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Volume - 10 - January-February 2019
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 01-07
Koushik Saha1* and Subhalaxmi Mishra2
1Division of Vegetable Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka 2Department of Vegetable Science, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
Abstract
The interference from devastating biotic and abiotic stresses in fruit and vegetable crops causes reduced plant growth, yield and quality. Substantial improvement in fruit and vegetable crops against these stresses has been accomplished through conventional breeding approaches. However several insect-pests and bacterial, fungal and viral diseases are continuing to pose threat to the cultivation. Conventional breeding approaches are also time consuming and labor intensive. Use of genetic engineering techniques forms a novel approach for enhancing fruit quality and nutritional status in shorter time. Among the various genetic engineering techniques, RNA interference (RNAi) technology is a promising gene regulatory approach in functional genomics which permits down-regulation of gene expression with great precision without affecting the expression of other genes which ultimately can lead to significant improvement in fruit crops. This technology serve as evolutionarily conserved defence mechanism occurring naturally against double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that can target cellular and viral mRNAs resulting in inhibition of transcription and translational repression. Further this approach facilitates the identification of target gene and related pathways and also development of vectors for RNAi constructs for transformation and evaluation of lines for screening desired traits.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 08-12
Lenika Kashyap, *Gulzar Singh Sanghera and Anuradha
Regional Research Station (Punjab Agricultural University), Kapurthala - 144 601, Punjab, India
Abstract
Effect of variety and season was assessed on cane yield and quality parameters in sugarcane crop for maturity under subtropical conditions. Twelve sugarcane clones/varieties representing both early and mid-late maturity group were evaluated for different cane yield components and quality traits during autumn (2015-2016) and spring (2016-17) seasons. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among varieties and seasons for all the cane and sugar yield parameters except purity. Among varieties, quality parameters viz. the average pol (%) juice, CCS (%) and sugar yields CCS (t/ha) of the varieties of autumn planted crop were 8.0, 9.0 and 17.5 per cent higher than spring planted crop. Cane yield of autumn planted crop was 9.1% higher than the spring planted crop. However, variety × season interactions showed that significant differences exist for all the studied traits. This clearly suggests superiority of autumn planting over spring planting in subtropical conditions both from cane yield and recovery point of view. Thus to harness better sugar recovery, the cultivation of early maturing varieties like CoPb 14181, CoPb 92 and Co 0118 should be encouraged for autumn planting as such a variety produces more sugar per unit area and that too in less period of time as compared to mid-late maturing varieties.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 13-17
P Chandramani
Department of Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kudumiyanmalai - 622 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
SEM observation in the silicon treated plants revealed the presence of dumbbell shaped or ladder-like silica cells and small scattered silica cells. In the cross-section of Si-treated leaf, silica cells and cork cells were found to occur in the epidermal layer above and below the vascular bundles. Silicon was polymerized as SiO2. H2O inside the silica cells and bulliform cells in the Si-treated leaf, but the untreated leaves had no silica bodies in those cells. The cell wall thickness recorded was 638.32µm in the calcium silicate 200 kg/ha with foliar spray of 0.25% SMS treated plants as compared to untreated check (447.62µm) observed through TEM. The induced cytological factors had an influence on the incidence of leaf folder Cnaphlacrocis medinali (Guenee ) infestation in rice. The result of field experiment conducted with different silicon sources revealed that the population was significantly less in the treatment with basal application of calcium silicate 200 kg/ha and foliar spray of 0.25% SMS (3.78%) sprayed during critical phases of the crop. Similarly, area fed by the leaf folder was significantly less in calcium silicate 200 kg/ha with foliar spray of 0.25% SMS (3.60/mm2) followed by the calcium silicate 150 kg/ha with foliar spray of 0.25% SMS (4.50/mm2) as against 16.80/mm2 in the untreated check as confirmed through pot culture experiment. Further, the presence of more number of silicified cells in the plants treated with silicon nutrition is significantly negatively correlated with the incidence of leaf folder (r = -0.79318).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 18-21
B G Shekara*, P Prakash, P Mahadevu, N Manasa and N M Chikkarugi
AICRP on Forage Crops, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A filed experiment was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research station, Visweswaraiah Canal Farm, Mandya (Karnataka) during kharif-2015. The pooled data revealed that the planting geometry of 60 cm × 60 cm significantly recorded higher green forage yield (247.59 q ha-1), dry matter yield (57.71 q ha-1), and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen (662 kg green fodder yield per kg of Nitrogen). The same treatment recorded higher net monetary returns (₹ 8560 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.52). Application of nitrogen 30 kg ha-1 after each cut significantly recorded higher green forage and dry matter yield (301.44 q and 73.26 q ha-1 respectively), crude protein yield (3.97 q ha-1) and net monetary returns (₹ 13315 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.89). The agronomic efficiency of nitrogen was higher with application of nitrogen 10 kg ha-1 after each cut (764 kg green fodder yield per kg of nitrogen).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 22-28
Sumaira Shafi* and Mushtaq A Wani
Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Distributions of different forms of potassium were investigated in soils under different land use systems through laboratory experiments. Soil samples from district Baramulla were collected using GPS. The mean content of water soluble potassium was 0.05, 0.07, 0.02, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.07 (cmolc kg-1), available potassium was 0.35, 0.45, 0.13, 0.24, 0.42 and 0.41(cmolc kg-1), exchangeable was 0.31, 0.38, 0.11, 0.21, 0.37 and 0.34 (cmolc kg-1), fixed (HNO3) potassium was 4.42, 4.23, 2.11, 3.61, 4.32 and 4.70 (cmolc kg-1), non-exchangeable potassium was 4.07, 3.78, 1.98, 3.37, 3.90 and 4.29 (cmolc kg-1) and total potassium was 34.80, 43.40, 31.83, 34.38, 35.60 and 39.17 (cmolc kg-1) in apple, paddy, maize, vegetables, forest and pasture, respectively. All the forms of potassium were correlated significantly with each other.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 29-32
T N Koushalya* and K N Geetha
Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in the premises of Research and Development Farm of M/s Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Limited, K. M. Doddi, Mandya District during Kharif-2017, under assured rainfall condition to study the economic evaluation of finger millet as influenced by treated sugar mill effluent and application of soil amendments. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with eleven treatments replicated thrice. One time application of treated sugar mill effluent 20 days before transplanting is common for all the treatments. Vermicompost @ 3 t ha-1 + press mud @ 5 t ha-1 recorded higher cost of cultivation (₹ 64500 ha-1) followed by 75% RDF + vermicompost @ 3 t ha-1 (₹ 58450 ha-1), higher gross returns and net returns were recorded with application of 75% RDF + press mud @ 5 t ha-1 (₹ 113708 ha-1 and ₹ 75258 ha-1, respectively) over all other treatments and highest B:C ratio was noticed in 75% RDF + press mud @ 5 t ha-1 (3.0) followed by 75% RDF + balanced P through inorganic fertilizer (2.9).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 33-36
P Jeevarekha*, R Sathy and R Pangayar Selvi
Department of Physical Science and Information Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Maize (primarily known as corn) is the third important food cash crop after Rice and wheat in India. The state Tamil Nadu is one of the emerging producers in India. The study aims to find the appropriate model for fitting and forecasting of area, production and yield of maize in Tamil Nadu among different parametric-linear, nonlinear and time-series models. The secondary time series data on area, production and productivity of maize for the period of 1965-66 to 2015-16 was taken for the study. Root mean square error and Mean absolute error were used to find the appropriate model. ARIMA (0,1,1) was found suitable to fit the trends in area, production and productivity of maize in Tamil Nadu.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 37-39
Thimmegowda M N, Mudalagiriyappa*, Vasanthi B G, Devaraja K, Savitha M S and Shree Harsha Kumar S S
All India Co-ordinated Rresearch Project for Dryland Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Studies were conducted at Dryland Agriculture Project, UAS, Bengaluru during Kharif seasons of 2010-2011 to 2017-2018. Four important nutri-cereals crop viz. foxtail millet, little millet, prosomillet and kodomillet of Southern dry Zone of Karnataka were demonstrated as contingent crops for aberrant weather conditions under rainfed situations. The crops were sown during first week of September. The rainfall varied over the years viz. normal rainfall (4 years), drought condition (2 years) and above normal rainfall (2 years). Higher average yield was recorded with kodomillet (1903 kg ha-1) during the normal year followed by little millet (935 kg ha-1), foxtail millet (918 kg ha-1) and prosomillet (560 kg ha-1). Under drought condition the deviation in rainfall was -38.19 and -24.5 percent than normal rainfall during the year 2012-13 and 2016-17, respectively with 7 and 5 days dryspells, respectively during the crop growth stage. On an average highest little millet yield of 814 kg ha-1 was recorded followed by 374 kg ha-1of kodomillet, 330 kg ha-1of foxtail millet and 205 kg ha-1 of prosomillet during these dry years. During 2015-16 and 2017-18 where in there was an excess of 15.6 and 21.6 percent rainfall than the normal. The yield performance of different minor millet showed higher yield in foxtail millet followed by little millet, kodomillet and prosomillet. The pooled results indicated that growing of kodomillet under normal rainfall condition, little millet during drought and foxtail millet under excess rainfall situation was found more suitable as they fetched higher yield and net returns.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 40-45
R Ranjani*, A Rathinasamy1, K Balakrishnan2, A Subbiah3 and P P Mahendran4
Department of Soils and Environment, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu 1Dean I/c, SRS Institute of Agriculture and Technology, Vedasandur - 624 710, Tamil Nadu 2Department of Seed Technology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu 3Grape Research Station, Anaimalaiyanpatty, Theni - 625 526, Tamil Nadu 4Dean I/c, Mother Therasa College of Agriculture, Illuppur - 622 102, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Downy mildew and anthracnose are major threatening disease which affects the grapevines. For the management of disease grape growing farmers are being followed the application of Cu based fungicides like Bordeaux mixture, copper oxy chloride copper sulphate and copper hydroxides. The present study was carried out to delineate the areas of Cu toxicity in three major grape growing blocks (Cumbum, Uthamapalayam and Chinnamanur) of Theni district. The soil samples collected were analyzed for various soil properties, available macro and micro nutrients. Simple correlations were worked out to determine the interrelationship between available Cu and soil parameters. The analytical results revealed that the DTPA extractable Cu ranged from 6.21 to 120.63 mg kg-1 in surface soil due to less mobility. Among the soil properties OC, CEC and clay had positive influence on the availability of copper in soil and pH and CaCO3 were found to be negatively correlated with available copper. Hence, it was evident from the study that Cu toxicity is a major concern in grape growing areas of Theni district.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 46-49
P S Wajge, A R Wagh and *S N Chaudhari
Department of Food Science and Technology, K. K. Wagh College of Food Technology, Nashik - 422 003, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present study reports on the possibility or suitability of Beetroot pulp with tomato pulp for ketchup preparation. The study attempts to develop a nutritious and healthy food product. Beetroot incorporated tomato ketchup with various formulations was prepared and all were evaluated by sensory analysis for acceptability. Materials required for it were beetroot, tomato, spices, vinegar, sugar, salt, onion powder and garlic powder. Three different samples A, B and C were prepared with different ratio of Beetroot pulp: tomato pulp in 40%:60%, 50%:50% and 60%:40% respectively for each sample while the proportions of the other ingredients were kept constant for the ketchup formulation. Sensory analysis was performed for each sample by 9 point hedonic scale. Sensory analysis sample prepared with 40% beetroot pulp and 60% tomato pulp found highest acceptability. The sample with highest sensory acceptability analyzed for moisture, ash, pH, acidity, protein content, carbohydrate content etc. Thus, beetroot pulp can be incorporated in the formulation of tomato ketchup which in turn also help in increasing the overall nutritive value.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 50-57
C Tamilarasan*, K Raja, K S Subramanian1 and P Selvaraju
Department of Seed Science and Technology, 1Department of Nano Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In order to develop polymer based hormones loaded nano formulation, natural polymer carboxymethyl cellulose and growth promoting hormone Indole acetic acid were used to prepare conventional formulation, the same were subjected to high pressure homogenization from 10000 to 40000 bar of which 40000 bar pressure homogenization nano formulation were found superior. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) confirmed the presence of loaded hormones. The prepared formulation dose was optimization by coating on the groundnut seeds as formulation CMC based IAA loaded nano formulation and formulation were coated at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 ml kg-1 of seed. The results revealed that formulation coated seeds with 15 ml each kg-1 recorded higher rate of imbibition, speed of emergence, germination per cent, shoot length, root length, vigour index, α-amylase and lipase activity with optimum coating efficiency. Best results obtained from the following research work through nano formulation on agriculture especially in seed quality; hence we can recommend nano particles and nano formulations for agricultural field to improve production and quality by advanced nano techniques.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 58-61
Pramod Parwate, M L Sharma1 and N S Wazire2
Subject Matter Specialist (Extension Education), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sakoli, Bhandara, Maharashtra, India 1Department of Agricultural Extension, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 2Subject Matter Specialist (Entomology), KrIshi Vigyan Kendra, Sakoli, Bhandara, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Kisan Credit Card (KCC) emerged as an innovative credit delivery mechanism to meet out production credit requirements of the farmers in a timely and adequate manner. Realizing its potential for simplifications of loan procedures and in reducing the drudgery of cumbersome documentations to issue the Kisan Credit Cards to farmers on the basis of their holding for uniform adoption by the banks so that the farmers may use them to readily purchase agricultural inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc., and draw cash for their production needs. The present investigation was carried out during the year 2009, in two purposively selected block of Raipur district of Chhattisgarh state with 120 KCC holders. The results reveled that the, maximum percentage of knowledge (98.75%) was noted for inbuilt crop insurance facility in KCC, followed by mode and method of loan repayment (96.00%), whereas, minimum percentage of knowledge (59.86%) was observed for rate of interest for KCC loan, followed by use of KCC (60.83%). However, the overall percentage of knowledge on various aspects about KCC was recorded to be 84.30 per cent among the respondents.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 62-66
R Sharmiladevi* and V Ravikumar
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, TNAU, Kumulur, Tiruchirappalli - 621 712, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
A study was formulated for the field verification of nitrogen schedule developed from HYDRUS modeling under subsurface drip irrigated paddy crop. The estimated total nitrogen requirement from the scheduling was 240 Kg/ha. The schedule was also field verified with other methods of irrigation like surface drip irrigation and flood irrigation. From the results the developed schedule was best performed in flood irrigation with higher paddy yield of 4.92 t/ha followed by surface drip irrigation with paddy yield of 3.46 t/ha. Lowest paddy yield of 1.40 t/ha was recorded in the subsurface drip irrigation treatment. Increased plant height, highest number of tillers and panicles, and increased number of filled grains are the cause for more paddy yield and straw yield in flood irrigation treatment. Greater 1000 grain weight and lowest number of unfilled grains were observed in surface drip irrigation treatment. Highest water use efficiency of 5.45 Kg/ha mm was recorded in surface drip irrigation treatment and highest nitrogen use efficiency of 20.5 Kg/kg of N was observed in flood irrigation treatment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 67-72
P Gayathri* and P Saravana Pandian
Department of Soils and Environment, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field trial was conducted to study the interaction effect of phosphorus and sulphur on improving the productivity of Blackgram in Peelamedu soil series of Madurai district, during Kharif season 2017. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design with three replication having 25 treatmental combinations viz. five levels of phosphorus (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 Kg P2O5 ha-1 applied through Di ammonium phosphate) as factor A and five levels of sulphur (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 Kg S per ha-1 applied through elemental sulphur) as factor B. Experimental results revealed that growth and yield attributing characters were significantly influenced by phosphorus and sulphur levels. Application of P upto 60 kg ha-1 and increasing levels of sulphur upto 40 kg ha-1 proved to be the best in improving the growth and yield characters. Higher dose of phosphorus and sulphur does not increase the parameters further. Thus, Interaction of phosphorus and sulphur exhibited a strong synergistic relationship at P60 S40 kg ha-1 on growth and yield of blackgram (VBN 4) with grain yield of (1120 kg ha-1) and halum yield of (1713 kg ha-1) in Peelamedu soil series of Madurai District.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 73-77
R Susan Poonguzhali* and P Saravana Pandian
Department of Soils and Environment, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at the farmer’s field located at Mavillipatti village of Thirumangalam block, Madurai District during March-June, 2017 to evaluate the response of groundnut to foliar and soil application of boron in boron deficient soil series (Irugur) of Madurai district in a randomized block design with three replications. The experimental soil comes under the taxonomical class of sandy clay loam with the medium level of available soil nutrients such as N, P and K. Twelve treatments were taken in the field and the results revealed that the application of 15 kg ha-1 of B as soil application plus 0.5% foliar application of B at critical stages of crop growth along with the RDF increased the plant height at all the three stages of crop growth (34.6, 54.9 and 61.7 cm), number of branches plant-1 (14.5), number of nodules plant-1 (107.6), numbers of pods plant -1 (71.9), pod length and width (3.4 and 1.8 cm), 100 seed weight (29.7), pod yield (1998 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (2994 kg ha-1). Therefore the enhanced growth, yield and yield parameters of groundnut might be due to the application of B at critical stages of crop growth as it plays a major role for plant growth and development.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 78-81
S Priyanka*, P Kalaiselvi, S Paul Sebastein, E Parameswari and T Kalaiselvi1
Department of Environmental Sciences, 1Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in Papampalayam village of Uthukuli block in Tirupur district during Rabi (2017-2018) using YRCH-1 hybrid castor (Ricinus communis L.) as a test crop to evaluate the sustainable management of textile effluent contaminated soil with addition of organic amendments (Farm yard manure, vermicompost, composted pressmud, Green leaf manure (Daincha) and AM fungi along with NPK fertilizers. The yield and yield attributes were significantly improved and maximum seed yield of 2113 kg ha-1 was recorded in the treatment T8. The quality parameters like oil content (48.8%) and seed crude protein (31.9%) was also improved. The salient finding from this study could be concluded that reclaiming a textile effluent affected soil priming with mycorrhizal inoculant and different organic amendments helps in the successful establishment of the crop growth and reclaimed the fertility of the soil on a sustainable basis.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 82-85
H R Raveendra, L Vijaykumar, *N M Chikkarugi and H G Umashankar
AICRP on Small Millets, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2017 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Vishweswaraiah Canal Farm, Mandya (Karnataka), to study the seasonal incidence of blast diseases and earhead caterpillars on finger millet. The experiment comprising four different dates of sowing viz. 15th June, 2017, 1st of July, 2017, 15th of July 2017 and 2nd august, 2017 with eight promising genotypes of finger millet viz. PR-202 × GE1409, KMR-204, Indaf-5 × GE2712, Indaf-5 × GE2656, Indaf-5 × GE1409, Indaf-5 × GE2936, KMR-301 and KM-252. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications under irrigated situations with spacing of 22.5 × 10 cm, between rows and plants, respectively. Studies on effect of incidence of major diseases revealed that, less than 10 per cent of the neck blast recorded by PR-202 × GE1409, KMR-204, Indaf-5 × GE1409 and KMR-301 with respect to finger blast, the lines such as PR-202 × GE1409 and KMR-301 showed more than 15 per cent of finger blast during first fortnight and second fortnight of June, 2017 and most of the genotypes/ lines showed less than 1% foot rot, resulted these genotypes/varieties can be recommended to foot rot endemic areas to check the foot rot problems. The genotypes viz. PR-202 x GE1409 and KMR-301 were found significantly lower level of incidence to ear head caterpillars compare to the other genotypes during different dates of sowing carried out during the season.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 86-90
R Vishnu Priya, G Ravi1* and K Elanchezhyan
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Killikulam, Vallanadu, Thoothukudi - 628 252, Tamil Nadu 1Department of Plant Protection, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Tiruchirapalli - 600 027, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Brinjal, Solanum melongena L, is a commercial grown vegetable crop cultivated by the farmers since several years. Farmers relay mainly on pesticides for the management of L. orbonalis, one of the major destructive pest. The light of increasingawareness on organic farming and organic produce, the area under organic farming is in expanding stage in different state in India. The present study was taken to document and to understand the ITK practices of farmers growing organic brinjal in different districts in Tamil Nadu. Majority of the farmers 65.42 per cent who are practicing farmers are medium category land holding of 2 to 10 hectare and 86.70 per cent of farmers interview depend organic agriculture as main source of Income. Use 14 different soil amendments/foliar spray to meet out the nutrient requirement of the organic brinjal crop. The cow based ITK product Panchagavya is a major source of nutrient substitute used by 73 percent of the farmers. They use around 14 different ITK concoctions in rotation for the management of L. orbonalis. Most commonly used ITK concoctions were Meenamilam (10 mi/lit), Neem oil (2 ml/lit), Ginger-Garlic extracts (5 ml/lit), Ten leaf extract (16.4%) moor karaisal (100 ml/lit) pungam oil (30 ml/lit), tobacco leaf extract (30 ml/lit) Agniasthiram (30 ml/lit) and Neemastram (25 ml/lit). A Meenamilam ITK concoctionis used by 75 per cent of the farmers survived across the Tamil Nadu. The present study indicates availability of an array of ITK concoctions used by the organic farmers for the management of L. orbonalis in brinjal. The information generated in the present study will be useful in designing organic IPM module for the pest management in brinjal and organic vegetable cultivation in general.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 91-94
D Indhu Mathi*
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Killikulam, Vallanadu - 628 252, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Studies made during the main season (rabi) showed that the interaction between damage and weather parameters like relative humidity, rain fall, minimum temperature, sunshine, relative humidity and evaporation. The correlation studies between shoot damage and weather parameters in respect of the rabi 2016 season, relative humidity (%) and rainfall (ml) were found to have a positive correlation (r =0.409) and (r = 0.309) with the shoot damage whereas maximum temperature (r = -0.264), minimum temperature (r = -0.192), sunshine (hrs) (r = -0.524), wind speed (kmph) (r = -0.010), evaporation (r = -0.351) showed negative correlation. The influence of sunshine and relative humidity on L. orbonalis incidence was found significant. The correlation studies between fruit damage (based on weight) and weather parameters in respect of the rabi 2016 season, maximum temperature (r = 0.460) minimum temperature (r = 0.541), rain fall (r = 0.301) and evaporation (r = 0.272) were found to have positive correlation with the fruit damage whereas sunshine (r = -0.489), wind speed (r = -0.417) and relative humidity (r = -0.215) showed negative correlation. The influence was found to be significant except for the minimum temperature. The correlation studies between moth catches and weather parameters, minimum temperature (r = 0.187) sunshine hours (r = 0.038), and evaporation (r = 0.0566) were found to have positive correlation with the trap catches whereas the rainfall (r = - 0.209), maximum temperature (r = -0.007), wind speed (r = -0.374) and relative humidity (r = -0.001) showed the negative correlation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 95-99
R K Likhith, G Alagarasan, M Raveendran and S Rajesh*
Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Mung bean (Vigna radiata R. Wilczek) is one of the important legume crops grown in India. Mung bean has capacity to survive under water deficit conditions, because of the expression of genes that encode proteins, which are involved in the protection of cells and cellular organelles. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are one such group of proteins, which play a role in desiccation tolerance of mung bean. In this study, LEA gene expression studies were carried out in vivo, in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The LEA gene (EMV-1), isolated from the mung bean was sequenced and characterized as Group 1 LEA proteins based on the presence of characteristic 20-mer conserved motif in tandem repeats. The EMV-1 gene was cloned into the pET 28 a (+), followed by its transformation into the BL21 (DE3) bacterial expression system and subsequently selected on LB media supplemented with kanamycin. Further, the E. coli cells harbouring EMV-1 LEA gene was subjected to salt stress with NaCl at varied concentrations from 0 mM to 600 mM. There was decrease in number of colonies with the increase in the concentration of NaCl, indicating that mung bean LEA protein encoded by EMV-1 gene is functional and survival of E. coli deciphers the cell protection ability of EMV-1 under salt stress.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 100-103
Neethu G Raj*, C Muthiah1 and D S Rajavel2
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India 1Horticultural Research Station, Thadiyankudisai - 624 212, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India 2Regional Research Station, Aruppukottai - 626 101, Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif and Rabi 2017-18 seasons at farmer field at Seekananthal village of Kariyapatti block in Virudhunagar district of Tamil Nadu, India to study the efficacy of newer insecticides and botanicals against onion thrips. Fipronil 5 SC @ 1.5 ml/l was the most effective treatment in reducing thrips followed by Spinosad 45 SC @ 0.25 ml/l. Among the botanicals Neem oil 3% and NSKE 5% were effective against onion thrips. The highest bulb yield was recorded in the treatment of Spinosad 45 SC @ 0.25 ml/l (8.57 tonnes/ha) followed by Fipronil 5 SC @ 1.5 ml/l (8.37 tonnes/ha). The highest cost benefit ratio was also obtained in the treatment Spinosad 45 SC @ 0.25 ml/l (14.76) followed by Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 0.25 ml/l (14.20) under field condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 104-107
Punit Kumar Agarwal* and Upendra Kumar
Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Ranchi - 834 008, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out in Dhanwar block of Giridih district, Jharkhand during the year 2016-17. The study investigated the productivity and profitability of brinjal cultivation in Dhanwar block of Giridih District, Jharkhand. The main objectives were to analyze the cost and return structure of brinjal cultivation and to identify the major constraints faced by the farmers in brinjal cultivation. Five villages (Kailadhab, Khijarsota, Purrekh khurd, Singrdih and Purna Patari) were purposively selected on the basis of prior information and a primary survey was done to collect the information. From each village 12 farmers were selected based on their land area under brinjal cultivation. For further detail studies and thus making a sample size of 60. It was revealed from the study that the overall average cost of cultivation of brinjal per acre in dhanwar was found to be ₹ 44935.23 out of which total variable cost was ₹ 34706.59. Highest percentage expenditure was on labor costs followed by manures and fertilizers. The per acre output was 86.99 quintal. The major problems in cultivation of brinjal were insect and pest related problem. Lack of scientific knowledge followed by high cost of pesticide, Improper knowledge about fertilizer doses, Irrigation problem, Low productivity etc.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 108-111
S Kumari Mannan* and K Subrahmaniyan
Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai during Kharif 2017 to study the effect of conservation tillage and weed management practices in rice. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of three tillage practices (Minimum tillage, Zero tillage and Conventional tillage) and sub-plot included glyphosate and no glyphosate application in fallow land and three herbicide applications on cropped land was assigned in sub-sub plot. Significantly lower weed density and higher weed control efficiency was recorded under one per cent glyphosate spray on fallow land followed by conventional puddling and application of PE (Pretilachlor + Bensulphuron methyl @10 kg/ha) + POE herbicides (Bispyribac sodium @ 250 ml/ha) and as a result, higher grain yield was obtained with the same treatment. However the net return and B:C ratio was highest with one per cent glyphosate spray on fallow land followed by minimum tillage and application of PE (Pretilachlor + Bensulphuron methyl @10 kg/ha) + POE herbicides (Bispyribac sodium @ 250 ml/ha) through reduced cost of cultivation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 112-115
Darling B Suji*
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Green revolution in our country, while ushering in the much needed self-sufficiency in food production also paved way for intensive use of harmful chemical pesticides. Excessive and indiscriminate use of these chemicals played havoc with our agro ecosystems, caused numerous problems and hazards to man and his environment besides inducing resistance in insects and undesirable residues in the food stuff. One of the best alternative methods of approach to pest control is achieved by replacing the chemical pesticides by products derived from plants. These plant products also known as botanical pesticides being non persistent and biodegradable contribute admirably to the preservation of ecosystem. Among the plant products neem-based botanical pesticides occupy a unique position and these emerged as viable alternative to chemical pesticides. Today more than three dozen commercial formulations of neem are available in the Indian market. Besides neem, nearly 500 compounds derived from 275 plant species were found to have pesticidal properties. The principal barriers to commercialization of botanical pesticides include the relative scarcity or availability of the natural resources, standardization of extract and quality control based on active ingredients and special problem in regulatory approval of botanicals. A study was conducted in Kanyakumari district to find out the adoption of botanical pesticides. The data were collected from 120 farmers. More than half of the respondents were found with low level adoption of botanical pesticides. Application of neem cake and kerosene to control paddy green leaf hopper was adopted by 34.16 per cent of the respondents. The occupational status showed a positive and significant relationship with extent of adoption.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 116-119
Gwandi O*, V Kamalvanshi, Mukesh K Maurya and Saket Kushuwaha
Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
This paper explores the possibilities of optimal allocation of resources as livelihood strategies for the farmers in Varanasi Uttar Pradesh, India. The study determined the best production plan and resource allocation among food crop farmers in Uttar Pradesh India. The objective of the study was to examine the socio-economic characteristics of food crop famers and to formulate alternative farm plans for improving farm economy. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 150 food crop farmers from eight villages of the eight blocks of Varanasi District. Structured questionnaire survey was used to obtained data from the respondents in the study area. Descriptive statistics and Sen’s Multi-Objective Programming (MOP) Model was used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. The study shows that majority 96.0% were full time farmers with average mean of 46.5 years of age and 27 years of farming experience. Majority (94%) were male farmers and only 18.3% of the respondent had no formal education with average land holding of 0.73 hectares. The result of the multiple objective programming reveals that the existing average income of ₹ 58168.5 was realized while the optimal income obtained from the multi-objective programming was ₹ 61251.40 which is 5.30 per cent higher over present income. Consequently, for employment, the existing plan was 80.92 man days while the optimal plan for the maximization of employment recommends 81.32 man days which represent 0.49 per cent increase. Lastly for the minimization of fertilizer the existing plan allocated 218.97 kg of fertilizer while the optimal plan for minimization of fertilizer use recommends 204 kg which represents a marginal decrease of 6.83 per cent. It is recommended among others that the food crop farmers be educated on allocation of resources for optimum utilization to raise their level of production and income for a better livelihood.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 120-122
S K Chauhan* and Priyanka Nayak
Regional Food Research and Analysis Centre, Department of Horticulture and Food Processing, Udyan Bhawan Campus 2-Sapru Marg, Lucknow - 226 001, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a major public health concern in the elderly population around the world, particularly in women. The risk of developing osteoporosis after menopause is determined largely by the peak bone mass obtained at young adult age and by the rate of bone demineralization after menopause. Sesame seed is a rich source of calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, and vitamin B6. In the present study, a total of 100 respondents ranging between50 to 60 years (male and female) were selected from Lucknow. The selected samples were divided into two groups viz. control and experimental one, consisting of 50 subjects each. The experimental group was instructed to consume four sesame biscuits daily for a period of 6 months whereas control group not to take sesame in any form for the same period. The study revealed each sesame biscuit to contain high calcium content (129.60mg) and the control biscuits (22.70 mg). The present data provide new insights into the treatment with sesame biscuits likely to improve the minerals, specifically calcium content in osteoporotic patients, and thus suggesting sesame biscuit to be a better alternative for overcoming the calcium deficiency.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 123-126
V. Manonmani*
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore – 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An investigation was undertaken to know the seed priming effect on improving germination, vigour and yield of groundnut genotype CO 7. Seeds were treated with different priming agent’s viz. CaCl2, Borax, CaSO4, KCl and KH2PO4 distilled water and non primed seeds used as control with 4 replications for 8 h at 10-15°C. The seed quality parameters viz. germination (%), seedling length and vigour index were recorded maximum due to seeds primed with CaCl2 0.5% followed by KH2PO4 0.5%. The field emergence (%), plant population at vegetative and maturity stage, plant height (cm), chlorophyll content (SPAD Value), ,number of single and double seeded pod plant-1, seed recovery %, 100 seed weight (gm) and seed yield were enhanced by seeds primed with CaCl2 0.5% followed by KH2PO4 0.5% compared with nonprimed seeds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 127-130
Naina Majid, Zia ul Haque, M R Mir, M F Baqual, Javid A Wani1 and Shabir A Wani*
Temperate Sericulture Research Institute (TSRI), SKUAST- Kashmir, Mirgund, Jammu and Kashmir 1Division of Soil Science, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar - 191 121, J & K
Abstract
The present study was undertaken in different districts of Kashmir valley (Baramulla, Kupwara, Srinagar, Ganderbal, Anantnag and Pulwama) in order to evaluate the nutritive status of mulberry leaf. All districts lie between 34°50' North latitude and 76° 00' East longitude. Leaf samples were collected at different heights of the plant (top, middle and bottom) during spring and autumn season and biochemical analysis was carried by following standard procedure. The results revealed that biochemical and mineral composition of mulberry were more in spring season as compared to autumn. Among the biochemical constituents the protein ranged from 230.95 to 262.56 mg/g and carbohydrates ranged 74.12 to 82.77 mg/g during spring. Primary nutrients like N ranged 1.32 to 1.51%, P 0.12 to 0.19%, K 1.78 to 2.18% and secondary nutrients like S ranged 0.33 to 0.39%, Ca 184.1 to 237.0% and Mg 13.02 to 13.87% during spring season. Amongst regions maximum values were found in north followed by south to the least in central.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 131-134
Shilpa Rana, Kehar Singh Kadian and Sheela Kharkwal1*
Division of Dairy Extension, 1*Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
At present more than 75% of the milk produced in the country is being handled in the unorganized sector. Credit is a critical factor in development of dairy and agriculture sector as it enables investment in capital formation and technological upgradation. The present study was conducted to study the impact of Doodh Ganga Yojana in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh. Total 60 beneficiaries and 60 non-beneficiaries were selected. In addition 20 officials involved in implementing the scheme were selected as respondents, thus making total number of respondents were 140. The results indicated that majority of the non beneficiaries had low level of training exposure as compared to the beneficiaries which showed that training is the main component of Doodh Ganga Yojana to inculcate knowledge in the dairy farmers. Majority of the beneficiaries had high level of herd size which shows that DGY was very helpful in increasing the number of livestock in the study area. The tedious procedure for getting loan, delay in loan sanctioning, lack of awareness about the scheme among the farmers were perceived as some of the serious constraints.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 135-140
K A Pagare*, A M Navale, A A Awale and K B Patil
Post Graduate Institute, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri - 413 722, Ahmed Nagar, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A pot experiment was conducted with a view to see the effect of different EC levels of soil along with inoculation of liquid formulation of salt tolerant Rhizobium on growth parameters of soybean at Post Graduate Institute, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri during the year 2015-2017. The growth parameters of soybean were affected with increased EC levels of soil. However, maximum germination percentage, shoot length, root length, number of effective and non-effective nodules, fresh weight of shoot and root and dry weight of shoot and root was recorded at EC level 1.5 dSm-1 and shown better performance followed by EC level 3.0 dSm-1 inoculated with salt tolerant Rhizobium (STR). The lowest growth parameters were recorded by uninoculated treatment at EC level 1.5 dSm-1 i.e. absolute control and 3.0 dSm-1. All the growth parameters were hampered at EC level 6.0 dSm-1, inoculated with salt tolerant Rhizobium followed by inoculated reference strain at EC level 6.0 dSm-1 and unionculated treatment. Salt tolerant Rhizobium show better performance followed by EC level 3.0 dSm-1, so there is essential to isolate salt tolerant Rhizobium which would be highly important inoculum for legume crop in salt affected soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 141-146
Kishan Swaroop, Kanwar Pal Singh and Prabhat Kumar
Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 012
Abstract
The experiments were conducted at the Division of Floriculture, Research Farm, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. The study indicates the presence of morphological variability in different hybrids for their different flowering traits under the present sub-tropical climate for different uses. Further, the results indicated that Melody Open Seedling, Chandni × Snow Princess and P-16-1 × Eurovision had flowered in 75.00 to 83.00 days after planting; while Smokey Lady × Mayur took 111.0 days and Pink Parassol Open Seedling flowered in 109.00 days after planting. Hybrids such as Salmon Queen Open Seedling, Suchitra × Melody, Bindiya × Creamy Green, Green Pasture × Regency, American Beauty × Green Willow and Pink Parassol Open Seedling recorded maximum plant height, 154.33, 150.00, 144.66, 144.33 and136.00 cm respectively. The spike length and rachis length also recorded maximum by same hybrids. Number of florets per spike, 21.00, 20.66, 20.00, 19.33 and 19.00 recorded in hybrids such as Suchitra × Melody, Salmon Queen Open Seedling, Bindiya × Creamy Green, Melody Open Seedling, Ave × Mayur, Mayur × Green Willow, Green Lilac Open Seedling, Vidushi (Mutant) and Mayur × Howard respectively. Number of corms per plant 3.0 or more than 3.0 had also produced by many hybrids such as Suchitra × Melody, Melody Open Seedling, Smokey Lady × Oscar, (Miss America × C.G.) × Smokey Lady, Pink Parassol Open Seedling, Bindiya × Creamy Green, P-16-1 × Eurovision, Green Pasture × Regency, (Melody × Mayur) × Heady Wine and Salmon Queen Open Seedling respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 147-150
M Angaleeswari* and V Ravikumar
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur, Trichy - 621 712, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Research on drip irrigated paddy is gaining importance due to the reason that, it reduces inefficient use of water and nutrients by optimum irrigation and fertigation scheduling. Evapotranspiration estimation is one of the vital components in irrigation scheduling under drip irrigation. In the present work, the crop evapotranspiration was computed by dual crop coefficient approach. The daily evapotranspiration for paddy grown between March to June was estimated for initial, development, mid and late season of crop period as 5.85, 8.35, 8.49 and 7.61 mm/day respectively. The crop coefficient is needed for estimating evapotranspiration and has to be derived empirically for different crop growth stage based on local climatic conditions. For paddy estimated adjusted crop coefficients for initial, development, mid and late season of crop period as 1.12, 1.26, 1.28 and 1, respectively. The computed adjusted average crop coefficient values by dual crop coefficient approach were nearly 5.3% higher than typical crop coefficient values. For paddy the crop water requirement was calculated and found to be 685 mm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 151-154
B P Godhani, K P Baraiya and T Anandmurthy*
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh - 362 001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Residual toxicity of the eleven insecticides was evaluated against thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis infesting chilli under laboratory condition. The result revealed that significantly highest mortality of 80 per cent was recorded in treatment of spinosad 0.009 per cent and fipronil 0.005 per cent. Based on considering value of “P” and “T” values, it can be seen that spinosad 0.009 per cent, fipronil 0.005 per cent and clothianidin 0.025 per cent were comparatively more effective in controlling the nymph/adult of thrips, S. dorsalis than others insecticides under test, both in respect of mortality (48.05 to 55.71 per cent average toxicity) as well as their prolonged persistances (persisted up to 13 day after spray).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 155-160
M Mohana Keerthi* and R Babu1
Department of Agronomy, 1Department of Farm Management, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai - 625104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L) is a primary food for half of the world population. The climate change leads to water stress in rice growing areas. Alternate system of crop cultivation is established via direct-seeding in un-puddled, un-flooded fields are among the most promising approaches for saving water under water scarcity areas. The root behaviour studies are very limited in aerobic rice. In this context, the field experiments were conducted to study effects of irrigation scheduling and nitrogen management on root growth of aerobic rice. The highest root length was recorded in irrigation scheduling of IW/CPE (Irrigation Water / Cumulative Pan Evaporation) 0.8 up to panicle initiation stage and thereafter IW/CPE of 1.0 up to dough stage. Whereas the highest root volume and root dry weight were recorded in the treatment of IW/CPE of 1.0 up to panicle initiation stage and thereafter IW/CPE of 1.2 up to dough stage in aerobic rice. The root shoot ratio was non-significant under irrigation scheduling. Application of nitrogen at 150 kg ha-1 in 5 equal splits at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 DAS (Days after sowing) recorded the highest root length, root volume and root dry weight. Interaction of irrigation at IW/CPE of 0.8 up to panicle initiation stage and thereafter IW/CPE of 1.0 up to dough stage along with application of nitrogen at 150 kg ha-1 in 5 equal splits at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 DAS significantly enhanced the root length. However, irrigation at IW/CPE of 1.0 up to panicle initiation stage and thereafter IW / CPE of 1.2 up to dough stage with application of nitrogen at 150 kg ha-1 in 5 equal splits at 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 DAS registered the highest root volume and root dry weight. This study revealed that optimum soil moisture and increased the availability of nitrogen from various nitrogen management have enhanced the root growth of aerobic rice.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 161-164
J Prabhaharan*, S Maruthupandi1 and N K Sathyamoorthy2
Department of Soil Science, 1Department of Soils and Environment, 2Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai - 625104, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The domestic sewage effluent has been assessed for its quality in the Madurai Municipal Corporation, Tamil Nadu, India. The raw sewage samples were collected from 11 discharge points during South West and North East Monsoon, winter and summer seasons during the year 2016. The research revealed that the raw sewage effluent samples were observed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, saline sewage effluent (EC), high Total Suspended Solids and Turbidity. All the eleven sampling points prevailed in the North and South zone of Madurai, were registered highest values of pH, EC, TSS and turbidity during the summer season and lowest values during the North – East monsoon season respectively. The pH ranged from 6.51 to 8.20, EC ranged from 1.20 to 2.92 dSm-1, TSS ranged from 245 to 400 mg L-1 and turbidity ranged from 105 to 240 NTU within the 11 discharge points across the seasons.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 165-169
Yogeshwar Kumar Sahu, Ashish Ratn Mishra, Shraddha Rawat, Ekta Pathak Mishra and Anosh Graham
Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
The field experiments were conducted in the field nursery of College of Forestry, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad during rabi season of 2016-17. The field experiments comprised of 7 treatment combinations involving different stages of irrigation on maize. Results showed that the maize yield reduced with increasing stress degree days. The highest yield and water productivity was observed under the treatment T3 and T6 in case of both dates, while the lowest water productivity was found under controlled treatments (Z1 and Z2).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 170-176
Arsha Balakrishnan*, A K Chauhan and R S Bhawar
Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management Division, ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
This study was conducted in the state of Kerala to identify and analyze the economic viability and sustainability of different homestead farming systems. Primary data was collected from 240 homestead farms from Kottayam, Thrissur and Kozhikode districts in the year 2016-17. Five farming systems were identified, viz. I). Crop + Poultry (C+P), II). Crop + Dairy + Poultry (C + D + P), III). Crop + Dairy + Goat + Poultry (C + D + G + P), IV). Crop + Goat + Poultry (C + G + P) and V). Crop + Fishery + Poultry (C + F + P). The economic analysis of homestead farming systems showed that the annual gross returns in FS-III (C+D+G+P) was ₹ 461126 while total cost was ₹ 263951 with a net returns of ₹ 197174, which was found to be the most profitable one. Higher net returns were due to the adoption of more enterprises in the FS-III, followed by FS-II, FS-IV, FS-V and FS-I, with net returns of ₹ 149351, ₹ 85620, ₹ 73319 and ₹ 35,421 per year, respectively. The magnitude of diversification index varied from 0.21 on C+P farming system to 0.77 on C+D+G+P farming system which shows that C+P farming system is less diversified as compared to C+D+G+P farming system. The study has revealed the economic viability of homestead farming systems in the study area and the importance of diversification with livestock enterprises for realizing higher returns.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 177-179
Keerthana Raj and S G Patil
Department of Physical Science and Information Technology, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agricultural farm operations mostly depend on weekly weather parameters. Weekly data converted into interval valued data set and its center value considered for analysis and modeling of rainfall. Weekly rainfall from 1982 to 2016 considered for overall and monsoon period. Entire data set divided in training and test data set. Multiple regression (MLR), autoregressive moving average (ARIMA), and ARIMA with MLR (ARIMAX) models were used for time series modeling and forecasting strength and weakness. Accuracy of fitted model was tested by Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The ARIMAX model shows better result than classical MLR and ARIMA models for interval valued rainfall.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 180-184
Ganesh N Shelke*, T Pandiarajan and Rajesh U Modi1
Department of Food and Agricultural Process Engineering, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India 1Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab
Abstract
Some engineering properties of black gram were determined by increasing its moisture content [from 10 to 14% (d.b.)] in the study. The average length, width and thickness of the 20 black gram seeds varied from 3.61 to 4.1 mm, 2.75 to 3.11 mm and 3.04 to 3.44 mm respectively as the moisture content increased. The mean value of sphericity decreased from 0.86 to 0.81 and bulk density was decreased whereas, true density was increased from 1013.43 to 1231.03 kg m-3 with increased moisture content. Also, the porosity of black gram seeds was increased linearly from 30.68 to 44.02% and an angle of repose was found increased from 27.82° to 30.38°. The results for the coefficient of friction were observed to be increased from 0.34 to 0.42, 0.32 to 0.38 and 0.30 to 0.37 in the case of plywood, cardboard, mild steel surfaces respectively. Also, the hardness of black gram decreased from 5.98 to 3.75 kgf with increase in moisture content from 10 to 14 percent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 185-188
Subadas Singh*, D K Jigyasu, Dinata Roy, Aftab A Shabnam and Ranjana Das
Central Muga Eri Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India, Lahdoigarh - 785 700, Jorhat, Assam, India
Abstract
The Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis (Helfer), the producer of glittering golden yellow silk is endemic to Assam and is polyphagus, multivoltine species. Most of the food plants of Muga silkworm are perennial tree in nature and are available in wide range of geographical region. Muga silkworm is reared in outside environment. As, the silkworm is reared outside on two primary host plants in nature viz. Som (Persea bombycina) and Soalu (Litsea monopetala), the larvae are attacked by many vertebrate and invertebrate predators. Among them, the most important invertebrate predators, which cause extensive damage to muga silkworm are assassin bug, Sycanus collaris and stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata during summer season in day and night. These predator bugs show tactical behaviour while attack to silkworms in the rearing field.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 189-191
K Kanmani* and P S Geetha1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, 1Department of Differently Abled Studies, Community Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The nutritional values of pulses in human nutrition are enormous; they can be valuable sources of energy. Pulses are consumed all over the world. The horse gram and moth bean are the good source of protein from the underutilized pulses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional properties of horse gram and moth bean and develop a meat analogue for the vegetarian peoples. The analogues made from these pulses have a good functional property. From these, horse gram had higher and better functional property than moth bean.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 192-196
K Abhirami* and G Sashidevi
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Community Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Horsegram popularly known as poor man’s pulse crop remains underutilized besides having nutritional properties because of its poor cooking quality, protein digestibility, and presence of antinutritional factors. Thus this study was planned with the objective to reduce the anti-nutritional factors and improve nutritional content as well as protein digestibility through various processing methods. As a result, it was observed that the nutritional value was increased during all processing methods. The minerals like calcium and iron showed a significant increase during processing except for phosphorus. The antinutritional factors such as tannin were highly decreased (58%) in the fermentation process and phytate showed a maximum decrease (87%) during the germination process. The increase in protein digestibility was also maximum during germination (87.81%) and fermentation (77.64%). Thus the germinated and fermented horsegram flour can be used to make various food products which will increase horsegram consumption.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 197-201
Divyang M Prajapati* and Anuradha Saini1
College of Food Processing Technology and Bio Energy, Anand Agricultural University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India 1Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
Abstract
A comparative study on forced air ventilated storage structure, traditional storage practices for onion and garlic was conducted to evaluate the performance of designed storage structure. The practical application is to increase the shelf-life of onion and garlic by using Low Energy Based Storage Structure. Compared with traditional methods, it is use to preserve the onion and garlic at specific conditions for long time. In this article, boundary conditions established by CFD (Solid Works Flow Simulation) to obtain the good quality of produce during the storage of onion and garlic. An Iron- mesh cage type storage structure was built and it was equipped with air humidification and de-humidification facilities (HVAC- Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning). Kharif onion (Red Cured Onions & White Uncured Onions) and Garlic bulbs were stored under three different storage conditions i.e. (Iron mesh cage – HVAC, Open air-Ambient condition and Gunny-bag s storage) and were examined for their shelf life study and post-harvest behaviour for 50 days of storage at different temperature and humidity conditions were monitored regularly with constant boundary conditions. Total losses of onion and garlic bulbs increased with storage period in all three conditions, but iron mesh cage-HVAC storage structure showed better results than other with time did. Finally, after 50 days of storage, mean values of physiological loss in weight (Red onions-25.03, White onions- 30.9 and Garlic -26.23), sprouting and rotting loss (Red Onion-3.38, White onions- 4.4 and Garlic- 1.65) and marketable bulbs recovery (Red Onions- 60.6, White Onions- 38.5 and Garlic- 55.2) were found to be significant in structure equipped with HVAC facility.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 202-206
V Sasmitha*, G Gomadhi, P Balasubramanium, S Nithila1 and P Janaki
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, 1Department of Agronomy, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Trichy - 620 027, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Saline water is the major constraint in the irrigated agriculture. The salt level is often taken as the soil salinity or the salinity of the irrigation water. However the plants have to make some adaptations in their physiological traits in order to withstand salinity. Keeping this in view, a pot culture experiment was conducted in 2017 at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Trichy in three different cultivars of Chilli viz. Dharmapuri local (V1), Manapparai local (V2) and Ramnad mundu (V3) under graded levels of salinity viz. Control E1 (0.3 dS m-1), E2 (3 dS m-1), E3 (6 dS m-1), E4 (9 dS m-1) and E5 (12 dS m-1). The physiological traits such as proline content, chlorophyll content, carotenoid content, K/Na ratio and SPAD reading were determined at vegetative, flowering and harvesting stages. The proline content of chilli was increased with increasing levels of salinity, whereas in other traits decreasing trend observed. Among the varieties, Dharmapuri local has the highest salinity tolerance followed by Manapparai local with EC upto 3 dS m-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 207-214
Supriya P Patil* and Shobha Nagnur
Department of Extension and Communication Management, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted to know the gender participation of farming families in allied agricultural activities. This study was conducted in Dharwad, Belagavi, Gadag, Bagalkote, Vijayapura, Haveri and Uttar Kannada districts of Karnataka. Snowball sampling method was used to select the respondents. Eighty farming families were selected from each enterprise i.e. Crop + Dairy, Crop + Poultry and Crop + Vegetable making a total sample size of 240. Personal interview method was used for data collection. The study revealed that in dairy farming men are more involved in health and marketing activities, while women are involved in day to day feeding, milking, cleaning the shed etc. The study also revealed that in vegetable cultivation, joint participation was prominent in pre sowing and post harvest activities, while in intercultural operations most of the activities are dominated by men. It was also clear from the study that most of the activities in poultry were dominated by men.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 215-220
A Ambikabathy, N Jegadeesh Selvam1, D Thirusendura Selvi2, M Dhasarathan1, N Vairam1, V G Renganathan, M Kanimoli Mathivathana, M Paranthaman, A Karthikeyan1, C Vanniarajan, G Karthikeyan3 and N Senthil*1
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 1Department of Biotechnology, 3Department of Plant Pathology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India 2Agricultural Research Station (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University), Vaigai Dam, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays) is an important cereal crop of India. It belongs to the family poaceae and is highly cross pollinated crop. Maize has high nutritive value as it as the only cereal have appreciable amount of carotenoids. Hybrids played a vital role in increasing acreage and productivity of maize. The combining ability and heterosis is a prerequisite for successful maize improvement and breeding. This study was undertaken to access the performances of hybrids, and estimate heterosis and combining ability for grainy yield and yield related traits. The present study was conducted using 13 parents and 22 F1 cross combinations of maize hybrids during rabi 2016 with the objective of identifying the best parental genotypes and cross combinations. Among the parents, the overall study of gca effects suggested that parents UMI 1200-7-25-1-6-1, VIM 61 and VIM 58 were found good general combiners for yield related traits, these can be used to improve hybrid with desirable traits in future. Among the hybrids, UMI 1200-4-26-9-5-1 × UMI 285, UMI 1200-7-25-1-6-1 × UMI 61 and UMI 1200-7-25-1-6-1 × VIM 58 exhibited positive and significant sca effects for cob weight.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 221-224
M. S. Kanwar*, P Ishfaq Akbar1 and Kunzang Lamo1
*Krishi Vigyan Kendra (S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir), Nyoma - 194 404, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India 1High Mountain Arid Agriculture Research Institute (SKUAST-Kashmir), Leh - 194 101, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
Keeping in view the scope of broccoli in diversification, earliness and multiple harvest, present studies were conducted on varietal evaluation to find out the best types and varieties most suitable for Ladakh region. Performance of seven broccoli genotypes including Green Head as check was evaluated in randomized block design with 3 replication. All the genotypes of broccoli exhibited significant differences for all the quantitative characters under study except for plant height, leaf length and leaf width. Highest primary head weight, yield per plant and yield per ha were produced by hybrid Green Pia followed by Fiesta. Palam Vachitra exhibited purple head colour and while Palam Kanchan produced yellow and rest of all produced green colour. Hybrid Green Pia and Fiesta with green coloured uniform heads may be recommended for cultivation in cold deserts Ladakh.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 225-228
Sakha Ram Shori*, Sahdev Nag and Hemant Kumar Sinha
Department of Agricultural Meteorology, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The initial probability of occurrence of dry spell was very high during 22-23 SMW, whereas it was very low in 24-38 SMW, thereafter and it was again increased ranging during 39 to 52 SMW. It was nearly 100% at ranges between 7th-9th weeks (SMW 44-52). Thus, the chance of dry spell was more prominent than the wet spell throughout the year except for a few weeks during monsoon period. The conditional probability of dry spell followed by next dry spell was very high throughout the year except for the monsoon (SMW 25-39); during monsoon, it was comparatively low. On the contrary, two dry spells one after the other during rest of the year might have 100% probability of occurrence (22 and 44-52, 22 and 42-52, 22 and 42-52 and 22-23 and 39-52 for the corresponding rainfall limits). Similarly, the probability of occurrence of dry spell followed wet spell was less during monsoon and high during rest of the year.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 229-230
Sahdev Nag*, H V Puranik and Sakha Ram Shori
Department of Agrometeorology, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
It is concluded from the result that highest number of YSB catches were observed in the month of October. Sun light, minimum temperature, relative humidity-II showed positive impact and wind velocity showed negative impact on the light trap collection. Relative humidity and minimum temperature was favourable for YSB population build-up.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 231-233
N Vinothini* and R K Bhavyasree1
Department of Seed Science and Technology, 1Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of various organic seed priming treatments on seed quality parameters in groundnut. The groundnut cv TMV 7 was imposed with various seed priming treatments viz. Panchagavya 1%, Vermiwash 25%, Starter solution 10%, Coconut water 50%, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome extract 5%, Garlic (Allium sativum) bulb extract 5 percent and turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome extract 5%. The treated seeds along with control were evaluated for their seed quality parameters under laboratory condition. The study revealed that the seeds primed with coconut water 50% recorded higher seed germination (91%), root length (20.20 cm), shoot length (16.30 cm), dry matter production (3.68g seedling-10) and vigour index 3322 as compared to other treatments and control. Coconut water 50 percent induced the maximum germination per cent, shoot length, dry matter production of seedlings and vigour index. So, we can conclude that the 50 percent coconut water can be effectively used for orgopriming and is the ideal one followed by starter solution (10%) and the ginger extract (5%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 1 ; 234-236
K Arunadevi*, R Lalitha1, R Sanjaykrishnan2, A Sadam Hussain2 and M Suganesh Kumar2
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, TNAU, Kumulur, Trichy - 621 712, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A study was taken up with the objective of studying the micro climate parameters inside and outside the shade net house. Temperature inside the shade net house was having slightly lesser value than outside atmospheric at range of 1.5ºC to 2.1ºC. This variation created a pleasing condition for plant to perform their metabolic activities properly and also it reduced the risk of heat injury during critical periods. It also reduced the loss of moisture from soil and transpiration loss from plants.


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