Volume - 10 - July-August 2019
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 651-658
Lovepreet Singh, Jyoti, Paramjit Singh and Jatinder Singh*
Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara - 144 411, Punjab, India
Vegetable grafting is an alternative approach used in production to obtain better plants with good quality, high yield, resistant to diseases, nematodes, water logging conditions and better nutritional uptake. In grafting technique there is deliberate fusion of plant parts so that vascular continuousness is retained and resultant organism may functions as a unit. Grafting plants are supposed to have potential to improve these characters. The grafting provides resistance against biotic/abiotic stresses and increases the yield of the cultivars. This technique is considered eco-friendly for sustainable vegetable production. Grafting improves quality of the plant and is used to encourage resistance against adverse weather conditions. Growth, yield and fruit quality of the scion is greatly influenced by the type of rootstock used. For its commercial application, sharpening grafting skills and healing environment need to be standardized. Therefore, this paper aimed to review the importance of grafting and improvement in quality, yield, disease resistant and stress tolerant like characters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 659-667
B Suma*, R Sujatha and R S Maheswari
Department of Plantation Crops and Spices, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala
The study was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity among long pepper genotypes using morphological and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The research work was performed during 2010 to 2013 at Department of Plantation Crops and Spices, and Centre for Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala. Among the forty two accessions studied for morphological traits, it was noticed that thirty eight accessions were female, three male and one non-flowering type revealed wide variation among accessions in the characteristics like growth habit, leaf lamina and base shape, leaf margin, spike shape, texture, colour etc. 56 genotypes were screened with four selected random decamer primers (RY15, OPA6, RN8 and RN12). RAPD analysis yielded thirty eight bands with 94.7 percent polymorphism among the genotypes. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) indicated that the marker system is effective in detecting polymorphism. Genetic distances were computed using Dice coefficient and the similarity coefficient ranged from 0.02 to 0.79. Based on genetic distance, UPGMA clustering (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means) gave a dendrogram with three major clades. Collections originating from various parts of the country did not form well defined distinct groups and were interspersed with each other indicating no association between RAPD pattern and geographic origin of genotypes.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 668-672
T Gobinath and G Hemalatha*
Department of Foods Science and Nutrition, Community Science College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu
The present investigation was carried to study the quality characteristics of tree lettuce leaves at different maturity stage. Tree lettuce leaves (Pisonia alba) possess high antioxidant activity due to presence of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenols. Tree lettuce leaves used as a traditional medicine that confers protective effects against diabetes, rheumatism and arthritis and also has the properties of anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hypoglycemic. Chemical composition such as chlorophyll content, crude fibre, titrable acidity, Moisture and ash content was found maximum in fully expanded tree lettuce leaves. Antioxidant activity was higher in matured leaves and marginally expanded young leaves have high ascorbic acid content. Higher values of minerals were found in marginally expanded young leaves of tree lettuce. The results concluded that marginally expanded young leaves have maximum nutritional quality compared to other stages of tree lettuce leaves.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 673-676
N Chandra Bose* and G M Lal
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh
The present investigation was carried out on character association and path coefficient analysis for 13 characters of blackgram on 29 genotypes with 1 check (T-9) and was evaluated during Kharif, 2018 in randomized block design at Field Experimentation Centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences. The correlation studies revealed that seed yield per plant has showed positive and highly significant association with days to 50% pod setting, number of primary branches per plant and harvest index at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Path coefficient analysis revealed that biological yield and harvest index were the most important yield component character at both genotypic and phenotypic levels that can be used as selection indices for the yield improvement in blackgram.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 677-681
Bhanu Murthy K C*1, B Somraj2 and E Rambabu3
*1Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Dr. YSRHU), Pandirimamidi - 533 288, Andhra Pradesh 2College of Horticulture (SKLTSHU), Rajendranagar - 500 030, Telangana 3Krishi Vigyan Kendra (PJTSAU), Pandirimamidi - 504 001, Telangana
The vase life of cut gerbera flowers is often limited by bending of the flower stalk called as scape bending, a premature senescence apart from normal senescence. Senescence of cut gerberas could be differed with floral preservatives in vase solution. The cut gerberas were precooled at 5oC for 6 hours followed by pulsing with sucrose 20% and sodium hypochlorite 50 ppm for 12 hours and then held in different floral preservative solutions i.e. locally available preservatives (neem extract - Azadirachta indica), essential oil (rosemary - Rosmarinus officinalis), mineral salt (calcium chloride - CaCl2) and their combinations at different concentrations kept in walk-in cool chamber at 5oC. The cut gerberas held in neem extract 1% + calcium chloride 0.1% significantly increased vase life (32.32 days) over control (18.43 days). The synergistic effect of neem extract and calcium chloride as antimicrobial compounds reduced the microbial activity (3.12 x 105 cfu/ml) as indicated by lower optical density (0.041) compared to control (0.116), which resulted in maintenance of better water relations and also reduced scape bending curvature (3.29 degrees).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 682-686
P Abirami* and S Senthilnathan
Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu
The study assessed the comparative analysis of Conventional Vs SRI (System of Rice Intensification) and its adoption behavior in SRI method of rice cultivation in Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu. The Cobb-Douglas analysis was employed and the coefficient of multiple determinations (R2) was significant with the value of 0.46, indicating that the variables included in function could explain 46 per cent of variation in the yield of rice cultivation. The coefficient of variables such as FYM, seeds, nitrogen, potash, human labour, machine hours and irrigation were positive and significant statistically with value of 0.48, 0.74, -0.32, -0.15, 0.65, 0.09 and -0.646 implying that one per cent increase in the above said variables from the existing mean level would increase the yield of SRI method of rice cultivation by 0.48, 0.74, -0.32, -0.15, 0.65, 0.09 and -0.646, respectively except the machine hours which would decrease by 0.46 per cent. It could be seen that about 90 per cent of the farmers who adopted square planting, leaf colour chart technique and Cono weeder had reputed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 687-690
Sangeeta Singh* and Manashi Mohanty
Department of Family Resource Management, College of Community Science, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha
The problem of kitchen waste is a universal one as waste exists in every society. India is now the world’s 3rd largest garbage generator. Now-a-day, Kitchen waste is becoming more complex as variety of materials is discarded as waste together. So the research was conducted to study the wastes management practices in rural household of Koraput district, Odisha, with a sample of 110 female respondents. The respondents were selected using multi stage purposive random and proportionate sampling method. A pre-tested interview schedule cum observation sheet was used to collect the data. The findings of the study clearly revealed that biodegradable and non biodegradable waste (3.63%) separation was not readily in practice. The main reason of not separating was lack of awareness (13.6%) followed by lack of discipline in home (4.54%) and laziness (3.63%).Improper waste disposal methods such as dumping in open (80.9%) and gutter (60.9%), burning (90.0%) were practiced more readily in comparison to environmental friendly methods like composting (4.5%) for kitchen waste.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 691-695
K Mithun*1 and S Kaleemullah2
1Dr. N. T. R. College of Agricultural Engineering (ANGRAU), Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh 2PHET Center, Regional Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
The osmotic solution concentration gradient causes the fruit to loose water and gain solids. Thus water loss and solid gain takes place. The osmotic solution temperature and immersion time also aids in the mass transfer parameters. Performance ratio which is the water loss-solid gain ratio should be high for any osmotic dehydration process to be good. The experiments were performed according to a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with varying osmotic solution concentration (33, 40, 50, 60 and 67°B), osmotic solution temperature (33, 40, 50, 60 and 67°C) and immersion time (19, 60, 120, 180 and 221 min) and their effect on water loss, soli gain, water loss-solid gain ratio (performance ratio) were studied with response surface contour plots.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 696-700
Sheela Kharkwal1* and Ravindra Malhotra2
1Department of Agricultural Economics, Sri Karan Narendra Agricultural University, Jobner - 321 001, Rajasthan 2Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana
This study was done in Kumaon hills of Uttarakhand to identify livestock holding pattern and calculate economics of milk production. The study was based on the both primary and secondary sources and has made use of the farm level cross-sectional data collected through multistage random sampling technique from 200 sample farmers belonging to different hill altitudes. To standardize output of different farms with different species of dairy animals, standard animal unit (SAU) was derived. To calculate cost involved in milk production cost incurred was divided in various subheads like feed and fodder, labour and miscellaneous etc. For estimation of milk yield and returns the output variable was taken as fat corrected milk (FCM) production per standard animal unit per day in litres. Average livestock holding size in the study area was observed 2.04 animal or 1.36 SAUs. Results further revealed that magnitude of gross cost of milk production was ₹ 111.40 per SAU per day. The proportion of green fodder, dry fodder and concentrates feeding costs accounted for 26.29 per cent, 20.92 per cent and 16.84 per cent of gross cost, respectively. Labor charges accounted for 31.98 per cent and veterinary expenses accounted for a minor share of 3.86 per cent of the gross cost. Average per litre cost of milk production, among sample households was ₹ 23.40.On the other hand milk production level was observed 6.79 l/household/day and milk yield was 4.85 l/SAU. A net of ₹ 69.83 per SAU per day were obtained from the farming of animals in the study area.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 701-705
K Venkata Sai*, S S S Aravind Kumar and K N Raja Kumar
College of Agricultural Engineering, Bapatla, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh
A field experiment was conducted at field irrigation laboratory, with an area of 240 m2. Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) crop was selected for experimental investigations during rabi 2015-2016. Based on the crop water requirement (CWR) of cluster bean four deficit and extreme irrigation levels were taken as treatments i.e. 60%, 80%, 100%, 120% of CWR through drip irrigation and one conventional method of irrigation as control for this study. The irrigation scheduling and crop water requirement of cluster bean crop was prepared as per the treatments using CROPWAT 8.0. The crop water requirement for cluster bean crop is 412.8 mm for sandy soils and 495.36, 412.8, 330.24, 247.68, 412.8 mm for the extreme and deficit irrigation levels. The deficit irrigation level of 80% of CWR through drip received highest yield and it varies from other treatments. The highest WUE was obtained in drip with 80% irrigation level (63.59 kg/ha-mm) followed by drip with 100% irrigation level (44.33%). 30.48% of higher yields were obtained for cluster bean crop in 80% CWR followed by 100% CWR (20.2%) compared to control (14.6 t/ha). Calculation of moisture content before and after in four different depths (10, 20 and 30cm) for five treatments show that before irrigation moisture content is low in control T5 and high is observed in T1, and after irrigation low in T4 and high for T5.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 706-709
Anjuly Sharma1*, Narinderjit Kaur2 and Sharanbir Kaur Bal2
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University), Handiaya, Barnala - 141 012, Punjab 2Department of FRM, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana, Punjab
The face of the Indian farmer is a woman’s face, because rural women form the most important productive work force in the economy of the country. Almost all women in rural India today can be considered as ‘farmers’ in some sense; working as agricultural labour in different farm activities viz. cotton picking, vegetable plucking, flower plucking etc. as well as unpaid workers in the family farm enterprise. Harvesting of flowers is one of the tedious activity and plucking of flowers is done mainly with hands and further farm women perform this activity with drudgery prone methods thus, putting large demands on their time and energy. Moreover, wrong practices followed while plucking shortens the life of flowers and also such flowers are not acceptable in the market. After studying the existing flower plucking practices, ergonomic parameters of farm women involved in this activity and the constraints faced by them during plucking of flowers, an improved technology i.e. a harvesting bag for collection of plucked flowers while plucking was developed and tested in the fields. This bag has adjustable straps uniformly and evenly distributed over shoulders and waist. It has shaped pocket in the front which makes the bag friendlier and reduces drudgery while putting plucked flowers in the bag and also saves time as both hands are free to pluck the flowers which also increases the output.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 710-712
Zahoor A Bhat*, Shyasta, Muneeb Ahmad and Burhan Hamid
Division of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, S. K. University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Jammu & Kashmir
Microscope is very useful tool in the field of science that gives us visual connection between the macro world and the remarkable underlying micro-world. Microscopes being very expensive ,everyone is afraid of using it , so the idea of inventing low cost microscope, called as foldscope come in the mind of Manu Prakash who is student of Stenford University, while he was doing research in Thailand. He invented foldscope, which costs less than 1 US dollar, everyone can carry in pockets and is easy to use. This optical instrument is serving wide range applications in the field of Science and Education. We prepared many slides of fungus and observed them under folds cope. Fungus is the member of the group of eukaryotic organism that includes microorganisms like Alternaria, Fusarium, Pencillium, Yeasts and Moulds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 713-715
Arpit Huria*, V L V Kameswari and Neelam Basera
Department of Agricultural Communication, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 145, U. S. Nagar, Uttarakhand
This study was undertaken to find out the extent of discontinuance of agricultural innovations in U.S. Nagar district of Uttarakhand. Five agricultural innovations viz. direct seeding of rice, application of bioagents, mushroom cultivation, polyhouse cultivation and nutritional gardening were selected for the study. The findings revealed that direct seeding of rice had highest discontinuance, followed by the application of bioagents, mushroom cultivation and polyhouse cultivation. Nutritional gardening was not discontinued by anyone. In order to prevent the higher extent of discontinuance of useful agricultural innovations, the role of extension agencies should extend beyond mere information giving in present day context and should include providing inputs or linking the clients with input agencies. In case of innovations that are market oriented, the agencies should examine the market before promoting the innovation. They may also suggest possible buyers to the adopters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 716-717
P Sreelatha*, P Sudhakar, V Umamahesh, D Subramanyam and R P Vasanthi
Department of Crop Physiology, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh
Experiment was conducted S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati at dryland farm during kharif 2017 and 2018. Ten groundnut genotypes were selected with three growth habit viz. erect (TCGS894, TAG 24, K6, TMV2 and Narayani), decumbent-2 (Kadiri Amaravathi), decumbent-3 (TCGS 1157, Dharani, ICGS76) laid out in randomized block design replicated thrice. Genotypes under decumbent growth habit recorded highest drymatter accumulation viz. TCGS 1157 (52 g plant-1) followed by Dharani (45.55 g plant-1), ICGS 76 (44.31 g plant-1). Higher harvest index was recorded in decumbent types, decumbent-3 type TCGS1157 recorded higher pod yield of 3760.77 kg ha-1 and it was on par with D-2 type Kadiri Amaravathi compared to best performance of erect type (2493.06 kg ha-1). Groundnut genotypes under decumbent growth habit recorded suitable canopy architecture, accumulate maximum total drymatter, higher harvest index, and pod yield per hectare under kharif rainfed conditions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 10 - Issue : 4 ; 718-720
M Mounika Reddy*, Seema, P Radhika and Srinivasa Chary
School of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030
A study on awareness, consumption pattern and preferences of consumer towards minor millets was conducted in Hyderabad in the year 2018-19 from 120 consumers to know their awareness, consumption and preferences. The study revealed that the consumer awareness for the minor millets was high. Regarding the perception and consumption patterns, consumers felt that the purchase price for minor millets per kg was high compared to other cereals. The price of minor millets was in the range ₹ 70-90/kg. Consumers need more variants of ready to eat foods and value added foods prepared from minor millets. Consumers were aware of local brands and purchased them compared to other brands like 24 Mantra, Manna, Inner Being etc. owing to their availability and awareness among the brands. The main constraint in buying the minor millets was their price and lack of awareness of cooking methods. The study suggested that the awareness regarding minor millets can be converted into purchase decision only by making them economically available to the consumers.




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