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Volume - 10 - March-April 2019
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 237-243
M S Vidhyasri* and V Gomathi
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Current study, investigated the adverse effects of drought stress on growth and modulation of root system architecture of rice inoculated with drought-tolerant Bacillus megaterium. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) were used for drought stress induction artificially. It was observed that growth of bacteria significantly reduced under drought stress, while maximum reduction was caused by PEG (30%) applied. Drought-tolerant Bacillus megaterium identified based on 16S rDNA gene sequence was used to study the effect on drought stress tolerance of rice growth and its root system architecture (RSA). Rice plants inoculated with Bacillus megaterium showed potential to withstand the drought upto 25% of PEG, also increased the plant shoot and root length when compared to control. The bacterium also improved the germination percentage of rice seeds at different concentration of PEG 6000. In vitro grown rice seedlings (cultivar Co51) were inoculated with Bacillus megaterium. After 15th day, changes in the root system architecture were observed using non-destructive root imaging and analysis platform (GIARoot software). The images captured by high-resolution camera were analyzed for twenty different RSA traits by GIARoot software. Among the RSA-variables, maximum number of roots, median number of roots, root network connecting components, network bushiness and solidity, network width and perimeter, total network area, volume and width to depth ratio significantly increased due to drought-tolerant Bacillus megaterium inoculation as compared to uninoculated control. Current investigation concluded that application of Bacillus megaterium may increase the tolerance capacity of crop plants especially rice against drought.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 244-248
Ananda Sankar Singha, Santanu Das*, Debasis Mahata and Asok Saha
Department of Agronomy, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari - 736 165, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The field experiment was carried out at the Instructional farm of Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, during the year of 2012-13 and 2013-14 in rabi season after harvesting kharif rice for system productivity. Experiment was laid out in a split plot design. The main plot treatment has five numbers of dates of sowing, like 1st November (D1), 10th November (D2), 20th November (D3), 30th November (D4) and 10th December (D5). The sub plot treatment has five nos. of cultivars, like B-9 (Benoy) (V1), Jhumka (V2), Panchali (V3), NRCHB-101 (V4) and NRCDR-02 (V5). The treatments were replicated thrice. The crop management practices were optimum and a uniform dose of recommended N:P:K @ 80:40:40 kg ha-1 was applied in all the plots. Maximum of grain yield was obtained on November 10 because it caused to increase no of siliqua m-1, siliqua length (cm), siliqua plant-1 and grains no per siliqua. Highest yield and yield components were obtained in 10th November and NRCHB-101 was superior in many traits. This system achieved a yield of 8141 and 8935 kg ha-1 of total system yield in year 2012-13 and 2013-14, respectively. It was pragmatic from the results that sowing of rapeseed-mustard on 10th November recorded significantly maximum oil yield as compared to other dates of sowing and sowing on 10th December presented the lowest oil yield. Among the varieties, NRCHB-101 recorded higher oil yield as compared to other four cultivars. Thus, it can be suggested that the cultivar NRCHB-101 and combination with second date of sowing, i.e. 10th November may be recommended for cultivation of rapeseed mustarded for better seed yield and oil yield performance.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 249-258
Murari Lal Gaur*1 and Hepin D Bhanderi2
Department of Meteorology and Agricultural Engineering, 1B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand - 388 310 Gujarat, India 2Design Engineer, Jain Irrigation Systems Limited, Amreli - 365 601 Gujarat, India
Abstract
Present study deliberated some of the straightforward findings from real ground investigations by growing tomatoes under farmers conditions in a tribal dominated landscape of western India. Results obtained persisted well beyond controlled lab/field situations, offering quantified positive influences of drip-based applications to attain better quality tomato fruits and higher marketable yields, even with a curtailed volume of irrigation water in different proportions. Treatments were intended to meet irrigation water requirement (IWR) of crop at pre-identified time gaps and in accordance to daily observed values of evapotranspiration (ETc) and cumulative pan evaporation (CPE). It included criterion having water supplies @ 0.6 ETc, @ 0.8 ETc and @ 1.0 ETc in drip irrigated tomato; while @1.2 IWR/CPE ratio for furrow irrigated crop. Study deliberated preliminary results on variability in magnitudes and outlines of irrigation water movements, wetting patterns, application uniformities, water use efficiencies, qualitative and quantitative attributes of tomatoes, gross marketable yields, and net water savings across drip and furrow-based irrigation systems/schedules. Considerable water savings (45 to 67%), enhanced water use efficiencies (WUE) in drip-based irrigation (47 to 51 in contrast to 18 kg/ha-mm of furrow based), and higher marketable yields (13750 to 19802 kg/ha) with better quality fruits remains the prime achievements. Plentiful food for thought is offered for futuristic RandD for inclusion of sophisticated tools/technologies for transforming present day’s elegant irrigation into a smart irrigation with bits of intelligence, cutting across growing sciences (electronics, computers, ITandICT, artificial intelligence etc).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 259-262
S Vishnupandi and T Thangaselvabai
Department of Floriculture and Medicinal Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Periyakulam - 625 604, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Cut foliages are an important component of the floricultural industry, largely used in decoration as filler in floral compositions. They provide freshness, colour and variety to arrangements and bouquets. Cordyline fruticosa is an important cut green in the world trade and used worldwide for its beautiful foliage. The increasing demand for the production of quality cut foliages pressurizes the flower growers to adopt advanced technologies even under poor resource conditions. Soilless culture is one such production system that involves precise control of nutrition and efficient use of water, which in turn resulted in quality produce commanding premium price in the market. Owing to the above demand, the present investigation was carried out during 2017-18 at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam to determine the effect of different nutrient formulations on growth and yield of Cordyline fruticosa grown in soilless culture system. Eight nutrient formulations were tested for its efficacy along with rain water as control and observations on growth and yield parameters were recorded. The results of the study revealed that Hoagland and Arnon- nutrient formulation increased growth and yield parameters of Cordyline fruticosa grown in soilless culture system.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 263-266
Edula Uday Kumar* and C Chinniah
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted to evolve an IPM package Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai. For the management of two spotted spider mite on mulberry by integrating the effective treatments from each objectives i.e. plant derivatives, oil formulations, intercrops etc. Among the all treatment combinations tested (Rosemary oil 3% + Basil leaf extract 10% + Coriander), (Rosemary oil 3% + Basil leaf extract 10% + Onion) and (Rosemary oil + Nochi + Coriander) maximum percent reduction over untreated check on mite recorded (81.7%, 80.0% and 79.4%) these treatments are the first three positions and significantly superior to other treatments in terms of their ability to suppress the mite population due to combined effect.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 267-271
U Kiran Kumar Reddy, P V Satya Gopal, V Sailaja and S V Prasad
Department of Agricultural Extension, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The research study was conducted to study the profile and socio-economic characteristics of the agri-input dealers of Southern Telangana zone of Telangana state. The study revealed that majority of the agri-input dealers were in middle age, graduates/post graduates, small farmers, had medium experience as a agri-input dealer, medium farming experience, had not received the training and medium level of mass media exposure, social participation, research/extension contact, scientific orientation, extension service orientation, innovativeness, risk orientation, achievement motivation and business orientation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 272-276
A Mohammed Ashraf1*, T Ragavan2, V K Paulpandi3 and P P Mahendran4
1-3Department of Agronomy, 4Department of Soils and Environment, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiments were conducted at Regional Research Station, Aruppukottai, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu during rabi season of 2016 and 2017 with the test variety SVPR - 2. To study the impact of in situ moisture conservation and stress management practices on chlorophyll content and productivity of cotton under rainfed vertisol. The experiments were laid out in split plot design replicated thrice. The main plot treatments consisted of different in situ moisture conservation measures viz., broad bed and furrows (I1), ridges and furrows (I2) and compartmental bunding (I3). The subplot comprises with stress management practices viz., Soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 (S¬1), Soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of 1% KCl (S¬2) , Soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of 5% Kaolin (S-3), Soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of PPFM @ 500 ml ha-1 (S¬4), Soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of Salicylic acid 100 ppm (S¬5) and Control (S¬6). The results of this study showed that broad bed and furrow and soil application of pusa hydrogel @ 5 kg ha-1 + foliar spray of PPFM @ 500 ml ha-1 recorded higher chlorophyll SPAD values and seed cotton yield 1,580 kg ha-1 (2016) and 1,943 kg ha-1 (2017).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 277-281
Kadli Veeresh and S B Hosmani
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
KVKs impart training and education with a view to raising the level of knowledge, attitudinal changes and transferring of improved farm technologies so as to bridge the gap between production and productivity and also to increase self-employment opportunities among the farming community. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dharwad is a district level resource and knowledge centre established by the Indian Council of Agriculture (ICAR), New Delhi in the year 2004 at Saidapur farm, Dharwad, Karnataka State. The operational area of this KVK comes under dry zone (Zone 3), northern transitional zone (Zone 8) and part of the hilly zone (Zone 9) comprising of five talukas viz., Dharwad, Hubli, Kalaghatagi, Kundagol, and Navalgund. The KVK started with a mission to disseminate the appropriate technologies to the farming community for enhancing the farm productivity to achieve the sustainable income. This study made an attempt to record the various training programmes conducted by KVK Dharwad and to estimate the cost-benefit structure of various training programmes and their impact on farmers' livelihood.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 282-286
Pawan Kumar Gautam*1 and Asif Mohammad2
Dairy Extension Division, 1ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India 2Dairy Extension Section, ERS of ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The study was conducted from August 2016 to June 2017 in West Bengal. The study was conducted in Nadia and North 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal by drawing a random sample of 120 respondents covering eight villages and four blocks. Milk is highly perishable commodity. Contaminated milk deteriorates quickly and produces diseases if consumed. Therefore, extreme care has to be taken in production, storage and transportation of milk. Data was collected by structured interview schedule. Most of the farmers were having low education status or studied up to lower level and mostly they were from medium to old age group, few farmers were exposed to magazine/bulletin pertaining to clean milk production. All the dairy farmers were having high post test knowledge scores irrespective of their category because of their immediate knowledge gain. Old age group farmers fell in high knowledge retention score category and all the young age group farmers fell in medium knowledge retention score category. Majority of the respondents have not seen any programme on clean milk production. As most of the farmers were having lower level of education, so there was a need to disseminate information through multimedia which could be effective to get desired change irrespective of education status of respondents.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 287-294
K C Veeranna1, B R Manjith Kumar*1, C B Madavaprasad2 and V Nagabhushan3
1Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension Education, 2Department of Veterinary and Public Health, 3Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, Shivamogga - 577 204, Karnataka, India
Abstract
One of the major components in dairy farming is the provision of green roughage all-round the year along with dry roughage and concentrates depending upon the milking capacity of the dairy animals. The present study was undertaken to encourage the farmers to cultivate fodder grasses as an in their own farm. A live demonstration of fodder crops during 2017-18 was under taken in Hoskere village of Jagalur taluk, Davanagere district, Karnataka, to educate the farmers in cultivating perennial fodder grasses. Interested farmer were selected randomly from the Hoskere village for demonstration of growing of fodder grass. The study revealed that the production of Napier CO-4 was 78 tons/ac/y, Guinea grass was 64 tons/ac/y, Rhodes grass was 70 tons/ac/y, Hedge Lucerne was 28 tons/ac/y, Grazing guinea was 68 tons/ac/y and Fodder sorghum was 29 tons/ac/y. The total annual expenditure per 2 gunta (200 m2) area of different fodder grass from fodder nursery plot was ₹ 8150 and if there is no maintenance of livestock in their farm the total income generated only from the nursery from different green fodder crops production was ₹ 15745. The net profit from different fodder crops from fodder nursery plot was ₹ 7595. The nutritional rich good quality green fodder were available in the beneficiary farm all-round the year that increased lactometer reading, Fat and SNF and milk production of the cross bred cows and finally earn the income around the year.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 295-301
Vikash Kumar* and Jancy Gupta
Dairy Extension Division, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
Overuse of antibiotics decreases its efficiency to cure disease, thus aggravating the resistance. In this line, one health approach is a step towards antibiotic conservation and sustainability. In present study, an Antibiotic Usage Index was developed with 19 statements after consultation with experts, wherein reliability and validity were ensured for the Index. The primary data were collected from total of 171 farmers comprising of 59, 56 and 57 small, medium and large dairy farmers respectively based on herd size. The data was collected from Karnal and Kurukshetra districts of Eastern Haryana using random stratified sample. The comparative study of the three broad categories of farmers revealed large farmers were judicious to some extent in comparison to small and medium farmers. Results indicated that use of antibiotics in dry cow therapy, teat sealant and probiotics were very less. A chi square statistics was computed on the Antibiotic Usage Index at 5 and 1 percent level of significance. In, which 98 percent responses were found significant at this level of significance. Amongst socio- personal variables, herd size education and milk production were highly associated with the judicious use of antibiotic as the Pearson chi-square value for the test was highly significant.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 302-305
M M Deshmukh, B B Bhosle and B V Bhede
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani - 431 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Pod borer complex, Helicoverpa armigera, Melanagromyza obtusa and Exelastis atomosa are the serious pest of pigeonpea and inflict severe damage wherever it is grown. Realizing the economic importance of the pests, an investigation was laid out at Vasantarao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani during Kharif season 2011 and 2012 for assessment of losses caused by pod borer complex in pigeonpea. The study revealed that significant differences in population of pod borer complex in protected and unprotected condition. Under protected condition, the population of H. armigera, E. atomosa and M. obtusa was 1.06, 0.35/plant and 1.12/pod, respectively. While it was 3.54, 1.66/plant and 3.12/pod under unprotected condition, respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 306-308
M Deepa1*, D Meera1 and C H Venkataramana Devi2
1Department of Entomology, Institute of Forest Biodiversity (ICFRE, Dehradun), Dulapally, Hyderabad - 500 100, Telangana, India 2Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana
Abstract
Botanicals act not only as insecticides but also function as antifeedants, oviposition deterrents and ovicides. The present investigation reports on the antifeedant property of leaf components of Cleistanthus collinus, against Tinolius eburneigutta at different concentrations. All insect cultures were maintained in a growth chamber in the laboratory at a temperature of 27 ± 2° C, 12:12 L:D and with 70 ± 5% RH during the experiments and the antifeedant activity observed in the plant extract based on the feeding behavior of the test insect and arranged in the descending order is 1.0%>0.8%>0.6%>0.4%>0.2%>0.1% concentrations and uncontrol. At 1.0 percent concentration found to be the most effective and potent antifeedant against this leaf feeding insect pest.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 309-312
S Lavanya
Department of Agricultural Statistics, Anbil Dharamalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Trichy - 620 027, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The study attempts to perform the analysis on the export performance of beverage crops viz. tea, coffee and cocoa from India. The data for the analysis was taken for 7 years. The beverage crops play a crucial role in the foreign exchange and economic development. Since India is the largest producer and exporter of the beverage crops it is necessary to study the export performance forming suitable policies. The results of Markov chain analysis indicated that for export of tea, India could rely on Pakistan followed by UAE and Iran. For coffee, India could rely on Russia, USA and Italy for exporting coffee. And for cocoa, India could rely on Saudi Arabia and USA markets for Cocoa products export.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 313-316
B Sivasankari*1, R Vasanthi2 and M Kalpana2
1Department of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Physical Science and Information Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
India being the largest producer of coriander seed in the world. India exports around 40000 tonnes of coriander either in the form of whole seed or in powdered form. Compound growth rate (CGR) was used for analyzing the growth in black Coriander area, production, yield, export quantity, unit value and export value over the years. The results indicated that the growth in area under coriander was found to be meager, while production and productivity showed positive and significant growth. Since the area under coriander is showing a decreasing trend over the years, emphasis should be given for promotional programmes to augment the area. The influence of area and export price on the changes in production of coriander was found to be positive, but the influence of domestic price was found to be negative. The export growth of coriander in terms of quantity and value was found to be positive and significant. The Markov chain analysis revealed that Malaysia, United Arab Emirates and Singapore were found to be the loyal markets for Indian coriander. The increasing share of other countries clearly showed that the need to explore and exploit the market potential of other countries. Efforts are also needed to improve the efficiency of production to make the product acceptable and price competitive in other importing countries. This will facilitate in creating more exportable surplus and hence to take price advantage in the international market under the WTO trade liberalization regime.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 317-320
M Kalpana*1, B Sivasankari2 and R Vasanthi3
1Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Economics, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu 3Department of Physical Science and Information Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Food production depends on crops including rice, wheat and various pulses. The paddy production depends on the suitable climate condition and other farming practices. Paddy production prediction can help the farmers and stakeholder to make better decision in their farming activities. Machine learning techniques can be used to predict the paddy production. This paper investigates a Random Forest Method, an ensemble learning method to predict the paddy production. Paddy production dataset are trained with Random Forest method using Random Forest Regressor. The dataset is divided into training and test set. From the overall dataset 70% of values are used to train and 30% are used to test the model. Random forest model is used to fit the model for paddy production data set. The test dataset is the values are predicted for paddy production. Python programming is used to fit the random forest model. The performance of the model is tested with the accuracy level. For the present study the Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) are performance parameters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 321-323
Anamika Jamwal*1, Sonika Jamwal2, Berjesh Ajrawat1, Ajay Kumar1 and Neerja Sharma3
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST-Jammu), Rajhani, Kathua - 184 101, Jammu and Kashmir 2Advanced Centre for Rainfed Agriculture (SKUAST-Jammu), Dhiansar, Jammu and Kashmir 3Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST-Jammu), Samba - 184 121, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to investigate the change in economic status after adopting mushroom cultivation and to find out the level of knowledge gained by trainees in order to bring improvement and increasing the effectiveness in the coming training programmes. Eighty trainees were imparted training on mushroom cultivation by conducting four off- campus vocational training courses by Krishi Vigyan Kendra Kathua, SKUAST-Jammu with the technical guidance and assistance provided from time to time by Scientists of Krishi Vigyan Kendra to the rural youth and farmers from four villages, Merath, Prithichack, Jangichack and Kunthal took the initiative for cultivating different types of mushroom. The data reveals that majority of trainees who take up the enterprise as employment opportunity and generating technologies were in higher percentage level after attending courses. It is observed in higher level of knowledge the Methods of Spawning is most preferred item followed by diseases of mushroom like fungal and bacterial and its prevention then Knowledge about identification of edible and non-edible Mushrooms. The analysis of present study further revealed that suggestions given by the trainees after successful completion of vocational training programme are more initiative on providing supply of quality spawn followed by more stress on learning by doing process and Linkages with Banks to get financial assistance for establishment of mushroom unit. This paper aims to conducting study on impact of vocational training on mushroom cultivation on knowledge gain of trainees.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 324-328
N Anusya1 and V Ravichandran*2
1Department of Crop Physiology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out during kharif season 2017 to study the influence of two zinc sources on physiology and grain zinc content of twenty three rice genotypes through foliar application at boot leaf and grain filling stages of crop. The findings of the experiment revealed that the higher SPAD value was recorded in genotype IR95040:12-B-3-10-GBS under the spray of 0.5% ZnSO4 condition compared with genotype IR95097:3-B-16-11-4-GBS sprayed with 0.5% Zn EDTA. The leaf soluble protein was recorded higher value in genotype IR95040:12-B-3-10GBS under 0.5% ZnSO4 condition at grain filling stage followed by Chittmutyalu under 0.5% ZnSO4 condition. In gas exchange parameters, the mean higher photosynthetic rate (47.9 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) of rice crop was observed under 0.5% ZnSO4 condition at grain filling stage. Regarding zinc use efficiency indices, the maximum zinc use efficiency (42.2%) was observed in the foliar application of 0.5% ZnSO4 in rice genotype IR14M117 followed by BPT5204 (39.0%). The higher zinc utilization efficiency (44.7) in genotype (IR14M1003) under the foliar application of 0.5% ZnSO4 and the same genotypes had zinc utilization efficiency (32.8) under the application of 0.5% Zn EDTA compared to the check genotype Chittmutyalu (37.7, 27.6) under foliar application of 0.5% ZnSO4 and 0.5% Zn EDTA. To conclude, when foliar sprayed with zinc sources such as 0.5% ZnSO4 and 0.5% Zn EDTA at boot leaf and grain filling stage in rice genotypes like IR15M1003, IR95097:3-B-16-11-4-GBS, IR95040:12-B-3-10-GBS, IR15M1341 and IR95097:4-B-2-18-8-GBS showed significant changes in physiology and zinc grain content.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 329-333
Nguyen Quang Thinh* and S Sundareswaran
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Spirulina platensis and sea weeds are algae which have high macro and micro nutrients and beneficial chemicals. The present study is proposed to harness the potential use of Spirulina platensis and sea weeds viz. Sargassum wightii, Sargassum myricocystum and Turbinaria conoides extracts towards improvement of quality and storage capacity of blackgram seeds. The seeds of blackgram cv CO 6 were subjected to various treatments viz. T1- Control, T2- hydropriming for 3 hours, T3- priming with 1.0% Sargassum wightii extract for 3 hours, T4- priming with 1.5% Sargassum myricocystum extract for 3 hours, T5- priming with 1.5% Turbinaria conoides extract for 3 hours and T6- priming with 1.5% Spirulina platensis extract for 3 hours. After priming and drying back to original moisture content, the seeds were packed in cloth bags and stored in an ambient environment. The physiological and biochemical seed quality parameters were analysis at bimonthly interval. The results revealed that the seeds primed with Spirulina platensis, Turbinaria conoides and Sargassum wightii extracts maintained seed quality up to 6 months of storage while seeds primed with Sargassum myricocystum extract, hydropriming and control maintained seed vigour only up to 4 months with Indian minimum seed certificate standard (IMSCS). Thus, Spirulina platensis, Turbinaria conoides and Sargassum wightii could be used for seed priming under seed storage of blackgram.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 334-337
Humeera Tazeen*1, N Varadharaju2 and M Kannan3
1Department of Food and Agricultural Process Engineering, 2Post-Harvest Technology Centre, 3Department of Nano Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Shelf life of packed foods is determined by two main material specifications that is gas transmission rate and water transmission rate. The developed PP and LLDPE nanocomposite films with a combination of compatibilizer (5, 10 and 15%), nanocellulose (2, 4 and 6%) and essential content i.e. cinnamon bark oil and curry leaf oil (1, 2 and 3%) were tested for GTR and WVP. Least values of OTR and CTR rates in LLDPE composite films were found for treatment N (1772 and 3905 cc/m2/day). In PP nanocomposite films, the least GTR values were found in Treatment C (1522 cc/m2/day of O2 and 2425 cc/m2/day of CO2). The reduction in OTR rates was found to be 62 percent in LLDPE nano films and 16 percent in PP nano films. In LLDPE films, WPTR reduced by 49 percent in treatment N compared to control and the same gave least water vapor transmission rates (3.95 g/m2/day). Similarly, in case of polypropylene films, lowest water transmission rate was recorded in treatment C (1.90 g/m2/day).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 338-343
Sharmila Maitra, Sakshi Jaiswal, Shweta Verma, Swati Sahu, Krishna Patel and Achal Singh
Chhattisgarh Agricultural Engineering College, Dhanora Road, P/o: Hanoda, Risali, Bhiali, District Durg - 491 001, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The present work was to study the various engineering properties of local variety of garlic and to develop a power operated garlic sheller cum peeler. The various engineering properties found were the weight, bulk density, angle of repose, diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, length, width, thickness, moisture content, of garlic bulb. The corresponding results were 31.95g, 420 kg/m3, 20.71°, 4.51cm, 4.8471cm, 0.837, 5.82cm, 4.51cm, 4.36cm, 57.43%, respectively. For cloves the properties investigate were weight, bulk density, angle of repose, diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, terminal velocity, length, width, thickness, moisture content, coefficient of external friction, coefficient of internal friction, weight of 1000 cloves of cloves of garlic. The corresponding results were 3.64g, 470.3 kg/m3, 30.29°, 1.45cm, 1.785cm, 0.485, 16.6m/sec, 3.64cm, 1.45cm, 1.1cm, 57.43%, 0.255, 0.244, 1182g, respectively. The machine consists of two major components garlic bulb breaking/shelling unit and garlic cloves peeling unit. The optimum speed of rollers of shelling unit is 143 rpm and 135 rpm respectively and the optimum speed of peeling unit is 875 rpm. The ½ H.P. motor (1400rpm) is used. Garlic peeler of ½ kg per batch has been developed and overall dimensions of the peeler are 60×63×150cm. The shelling unit and peeling unit of power operated garlic peeler have capacity 53.17 kg/hr and 27.697 kg/hr, respectively. The efficiency of the shelling unit and peeling unit is 52.32% and 51.64%, respectively. The total cost of garlic peeler is ₹ 8500 and cost of operation is 40.01 ₹/hour.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 344-348
M P M Deepa
University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In order to achieve food self sufficiency in the nation, Government of India implemented National Food Security Mission on August 2007. It aimed to enhance production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10, 8, and 2 million tonnes, respectively by the end of 2012. After its implementation increase in area, production and productivity of Rice from 43.65 million ha to 44.11 million ha, 91.79 million tonnes to 105.48 million tonnes and 2102 to 2391 kg/ha could be seen.; in Wheat from 26.48 million ha to 31.46 million ha, 69.35 million tonnes to 86.57 million tonnes and 2619 kg/ha to 2749.9 ka/ha could be seen. Increase in the pulses production from 13.38 million tonnes to 19.25 million tonnes and productivity from 587 kg/ha to 787 ka/ha could be seen. Hence, new interventions including small millets and other cereal crops shall be implemented to bring nutritional security with food security.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 349-352
B Hari Prasad*1, D Ganapathi2 and V Balasundaram3
1Department of Farm Machinery and Bio-energy, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kumulur, Trichy - 621 712, Tamil Nadu 2Agricultural Machinery and Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 3S. N. S. College of Technology, Coimbatore, Vazhiyampalayam - 641 035, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Production of food grain is an easiest practice but keeping the yield corresponding to the seeds sown is the most difficult target in agricultural practices. There are numerous factors that controls the crop yield out of which the weeds affect the yield loss in its extreme level. In this research, to develop a low cost and small size weeder for small and marginal farmers, a rotary power weeder was conceived. The most wearable part, i.e. the blade was designed and simulated using SOLIDWORKS simulation and then developed accordingly. The field evaluation of the machine results viz. weeding index and field capacity were found to be 77.4 percent and 0.1018 ha-h-1, respectively. The unit saves 74.5 per cent of cost and 95 percent of time compared with manual method. The cost of machine is less as compared with other self-propelled weeders and can be easily affordable to small and marginal farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 353-357
M Arun Raj*, D Vasanthi and S Vignesh
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, Vallanadu - 628 252, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A pot culture experiment was conducted at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, during December 2016 - April 2017 to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on growth, yield and quality of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) in theri soil. The experiment was conducted with eleven treatments comprising of three amendments at three levels along with recommended dose of fertilizers in completely randomized design replicated thrice using KKM 1 Brinjal as test crop. Among the different treatments tried application of press mud @ 17.5 t ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizers (T11) resulted in higher growth parameters like plant height, number of leaves and number of branches and yield attributes like number of fruits, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant and fruit quality parameters like protein, total phenol, fibre and ascorbic acid content and it was comparable with the application of press mud @ 12.5 t ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizers. Application of press mud @ 12.5 t ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizers can be recommended for achieving higher productivity, profitability and improved quality of brinjal grown in theri soil.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 358-362
Sinki Barman* and 1Nivedita Deka
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Simoluguri, Nagaon - 782 002, Assam, India 1Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 785 013, Assam, India
Abstract
The study included four categories of mechanized farms viz. Tractor Ownership Farm (TOF), Tractor Hired Farm (THF), Power Tiller Ownership Farm (PTOF), Power Tiller Hired Farm (PTHF), and a non mechanized category of Bullock Operated Farm. The average size of holding in Tractor Ownership Farm, Tractor Hired Farm, Power Tiller Ownership Farm, Power Tiller Hired Farm and Bullock Operated Farm were found to be 3.07, 0.95, 1.86, 0.79 hectares, respectively. The implements used by the cultivators for performing various agricultural operations are desiplough, rotavator, harrow, puddler, khurpi, hoe, kudali, spade, axe, knapsack sprayer, shallow tube well/deep tube well, plain sickle, serrated sickle, combine harvester, reaper, tractor, power tiller. All sample household possed and used khurpi, hoe, kudali, spade, axe, shallow tube well/deep tube well, plain sickle, serrated sickle to do their cultural operations except deshi plough as 100 per cent of the household owned deshi plough but only 4.58 per cent uses for tillage operation and remaining rest of household adopt mechanization for tillage operation. Use of animal drawn implements like indigenous plough and the traditional practices were adopted by the farmers and its percentage was high for tillage, sowing, intercultural operation, harvesting and threshing etc.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 363-367
K S Roshan, Umesha, *A A Fazal and 1H K Ranganath
Department of Food Science and Technology, 1Department of Agricultural Statistics, College of Agriculture (University of Agricultural Sciences), Hassan - 573 225, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A study of vegetable milk, a replacement for diary milk was explored by producing spray dried milk powder from soybean, cowpea, and peanut milk. Good quality soybean, cowpea, and peanut were soaked in water at 28±2°C for 12 hrs. Soybean, Cowpea (germinated) and peanut grains were de-husked and were steeped in 2% Sodium Bi-carbonate (NaHCO3) and then washed in clean water. Milk was extracted after mixing soybean, cowpea, peanut in the ratio of (100:0:0, 70:15:15, 60:20:20, and 50:25:25) respectively. Homogenized milk was spray dried by using a lab scale spray drier (Model: JISL SD-48) by setting parameters such as inlet temperature at 120°C, feed rate at 9ml/min, aspiration rate at 50 rpm, keeping other machine parameters constant. Physico-chemical analysis and Sensory evaluation was done. Soybean milk powder was used as a control. The protein, fat, fiber and most of the minerals content were found to be highest and the sensory qualities of reconstituted milk was found to be good in T2 (60:20:20 - Soybean: cowpea: peanut) compared to other treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 368-373
M Karthick1 and M Manikandan2
1Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, 2Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kumulur, Trichy - 620 027, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in order to determine the irrigation interval based on soil matric head in the crop root zone of a rose plant under surface drip irrigation system. In the present study, irrigation scheduling was done using Tensiometer. Since Rose is a sensitive crop, the irrigation was given, when the soil matric potential exceeds -20 kPa. The irrigation was given based on soil matric head observed in Tensiometer installed at a depth of 30 cm. The model was calibrated and a set of soil hydraulic parameters were optimized. The calibrated model was used to simulate the soil matric head. The simulated soil matric head good agreement with the observed soil matric head. The model performance was evaluated at a depth of 20, 25, and 30 cm depth using root mean square error, mean relative error, mean absolute error, correlation coefficient, and model efficiency. It was found that the root mean square error is 3.17, 3.90 and 3.17 (cm cm-1), average mean relative error is 10.48, 3.46 and 5.49%, mean absolute error is 12.58, 4.10 and 6.08 (cm cm-1), correlation coefficient is 0.90, 0.81 and 0.81, and model efficiency is 99, 98 and 99% for 20, 25, and 30 cm depth respectively. Since the model efficiency is high, the model can be confidently used to simulate the soil matric head for irrigation scheduling of other crops in order to save water. From this study, it was recommended that the optimum irrigation interval of rose planted in sandy loam texture soil was two days.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 374-378
Ashwini M Mallapur and Ganga V Yenagi
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study was conducted to assess the adjustment pattern of emerging adults in relation to socioeconomic status. The random sample consisting of 110 urban and 110 rural areas were selected from Dharwad district of Northern Karnataka. The study was emphasized on the influences of socioeconomic status on adjustment pattern of emerging adults. Adjustment and socio-economic status scales were used to assess the adjustment pattern and socioeconomic status of the selected respondents. The results found that there was no significant association between adjustment pattern and socioeconomic status of urban and rural areas of the emerging adults. In rural area home adjustment significantly associated to socioeconomic status. Majority of the people were belongs to higher socioeconomic status than middle and low socioeconomic status.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 379-383
R Yogeshwari*1, G Hemalatha1, C Vanniarajan2, R Saravanakumar3 and A Kavithapushpam4
1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, 2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, 3Department of Apparel Designing and Fashion Technology, 4Department of Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study envisages the manufacture of rice shaped analogues/kernels from the combination of broken rice flour with cowpea flour using extrusion technology and to evaluate the nutritional and quality characteristics. The raw materials were consisted of broken rice (60-90%) and cowpea flour (10-40%), salt (2%) and water (30%). The operating conditions of the single screw extruder were fixed at 20 kg/h feed rate, 40% of feed moisture content, 350 rpm shearing force for the cutter, 4.5 mm diameter of the die. The temperature profile in the barrel zone towards rice shaped die was 60°C. The extruded rice analogues were obtained based on the extrusion conditions and they were collected and dried in tray drier at 60°C for 4 hours. Bulk density, water absorption index and water solubility index of the extruded rice analogues were found to be in the range of 0.14 to 0.62 g/cm3, 2.1 to 5.8 g/g and 11.56 to 16.73%. Regarding colour measurements, L*, a* and b* values ranged from 31.44 to 62.71, 0.93 to 2.22 and 9.66 to 13.03. Cooking time, cooked weight, percent of rehydration and cooking loss was found to be 5 minutes, 2.14 to 3.03 g/g, 271 to 284 and 0.03 to 0.68 g/g. Moisture content was found to be 11.96 to 12.04%. Protein, fiber, iron and calcium contents varied from 6.03 to 13.27g, 0.35 to 5.32, 0.15 g to 3.95 mg and 9.01 to 42.17 mg per 100 g. Regarding sensory evaluation along the formulations, higher score was obtained for 30% incorporated of cowpea flour extruded rice (7.9). It can be concluded that the standardized cowpea based extruded rice analogues higher amount of nutrients compared to natural rice can provide an ideal source of essential nutrients especially protein for rice eating population.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 384-386
Hemant Kumar* and Suresh Kumar
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K. N. K. College of Horticulture (RVSKVV), Mandsaur - 458 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted during the period of March 2016 to July 2016 at the Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K.N.K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (M.P.). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The observations on different growth, flowering, and vase life parameters were recorded and the results obtained are summarized below. The different PGR treatments had significant influence on the growth, flowering and vase life characteristics of tuberose in the present study. The treatment T5 (GA3 200 ppm) showed the best result in terms of days taken to sprouting, plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant and leaf area (cm2). T5 (GA3 200 ppm) was found superior in flowering parameters also it recorded the earliest first spike emergence (days), the earliest 50% flowering (days), the maximum number of spike per plant, the maximum length of spike (cm), the highest number of florets per spike, the maximum length of floret (cm), the maximum diameter of floret (cm) and the longest flower duration (days). T5 (GA3 200 ppm) recorded, the longest vase life of cut spike (days), the maximum fresh weight (g) of cut spike on 3rd day in vase; on 6th day in vase and at senescence. Among PGR concentrations, T5 (GA3 200 ppm) recorded the earliest first spike emergence, the earliest 50% flowering, maximum number of spikes/plant, maximum length of spike (cm), maximum number of florets/spike, maximum length of florets (cm), maximum diameter of florets (cm), maximum flower duration, while the most delayed first spike emergence, the most delayed 50% flowering, minimum number of spikes/plant, minimum length of spike (cm), minimum number of florets/spike, minimum length of florets (cm), minimum diameter of florets (cm) and minimum flower duration were recorded with T1 (control).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 387-390
Giteshwari Kurve, Hemant Kumar* and Suresh Kumar
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K. N. K. College of Horticulture (RVSKVV), Mandsaur - 458 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted at the Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K. N. K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (M.P.) during the period of March - July 2016. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The treatment T5 (GA3 200 ppm) showed the best result in terms of days taken to sprouting, plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant and leaf area (cm2). T5 (GA3 200 ppm) was found superior in flowering parameters also it recorded the earliest first spike emergence (days), the earliest 50% flowering (days), the maximum number of spike per plant, the maximum length of spike (cm), the highest number of florets per spike, the maximum length of floret (cm), the maximum diameter of floret (cm) and the longest flower duration (days). T5 (GA3 200 ppm) recorded, the longest vase life of cut spike (days), the maximum fresh weight (g) of cut spike on 3rd day in vase; on 6th day in vase and at senescence.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 391-394
M R Naveen Kumar* and H Philip
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Synergy between technology and public policy is essential for increasing the productivity, profitability and sustainability of major farming systems in the country. This study was taken up to find out the relationship of selected variables towards the knowledge gain of the rural youths of Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu during 2018. The district was selected purposively whereas; the respondents were selected through random sampling procedures. Statistical tools used for analyzing the data were, simple correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and backward regression analysis. The study identifies that independent variables namely, Information seeking behavior, Extension agency contact, innovativeness, possession of modern electronic gadget, mass media exposure and degree of ICT accessibility have contributed towards the knowledge gain of the rural youths. And also, backward regression approach points out the mass media exposure, information seeking behavior, degree of ICT accessibility, extension agency contact, possession of modern electronic gadget, decision making ability, innovativeness, risk taking ability, occupational status, educational status, farm size and gender behavior as the major contributing variables towards the knowledge gain of the rural youths.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 395-399
Korla Harshavardhan* and Atul Kumar Shrivastava
Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The word ergonomics may seem to be an over or inappropriately used term at times, but the practical reality is that a good understanding of ergonomics and human interaction is a necessity for any successful product. In India, transplanting of the horticultural crop depends on human labour. In changing scenario of agricultural mechanization, ergonomics plays crucial role for effectiveness of the operation. Therefore, the study was undertaken to evaluate the seedlings transplanting operation on ergonomic basis and to work out the energy expenditure rate involved in the operation. Manually operated single row seedling planter was selected for the study and the male and female subjects selected randomly in the age group of 25-35 years operated it. The heart rate (HR) of the subjects was measured by computerized polar heart rate monitor (HRM) and it was taken as a base to work out energy expenditure rate. The field capacity of single row manually operated seedling planter was found to be 0.0166 ha hour-1 while for planting by hand it was found to be 0.0031 ha hour-1. The average energy expenditure for male and female workers for planting operation with seedling planter was found to be 29.08 and 28.26 kJ min-1 and for conventional method of planting it is 29.51 and 28.67 min-1 respectively. The operation was graded as 'heavy work' on the basis of heart rate.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 400-403
P Maheshwaran and M Arun Raj*
ICAR- Krishi Vigyan Kendra (CENDECT), Theni - 625 520, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment aimed to evaluate suitable sunflower cultivar, suitable row proportion and suitable fertilizer levels at the Experimental Farm, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi. The field experiment was conducted in factorial randomized block design with three replication. Factors of treatments sunflower cultivars, row proportion and fertilizer levels and their levels of sunflower variety (COSFV5) + onion, sunflower hybrid (TNAUSFHCO2) + onion, 1:1, 1:2 and 100 per cent fertilizer for main crop sunflower + 50 per cent fertilizer for intercrop onion, 100 per cent fertilizer for main crop sunflower alone. Sunflower variety (COSFV5) registered more plant population, and growth parameters viz. high plant height, high crop DMP, higher LAI, higher CGR and yield parameters viz. largest head diameter, registered highest number of seed head-1, maximum test weight and seed yield compared to sunflower variety. Onion planted with sunflower variety performed high plant height, high crop DMP, more fresh weight of bulbs, volume of bulbs, more test weight and bulb yield of onion. Among the row proportion, 1:1 was recorded higher plant height, higher leaf area index, high DMP, largest head diameter, highest seeds per head, maximum test weight per plant, maximum seed yield and stalk yield in sunflower and fresh weight of bulbs, volume of bulbs, more test weight and bulb yield of onion. Regards to fertilizer levels, 100 per cent fertilizer for main crop sunflower and 50 per cent fertilizer for intercrop onion performed high DMP, more leaf area index, largest head diameter, largest number of seed per head, maximum test weight and seed yield in sunflower and fresh weight of bulbs, volume of bulbs, more test weight and bulb yield of onion. Sunflower variety with onion at 1:2 along with 100 per cent fertilizer for main crop and 50 per cent fertilizer for intercrop registered the more gross return and high benefit cost ratio of as compared with other treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 404-408
Ashwini M Mallapur and Ganga V Yenagi
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A study on achievement motivation and adjustment among urban and rural of emerging adults was carried out in Dharwad district, Karnataka state during 2015-2016. A total population of 220 emerging adults in the age group of 18 to 30 years studying in UG and PG levels in Dharwad city. Achievement motivation scale was used to assess the level of achievement motivation of emerging adults. Adjustment inventory was used to measure the level of adjustment of emerging adults. Percentage, t-test and modified Chi-square were statistical techniques used for the analysis of data. The results revealed that, majority of the urban and rural emerging adults had moderate level of achievement motivation. Majority of emerging adults had excellent adjustment than the good and average. On statistical analysis there was no significant relation between achievement motivation and adjustment of urban and rural emerging adults.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 409-414
J Mohamed Faruk*, T Thilagavathi and P Janaki
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Tiruchirappalli - 620 027, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Reclamation potential of biochar applied either alone or in combination with gypsum on improving soil Physico-chemical properties and yield of ragi (CO 15) under sodic soil was evaluated in pot study with eight treatments at Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute, Trichy. Treatments included biochar at different rates viz. 5, 10 and 20 t/ha with or without gypsum (@ 50% GR) and control. Experiment was conducted in CRD with three replications using sodic sandy clay loam soil. Results showed that the application of various rates of biochar with or without gypsum had a profound influence on reducing the soil pH and ESP and enhancing ragi grain yield. The electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity were also significantly increased at post harvest stage of crop growth. Application of 50% gypsum plus biochar @ 20 t ha-1 significantly reduced the soil pH (9.16 to 8.33), ESP (29 to 14) and recorded highest grain (8.52 g plant-1) and straw yield. The results of the present investigation clearly indicates that the biochar @ 20 t ha-1 plus 50% GR can be used as an amendment in sodic soil for decreasing the soil sodicity and increasing the yield of ragi when compared to its sole application.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 415-418
V S Tekale, Payal Dudhe and S D Sarnaik*
Department of Extension Education, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A study on adoption of improved dairy management practices by dairy farmers was conducted with a sample size of 120 dairy farmers selected by using exploratory research design from Kalamb and Ralegaon taluka of Yavatmal district of Maharashtra state. The findings of the study revealed overall medium level adoption was recorded among 59.17 per cent of respondents. The practices provision of succulent green fodder and adequate green fodder during gestation period was adopted by cent per cent of the respondents. Whereas, majority of respondents were adopted practices like natural breeding service (75.00%), use of mineral mixture feeding (83.34%) and cleaning of udder before and after milking (83.33%). The relational analysis of selected characteristics and adoption of improved dairy management practices revealed education, herd size, annual income, source of information, economic motivation, scientific orientation and daily milk production were having significant correlation with the adoption of improved dairy management practices at 0.01 level of probability. High cost of cross-breed animals (95.83%), low price for the milk (91.67%), distantly located artificial insemination centre (60.00%) were the major constraints recorded by dairy farmers in adoption of improved dairy management practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 419-424
M Karthick1 and M Manikandan2
1Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering and Agricultural Structures, 2Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Kumulur, Trichy - 620 027, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this study, HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate the ponded infiltration through double ring infiltrometers into a hypothetical sandy loam soil. The soil hydraulic parameters were optimized by inverse modeling. The optimized soil hydraulic parameters were residual water content, (θr = 0.0076 cm3 cm-3), saturated water content, (θs = 0.3103 cm3 cm-3), inverse of the air entry value (α = 0.0011 cm-1), parameter n in the soil water retention function (n=1.337), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks=0.0238 cm min-1) and pore connectivity parameter, (l=0.0011) respectively. The average saturated hydraulic conductivity for the sandy loam soil under study was found as 0.0238 cm min-1 (34.27 cm day-1) through inverse modeling. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was found to be in the range of 0 to 0.063 cm day-1, which is much smaller than saturated hydraulic conductivity. The model performance was evaluated by the root mean square error, correlation coefficient and model efficiency and it was found that 0.003 cm, 0.99 and 0.99 respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the HYDRUS-1D model is a very good tool for simulating water flow as well as optimization of soil hydraulic parameters through an inverse solution.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 425-430
R Minithra*, K R Ashok1 and A Vidhiyavathi
Department of Agricultural Economics, 1Professor and Director of CARDS, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agricultural subsidies play a vibrant role in the development of the farmers as well as the agriculture sector. Inputs like fertilizers, power, irrigation facilities, seeds, farm implements and credit etc. are provided to farmers at a subsidized rate. Many experts and policy makers believed that the subsidies support to the livelihood of the small and marginal farmers and its withdrawal will lead to their decreased socio-economic status. Hence the research study was carried out to realize the views of small and marginal farmers concerning various aspects of agricultural subsidies in terms of their awareness, opinion and problems. The study utilized primary farm household level data collected in 2018 from randomly selected farm households in Ariyalur district. Findings of the study revealed that 90 per cent of farmers were aware of the subsidies being provided in the areas of seeds, plant protection materials, machinery, micro-irrigation, power and price (MSP). Input dealers and fellow farmers were found to be the most utilized sources by the farmers to get information regarding agricultural subsidies. Age, education, income, credit availability, membership in any organization is the major factors influencing farmers from receiving subsidized inputs. Finally Lengthy documentation procedure, lack of credit, high interest rate on loans, No fixed place of sale of subsidized inputs ,Sub-standard quality of subsidized inputs were found to be the major problems faced by the farmers regarding agricultural subsidies.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 431-433
S Yasodha* and S G Patil
Department of Physical Sciences and Information Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out to study the analysis of interval–valued field data using sub sampling approach and center and mean value approach. The study was carried out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam. Observations were recorded for six characters viz. root length and number of root nodules per plant along with plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth and number of branches per plant at 30 days old black gram plant. Leaf length, number of branches per plant and root length of the plant shows significant results at 1% significant level through sub-sampling approach. The root length of plant gives significant result at 5% critical level in center and mean value ANOVA approach. Similarly mean value ANOVA of number of root nodules per plant gives significance results at 5% level. The power of ANOVA was conducted to know which method is best. ANOVA with sub sampling has highest power compare to ANOVA of center and mean value approach. We conclude that taking five random plants from each plot will give the good result compare to considering center and mean values of the five samples.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 434-437
R Velusamy*
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was conducted with forty vegetable growers in tomato, brinjal, bhendi, chilli, moringa, amaranthus, coriander, onion, beans, carrot, cauliflower, snake gourd, bittergourd and ridge gourd in Dindigul, Dharmapuri, Namakkal and Theni districts. Ten farmers were selected in each district as samples for each vegetable and totally 40 farmers were selected as sample for each crop in four districts except moringa, cauliflower, beans and carrot. The moringa is cultivated majorly in Dindigul and Theni districts, twenty farmers from Dindigul and Theni districts were selected. The study concluded that only one-fourth of the moringa farmers (25%) were adopted the PKM-1 variety and meagre percentage (5.00%) of the farmers adopted the PKM-2 variety. Regarding adoption of TNAU tomato varieties only meager percentage of (7.50%) tomato farmers were adopted the PKM-1 variety. Fetching low price in market compare to private hybrids is one of the reasons for non-adoption of TNAU vegetable varieties with 71.81 per cent.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 438-440
S G Raju*, M S Patil, V I Benagi, V Rudra Naik and B Fakrudin
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Roving surveys were conducted to know the chilli leaf curl disease incidence in different parts of eight districts of Northern Karnataka during 2002 to 2005. A total of 99 villages were surveyed. The virus caused by Bemisia tabaci and tomato leaf curl virus were noticed. The virus transmitted by whitefly (tabaci) of test plants, which produced vein clearing, curling and stunting symptoms and tomato leaf curl Joydebpur virus symptoms on chilli were as mild yellowing, severe leaf curling, leaf distortion, stunting and blistering.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 441-444
K Josna*, K Thangavel1 and D Amirtham
Department of Food Process Engineering, 1Centre for Post Harvest Technology, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute (TNAU), Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Neera is a sweet and unfermented health drink collected from Palmyra palm tree (Borassusflabellifer Linn.). Neera is a unique health drink and is highly susceptible to fermentation and after which it loose its quality and becomes toddy. Physico chemical, enzymatic and engineering properties of the fresh palm neera were analyzed in this study which is important for the design of process parameters for the preservation of palm neera. Fresh palm neera showed a pH of 7.2 and titratable acidity of 0.039% malic acid. Total soluble solids (TSS) of fresh palm neera were found to be 9.20°Brix. Palm neera had an ascorbic acid content of 26.68 mg/100ml. The total sugar and reducing sugar of fresh palm neera were 18.71 g/100ml and 0.80 g/100ml respectively. Colour value of fresh palm neera was found out; L, a and b values being 76.23, 1.83 and -2.32 respectively. PPO and invertase enzyme activity in the fresh palm neera sample estimated as 0.079 ΔA410/min/ml and 49.15 × 10-3 unit/min/g respectively. Engineering properties such as thermal conductivity and specific heat of the palm neera sample were 0.61 ± 0.042 W/m°C and 3.45 KJ/Kg-K respectively. Thermal diffusivity of fresh palm neera sample was observed to be 0.17 ± 0.003 m2/s. Surface tension was found to be 0.78 ± 0.004 N/m2.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 445-449
Irfan Illahi*, Azad Gull, Jameela Akhter, and Sukhen Roy Chowdhury1
P4 Basic Seed Farm, Central Silk Board, Manasbal - 193 504, Ganderbal, Jammu and Kashmir 1Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
India is predominantly an agriculture-based country, 57% of its population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. But agriculture still contributes only 20% of country’s GDP. This is because of the fact that, in rural population of India, 26% of population still lives BPL. Sericulture being having a unique feature of eradicating rural problems in terms of employment and migration to the cities for want of jobs, has played a vital role. One of the new concepts growing in India is integrated farming for which main component is sericulture. To make sericulture more productive and sustainable the concept of tree mulberry is being popularized in Jammu and Kashmir State in the recent years. In this direction, the present study was conducted on eleven mulberry genotypes viz. English Black, Morus multicaulis, Okinowa, S-1301, Ch. White, Goshoerami, Tr-8, C-763, S-1531, Tr-10, C-4 to study their performance as tree in Jammu and Kashmir. The result revealed that highest leaf yield per hectare was observed in Goshoerami (15 Metric tons) followed by multicaulis (12 Metric tons). However, in terms of early sprouting multicaulis attains 42.27% sprouting as compared to Goshoerami on March 25th where sprouting was seen in the month of April only. Leaf shedding was recorded highest 88.70% in C-4 mulberry variety on November, 30th and least in Goshoerami 65.30%. Advantages over other type of plantation were also observed for the benefit of sericultural farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 450-452
Suresh Kumar* and Hemant Kumar
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K. N. K. College of Horticulture (RVSKVV), Mandsaur - 458 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation conducted during the period from September, 2016 to January, 2017 at the Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K.N.K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior (M.P.). The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with three replications. Tuberose varieties like Vaibhav, Pearl Doublec, Calcutta Double, JK T- 4, Mexican Single, Shringar, Suvasini, Phule Rajani, Hyderabad Single, and Hyderabad Double was used for the experiment. The varietal difference had significant influence on the vase life parameters and biochemical parameters of tuberose in the present study. Among the varieties studied Suvasini recorded the maximum fresh weight (g) of cut spike during the all stages of observation (at harvest, on 3rd day and 5th day in vase and at senescence). Suvasini recorded the maximum moisture percent of cut spike both at harvest and at senescence. Suvasini recorded the maximum water uptake (ml) in vase during all the stages (on 3rd day and 5th day in vase and at senescence i.e. total water uptake). Suvasini recorded the maximum number of florets per spike, length of florets (cm) and diameter of florets (cm). Suvasini recorded the longest vase life (days) of cut spike.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 453-454
Abhilasha Deepa Minz*
Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi - 834 006, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
The present research work was conducted in Ranchi district of Jharkhand. In this study possible constraints in awareness, access and utilization of weather information sources were listed and accordingly they were ranked. From the present research conducted, it can be concluded that there are lot many constraints in awareness, access and utilization of weather information sources with each constraint having many other sub domains. Weather information sources are important tools by which many risks in agriculture can be minimized and farmers can get maximized profit. Constraints such as lack of knowledge, interest, and technical knowledge can be addressed by providing them proper training programs regarding importance of weather information sources and their role in agricultural practices. Government and other institutions should facilitate for provision of proper economic means so that they may be able to access these sources easily. Apart from these there may be other constraints in access and utilization of weather information sources which needs to be addressed as soon as possible. As we all know that increase in number of farmers’ suicide is increasing everyday due to lack of proper and timely information, weather updates being one of them. Also there are many farm families who are migrating to different sectors because of livelihood insecurity. These problems need to be addressed as soon as possible with government, private sectors and NGOs being the initiators.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 455-456
M S Nagendra*, C Tamilarasan, K V Shobha, K P Ragupathi and P R Renganayaki
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study aims at storing the jamun seeds a highly recalcitrant species in the refrigerated condition (5℃) to extend the seed longevity. Jamun seeds were stored under ambient and refrigerated condition, and were assessed for their germinability on alternate days. It was noticed that refrigerated jamun seeds maintained 100% germination until 13 days of storage irrespective of the reduction in moisture content but under ambient conditions 80% of seeds remained viable till 7 days with moisture content of 32.5% further reduction in moisture content brought down the germinability to 20%. The results of the study indicate that the storability of recalcitrant seeds can be extended under refrigerated condition and until the presence of critical moisture the seeds are able to germinate and moisture content of 31% may be the critical moisture for storing the jamun seeds. From the above results it can be concluded that jamun seeds can be stored upto 7 days under ambient conditions without reduction in viability beyond which germination get reduced due to reduction in moisture content affecting the seed viability. Jamun seeds when stored under refrigerated conditions extend the seed viability until 13th day by preventing the rapid decline in moisture content from the seeds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 457-458
S Vaitheeswari* and A Janaki Rani
Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study has examined profitability, productivity improvement and determinants of a new technology-Sustainable Sugarcane Initiatives (SSI) adoption in sugarcane cultivation in Tiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu. The data was collected from 120 sugarcane growers during 2017. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. Although cost of cultivation has been found higher in SSI method than conventional method, the cost of production is lower due to more profitable under SSI method than conventional methods. The subsidy given for adopting the SSI technologies, technological interventions, demonstrations and trainings to farmers on SSI method such as fertigation, wide row spacing, etc. conducted by Department of Agriculture and agricultural scientists, success stories of fellow farmers were the contributing factors for the increased yield and income. Therefore, the study has concluded that sugarcane cultivation is more profitable under SSI than conventional method. It has concluded that SSI is ‘more with less’ technology in term of water and seed and it is positive technology change in terms of human labour, fertilizer and machine labour.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 459-464
Prashant Natikar* and P Meganathan
Silkworm Seed Production Centre, National Silkworm Seed Organization, Central Silk Board, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, Hosur - 635 126, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Insect pests are major biotic constraints in production throughout the country and mulberry is not an exception. The perennial nature of mulberry combined with monoculture practices, harbors several pests throughout the year with seasonal variation. Over three hundred insects and non-insect species of pests are known to infest mulberry. The pests infesting mulberry are grouped into sap feeders, stem feeders, defoliators and root feeders. Among the sap feeders infesting mulberry, incidence of thrips is the highest. Thrips damage causes loss of moisture from leaves besides causing appreciable reduction in protein and sugar value of leaves. The present review focuses on literature generated on various aspects of thrips viz. seasonal incidence, extent of losses, bio-efficacy of chemicals and non-chemicals.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 465-467
Shraddha Shah, Y A Lad and Vishita Khanna*
International Agribusiness Management Institute, Anand Agricultural University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Hydroponics is a science of growing crops without using soil as a base. Usually, soil is considered to give strength and perform as a media for providing nutrients and water to plants. Hydroponics uses water as a medium to provide nutrients to plant artificially and in a controlled manner and is also called as Controlled Environment Agriculture. This study focuses on how we can use hydroponics technique to grow green fodder. Green fodders are staple feed for milk producing animals which leads to increase in quality and quantity of milk. This study indicates that if we can stabilize the availability of green fodder using this technology throughout the year then this can be leading to sustainable dairy farming.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 2 ; 468-472
Saqib Farooq, M F Baqual, Azra Qayoom, Shabir Ahmed Wani* and Huma Habib
College of Temperate Sericulture, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Mirgund, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Unabated population explosion has created unprecedented pressure on agriculture on one hand and on the other hand the excessive use of chemical fertilizers has also had its impact upon the health of consumers the human beings and other related life forms on earth. Although agriculture has undergone series of advancement since 12th century and is being practiced extensively throughout the world today, yet even after increased health concerns the alternative to the use of chemicals and other pesticides, fungicides or herbicides is not picking upto expected level. In spite of the fact that one third of the world’s workers are employed in the area of agriculture yet full fledged efforts are not in place to make it more and more sustainable. Conventional agriculture continues to be practiced for meeting the food needs of a growing human population, which has led to an increasing dependence on the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides for increased productivity. One of the alternatives for increasing the crop productivity on sustainable lines is the use of biofertilisers or the microbial inoculants which are essentially live carrier based inoculants proven to reduce the diseases through increased productivity. The use of these biofertilisers of different origins and for different nutrient supplements is not only eco-friendly but environmentally safe and cheap alternatives for increasing agriculture productivity.


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