazol 200 ppm, Lihocin 750 ppm and Brassinosteroid 0.6 ppm) on the tillering characters, physiological characters and seed yield. The results indicated that foliar application of Brassinosteroid 0.6 ppm and Paclobutrazol 200 ppm at completion of secondary tillers emergence significantly inhibit the growth of late formed tillers and promoted the growth of primary and secondary tillers at the middle and late growth stages and promoted the development of heavy panicles and finally increased the seed yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1368-1370
Sahdev Nag, Gaind Lal and Bhashkar Sahu
Department of Agrometeorology, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present investigation deals with the model have been also developed by Principal Component Analysis on districts level and zone level as well. Models fitted with 2 Principal Components (PC1 and PC2) and Time trend (T). Models are highly significant and R2 value 85% for Chickpea and for Chhattisgarh plain Zone is also highly significant at 1% level of significance. The present investigation covers under the study of individual effect of weather variables, joint effect of weather variables forecasting model developed through stepwise regression technique following the concept of older studies by the different scientists in this direction for many crops. The principal component analysis has been also taken for the development of forecasting model. But in this section only Principal Component Analysis covered for the model development.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1371-1376
Sakha Ram Shori, H V Puranik and Hemant Kumar Sinha
Department of Agricultural Meteorology, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The knowledge of distribution of dry spells and amount of rainfall during wet spell is very much essential for successful management of agriculture. The information on amount of rainfall during wet spell is useful for storage purpose based on the magnitude of dry spells and drought severity. For this study, 57 stations long term rainfall data were collected from Department of Agrometeorology and last 3 years kharif crop data were collected from DES (Directorate of Economics and Statistics). Dry spell length and trend analysis were computed though O-resource, software and Mann-kendall method. The result revealed that Balodabazar, Dhamtari, Jashpur and Raipur showed significant negative trend for highest spell, total spell and total days in less than critical values while Bilaspur and Gariyaband showed significant positive trend for highest spell, total spell and total days in more than critical values. Most of tehsil showed non-significant trend for highest spell, total spell and total days in both less & more than critical value. Dhamtari tehsil showed significant negative trend for highest spell, total spell and total days in less than critical values while Bagicha and Pathalgaon showed significant positive trend for highest spell, total spell and total days in more than critical values. Based on above analysis proper planning for agricultural crops and water management require during the monsoon period.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1377-1381
M M Deshmukh, B B Bhosle and B V Bhede
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In order to study the influence of weather parameters on population dynamics of pod borer complex, Helicoverpa armigera, Melanagromyza obtusa and Exelastis atomosa, the present investigation was carried out during kharif 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Department of Agricultural Entomology, Vasantarao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani. The simple correlation worked out between pod borer complex and weather parameters, revealed that population of H. armigera and M. obtusa were significantly influenced by maximum and minimum temperature whereas, rest of the parameters were non-significant. The population of E. atomosa were unaffected by all weather parameters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1382-1386
D Kiruthika and *P S Geetha
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, *Department of Differently Abled Studies, Community Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Cereal and millets form the basic diet for millions of people throughout the world. They are major sources of inexpensive dietary energy and nutrients worldwide. As the use of millets is on rise, the present study focused on the development of butter milk based sorghum beverage. The standardization of Buttermilk based spiced sorghum beverage was attempted and prepared by gelatinizing sorghum flour and roasted Bengal gram flour with butter milk and addition of spices. Different lots of sorghum paste and buttermilk incorporated beverages offered for organoleptic evaluation. Based on hedonic 9 scale and mean score results revealed that over all acceptability was high in the combination of (20 SF:80 BM) and it had the mean score of 8.3 which denoted ‘like very much’. The storage study was performed for a period of one week during which physico-chemical parameters and microbiological analysis and stability were analyzed. In the freshly prepared beverage (100ml), the protein and fat content was 3.82g and 3.06g, pH was 4.64, acidity (0.15%), fibre (2.41g), Reducing sugar 0.82 g and the phytate content was 4.98 mg and minerals (Fe 3.74 mg, Ca 37.8 mg and P 102.51 mg and Mg 55.93 mg) and total antioxidant 90.24 mg/100g, polyphenols14.65 mg GAE/g, flavonoids 11.42 mg QE/100g. The stability studies concluded that pectin added samples had the lowest whey layer separation compared with control. The nutritional composition of formulated spiced buttermilk based sorghum beverage was superior to commercial spiced buttermilk due to incorporation of millets and protein rich Bengal gram. The total plate count (TPC), yeast and mould count, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were observed for fresh beverage and 7th day of storage. Observed results concluded bacterial colonies were found in TPC 4-6x 102 cfu/ml within the safety level, 12-28 x 106 cfu/ml LAB colonies were observed due to the addition of buttermilk. The Yeast-mould and coliform count were nil which was indicative for hygienic conditions were followed during production, processing, handling and storage. The method standardized for production of buttermilk based sorghum beverage is very simple and can be applied for industrial production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1387-1390
S Suguna and T Sherene
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Tiruchirapalli - 620 027, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The present study aims at assessing the seawater intrusion along the coastal blocks – Parangipettai, Kumaratchi, Kurinjipodi and Bhuvangiri blocks of Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu. Fifty two groundwater samples were collected from the above blocks during May 2017 and analyzed for the following parameters/ions, viz. Hydrogen-ion concentration (pH), EC, TDS, Ca, Mg, K, Na, K, CO3, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. The general quality of groundwater for drinking purpose was presented. To delineate the seawater intrusion in the study area, Ca/Mg, Cl (CO3 + HCO3), Na/Cl ratios were used. The details of criteria for recognition of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers of the study area were presented and discussed. It is observed that sodium or magnesium is the dominant cation and chloride or bicarbonate is the dominant anion in the study area. According to hydro geochemical ratio the study area seems to be contaminated with seawater intrusion and also this contamination is due to marine source of origin.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1391-1395
R Rasakumar and S Somasundaram
Department of Agronomy, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tiruchirapalli - 620 027, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2016-18 at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Tiruchirappalli to evaluate five deficit irrigation levels with three greengram varieties (CO 8, VBN 2 and VBN 3) in sodic soil. The field experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The results revealed that, regarding growth parameters high and comparable plant height, number of branches plant-1, leaf area index and dry matter production was produced by application of 6 irrigations (300 mm) by all furrow method @ 50mm per irrigation at all the growth stages and deficit application of 6 irrigations (150 mm) by skip furrow method @ 25mm per irrigation at all the growth stages. Higher growth parameters like plant height, number of branches plant-1, LAI and finally dry matter production was registered with VBN 3, followed by VBN 2 and lower levels were recorded with CO 8. Regarding grain yield, deficit application of 6 irrigations (150 mm) by skip furrow method @ 25 mm per irrigation (857 kg ha-1) recorded comparable yield with the highest yield (886 kg ha-1) produced by full irrigation of 6 irrigations (300 mm) by all furrow method @ 50 mm per irrigation given at all the growth stages viz. sowing, life irrigation, vegetative, flowering, pod formation and maturity. The yield difference was only 3 per cent. Regarding varieties, VBN 3 excelled producing 745 kg ha-1, followed by VBN 2 and CO 8. Thus in sodic soil for higher productivity VBN 3 may be recommend with deficit application of 6 irrigations (150 mm) by skip furrow method @ 25 mm per irrigation at all the growth stages.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1396-1402
B T Rayudu, M K Akshatha, D V S Reddy and Sreenath Dixit
ICAR-Agricultural Technology Application Research Institute, Zone XI, Hebbal, Bengaluru - 560 024, Karnataka
Abstract
Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) of Tamil Nadu have implemented 840 Cluster Frontline Demonstrations (CFLDs) in 336 ha on blackgram during rabi seasons of 2015-16 and 2016-17 wherein latest varieties viz. VBN-5, VBN-6, VBN-8, MDU-1 and ADT-5 along with production technologies were demonstrated. Demonstration yield was found higher in both years of rabi seasons viz. 2015-16 (8.32 q/ha) and 2016-17 (7.22 q/ha) as compared to check. Highest average demo yield was recorded in Virudhunagara (11.19 q/ha) during rabi 2015-16, whereas it was in Pudukottai (9.61 q/ha) during rabi 2016-17. However, the net returns and demo BCR were found to be highest in Karur and Pudukottai during rabi seasons of 2015-16 and 2016-17, respectively. MDU–1 gave highest average yield (11.19 q/ha) during rabi 2015-16, whereas VBN-8 yielded highest (8.81 q/ha) during rabi 2016-17. Demonstrated technologies were found to be more relevant in existing farming situation of Tiruvallur and Cuddalore districts. Farmers appreciated the demonstrated varieties due to their resistance to yellow mosaic virus and synchronized maturity. Training and extension activities had created awareness among 4458 farmers on blackgram production technologies. Results indicate that CFLDs were helpful in bridging yield gap thereby increase productivity and production of blackgram across the districts in Tamil Nadu.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1403-1408
Majjiga Komala, N Meenakshi Ganesan and M Kumar
Department of Cotton, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The development of cotton hybrids with improved fibre length, strength and fibre fineness is paramount to meet the current demands of the modernized spinning mills. In order to achieve this, the knowledge on heterotic effects for fibre quality traits of genotypes is prerequisite. On the other hand, the study of cotton ratooning is important in order to minimize the production costs. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the expression of mean performance and heterotic effects for fibre quality traits in first crop and its ratoon. The results from line x tester analysis revealed the presence of considerable genetic variation with respect to various fibre quality traits and significant differences for all the traits except for elongation percentage and fibre fineness in both first crop and ratoon crop and the hybrids are superior to the parents for all the fibre quality traits in both first crop and ratoon crop. Among the 28 hybrids ARBC 19 × COD 5-1-2 and TSH 0499 × COD 5-1-2 hybrids expressed the highest heterotic effects for fibre fineness and BGDS 1063 × MCU 9 hybrid exhibited fair heterotic effects for elongation percentage in both first crop and ratoon crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1409-1411
Kirti Khatri and Poorva Dashora
Department of Family Resource Management, College of Home Science, SKRAU, Bikaner - 334 006, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Thus it can be summarized that house dust mites are the responsible factor for various types of diseases like respiratory, skin and other allergic diseases. Improper sanitary and hygienic conditions were the causative factors for this. Various types of control measures such as physical or environmental and chemical are available but because of their life style these measures are unsuitable for the rural people. Herbal seeds extract is the best option in controlling dust mites such as Karanja, neem and castor etc. which showed highest dust mites mortality rate. These seeds are locally available due to which they are cost-effective and eco-friendly in nature. The application of these seed extracts will be helpful in improving the sanitary practices of rural people and at the same time will reduce the health problems and enhance the quality of life. Hence an effort will be made to find out the suitable herbal extracts for the control of house dust mites among rural households.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 9 - Issue : 6 ; 1412-1416
Akanchha Singh and *Basavaprabhu Jirli
Department of Agricultural Communication, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 153, Uttarakhand, India *Department of Extension Education, IAS, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
Information and communication are two words that are connecting the whole world and agriculture sector is not devoid of it. Agriculture includes different subsystems including knowledge generating, knowledge disseminating and knowledge consuming sub-systems. With the passage of time and developments role of major stakeholders of different sub-systems has changed as so as the role of ICT. In order to balance their roles, proper information dissemination as well as utilization of information is the pre-requisite. There is a need to have proper interaction among the stakeholders of different sub-systems which includes agricultural students, researchers, extension professionals and ultimately farmers. ICT use in the Agricultural Universities has increased, students and teachers are aware and use modern technologies. Similar is the case with extension agents. Extension professionals now show an affirmative attitude toward integration of ICT with conventional extension service. Farmers get benefitted by using ICT as well as they get a platform to interact with experts. They can raise their queries as well as get solution in a timely manner. Considering these aspects it can be observed that there is a shift in perception of different stakeholders regarding ICT. However even after shifting perception, various negative impacts are still associated with the use of ICT in agriculture. Highlighting these issues and findings, the present paper is an attempt to review the researches done on ICT with key preference to changing perception, awareness and use of ICT by different stakeholders of agriculture.


NAAS

Rating

4.54

ISSN (Print)
0976-1675
ISSN (Online)
2249-4538
Visitor Number
956043