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Volume - 11 - March-April 2020
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 263-269
Anamika Gurung*, Y C Gupta and Suman Bhatia
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni - 173 230, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of two factors i.e. pruning and bio-fertilizer with reduced doses of chemical fertilizers on production of hydrangea. The plant height (126.43 cm), earliest flower bud formation (99.08 days), minimum number of days taken from bud formation to harvesting stage (40.53 days) and maximum number of cut flowers per plant (28.76) were observed in unpruned plants. Whereas, number of leaves per plant (248.01), duration of flowering (48.57 days) and quality parameters like weight of cut flower stem (76.13 g) and vase life (19.16 days) were recorded maximum in pruned plants. Among the treatments, T4 (Azotobacter + PSB + 70% RD) was found to perform better. The maximum plant height (118.52 cm), earliest to bud formation (104.15 days), minimum number of days take from bud formation to harvesting stage (39.56 days), maximum duration of flowering (53.51 days) were observed. This treatment also resulted in maximum number of cut flowers (26.05), maximum weight of cut flowers (87.56 g) and maximum vase life (20.62 days). The effect interaction between pruning and treatment revealed maximum plant height (137.67cm), earliest bud formation (93.68 days), minimum number of days taken to reach harvesting stage (38.06 days), and highest number of flowers per plant (36.21) in P2 × T4. However, duration of flowering (55.68 days) and flower quality characters like weight of cut stem (88.67 g) and vase life (22.93 days) were found maximum in P1 × T4.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 270-277
Sandipan Chatterjee1 and Tanmay Ghosh*2
1Department of Botany, Suri Vidyasagar College, Suri, Birbhum - 731 101, West Bengal, India 2Department of Microbiology, Dinabandhu Andrews College, Baishnabghata, South 24 Parganas, (South), Kolkata - 700 084, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Plants are healthy and natural resource of life. In particular, medicinal plants are of great importance with endless therapeutic properties useful for curing various diseases with an advantage of being natural. The present study is to evaluate the qualitative estimation of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate, hexane, chloroform, methanol extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against the following microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis; Enterococcus faecalis; Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The process was carried out by agar well diffusion method. The extracts were poured into the wells at different concentrations like 25mg/ml, 75mg/ml, 150mg/ml and 300mg/ml. After incubation zones of inhibition were observed. As the concentrations of extract increased the activity also increased and thus the zone of inhibition too increased. Among four extracts, zone of inhibition was best in ethyl acetate extract. In case of Staphylococcus aureus, the ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/ml) showed maximum zone of inhibition 46.0 ± 2.0mm, while in case of Klebsiella pneumoniaethe hexane extract (25 mg/ml) showed minimum zone of inhibition 15.0 ± 0.0 mm. Ethyl acetate extract is more effective than other three extract. Hence Eucalyptus globulus can be used in developing drugs and medicines against various activities of bacteria. Study has also been shown the presence of various phytochemical constituents such astannin, saponin, glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic content in the leaf of Eucalyptus globulus. The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended. Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated against six bacterial species, including food poisoning and spoilage bacteria and human pathogens. The results of the antibacterial activity tests revealed that the leaf extract of E. globulus has rather a strong antibacterial activity, especially against Staphylococcus aureus.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 278-280
Reena Kumari1, Deep Lata*2 and Sangeeta Sree1
1Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, 2Department of Food Science and Postharvest Technology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour - 813 210, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of plant growth regulators and micronutrients on okra cv. Kashi Kranti during Kharif season. The effect of GA3 (100 ppm and 150 ppm), NAA (100 ppm and 150 ppm) along with three levels of micronutrients ZnSO4 (20kg, 30kg and 40 kg) and borax (5 kg, 10 kg and 15 kg) were evaluated. In result, it was observed that parameters such as maximum number of leaves (25.85), number of branches (4.5), plant height (112.44 cm), number of fruit (27.98), fruit fresh weight (20.65g) and fruit yield (148.56q/ha), seed yield (77.48 g), total chlorophyll (3.50), zinc content (38 ppm), boron (46 ppm) and germination (92%) taken during first flowering showed non-significant effect. But combined effect of GA3 100 ppm and borax 15 kg gave outstanding result. It was significantly superior to all the treatment combinations. The maximum net return (₹ 168959.20/ha) with higher benefit cost ratio (3.14) was also obtained under GA3100 ppm and borax-15 kg.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 281-287
Imran Khan*1, Azra N Kamili2, Sumira Tyub1 and Irfan Rashid3
1Department of Environmental Sciences, 2Centre of Research for Development, 3Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar - 190 006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
In forest ecosystems the disturbances are known to influence the vegetation composition and soil properties. The present study aimed to investigate the vegetation composition and soil properties along a disturbance gradient in coniferous forests of Kashmir Himalaya. The plant diversity was highest at low disturbed site (LD) followed by moderately disturbed (MD) and severely disturbed site (SD).The soil properties and microbial load showed variation among the sites. The nutrient concentration (C, N, P) showed decreasing trend with the increase in disturbance levels. Moreover the enzyme activity was higher at less disturbed site as compared to other sites. Immediate mitigatory measures are required for the restoration of degraded coniferous forests of Kashmir Himalaya.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 288-293
Madhusmita Pradhan1, Rajeswari Das2, Ranjan Kumar Sahoo3, Chinmay Pradhan4 and Santanu Mohanty*5
1,4Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar - 751 004, Odisha, India 2Department of Soil Science, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa - 848 125, Bihar 3Department of Biotechnology, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Bhubaneswar - 752 050, Odisha, India 5Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar - 751 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
The present study focused on isolation, screening and biochemical characterization of native P solubilizing bacteria. Five districts of Odisha particularly, Balasore, Cuttack, Khordha, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj were targeted and rhizospheric soils from acidic agricultural lands were collected for screening of P solubilizing bacteria. Five native strains one from each district were selected for this investigation. Out of the five, BLS18 and CTC12 were gram positive rods and the rest three were found to be gram negative rods. BLS18 and CTC12 produced bigger sized halo zone (31 mm). All these five bacteria were motile and produced indole in peptone broth. All the PSB strains were found resistant to fluconazole, amphotericin, penicillin G and polymyxin B but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. All of them could produce catalase, oxidase, chitinase, caseinase and Dnase on their respective mediums. However, all the isolates were found negative to enzyme cellulase. The isolate CTC12 only produced amylase. Characterizing the protein profiles of the strains revealed that, BLS18 had highest number of bands (25) with molecular weight ranging from 10.741 to 732.480 kDa. The strains CTC12 and KHD08 had lowest number of bands (18) ranging from 12.864 to 756.944 and 11.237 to 496.776 kDa respectively. Following biochemical and 16srDNA characterization the five PSB strains were identified asBacillus cereus BLS18 (KT582541), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CTC12 (KT633845), Burkholderia cepacia KHD08 (KT717633), Burkholderia cepacia KJR03 (KT717634), Burkholderia cepacia K1 (KM030037) respectively. These identified strains further needs to be tested in field conditions to screen their P solubilizing efficiencies in problematic acid soils in order to maintain soil P status.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 294-297
Dev Prakash Singh, U S Jaiswal, M Feza Ahmad and Minakshi Kumari*
Department of Horticulture (Fruit and Fruit Technology), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur - 813 210, BIhar, India
Abstract
The experiment was laid down in randomized block design (factorial) with three level of Potassium sulphate (K0 = 0.0%, K1 = 1.0% and K2 = 1.5%) and four level of Disodium octa borate tetrahydrate commercially known as solubor (B0 = 0.0%, B1 = 0.1%, B2 = 0.2%, B3= 0.3%) were foliar sprayed at shooting and one month after shooting to study the effect on post harvest biochemical changes and its commercial life of banana cv. Grande Naine. The post-shoot stage spray of various nutrients improves the quality and shelf life of fruit. Foliar application of potassium @ 1.5 percent minimized the PLW as compare to other treatment of Potassium. However, the application of boron @ 0.3 percent also registered minimum PLW. Interactive effect of potassium sulphate @ 1.5 percent in combination of boron @ 0.3 percent had minimum PLW (10.28%), maximum TSS (30.01°Brix) and Total sugars (31.05%) during 9 days of storage.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 298-305
Manzoor Ahmad Ganaie*1, Mohd Yaqoob Dar2, Azad Gull3, Irfan Illahi3 and Ravindra Kumar Dubey1
1Department of Zoology, Government Model Science College, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India 2Government Degree College (University of Jammu), Surankote - 185 121, Jammu and Kashmir 3P4 Basic Seed Farm, Central Silk Board, Manasbal, Safapora - 193 504, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
This study was aimed to ascertain the probable effect of Glyphodes pyloalis infested (GPI) mulberry leaves on rearing and reeling parameters of different strains of silkworm Bombyx mori L. The study was carried out in summer as well as autumn seasons of 2018 at P4 Basic Seed Farm Manasbal, Jammu and Kashmir. Silkworm races utilized for the research were of pure lines, SH6, NB4D2, CSR2, CSR4 and hybrids CSR2×CSR27, CSR6×CSR26, SH6×NB4D2, CSR2×CSR4, FC2×FC1 which were reared on GPI leaves and health leaves (non-infested) of Goshoerami variety separately to estimate the impact of infestation on their performances. Impact on silkworm performance was measured in terms of larval duration, larval yield, cocoon and larval weight, shell weight and ratio, filament length, denier, renditta and reelability. Larval duration got extended by two and half days when fed with GPI leaves while as yield/10000 larvae too showed significant decrease in all the selected races. Larval weight got decreased by almost 13 percent when larvae fed with GPI leaves compared to those fed with normal healthy leaves during both rearing seasons. Feeding with GPI leaves significantly reduced cocoon and shell weight, shell ratio and filament length besides denier in all races tested. Renditta got significantly increased and reelability got decreased by more than 13 percent in all races of silkworm fed with GPI leaves.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 306-311
T Dharani Priya* and A K Vidya
Department of Biochemistry, Kongu Arts and Science College, Erode - 638 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An ever-growing demand for more effective wastewater clean-up technology urge to explore vast number of novel adsorbents including agrowastes, nanosorbents, etc. The present investigation aims to demonstrate the efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment in various concentrations of copper nanoparticle with rice husk ash (RHA-CuNP) as adsorbent using water quality index (WQI). The predicted WQI will aid in assessing the water quality status defining its reuse for appropriate utilities. WQI calculated by considering selected physicochemical parameters evidenced that WQI value inclined towards positive anglewith increasing concentration of RHA-CuNPs. The treated water sample with 15% nanosorbent concentration reported 78.73% treatment efficiency but still retained “Poor” water quality status and could be possibly used for irrigation or recreational purposes. Similarly, with 5 and 10% RHA-CuNP nanosorbents, the efficiency was 16.05 and 58.26% respectively. Though, WQI of 5 and 10% RHA-CuNP treated water samples were lower than WQI of untreated raw domestic sewage, both were found unfit for consumption. The outcome of the study concluded that increasing nanosorbent concentration and/or adsorption time offer better efficiency in wastewater treatment, ascertaining its secured use or discharge into water bodies.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 312-320
D Lakshminarayana* and P Prasanth
College of Horticulture (SKLTS Horticultural University), Mojerla - 509 382, Telangana, India, Floricultural Research Station, SKLTS Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture (SKLTS Horticultural University), Mojerla, Telangana during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The gladiolus cultivar White Prosperity was used to study the effect of pre-soaking and foliar sprays of different plant growth regulators (GA3, Salicylic acid, Paclobutrazole and Cycocel) on corm production of gladiolus cv. White Prosperity. Among the plant growth regulators at different concentrations, cycocel (CCC) 1500 ppm recorded significantly the highest corm weight, weight of cormels per plant, more number of cormels per plant and maximum propagation coefficient. Similarly, CCC 1500 ppm also recorded less number of days for spike emergence over control. Chemicals application through foliar spray recorded significantly minimum number of days for sprouting and spike emergence over control. Finally it was concluded that CCC 1500 ppm is the best chemical for improving corm characters in gladiolus cultivar White Prosperity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 321-325
N Srividya Rani*, T Lakshmi, P V Sathya Gopal1, N Vani and B Ravindra Reddy
Department of Agricultural Extension, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India 1Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Maddiboinavaripalem, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was conducted with an ex-post facto research design in Ananthapur and Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh over a randomly drawn sample of 180 respondents and the results revealed that majority of the respondents were middle aged (56.67%), high school educated (25.00%), medium farming experience (61.67%), semi-medium farm size (43.89%), had medium annual income (55.00%), with medium mass media exposure (52.22%) undergone medium training (54.44%) had medium social participation (56.67%), medium extension contact (60.55%), medium achievement motivation (52.22%), decision making pattern (68.89%), scientific orientation (62.22%), innovativeness (52.78%), risk orientation (60.00%), deferred gratification (47.78%), management orientation (58.89%) and with medium economic orientation (51.11%) respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 326-328
P Sumathi* and B Parthipan
Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU), Madurai - 625 104, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agricultural labour is a person who worked on another person’s land for wages in money, kind or share of crop. As per 2011 census, Agricultural labourers constituted 29.96 per cent, 29.21 per cent and 19.46 per cent of the total workers in India, Tamil Nadu and Tiruppur respectively. In view of the issues like supply demand gap of agricultural labour and impact of labour availability to agriculture the present study was taken up in Tiruppur district. The supply demand gap analysis revealed that labour demand exceeded labour supply during seven months, viz., March, May, August, September, October, November and December. The supply demand gap is highest during the month of October followed by May. Net cropped area and wage rate were the factors influencing demand for labour. Family size and wage rate were the factors influencing supply of labour. The major reasons for supply demand gap of agricultural labourers were availability and wage of non-farm employment followed by MGNREGS. The coping mechanisms followed by farmers in the study area were cultivation of less labour intensive crops, mechanization, increase in family labour usage and providing high wage to the labourers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 329-332
P Ashoka*, G B Shaishadhar and Gopal V Dasar
ICAR- Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hanumanmatti - 581 115, (Tq) Ranebennur, (District) Haveri, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at AICRP on Water Management, Belavatagi, UAS, Dharwad, during 2013-14 on soil deficient in available micronutrient to study the Influence of various Irrigation and Micronutrients levels on maize under Malaprabha command area in Northern Karnataka. The results revealed that, crop receiving irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE recorded significantly higher maize grain yield (70.80 q/ha) with higher gross return (₹ 88,924 ha-1), net return (₹ 65,804 ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.84) compared to other treatment. However, in pooled analysis, the yields were on par with different irrigation levels. Among different level of boron applied to soil or through foliar application from 2 to 6 kg granubour/ha increased the yield over no boron application. But significant results obtained at 6 kg granubour/ha application and foliar application of 0.5% of Feso4 and 0.5% of ZnSo4 with borax @ 0.1% at 30 and 45 DAS. The interaction effects between irrigation and boron levels showed that, irrigating the crop at 0.8 IW/CPE along with foliar application of 0.5% Feso4 and 0.5% Znso4 with borax @ 0.1% at 30 and 45 DAS recorded higher yield, higher gross returns, net returns, B:C ratio and WUE over the treatments. But, it was on par with all the treatments that receive the boron either through soil or foliar application.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 333-340
Bharath Kumar Neelaboina*, Shivkumar, Mir Nisar Ahmad, Kiran R and S Roy Chowdhury
Silkworm Breeding and Genetics Laboratory, Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 122, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out at Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Pampore, Jammu and Kashmir during spring, summer and autumn, 2018 to study the extent of heterosis among 24 elite bivoltine silkworm, (Bombyx mori L.) foundation crosses (FC) under temperate climatic conditions. Two types of heterosis parameters viz. heterosis over mid parent value (relative heterosis) and better parent value (heterobeltiosis) were estimated for eight metric traits namely fecundity (No.), hatchability (%), yield per 10,000 larvae by number and by weight (kg), single cocoon weight (g), single shell weight (g), shell ratio (%) and pupation (%). The mean relative heterosis (%) across traits varied from -4.92 to 8.34 and -2.81 to 3.11 in constricted and oval FC respectively during spring, 2018. In summer, it ranged from -5.21 to 1.81 and 0.00 to 3.14 in constricted and oval FC respectively. Whereas in autumn, mean relative heterosis in constricted FC, ranged from -3.74 to 3.49 and oval FC ranged from -1.85 to 1.87. Among constricted FC PAM117 × SK7 recorded highest relative heterosis values in all the three seasons (4.37%, 4.27% and 2.50%) and SK6 × SK7 showed highest heterobeltiosis values in spring (1.61%) and autumn (1.87%) only. In case of oval FC APS5 × PAM114 recorded highest relative heterosis in spring (3.43%) along with summer (3.95%) and heterobeltiosis (2.96%) only in summer. PAM114 × CSR50 showed highest heterobeltiosis in spring (0.63%) whereas, its reciprocal recorded highest in autumn (5.83%). Based on their performance in all the three seasons, constricted FC viz. PAM117 × SK7 and SK6 × SK7 and oval foundation crosses viz. APS5 × PAM114 and PAM114 × CSR50 along with its reciprocal were identified based on mid and better parent heterosis which will be further utilized for the development of bivoltine silkworm double hybrid suitable to Kashmir valley.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 341-348
Sailen Talukdar and Pratap Jyoti Handique*
Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati - 781 014, Assam, India
Abstract
Smilax is a genus of about 350 species belongs to Smilacaceae family, commonly known as sarsaparilla (Tikoni Barua in Assamese), found in tropical, subtropical and temperate zones worldwide. It can be characterized as climbers, with long, thin thorny stem and the branches have tendrils which attach to other plants or objects and grow steadily upward. The present study was intended to accomplish an efficient condition for in-vitro regeneration of plantlets from nodal explants of Smilax ocreata A.DC by investigating physiological effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) supplemented with Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Explant sterilization for in-vitro propagation was performed and standardized by treatment with bavistin (fungicide), tween 20, ethanol and mercuric chloride. Sterilized explants were subjected to different strength of MS media supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) for regeneration of plantlets. Maximum shoot length (5.14  0.16 cm) was achieved on MS media supplemented with BAP (4.00 mg/L) and IBA (1.00 mg/L). Best rooting was observed on MS media augmented with NAA (3mg/L) in combination with Kinetin (1mg/L). Synergistic effect of BAP (5.00 mg/L) and NAA (1mg/L) in MS media resulted flowering. The in-vitro generated plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were transferred to greenhouse and successfully established in pots containing garden soil with 90% survival rate. This optimized method can be employed for large-scale multiplication of Smilax ocreata A.DC.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 349-354
N Khumdemo Ezung*, M Ben Yanthan1, D J Rajkhowa and Tiatula Jamir2
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kiphire, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Medziphema - 797 106, Nagaland, India 1Department of Agriculture, Government of Nagaland, Kohima, Nagaland, India 2Agriculture Technology Management Agency, Government of Nagaland, Department of Agriculture, Wokha - 797 111, Nagaland, India
Abstract
The experiment was carried out in the experimental farm of KVK, Kiphire, ICAR for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre during the rabi season of the year 2019. The result shows that the application of 3 ton vermicompost + rhizobium has significant effect on the growth and yield parameters as compared with the rest of the treatments. The effect of spacing was also observed to be significant where it was found that 40 × 10 cm performed better as compared with 30 × 10 cm spacing in terms of growth as well as yield parameters such as number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod and test weight. Organic C, pH, available N, P2O5, K2O and N, P, K content and uptake by plant and grains was also recorded higher with the application of 3 t vermicompost + rhizobium and 40 × 10 cm spacing. However, in terms of grain yield, stover yield and harvest index, 30 × 10 cm outperformed 40 × 10 cm. The economic analysis revealed that the combination of 3 ton vermicompost + rhizobium with 40 × 10 cm and 30 × 10cm spacing obtained highest grain yield and gross return, however, the highest net return and B:C ratio was recorded from the combination of 2 ton vermicompost + rhizobium with 30 × 10 spacing. Therefore, application of 2 ton vermicompost + rhizobium and 30 × 10 cm spacing which resulted in highest B:C ratio may be considered for adoption by the farmers of Kiphire, District.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 355-360
G B Chaitra* and J S Sonnad
Department of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Historically, the black pepper has been a highly tradable commodity in India. The domestic price, production and profitability are highly influenced by its international prices. The notable objective of the present study was to disclose the growth and instability under area, production, yield and export volume and value of pepper in India. Composition and direction of trade of pepper from India during study period was analyzed using Markov Chain to find out the stable and reliable markets for Indian pepper. Projection of export quantity of pepper from India up to 2022 was calculated by using the transitional probability of retention values. Multiple linear regression was carried out to find out the factors influencing export of pepper from India by using production, international price, and domestic price as independent variables. Garret Ranking was employed to identify the major constraints in export of spices from India. Growth in area and production of pepper in India was found to be negative and growth in yield found to be positive in India. Instability in yield was found to be high in India. Pepper exports from India with respect to quantity was negative growth and in value of pepper exports from India was found to be positive growth. There was high variability in quantity and value of exports of pepper from India. U.S.A, U.K, Vietnam, Netherlands and Germany were found to be stable importers of Indian pepper from India. Export projections indicate that export of pepper would increase by 2022. The influence of export price and production on the changes in export of pepper was found to be positive, but the influence of domestic price was found to be negative. Difficulty to meet international standards, fluctuating prices of produce in the international market, Lower productivity of export variety were the major problems faced by exporters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 361-367
D Lakshminarayana* and P Prasanth
College of Horticulture (SKLTS Horticultural University), Mojerla - 509 382, Telangana, India, Floricultural Research Station, SKLTS Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Mojerla, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Telangana during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The gladiolus cultivar White Prosperity was used to study the effect of. sucrose and ethylene inhibitors on vase life of cut gladiolus spikes cv. White prosperity under ambient conditions. Among the treatment combinations, Sucrose five per cent plus STS 300 ppm registered best results for almost all the parameters studied and resulted in maximum water uptake, transpiration loss of water, fresh weight change, floret opening percentage, vase life and least optical density of vase solution as compared to other treatments. Whereas, among the individual treatments, higher vase life was recorded in HQS 200 ppm over other ethylene inhibitors. Finally it was concluded that Sucrose five per cent plus STS 300 ppm and HQS 200 ppm are the best chemicals for improving vase life characters in gladiolus cultivar White Prosperity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 368-373
M Kamala* and A Karthikeyan
P/G and Research Department of Zoology, Government Arts College (Autonomous) (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli) Karur - 639 005, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori is an oligophagous insect that feeds mainly on the leaves of the mulberry plant. The growth of silkworm depends exclusively on the nutrition of the silkworm. The freshly collected mulberry leaves were smeared with synergetic solutions of nanoparticles of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and alanine in different concentrations. The enriched leaves were air dried. The fifth instar larvae of mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori L. were fed with enriched leaves thrice a day. Feeding parameters, food conversion efficiency and growth were studied and recorded. Synergetic supplementation of nanoparticles showed a positive impact on digestibility, efficiency of conversion and significantly enhanced the growth of the larvae by 70.985%, silk gland weight by 90.392% when compared to control.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 374-379
Abdalla Adda* and M V Sriramachandrasekharan
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the residual effect of integration of organic, inorganic wastes and chemical fertilizers on yield attributes, yield N, P and K uptake of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) in vertisol under rice-rice-black gram system. The results showed that the residual effect of the combined application of organic wastes and chemical fertilizer with fly ash had significantly more effective than without fly ash. Combined application of fly ash along with 100% NPK + SPM recorded the maximum value of seed and haulm yield, plant height, pod/plant, number of cluster/plant, number of pod/plant, number of seed/pod and N, P and K uptake, followed by residual effect of fly ash with 100% RDF + FYM application. While the best treatment among all treatments as a residual effect that didn’t received fly ash was 100% NPK + FYM. The lowest values of the parameter estimated were observed with control treatment that didn’t receive any amendment.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 380-383
Tiatula Jamir1 and N Khumdemo Ezung*2
1Department of Entomology, School of Agricultural Sciences and Rural Development, Nagaland University, Medziphema Campus - 797 106, Nagaland 2Krishi Kigyan Kendra, Kiphire, ICAR for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Medziphema - 797 106, Nagaland, India
Abstract
Under the prevalent weather condition at Jharnapani, the Citrus reticulate Blanco exhibited three flushes during different season in a year i.e. spring flush, rainy season flush and winter fall flush. Citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella) was monitored in a three years old block of khasi mandarin for two consecutive years, 20014-15 and 2015-16. In both the years, maximum number of flush occurred during rainy season where population of Phyllocnistis citrella and its infestation was found to be highest. Phyllocnistis citrella and its infestation exhibited a strong positive significant correlation with all the three flushing seasons. The regression equation revealed that every unit change in larval population and percent leaf infestation by Phyllocnistis citrella was due to a unit positive change in number of flushes. The prediction equation inferred that more number of twigs has a positive effect on the number of larvae and the percent leaf infestation by Phyllocnistis citrella.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 384-386
A C Girish*, B S Vinutha and Rajegowda
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kandali, Hassan - 573 217, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is grown in an area of around 4500 ha in Hassan district with huge investments. The farmers are facing the problems of low yield due to stem rot and stem borer menace along with micronutrient deficiency. To address the micronutrient deficiency problem Ginger rich – a micronutrient mixture developed by Indian institute of Spices research, Calicut was introduced for spraying. KVK, Kandali undertook on farm trials (OFT) on ginger rich usage by spray during 2013-14 and the results were promising and recorded an increase in yield to a tune of 12-15%. Farmers have recorded that the spray of micronutrient has given resistance to pest attack also thereby giving higher yield. KVK Hassan has also organized 10 training programs and 15 demonstrations about the advantages of Ginger rich spray to the crops and has also involved progressive farmers during training programs to express their views/experience about the effect of Ginger rich in enhancing the productivity. Overall, KVK Hassan has played an important role in enhancing the productivity of Ginger in the district irrespective of price of ginger realized by the farmer. The intervention of ginger rich to Hassan district by KVK has resulted in increasing the financial status of ginger farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 387-396
Moasunep1, J K Choudhary2 and N Khumdemo Ezung*3
1Department of Agriculture, Government of Nagaland, Kohima - 797 001, Nagaland, India 2Department of Agronomy, Assam Agriculture University, Jorhat - 785 013, Assam, India 3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kiphire, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Medziphema - 797 106, Nagaland, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Instructional-cum-Research Farm, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat. It was observed that W1, F2 and their interaction resulted in the highest content (%) and uptake (kg/ha) of NPK by maize plant at 60 DAS after sowing and maize stover at harvest for both the years. In case of maize grain at harvest, F2 and W1 too resulted in significantly the highest NPK content and uptake. The interaction was significant for NK content and NPK uptake of maize grain. The residual effect of weed management of maize in the succeeding sesamum was observed to be nil. Significant residual effect of fertility management of maize was observed in sesamum. F2 resulted in the highest NPK content (%) and uptake (kg/ha) at 60 DAS in sesamum plant as well as at harvest in sesamum stover and seed for both the years. In sesamum, significant interaction effect was found only during 2014 for the said parameters.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 397-401
Sekhar Gain*
Department of Chemistry, Ramakrishna Mission Vidyamandira, Belur Math, Howrah - 711 202, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Azide (N3-)/ hydrazoic acid (HN3) is a potentially hazardous species but in aqueous perchloric acid medium it reduces the superoxo ligand in [(dien)(en)CoIII(O2)CoIII(en)(dien)](ClO4)5 (1) to the corresponding hydroperoxo complex, [(en)(dien)CoIII(HO2)CoIII(en)(dien)]5+ (2) and itself gets oxidised to non toxic N2 gas following proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) path. In the presence of excess NaN3 over 1, the reaction obeys first-order kinetics and rate of the reaction increases with [NaN3]. The reaction rate, however, decreases with increase in [H+] and the plot of 1/ko with [H+] is linear with a small but significant intercept. The decrease of reaction rate with [H+] is most likely due to the protonation of the superoxo complex 1, which leads to a kinetic dead end product. It is also noticed that the reaction rate significantly decreases with increasing proportion of D2O replacing H2O in the solvent. Therefore, an H-atom transfer (HAT) from the reducing species to the bridging superoxide in 1 seems reasonable at the rate determining step.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 402-406
C Lakshmi Devi*, P L R J Praveena, T Lakshmi and A V Nagavani
Department of Agricultural Extension, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Study on relationship between profile characteristics of women agripreneurs and their extent of involvement aimed to bring out a strategy to increase their involvement in agripreneurial activitie. The Present investigation was carried out in Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh. Extent of involvement of women in agripreneurial activities indicated that more than half (55.83%) of the respondents had medium level of involvement, high (29.17%) and low (15.00%) levels of involvement in agripreneurial activities. The results of the study revealed that the independent variables viz. age, education, social participation had positive and non significant relationship whereas, entrepreneurial experience, decision making ability, risk orientation, innovativeness, management orientation, annual income, economic orientation, credit orientation and extension contact, mass media exposure, training received, market facilities and market intelligence had positive and significant relationship with extent of involvement of women in entrepreneurial activities. All the selected 16 independent variables put together explained about 70.20 per cent variation in involvement of women in agripreneurial activities.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 407-412
N Chandrashekar, A C Girish* and S C Ranganath
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kandali, Hassan - 573 217, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Saccharomyces yeasts are the unique unicellular fungi occupying a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial environment with abundant simple sugars, soluble nutrients and amino acids. Saccharomyces and its related strains have been intricately associated with human evolution for more than 8000 years. Continuous programs are being evolved with the objective of isolation and study of natural isolates of Saccharomyces for a broader genetic base and industrial applications using diverse feed stocks and tolerance to stressful conditions. In the present study adaptive evolution concept was used for studying the natural isolates of Saccharomyces species obtained from the spontaneous fermenting fruits collected from the central “Western-Ghats” of Karnataka. This unique geographical tract of rainforest with varying altitudes, rich flora and fauna remains one of the unexplored regions in India for study of yeasts. A differential approach of sampling sugar rich fruits was done from the habitats devoid of intense human activities, so as to analyse the Saccharomyces species occurring in the wild habitats. A total of 137 yeast like colonies were initially isolated from 29 fruit samples collected from different fruiting plants along the periphery of the selected geographical locations. The results obtained indicate that Saccharomyces species are diverse and distinct depending on their ecological niches.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 413-419
Tanmay Ghosh*1, Joydip Ghosh2, Maitreyee Mondal3 and Subhasree Roy4
1,3,4Department of Microbiology, Dinabandhu Andrewas College, Deparrshnabghata, 24 Parganas (South), Kolkata - 700 084, West Bengal, India 2Department of Microbiology, Rabindra Mahavidyalaya, Champadanga, Hooghly, W.B. 712401
Abstract
This study deals with the isolation of fungal communities and comparison seed borne mycoflora between Coastal zone seeds (Digha; West Bengal) and Indo-gangetic areas (Burdwan, Hooghly, Howrah; West Bengal) and to identify and classify them by standard blotter method and agar plate technique. Coastal areas seed samples were collected from the sea side of Bay of Bengal, Digha, West Bengal and the Indo-gangetic areas seed samples were collected from Burdwan, Hooghly, Howrah; West Bengal. The seeds were stored in sterile screw cap bottles for further analysis. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of fungal isolates were done using above tow methods. Six fungal genera including Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp., Macrophomina sp. Of them Aspergillus sp. and Alternaria sp. are the most frequent members. It was found that the rate of germination of coastal zone seeds were more than the rate of germination of Indo-gangetic zones seeds. Whereas the fungal community of coastal areas were appeared more frequent and destructive than indo-gangetic region. The germination percentage of oil seeds of indo-gangetic areas appeared respectively 92% and 96% where the germination percentage of oil seeds of coastal region appeared respectively 64% and 72%, and the germination percentage of cereal crops of indo-gangetic areas (Pratiksha, Swarna, Khas, Minikit, Kalma) appeared respectively 88%, 92%, 84%, 96%, 80%. Whereas the germination percentage of all those cereal crops (Protiksha, Swarna, Khas, Minikit, Kalma) of coastal region appeared respectively 60%, 68%, 56%, 72% and 52%. In the other hand the appearance of fungal community were more frequent of coastal areas than indo-gangetic region. The percentage of fungal growth of oil seed of indo-gangetic region (oil seeds) were respectively 35% and 20%. Whereas in coastal areas it was respectively 50% and 45%. The fungal growth of different cereal crops (Protiksha, Swarna, Khas, Minikit, Kalma) of indo-gangetic and coastal areas were respectively (20%, 18%, 25%, 15%, 28%) and (38%, 35%, 40%, 30%, 44%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 420-423
T Uma Maheswari*1, M Karuppaiya3, S Subhagar3, R Rahul3 and P Sivasakthivelan2
1Department of Horticulture, 2Department of Agricultural Microbiology, 3Food Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Banana is rich in potassium and fiber. It may help to prevent asthma, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and digestive problems. The cell line studies were carried out with the processed red banana wine to determine the anti-cancer properties. The anti-cancer activity determination was carried over the HCT-15 colon cancer cell line. The red banana wine had capability of inhibiting the cell viability of the cancerous cells. The red banana wine showed its anti-cancer properties at the 0.63% concentration where as the cell viability was low when compared to other concentration and control. Also, winemaking from banana is considered as an alternative of utilizing surplus and over- ripe fruits without wastage for generating additional revenues for the fruit growers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 424-429
L S Raut*1, R R Rakh2 and V S Hamde3
1Department of Microbiology, Sant Tukaram College of Arts and Science, Parbhani - 431 401, Maharashtra, India 2Department of Microbiology, Shri Guru Buddhiswami Mahavidyalaya, Purna - 431 511, Maharashtra, India 3Department of Microbiology, Yogeshwari Mahavidyalaya, Ambajogai - 431 517, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Alternaria leaf spot disease caused by Alternaria macrospora (Zimm.) is one of the most predominant disease of Bt cotton having national and regional significance. In present work a Bacillus species, namely Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum RLS52 isolated from rhizospheric niches of healthy Bt cotton plant, was screened against Alternaria macrospora by dual culture method. This Bacillus sp. significantly inhibited the radial mycelial growth of Alternaria macrospora i.e. 94.30 %. Upon finding the mechanism it was revealed that the Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum RLS52 produced diffusible non volatile metabolites, siderophore and chitinase enzyme to inhibit the growth of Alternaria macrospora during in vitro testing.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 430-433
Kalpana Kulkarni* and Swati Peshwe
Department of Microbiology, Government Institute of Science, Aurangabad - 431 005, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Infested seeds were assessed for presence of blast causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae using two gene specific molecular markers. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays were designed based on Magnaporthe specific actin gene and Magnaporthe specific Magnaporin gene. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was optimized on artificial seed infestation method. Later, random sampling method was employed for seed lot testing of five paddy seed lots. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was found to be accurate, specific and reliable with pcr product of 200 bp size, specifically showed amplification in Magnaporthe only and 0.4ng unit of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) could be detected adequately without any trouble.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 434-437
Poonam Dehariya* and Deepak Vyas
Lab of Mushroom Biology, Department of Botany, Dr. Harisingh Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar - 470 003, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Pleurotus sajor-caju Singer (Fr.) was cultivated on domestic waste and in 1:1 combination of domestic waste with agricultural waste viz. wheat straw (WS), paddy straw (PS), sunflower stalks (SFS), sugarcane bagasses (SB), maize stalks (MS) and in combination with other waste substrates viz. Fruit waste (FW), used tea leaves (UTL), Semal flowers (SF), news paper waste (NPW), Bamboo leaves (BL), Saw dust (SD) to determine the effect of these agro waste on yield, growth and biological efficiency. Among all the combinations domestic waste + wheat straw showed significantly highest yield 775.0 g kg-1 with 77.5% B.E. and domestic waste + saw dust showed significantly lesser yield 416.7 g kg-1 with 41.6% B.E. All the combinations were found suitable for the growth of Pleurotus sajor-caju.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 434-437
R Kiran and Melally G Venkatesha*
Insect Science Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, JB Campus, Bengaluru - 560 056, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide. Hypothenemus hampei has cryptic biology, i.e. the borer spends its entire life cycle inside the coffee berry. Multiple infestations of H. hampei in a single berry is a rare event. However, due to the heterogeneous flowering pattern and difference in the phenology, a range of coffee berry stages are always available for infestations. Additionally, multiple infestations in leftover/non-harvested berries are common in offseason. The multiple infested berries establish a limiting resource among conspecifics of H. hampei. Results of the study indicated a positive correlation between progeny and coffee berry weight. However, the crowding of conspecifics resulted in the reduction of the progeny numbers. The decrease in multiple infested berries and behaviour of colonizing females during cohabitation are discussed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 442-447
Sheela Kharkwal*1 and Ravindra Malhotra2
Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture (SKNAU), Bharatpur - 321 001, Rajasthan, India 2 Division of Dairy Economics, Statistics and Management, ICAR- National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
Present study is an attempt to examine the consumption pattern households belonging to hilly region of Uttarakhand and to find out gap of food as well as nutritional intake from their recommended levels. The study was based on the findings from 200 sample farmers selected in the study area through multistage random sampling technique. To estimate food security and nutritional status accurately diet survey was conducted in two seasons: summer and winter, using 24 hour dietary recall method. Results indicated that the consumption pattern of men, women and children was dominated by vegetables, cereals and milk among all the food groups, while the least consumed items were non-vegetables, fats and oils, sugar and jaggery. Comparison of dietary pattern with the recommended daily allowance indicated that the consumption of all food groups except pulse consumption was below than recommended dietary level in case of men, women and children. Deficiency for almost all the nutrients was seen among men, women and children yet was more prominent among children. Therefore, a targeted monitoring is required for the improvement of their nutritional status.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 448-452
D Lakshminarayana* and P Prasanth
College of Horticulture (SKLTS Horticultural University), Mojerla - 509 382, Telangana, India, Floricultural Research Station, SKLTS Horticultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at College of Horticulture, Mojerla, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Telangana during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The gladiolus cultivar White Prosperity was used to study the effect of combination of sucrose, ethylene inhibitors and antioxidants on vase life of cut gladiolus cv. white prosperity. Among the treatment combinations, sucrose five per cent plus + STS 300 + KMS 200 recorded the highest water uptake, transpiration loss of water, fresh weight change, floret opening percentage, vase life and least optical density of vase solution as compared to other treatments.. Finally it was concluded that sucrose five per cent plus + STS 300 + KMS 200 is the best chemical for improving vase life studies in gladiolus cultivar White Prosperity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 453-455
C Ravikumar*1, M Ganapathy1 and P Senthilvalavan2
1Department of Agronomy, 2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The area under sunflower cultivation in India quite increasing nowadays, apparently consumption capacity of edible oil also quite increasing. but the yield of the oil seeds remained low, resulting in a long yield gap. The study was to assess the yield gap and increasing the yield through the application of sulphur with different sources and levels in sunflower, especially in the clay loam soil. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with ten treatments viz. RDF (60:90:60 kg ha-1), RDF + SSP, Elemental sulphur and Gypsum @ 15, 30 and 45 kg ha-1 respectively. Among the practices, Elemental sulphur @ 45 kg ha-1with RDF found to be promising oil content increase 10.12 and 11.23 per cent over RDF alone and other levels of sulphur in two seasons of experimental study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 456-460
Poonam Yadav1* and Mahesh Datt1
Department of Livestock Production Management, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner - 303 329, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
An investigation was conducted to study the effect of strain and egg weight on fertility, hatchability and chick’s weight in large, medium and small sized eggs of chicken strains. The study was conducted at poultry farm of SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner. For the present study, eggs were collected daily from sheds and stored at 21°C temperature. A total of 297 eggs of hatchable backyard strain for each strain were collected for this study. These eggs were grouped into three egg size categories i.e. Small (38-44 g), medium (45-52 g) and large (53-59 g). For Kuroiler breed, the egg fertility was significantly higher in medium egg class (94.68%) followed by small (93.33%) and large (86.66%) egg class. For Chabro breed, it was highest in small (95.55%) egg class followed by medium (95.17%) and large (91.11%) egg classes but result were found non-significant. Fertility was found increased in Chabro breed by2.22%, 0.48% and 4.45% for small, medium and large classes respectively over Kuroiler breed of chicken. Chabro breed of chicken was found better performer than Kuroiler breed for all three egg classes of chicken eggs fertility. Hatchability (both TES&FES) was better in medium egg weight class compare to small and large egg weight classes. For Kuroiler breed, the egg hatchability (TES) was significantly highest in medium class (81.15%) followed by small (73.33%) and large (51.11%) egg classes. Similar trend was observed for Chabro breed and hatchability was higher for medium egg weight class.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 461-466
Manjusha Rani*, M R Shylaja and Deepu Mathew
Centre for Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, College of Horticulture, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 650 686, Kerala, India
Abstract
The pharmacologically important bioactive gingerols, present in the rhizomes of ginger are formed from the intermediates of phenylpropanoid pathway. Ginger genome is little exploited and studies on gingerol synthesis are very limited. However, Kerala Agricultural University could develop ginger somaclones with different levels of gingerol content. In the present investigations, analysis of differentially expressed ESTs for gingerol production and validation of identified EST for high gingerol content were carried out. The differentially expressed ESTs for gingerol production in ginger somaclone B3 obtained through Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) from a previous doctoral research available at Centre for Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology (CPBMB) were analyzed and functionally annotated using different bioinformatic tools such as Blastx, Blastn, Interprosaan and Blast2GO. Fifteen quality differentially expressed EST sequences in ginger somaclone B3, eleven from rhizome and four from leaf were analyzed. The rhizome ESTs showed maximum similarity hits with Boechera divaricarpa while the leaf ESTs showed similarity with Musa accuminata subsp. Malaccensis. The gene ontology distribution of rhizome ESTs showed its involvement in metabolic and cellular processes. From the previous doctoral research, the gene 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase (Thiolase) was identified to play a key role in gingerol synthesis. The expression of Thiolase gene was validated in high gingerol yielding ginger varieties viz. Athira, Karthika, Aswathy and somaclone B3 using Real Time PCR with low gingerol yielding cultivar Maran as control. The highest expression of 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase gene was recorded in the ginger variety Athira (2.737 fold) followed by variety Karthika (2.150 fold), variety Aswathy (2.018 fold) and somaclone B3 (1.992 fold) over the control cultivar Maran thus validating the role of gene 3-ketoacyl CoA thiolase (Thiolase) in gingerol production.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 467-470
Vinay Shanker Mahajan* and Ritu Singh
Dr. S. R. Ranganathan Institute of Library and Information Science, Bundelkhand University, Kanpur Road, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The unanticipated changes are coming from the continuous development of information technology in the field of library and information science. At present, the library and information scientists need to acquire knowledge and skills for the use of Communication Technology (ICT) because the services of libraries of almost all educational and research institutes are centered on information technology. This research paper examines ICT skills among the library personal in ICAR agricultural engineering institutes in India. The analysis of the data represents the extent and the level of ICT skills possessed by the librarians of ICAR Agricultural Engineering institutions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 471-478
A Prabhakaran*1, G Singaravelu1 and R Reginamary2
1Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore - 632 115, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Zoology, Auxilium College, Vellore - 632 006, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In the present study, green technique on synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using plant extract of Prosopis cineraria leaf has been experimented and synthesis of SeNPs which can be used for the manufacture at enlarged quantity. In the process of synthesis, characterization for identify the nature, formation, appearances and their morphometric structure were confirmed using UV, FTIR, XRD and TEM analysis. Therefore green technically synthesized Selenium nanoparticles are monodisperse, spherical in shape and ranged in 40 to 200 nm. Further the newly formed selenium nanoparticles are biocompatible in nature and its influences on fortification of V1 mulberry for estimate the growth and developmental parameters of silkworm, Bombyx mori fed with biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) treated with V1 mulberry leaves. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles were diluted with double distilled water at different concentrations such as 500ppm, 1000ppm and 1500ppm. Fortified Fresh mulberry leaves (Morus indica) on the each concentration were fed to silkworms of 5th instar, two feedings/day. Silkworm larvae fed on M. indica (V1) leaves on different concentration of SeNPs was significantly increased the growth parameters as compared to those fed on controls (dependent and independent controls).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 479-483
Rama Kant Singh*, Pankaj Kumar, S K Singh and R N Singh
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Bihar Agricultural University), Tingachhiya, Katihar - 854 105, Bihar, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at farmer field of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Katihar under jurdiction of Bihar Agricultural University Sabour, Bhagalpur during 2016-17 to investigate the performance of mustard under integrated nutrient management with sulphure. The soil is non-calcareous light gray in colour flood plain belongs to the alluvial gangetic plain (Agro climatic zone II). Results revealed that different fertility levels had significant effect on all growth and yield parameters i.e. number of branches, number of pods, length of plant, test weight, no of seed /pod, weight of seed, weight of straw, Biological yield, harvesting index and B:C Ratio. The use of soil test based fertilizers application through 75% chemical fertilizers and 25 % with organic manure resulted in significantly higher seed yield of mustard (19.28 q ha-1) followed by soil test based fertilizers application (16.21 q ha-1), nutrient application as par RDF (14.45 q ha-1) and farmers practices (11.25 q ha-1), respectively. Balance fertilization at right time with proper method and sources nutrient uses efficiency and productivity of mustard. Twenty five per cent inorganic fertilizers can be saved by use of FYM without deterioration in mustard yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 484-487
Anu Singh* and H D Bhartiya
Mycopathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Bipin Bihari P/G College, Jhansi - 284 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A new species of Passalora is proposed as a sycophant on Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae) from Tikamgarh forest of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is described, illustrated and compared with other Passalora species described on same host species.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 488-490
Jeremy Konsam* and V Sakthivel
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
This study revealed that out of fourteen independent variables, seven variables viz. educational status, experience in paddy farming, extension agency contact, mass media exposure, information seeking behaviour, innovativeness and scientific orientation were found to have significant and positive relationship with knowledge level of paddy growers on recommended paddy cultivation technologies. India is the second largest producer and consumer of paddy in the world. Paddy is one of the most important food crops in India. Rice is the stable food in Manipur. It is commonly grown in a traditional way by majority of the farmers in Manipur. So, they were not much aware of the paddy farming technologies. Keeping this point in mind, this research study was undertaken to analyze the relationship between socio-economic and psychological characteristics of the paddy growers with their knowledge level. The study was conducted in Kakching block of Thoubal District in Manipur State with a sample size of 120 paddy growers were selected through proportionate random sampling from six villages in the Kakching block. This study revealed that out of fourteen independent variables, seven variables viz. educational status, experience in paddy farming, extension agency contact, mass media exposure, information seeking behaviour, innovativeness and scientific orientation were found to have significant and positive relationship with knowledge level of paddy growers on recommended paddy cultivation technologies.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 491-493
Sonia Langthasa*, N Bhattacharyya and M Kalita
Department of Family Resource Management, Community Science, Assam Agriculture University, Jorhat - 785 013, Assam, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to know the problems faced by the farmers while using hand tools and implements in performing different agricultural activities. For the study exploratory research design was used. Survey was conducted to gather information from the selected households by following Probability Proportionate to Size (PPS) technique from two districts i.e., Jorhat and Karbi Anglong. In agricultural activities, farmers get injured using traditional tools. The most injury was in hand. Using agricultural tools farmers feel fatigue/discomfort in different levels of their body part. From the data it was found that highest percent (93-33) of respondents complained of reduced in grip strength which was followed by Pain in fingers, shoulders, wrist, and other body parts (80 percent) and numbness of hand muscles (78.33 percent). Findings revealed that farmers of Assam use traditional tools and implements since long time and most of the farmers felt immense drudgery in their use. It was also found that most of the farmers were unaware of improved drudgery reduction hand tools and implements. A design modification by applying design principles of hand tools is deemed necessary to improve working conditions and decrease the level of exposure to work related problems.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 494-496
Ashwini V Jadhav*, N B Mehetre1 and D B Mehetre1
Department of Biotechnology, Moolji Jaitha College, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon - 425 001, Maharashtra, India 1Department of Botany, Samarth Agriculture College (Dr. PDKV), Buldana - 443 204, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by hyperglycaemia with disturbance of carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism resulting from defect in insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The effect of diabetes mellitus includes long term damage, dysfunction and failure or various organ’s. α-amylase is saccharide degrading inherent in living body that controls the diabetes mellitus and keep the blood glucose level to its threshold level, without affecting to any normal body mechanism. Thus α-amylase performs an important role as a digestive enzyme for carbohydrate in the body and control of glucose in blood. In general, medicine is usually an intermixture of various chemical components & exert some side effect caused by prolong dosage. Plant derived extract contains some chemical substances i.e. secondary metabolites that have the ability to inhibits α-amylase present in saliva and are easily applied to food, drugs and medicine These inhibitors inhibit the activity of α-amylase.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 2 ; 497-498
Kalpana Kulkarni* and Swati Peshwe
Department of Microbiology, Government Institute of Science, Aurangabad - 431 005, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Different plant pathogen databases were explored for understanding the host pathogen interaction studies for model phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and its host rice. Pathogen host interaction database (PHI Database) was explored in detail and several gene accessions were used in homology searches. Protein and nucleotide sequence information obtained from searches, were further exploited to find out different variable regions. These targeted genetic regions were further studied using bioinformatic pipelines and tools for identifying virulence causing genomic regions, conserved domain regions and phylogenetic relatedness of these genes in the pathogen population was estimated. Phylogenetic tree revealed the diversity at nucleotide level for pathogenicity causing genes from different fungal blast strains. This nucleotide diveristy could be used for understanding of varying degree of pathogenicity attributed by different novel strains of Blast pathogen isolates.


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