Volume - 11 - May-June 2020
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 499-506
R R Rakh*1, L S Raut2 and S M Dalvi3
Department of Microbiology, Shri Guru Buddhiswami Mahavidyalaya, Purna (Jn.) - 431 511, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is one of the most important soil borne pathogen of groundnut causing stem rot disease which causes critical crop losses in groundnut growing area. In first part of present research, stem rot pathogen of groundnut, Sclerotium rolfsii, was isolated from the infected groundnut plant part. In later part of research, to search for the effective Bacillus spp. for microbiological control of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. 189 Bacillus spp. were isolated from different rhizospheric niches of healthy plants, and primarily screened for in vitro the antagonistic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii, by dual culture technique. Out of these Bacillus spp. RRR6, RRR 15, RRR 16, RRR 18, RRR 19, RRR 20, RRR 26, RRR 29, RRR 30, RRR 31, RRR 33, RRR 34, RRR 36, RRR 37, RRR 38, RRR 39, RRR 40, RRR 41, RRR 53 and RRR 57 found effectively antagonistic against Sclerotium rolfsii, the stem rot pathogen of groundnut in vitro in contrast to other Bacillus spp. During the secondary screening, out of these twenty Bacillus spp., only four Bacillus spp. i.e. Bacillus spp. RRR 15, RRR 16, RRR 36, and RRR 53 found extremely active in controlling the phytopathogen, Sclerotium rolfsii In vitro in dual culture method. These Bacillus spp. RRR 15, RRR 16, RRR 36, and RRR 53 effectively killing the growth of phytopathogen, Sclerotium rolfsii whose percent inhibition was recorded as 87.5, 92.30, 80.55 and 78.37 respectively. These Bacillus spp. was later identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Bacillus spp. RRR15 as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RRR15 (MN744706), Bacillus spp. RRR16 as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RRR16 (MN749517), Bacillus spp. RRR36 as Bacillus mojavensis RRR36 (MN749819) and Bacillus spp. RRR53 as Bacillus mojavensis RRR53 (MN788663) respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 507-511
Nikhil Solanke* and Pradip Pawar
Department of Food Science and Technology, Shri. Jagdish Pradesh Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Jhunjhunu - 333 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The study of effect of addition of gaur gum and gum arabic on physical properties of snacks product. Experimental design with varying the gaur gum (1.0% to 3.0%) and gum arabic (0.5 to 2.5%) optimized condition for deep fat fried snacks chakli gives best snacks product with better result with water absorption index and bulk density, while sev varying the gaur gum (0.2 to 1.0%) and gum arabic (0.3 to 1.5%) gives better results with water absorption index and lateral expansion.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 512-524
D Lakshminarayana*1 and P Prasanth2
College of Horticulture (SKLTS Horticultural University), Mojerla - 509 382, Telangana, India,
Abstract
The experiment was carried out at College of Horticulture, Mojerla, Sri Konda Laxman Telangana State Horticultural University, Telangana during 2013-14 and 2014-15. The gladiolus Cv. White Prosperity was used to study the influence of different chemicals (Ethrel at 100 and 200 ppm, Thiourea at 1 and 2% and KNo3 at 1.5 and 3% with two corm natures) on dormancy breaking, growth, flowering and corm characters. All parameters except number of leaves per plant were significantly affected during the two experimental years. Least number of days taken to sprouting was recorded in ethrel 200 ppm by soaking the without tunic corms for 24 hrs. Whereas, thiourea (TU) two per cent registered beat values in terms of vegetative and floral parameters viz. plant height at 90 days after sowing, spike length, fresh weight of cut spike, floret length and floret diameter in both the years of study. Moreover the highest corm yield, cormel yield and propagation co-efficient were recorded when the without tunic corms soaked for 24 hours in the KNO3 three per cent. Finally it was concluded that, ethrel 200 ppm, thiourea two and KNO3 three per cent are the best practices for early sprouting, improving floral and corm characters respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 525-529
Rajeev Ranjan*1,2, K K Dwivedi2, V S Chauhan1, R P Sah3, Manoj Chaudhary2, B S Chauhan1 and Mayank Chaturvedi4
ICAR- Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi - 284 003, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in two consecutive year’s viz. 2015-16 and 2016-17 with 8 species along with 4 varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Two important micronutrients namely Zn (mg/kg) and Fe (mg/kg) were evaluated along with some important morphological traits such as plant height (cm), Number of leaf, floral leaf length (cm), floral leaf width (cm), number of tillers per plant, stem diameter (cm), number of grain, green fodder yield (kg/sq. meter) and dry matter yield (kg/sq. meter). The pooled data over the two years revealed that the oat varieties Kent (32.67 mg/kg) followed JHO-822 (32.00 mg/kg) recorded significantly higher zinc concentration. Iron concentration recorded significantly higher in variety JHO-2000-4 (373.33 mg/kg) followed A. abyssinica species (336.67 mg/kg). The green fodder yield was found to be positively correlated with zinc, plant height, floral leaf length, floral leaf width and dry matter yield while negatively correlated with stem diameter. The dry matter yield was found to be positively correlated with number of tiller and green fodder yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 530-535
T Uma Maheswari*1, M Karuppaiya2, J Jaya Kowsalya2 and P Sivasakthivelan3
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to develop low cost ready to serve drink for hard working group of people and diabetic patients. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) involving sensory evaluation with hedonic rating scale was used to obtain the optimum values. Instant energy Ready To Serve (RTS) drink was prepared with guava juice using fenugreek seed flour, sweetener and preservatives. Sensory attributes, appearance, taste, flavour, and overall acceptability were the quality control parameters employed for guava juice evaluation. The levels of fenugreek seed flour, stabilizer and preservative added in RTS drink were optimized by the utilization of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Based on surface plot and ANOVA, the optimum values of the process parameters fenugreek seed flour (FSF) extract, Apartame (Sweetener) and preservative (KMF) were found to be 5.9660 ml, 3.0509 ml and 0.2910 ml respectively.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 536-543
P V M Nanthini1, S Shahitha1, M Sankareswaran1 and M Palaniswamy2
P/G and Research Department of Microbiology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram - 637408, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The examination was focused on the financial improvement by improving different details utilizing whey fluid and molasses immunized by Plant Growth Promoting Organisms (PGPR); to diminish natural contamination by whey water from dairy enterprises; to apply biofertilizers in the dirt through trickle water system tubes without making any blockage in dripper's gaps; to decrease the significant expense of biofertilizers and save agriculture. The different combinations of liquid media using whey liquid (W) and molasses (M) - (W : M (ml) - 0:10, 1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1, 10:0) were prepared to support the growth of P. fluorescens and T. viride. The different combinations were inoculated separately by P. fluorescens, T. viride and Co-culture of P. fluorescens and T. viride and compared to identify the maximum growth rate with King’s B, Potato Dextrose broth, whey liquid and molasses. Finally the highest growth results were observed in 6:4, 10:0 (whey liquid) and 5:5 combinations of whey liquid and molasses for P. fluorescens, T. viride and Co-culture of P. fluorescens and T. viride respectively. The recently concocted details (I, II and III) were then arranged in aseptic condition for additional exploration work. From this piece of the examination work, the current discoveries propose that the whey fluid can be utilized as another fluid transporter material for the creation of biofertilizers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 544-548
Gulzar Ahmad Khan*, Haroon Rashid, Mir Nisar Ahmad, Muttanna and Y Satish
Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Pampore - 192 121, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Input cost involved in any crop has a direct bearing on the viability of that crop. All the stages of mulberry sericulture from cultivation of mulberry plants, silkworm rearing to silk reeling and other post cocoon processes such as twisting, dyeing, weaving, printing and finishing are labour-intensive. For economically evolving the cost of cocoon production at farmers level in Kashmir valley three case studies were carried out during 2015-16, 2016-17, 2017-18, in Dachnipora cluster (Anantnag district) involving 100 farmers each. These farmers were selected randomly out of 500 farmers from captive area of Dachnipora under supervision of Central Silk Board. While calculating the costs, the different cost items were grouped under fixed and variable cost. The data on fixed and variable cost items was analyzed by using simple tabular methods. The results showed that during 2015-16, cost for production of one kg dry cocoons was ₹ 489, during 2016-17, cost for production of one kg dry cocoons was ₹ 458.2, while as during 2017-18 the cost was ₹ 534/kg dry cocoons. Under fixed cost category the highest contributing factor was depreciation on rearing equipments during the year 2015-16, while as it was depreciation on rearing houses during 2016-17 and 2017-18. Under the category of variable costs the highest contributing factor was cost on labour (mostly family labour) for all the three years with a percentage contribution of 41.81%, 49.33% and 53.21% respectively towards overall cost. From the above results, it is evident that labour is an indispensable factor in cocoon production and production cost can be minimized only by efficient utilization of manpower along with the adoption of mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing techniques and technologies.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 549-553
Subhadra Das1, D Dash*1 and Sonali Deole2
Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Agriculture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
The seeds of tamarind were subjected to pre-sowing treatments with biofertilizers like Rhizobium, Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria (PSB) along with lesser dose of chemical fertilization in order to raise quality seedling and to study the influence of microbial inoculants on growth and survival of tamarind. Tamarind specific Rhizobium and PSB isolated from rhizosphere soil of Tamarind plant on YEMA and Pikovskaya’s agar medium respectively and culture broth was prepared for seed inoculation. There was a positive interaction among the introduced microbial inoculants in improving the seedling growth of tamarind. Plants treated with combined microbial inoculation gave healthy seedlings compared to treatment having no microbial inoculation or individual. Rhizobium and PSB along with 25% NP showed significantly maximum plant height (31.42cm), stem girth (1.30 cm), root length (29.52cm), shoot dry biomass accumulation (2.07 g/seedling) at 120 DAS. It was found that artificial inoculation of tamarind- Rhizobium could not induce nodulation in tamarind. There was no association of Rhizobium to form nodule either with native soil or by artificial inoculation. The increased Nitrogen in tamarind seedlings (from 12.65 mg per seedling at control to 33.57 mg per seedling at T4 at 120 DAS) was in the treatment of Rhizobium and PSB along with 25% NP compared to control. It was concluded that co-inoculation of tamarind seeds with Rhizobium + PSB along with application of less NP dose (25%) was significantly influenced the growth and survival of tamarind and may be adopted to improve vegetative seedling growth of tamarind in nursery condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 554-558
Bhupendra Prasad*, Shikha Shrivastava and Reena Antony
Department of Microbiology, Career College, Govindpura, BHEL Square, Bhopal - 462 023, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The worldwide environment situations which are rumored on agricultural work rate through higher than optimal temperature for plant creation. An excessive temperature can promote large pre and post-harvest erosion, together with devastating of leaves and twigs, sunburns on leaves, stems and branches, leaf senescence and abscission, root and shoot growth prevention, fruit damage and discoloration, and decreased a yield. A. thaliana plant represents a genetic model for experiment in genetic engineering. Seed plating theory and micro propagation technique with stress parameters enhance the heat tolerance in A. thaliana plant. Genetic screening using PCR technique provides gene modification in A. thaliana plant. Kanamycin plating extends screening results. We use pCambia vector and EcoR1, Nco1 restriction endo-nuclease. Results of PCR show the heat tolerance capacity is enhance in A. thaliana. pCambia cloning represents the candidate gene for heat tolerance and screening gives the annotation of the DNA typing in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 559-565
Soumya Krishnan V*1 and J John Gunasekar2
Department of Farm Machinery and Bio Energy, Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute, Kumulur, Tirchy - 621 712, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An energy audit is a study of a plant or facility to determine how and where energy is used and to identify methods for energy savings. As a part of Energy Auditing and Management course a detailed energy auditing of Girls Hostel in Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute was done within a span of 60 days. This report is just one step, a mere mile marker towards for achieving energy efficiency. A list of possible actions to conserve and effective utilization of scarce resources are identified and their savings potential was calculated. The energy auditing was performed in three phases like data collection, analysis and recommendation respectively. Data collection has two phases the preliminary auditing and detailed auditing. In preliminary auditing the basic information like collecting electricity bill, details of hostel, type of load connected and pattern of electricity uses by different loads were collected. In detailed auditing the details of equipment rating, actual rating were verified and location wise analysis was done. The collected details were grouped into specific target such as: Light load; Fan load; Electrical equipment’s load; Pump load and LPG usage load. This audit suggests that the implementation of replacement methods will reduces the daily electricity consumption from 157 to 82.6 units which will reduce annual electricity bill from 2.9 to 1.74 lakhs. Unless otherwise the recommendations are implemented, energy auditing doesn’t saves money.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 566-570
Anju Viswanathan K and Ambily Paul
Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani - 695 522, Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala, India
Abstract
The bioefficacy of insecticides and their mixtures against chilli mite and aphids were carried out at College of Agriculture, Vellayani and Kalliyur Panchayath of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala. Spiromesifen 22.9% SC @ 96 g a.i ha-1 (0.00 mites/leaf) was found as a superior treatment followed by Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG @ 175 + 175 g a.i ha-1 (1.00 mites/leaf) and Beta cyfluthrin 8.91% + Imidacloprid 19.81% OD @ 15.75 + 36.75 g a.i ha-1 (1.88 mites/leaf) on third day after spraying during preliminary evaluation. Spiromesifen was found as effective treatment for controlling mite in field conditions also followed by Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40%. The number of coccinellids and spiders (5.20 and 4.40 number/ 6 plants respectively) were relatively high in spiromesifen treated plants on first day after spraying which indicating its safe nature towards natural enemies. Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG @ 175 + 175 g a.i ha-1 (2.16 aphids/leaf on 3 DAS) was found as superior treatment for controlling aphids followed by Beta cyfluthrin 8.91% + Imidacloprid 19.81% OD @ 15.75 + 36.75 g a.i ha-1 (2.27 aphids/leaf on 3 DAS) during pot experiment. No aphids were observed on Fipronil + Imidacloprid treated plants from tenth day spraying in field conditions.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 571-577
K Kalaivanan* and S Durairaj
P/G and Research Department of Zoology, Aringer Anna Government Arts Collage, Cheyyar - 604 407, District Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The efficiency of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae was assessed using chicken feather waste along with tartrazine and triclosan. The quality of vermicompost obtained from the experiment was determined by the analyses of physico-chemical, macro and micro nutrients. In the tartrazine study, pH, EC, total carbon, total nitrogen, total potassium, total copper, total iron, total manganese and total sodium were decreased when compared to the control and the rest of the nutrients showed slight increase in their levels. Similarly the triclosan study revealed the heterogeneous levels of nutrient qualities. Triclosan study showed the decrease of Organic carbon, total potassium, total copper, total Iron and total manganese where as other parameters showed slight increase in their levels.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 578-580
Anshuman Gunawat1 and Devesh Sharma*2
Department of Environmental Science, Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer - 305 817, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Twelve treatments with combination of different rates of fertilizers and irrigation interval are considered in the experimental plant to see the impact on yield and biomass of wheat crop. Four levels of fertilizer rates (0, 75, 150 and 187.5 kg ha-1) and three irrigation intervals (15, 21 and 25 days) are applied on wheat crop cultivation in different sub-plots for analyzing impacts of urea on wheat crop yield. Experiment was conducted in the crop season of year 2015-16. The experimental setup was prepared considering the randomized complete split plot design with sub-plots area 2 × 2 m2 and row space of 20 cm. Results of crop yield and biomass are collected after maturity. Maximum biomass is observed in group III (urea application rate of 150 kg ha-1) while maximum yield is observed in group IV (1.25 times of recommended dose of fertilizer). It is also observed that increase in yield of wheat is slightly more than group III and there is not much effect of high dose of fertilizer after recommended dose. It is recommended that there is not much impact of fertilizer after a recommended dose and farmers need to understand it to protect their land and water due to overdose of fertilizer application. This is also protecting land from further degradation in quality for future crop production and resource management.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 581-583
V Sakthivel*1, M Sakthiganesh2 and K Kanagasabapathi3
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Sugarcane is grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is one of the important cash crops in India. Sugar industry in India plays a vital role towards socio-economic development of the rural areas by mobilizing rural resources and generating higher income and employment opportunities. With the fastest increasing population, the sugar requirement in the country will have to be raised. Most of the sugarcane growers are still practicing primitive technologies. Hence, a study was undertaken to analyze the factors influencing the knowledge level of sugarcane growers on recommended sugarcane cultivation practices. The study was taken up at Cuddalore, one of the sugarcane predominant districts in Tamil Nadu State. A sample size of one hundred and twenty growers were selected based on proportionate random sampling method. The results of correlation and multiple analysis indicated that the variables namely educational status, experience in sugarcane cultivation, extension agency contact, risk orientation, scientific orientation and innovativeness had shown positive and significant association and contribution towards the knowledge level of sugarcane growers on recommended sugarcane cultivation practices.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 584-588
Ankita Dubey*
Department of Biotechnology, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak - 484 887, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Agriculture is currently facing the challenges posed by the increasing mass population and climate change; plant associated microorganism is becoming a good option for sustainable crop production to enhance plant growth. Plant associated microorganism plays various roles in agricultural and food safety. Use of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria to enhance growth Productivity of crop plants can be a viable alternative to organic fertilizers. The main goal is to reduce pollution and conserve the environment of agriculture. Plant growth-promoting bacteria influence the plant growth by several direct or indirect mechanisms; in this study, we have isolated several endophytic bacterial isolates from Parthenium hysterophorus. Seed germination is susceptible to a variety of abiotic stresses. Hence, we have screened for the ability of the isolated endophytes to confer abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants by germinating them under different abiotic stress conditions. In the screening, we have found two bacterial isolates Ph12 and Ph20 The ability of these Isolates was evaluated to different biochemical activity such as Starch hydrolysis test, Citrate utilization test, Urease test and catalase activity And this bacterial isolate (Ph12 and Ph20) was also able to plant growth-promoting activity conferring tolerance in different crop (non-native host) plants to high concentrations of NaCl and Mannitol simulated salinity and osmotic stress conditions respectively. in this study results obtained both are selected bacterial endophytes, Ph12 and Ph20 have plants growth-promoting activity conferring Salinity and Osmotic stress tolerance under etiolation, both bacterial endophytes Ph12 and Ph20 are promoting Radical and Hypocotyls length under high concentration of NaCl and Mannitol simulating Salinity and osmotic stress tolerance respectively. In this study, we have only done Dark Grown experiment after this study further needed in the Light Grown Experiment and filed Experiment is processed.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 589-593
Chidanand Patil*1, Shivam Sakshi2 and G B Chaitra3
Department of Applied Agriculture, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda - 151 001, Punjab, India
Abstract
The decline in the agricultural and allied forms of rural employment in different countries is creating a need to diversify the farm businesses. Agri-tourism is one of the alternative form of businesses designed to expand farm income by fuller employment of available farm resources. The study examines the willingness of consumers towards agri-tourism and the factors which encourage them to choose agri-tourism in terms of their expectations with focus on Hungarian citizens. The data were collected by using simple random sampling method in Hungary. It was found out that along with agri-tourism activity, people also expect the farm to provide education about agriculture. The expectations of the respondents include accommodation facility on the farm itself may be a farm house, preferred walking around the farm instead of using vehicles or bicycles. Majority of the people preferred village food, completely barring fast. Other findings of the study include that the people want to learn about rural culture, want to purchase different agricultural products from the agri-tourism farm, want to enjoy different recreational activities like horse riding, cart racing, camel riding, etc. and want to impart practical skills relating to agriculture. Agri-tourism could be one of the best opportunities for improving the economy of Hungary, farmers would also generate additional income and will going help in attracting youth towards agriculture in Hungary.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 594-604
Gitanjali G Mane1, Pranav R Kshirsagar2 and Venkat S Hamde*1
Department of Microbiology, Yogeshwari Mahavidyalaya, Ambajogai, District Beed - 431 517, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In present investigation statistical based optimization methods Plackett-Burman (PB) design and central composite design (CCD) were applied to optimize fermentation parameters for exopolysaccharide production from Cronobacter muytjensii ATCC 51329 (T). Total eight parameters percent (%) glucose, percent (%) peptone, NaCl concentration, MgSO4• 7H2O concentration, initial pH, temperature, % inoculum, incubation period were optimized to improve exopolysaccharide production. The significant factors were screened using set of 23 runs using Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and significant factors subsequently optimized with central composite design experiments. EPS yield 4.25 g L-1 was obtained under optimum conditions. The polynomial equations were developed for prediction of EPS yield and cell growth. The developed mathematical models were very well fitted (R2>0.75) value) and suitable for prediction of crude EPS, g L-1, EPS µg ml-1 and cell growth. Extracted EPS was characterized by SEM, TEM and FTIR analysis. The SEM analysis of EPS showed flakes like structural unit and highly compact structure with smooth glittering surface. These properties of EPS specify the potential use of the EPS as water holding, viscosifying, and thickening or as stabilizing agent. The FTIR spectrum showed that the obtained EPS was heteropolymeric in nature.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 605-612
V S Patil
Department of Microbiology, Lal Bahadur Shastri College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Satara - 415 002, Maharashtra
Abstract
The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are most commonly used today in agricultural sector to increase the agricultural yield. The inappropriate use of these agro-chemicals has caused serious damage to environment including human. The fertilizers of biological origin are considered as ecofriendly and their use is gaining importance in sustainable development of agriculture. The digested slurry from biomethanation plant is reported to have manural value and is currently used to increase agricultural yield. The aim of present study was to isolate and identify plant growth promoting bacteria from digester effluent of vegetable waste based biomethanation plant. Seventeen bacteria were isolated from digester effluent were screened for determining their ability to produce plant growth promoting traits. The phosphate solubilizing and IAA producing bacterial isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens and was selected further to determine its effect on the growth of crop plants by pot assay. The results showed significant increase in root and shoot development of inoculated crop plants as compared to uninoculated control. The statistical analysis of results revealed significant effects. The study suggests Serratia marcescens isolate can serve as candidate for production of efficient bio-inoculants that can serve as substitute to chemical fertilizers & pesticides to prevent environmental pollution.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 613-619
A Panda*, S Bhattacharjee, V M Bhale, S Kadam and M R Deshmukh
Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
This field experiment was conducted during the Kharif season of 2015 at Agronomy research farm of Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra to find out the performance of maize crop under different zinc nutrient management practice. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eight treatments and was replicated thrice. The treatments were T1: RDF 100%, T2: RDF 125%, T3: RDF 75% + FYM 5 ha ha-1, T4: RDF 100% + ZnSO4 20 kg ha-1, T5: RDF 100% + ZnSO4 40 kg ha-1, T6: RDF 125% + ZnSO4 20 kg ha-1, T7: RDF 125% + ZnSO4 40 kg ha-1 and T8: RDF 100% + Seed priming with ZnSO4 1% w/v. The perusal of experimental data revealed that application of ZnSO4 20 kg ha-1 along with 125% of the recommended dose of fertilizer resulted in superior yield attributes, grain and stover yield, N, P, K and Zn accumulation in both grain and stover and better protein content in grain. The application of ZnSO4 40 kg ha-1 along with RDF was also fount be at par performer. The seed priming with zinc sulphate was not as much effective as soil application of zinc sulphate. The soil application of zinc sulphate was found to be an economically viable option due to the better net monetary return.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 620-623
M Uday Bhaskar*, M Srinivasa Rao and P V Satya Gopal
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study intends to find out the key independent variables which affect the entrepreneurial behaviour of commercial floriculture nursery owners. A sample of 120 nursery owners was selected randomly from the three villages of Kadiyam Mandal in proportion to the number of nurseries in each village. Path analysis was used to understand the route of influence of independent variables (profile characteristics) on the dependent variable namely entrepreneurial behaviour of nursery owners. The path analysis of the profile characteristics revealed that highest direct influence on entrepreneurial behaviour of nursery owners was exerted by land holding followed by material possession and extension contact, whereas the highest indirect effect was exerted by land holding followed by material possession and annual turnover. Highest substantial indirect effect on entrepreneurial behaviour was exerted by land holding through material possession and material possession through land holding. Hence these independent variables should be taken care of by the implementing agencies while selecting the beneficiaries for entrepreneurship development programmes and farmer-friendly policies.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 624-627
Prashant Maratha*1, S K Badodiya2 and Mukesh Chand Goyal3
Department of Agriculture Extension Education, Career Point University, Kota - 324 005, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in Bundi district of Rajasthan. Total of 500 agricultural loan borrowers were formed the sample for the study. The primary data were collected through personal interview method with the help of pre-tested interview schedule, which was prepared on the basis of objectives of investigation and variables. The statistical tests and procedures were used for analyzing the data with the help of statistical tools like- mean, S.D. and percentage. The Study found that 47.20 per cent of borrowers had used their credit only for Agricultural productive purpose. Absence of scientific cultivation of crops as major constraints for effective credit utilization pattern by borrowers and ranked first. Unavailability of suitable price of farm produce was ranked second. Poor marketing facilities and spending credit on social rituals and occasions like marriages ranked third and fourth respectively. Curb less financing, effective crop insurance scheme, procedure of loaning should be more sophisticated, there should be practical timing of installment and interest collection were the main suggestion offered by the borrowers for effective credit utilization pattern.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 628-631
S S Kadam*, A D Jadhav, D V Rasam and C S Jangam
College of Agricultural Biotechnology, (Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth), Kharawate-Dahiwali - 415 606, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The study was carried out to standardize a Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) detection for tissue cultured plantlets of banana Cv-G-9 using PCR. Genomic DNA was extracted from total of 200 plantlets were selected from S. P. College of Horticulture, Sawarde and Plant Biotechnology Centre, Dapoli. DNA samples were bulked into twenty lots (each contains 10 number of DNA samples) and one lot (contains 3 number of infected samples) were prepared by isolating BBTV infected plants and used for further analysis. A protocol using 0.090 g ml-1 glucose, 0.025 g ml-1 PVP, 0.0050 g ml-1 sodium bisulphite, 0.0060 g ml-1 SDS, and 50 µl ml-1 sarcosine produced good quality DNA. The standard Gene specific primers CP, NSP and F-PCR4 & 30-mer were effectively used for detection of BBTV infection. All the tested plantlets were found to be negative and all the samples of apparently infected plants confirms the presence of BBTV with amplicon size of 470 bp and 245 bp for CP and NSP respectively. As well as with amplicon size of 970 bp for primers F-PCR4 and 30-mer. So those gene specific primers will be helpful in future to rapid identify BBTV infection in tissue cultured plantlets of banana through PCR.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 632-635
Javed V Khan*, Tanveer A Khan1 and Javed Shaikh2
Department of Biotechnology, Post Graduate College of Science Technology and Research, Jalgaon - 425 001, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Aphrodiasic plants was used by some people those who are suffering from various diseases. Despite their therapeutic advantages, some constituents of herbs are potentially toxic and pose health risks because they can be bought from the market without a prescription. Therefore, we aimed to determine the allelopathic effect of herbs possessing aphrodisiac activity, chosen on the basis of their frequency of medicinal use and commercial importance in Khandesh region. Plants (Chlorophytum borivilianum, Curculigo orchioides and Mucuna prurnies), 2.5%, 1% and 0.5% extracted with water. The allelopathic potentials of the extracts were assessed using seed germination and by measuring plantlets lenght, chrolophyll content and biomarker were also tested. In present investigation of allelopathic evaluation, the aqueous extracts of tested plants were not cytotoxic. Aqueous extract shows prominent activity, 1% aqueous extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum, were shown to have the most inducing activities on vigna radiate seeds on comparing with control. These results might be useful in determining the allelopathic effect of aphrodiasic plants on vigna radiate seeds and these results might be compared with the animal cells because the physiology of both animal and plant cell is almost similar. The allelopathic effect of aphrodiasic plants was firstly reported on plants.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 636-642
Pawan Kumar Sharma*1 and Sudhakar Dwivedi2
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST - Jammu) Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Saffron is the most precious spice grown on the earth and is cultivated on a very limited area in few countries of the world. It has also been grown as a niche crop in Kishtwar district of Jammu and Kashmir State which falls under North-Western Himalayan Region of India. The present study was conducted to examine the presence of cost inefficiencies in saffron production. It revealed that the numbers of inputs used in cultivation of saffron were limited and furthermore the farmers were cost inefficient in saffron production. The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and profitability index (PI) of investment in five years of saffron production was ₹ 1120803, 95.67 per cent and 3.52 respectively. The estimated coefficients of the saffron stochastic cost function for saffron bulbs, human labour, animal labour, manure and saffron output were positive. The saffron growers with non-farm income were cost inefficient by 0.04 per cent. The maximum value of cost efficiency for saffron grower was 1.69 with a mean value of 1.12. The majority of farmers have low cost inefficiencies, as the highest frequency of the predicted cost efficiency was less than 1.06.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 643-652
K Sathyanarayana1*, T Mogili2 and P A Sangannavar3
Central Silk Board, Government of India, BTM Layout, Bengaluru - 560 068, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was taken up at an alkali hot spot in Karnataka, where alkali soils reclaimed with inorganic and organic amendment keeping untreated as control, followed by growing five alkali tolerant mulberry genotypes along with two improved genotypes and one ruling local check, based on their initial screening and primary yield trials they. Soil properties like pH, EC, ESP and SAR improved significantly with application of soil amendments particularly organic amendment. Genotype AR-12 has registered an increase of 29.7% and 42.5% in leaf yield during first and second year of the study, respectively. Bio-assay interaction studies revealed maximum larval weight in case of soil reclaimed with inorganic amendments (32.66 g) followed by soil reclaimed with organic amendments (32.35 g). The superiority of the genotype AR-12 was evident with maximum ERR by number (8883) and highest ERR by weight (15.84 kg) compare to others. Besides, AR-12 recorded highest single cocoon weight (1.85 g), shell weight (1.71 g) and maximum shell ratio % (18.3%) under alkali soils treated with organic amendment. From this comprehensive study, it is inferred that growing alkali tolerant mulberry genotype AR-12 under alkali soils reclaimed with pressmud at 50 MT/ha can be recommended for profitable mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 653-658
Sinki Barman*, Niranjan Deka and Pallavi Deka
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Assam Agricultural University), Simoluguri, Nagaon - 782 001, Assam, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken in Nagaon district of Assam, India. Primary data were collected from 200 farmers of four villages was selected for the study in order to examine the extent of plantation crop cultivation in the study area and to identify the problems and prospects of production and marketing of plantation crops. The sampling design followed for the study is three stage random sampling design. Farmers utilized 38.00 per cent of the total operational holding for their plantation crops while land use for the field crops was 42.21 per cent of the total operational holding. Rice was the predominant crop in the sample occupying 42.21 per cent of area. Sali rice covered 46.69 percent and ahu rice covered 1.95 per cent of the grossed cropped area. The crop area under plantation crop was 3.00 per cent. The average size of area under coconut was worked out to be 0.43 hectares. The average size of coconut area is highest in group III with 0.97 ha followed by group II , IV and I with average size of 0.55, 0.53 and 0.14 ha, respectively. Similarly in case of arecanut, the average size of area under arecanut was worked out to be 0.25 hectares. The average size of arecanut area is highest in group III with 0.44 ha followed by group II, IV and I with average size of 0.22, 0.18 and 0.02 ha, respectively. The area under plantation crop is increasing with a compound growth rate 1.008 per cent. The compound growth rate for group III and Group IV was found to be negative. CGR for the other two size groups was found to be is positive at 1.011 and 1.017 per cent, for group I, II, respectively. The highest CGR value was for group II. In production problem as reported by farmers the most felt one was control of pest and diseases as it causes heavy losses (100%). Ganoderma disease, falling in matured coconut due to boron deficiency etc are the major diseases of coconut and arecanut. As reported by farmer, monkey and squirrels are the main problem in the study area, which causes heavy losses to the coconut and arecanut farmers. Similarly, Inadequate training facility was one of the major problems of the coconut and arecanut growers (100%). The most common marketing problem faced by the farmers was lack of market-linked communication (71%). There is large information gap between the distant market and the local market. This happens both due to communication disabilities as well as due to lack of availability of information from outside. It is quite possible to disseminate the information.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 660-665
N Hemalatha1 and K Ramesh Kumar*2
P/G and Research Department of Zoology, Rajah Serfoji Government College (Autonomous), Thanjavur - 613 005, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The nutritional and phytochemical profiles of three sun-dried varieties of dates (Safawy, Lubana and Noor) were evaluated by Standard procedures of AOAC. Carbohydrates were the major component present in all the date varieties. Low percentage of protein, fat and ash content were also reported. Lubana variety had high percentage of carbohydrates (77.39%), protein (2.63%) and ash content (2.56%). The Noor date variety reported high percentage of fat and moisture content (1.07% and 16.9% respectively). High content of dietary fibre was observed in Safawy dates (4.77%). The mineral analysis of the selected Date Palm Fruit (DPF) varieties was rich source of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. The vitamins present in DPF were evaluated. Vitamin A and Vitamin B complex were predominantly found and antioxidant vitamins like vitamin C and vitamin E were reported in trace amounts. Phytochemical analysis showed that DPF contain alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 666-669
Prashant Maratha*1, S K Badodiya2 and Mukesh Chand Goyal3
Department of Agriculture Extension Education, Career Point University, Kota - 324 005, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The study was conducted Bundi district of Rajasthan. Total of 500 agricultural loan borrowers were formed the sample for the study. The primary data were collected through personal interview method with the help of pre-tested interview schedule, which was prepared on the basis of objectives of investigation and variables. The statistical tests and procedures were used for analyzing the data with the help of statistical tools like- mean, S.D., percentage, and Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, multiple correlation and regression analysis. The study found that that 47.20 per cent of borrowers had used their credit only for Agricultural productive purpose. It was observed that correlation coefficients in respect of social participation, sources of information, Cosmo-politeness, scientific orientation and risk preference were found positive and highly significant with credit utilization pattern of farmers. Co-efficient of determination value of 0.6112 with highly significant ‘F’ value revealed the significance of regression equation in the prediction of credit utilization of farmers. Out of sixteen traits viz. annual income, scientific orientation and risk preference were found positive and highly significant relationship with credit utilization pattern of farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 570-573
Amit Kulkarni*1 and Nilesh Jawalkar2
Department of Microbiology, Nutan College, Selu - 431 503, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
An alkaliphilic actinomycetes was sequestered from a desert soil sample of Lonar, District Buldhana. The isolate was detected to produce; white, grey, milky white (cotton) color colonies are obtained from soil sample. These strain produced aerial and substrate mycelium comprising of chain or smooth spore. The colonical growth of strain varied from yellow to grey. All the isolate were later purified and imperiled to a few phosphatic enzymatic screening. Results indicate that number of isolates showed the ability to solubilize phosphate.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 674-676
Vinod Kumar1, Ratan Kumar*2 and Pankaj Kumar3
Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Bihar Agricultural University), Sabour, Bhagalpur - 813 210, Bihar, India
Abstract
The perception of extension personnel about training needs of marginal, small and medium categories of farmers in ten selected areas with respect to winter maize cultivation is studied to provide direction and thrust to the training efforts. The immediate priority of training needs is to use the high yielding varieties (HYVs) by extensional personnel, whereas, the marginal farmer counted it as their second preference. The marginal farmer showed immediate preference to improved cultural practices as training need which was accorded second rank by the extension personnel. The small farmers exhibited first preference to improved cultural practices as training need which was accorded second rank by the extensional personnel. The medium farmers showed first preference to improved cultural practices as their training need which was accorded fourth preference by extensional personnel. The correlation values indicate the degree of agreement amongst rank pattern with respect to the main area of training as perceived by extensional personnel viz. different categories of farmers indicated maximum correlation among the view of extension personnel & small farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 677-682
N Harisha1 and J Tulsiram2
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Vegetable cultivation is an awesome business in India, but under open field conditions by following traditional cultivation practices it is difficult to manage various abiotic and biotic stresses. Mostly to manage biotic stresses farmers spray large amount of different chemicals, this not only enhances the cost of cultivation but it also increases residual toxicity in the freshly produced vegetables, which is ultimately hazardous to human health. To address these challenges Protected cultivation technology i.e. polyhouse, shade net, micro tunnel etc. which have been globally accepted for achieving sustainability in horticulture. The study was undertaken during the year 2016-17 in the Kolar, Malur and Mulbagal taluks of Kolar district based on maximum number of shade net structures. From each taluk respondents were selected by using purposive sampling procedure to constitute a sample size of 80 for the study. The study found that, majority (90.00%) of the respondents positively perceived that protected cultivation helps to overcome adverse climate conditions for production of vegetables. Whereas, nearly ninety (88.75%) per cent of the respondents perceived with respect to protected cultivation yields exportable quality and cleaned vegetables and 87.50 per cent of the respondents for the production of vegetables round the year. On the other hand more than three fourth (82.50%) of the respondents perceived that Integrated Pest and Disease Management results in low cost of plant protection measures. Around ninety (88.75%) per cent of the respondents perceived that labour cost is more for cultivation of vegetables under protected cultivation. Majority of the farmers showing positive perception towards vegetable production under protected cultivation. Therefore, need to concentration on protected cultivation for sustainable production and to get good returns by the farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 683-685
M Kavaskar* and K Raman
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Global population is projected to reach 9 billion by 2050 and the number of young people (aged 15 to 24) is also expected to increase to 1.3 billion, accounting for almost 14 percent of the projected global population. Most born in the developing countries of Africa and Asia, where more than half the population still live in rural areas. India is expected to have 34.33 per cent share of youth in the total population by 2020, which is a huge reserve of human resource and potential. In this backdrop this study was conducted in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu. A sample size of 120 farm youth were selected from five villages. Data were collected by interviewing the respondents personally with the help of a pre-tested and structured interview schedule. Percentage analysis was used for analyzing and interpreting the data. The results indicated that the information input behaviour majority (57.50%) of the respondents had expressed the less number of official visits in the village as the constraints. Majority of the farm youth suggested that the need for generating low cost or no cost high income technologies (76.66%) followed by given new information to the farmer (60.83%).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 686-688
Parveen Kumar Nimbrayan1, Vivek K Singh2, Meenu Punia3, Anu*4 and Ajay Kumar5
Directorate of Human Resource Management, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Sunflower is regarded as an important source of vegetable oil and has become the fourth most important oilseed crop in India. The present study was conducted with the objectives to examine the growth trends of sunflower in Haryana and India. The time series data on area, production and productivity were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. To measure the growth of area, production and yield of sunflower, compound annual growth rates were evaluated by fitting to the time-series data in exponential function. In Haryana, there was a declining growth area (-6.09%) and production (-5.43%) while increasing growth in yield (0.85 %) during the study period (1991-92 to 2017-18). In case of India, area and production of the sunflower shows a declining growth rate i.e. -5.27 and -4.32 per cent while in yield it shows a positive (0.98%) growth trend. It was found that area and production of sunflower has been decreasing however, per unit productivity was higher than the potential level. According to the respondents, decrease in area and production was mainly due to threat of diseases, losses due to birds, adulteration in hybrid seed, higher price of seed and marketing problems.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 689-692
Pragneshkumar K Patel*1 and Bhaveshkumar J Parmar2
Faculty of Management Studies, Sankalchand Patel University, Visnagar - 384315, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Centrally sponsored scheme, National Food Security Mission (NFSM) was introduced in 2007 with an objective to increase the annual production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10 million tons, 8 million tons and 2 million tons respectively by the end of 11th five year plan. By looking into the success of the NFSM scheme, it was continued to 12th five year plan also. Later the government decided to continue the NFSM programme beyond 12th five year plan with new targets of achieving the 13 million tons of additional foodgrains production comprising of 5 million tons of rice, 3 million tons of wheat, 3 million tons of pulses and 2 million tons of coarse cereals by 2019-20. This paper has made an attempt to analyze the impact of NFSM scheme on growth and stability in production of rice, wheat and pulses in India. The data were collected from 1996-97 to 2017-18 which was divided into two periods viz. Pre-NFSM (1996-97 to 2006-07) and Post-NFSM (2007-08 to 2017-18) periods. The findings convey that a significant increase in area and production of rice was observed, however, the area showed a non-significant growth during Post-NFSM period. In case of wheat and pulses significant growth was observed in area, production and productivity. Lower instability in area, production and productivity of rice was observed during Post-NFSM period as compared to the Pre-NFSM period. However, in case of wheat and pulses high instability in area, production and productivity was found during Post-NFSM period as compared to Pre-NFSM period. From the analysis, it was clear that the NFSM programme has yielded positive and significant impact on increasing the production and productivity of rice, wheat and pulses, thereby, help in providing nutritional security of the country.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 693-696
B Ajithkumar*1 and Arjun Vysakh2
Department of Agricultural Meteorology, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
The weekly rainfall data during the last 36 years (1983-2018) from the Department of Agricultural Meteorology, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala were used to study the initial [P(W) and P(D)] and conditional [P(W/W), P(W/D), P(D/W) and P(D/D)] probability by Markov chain probability model using Weather Cock programme. More than 50% probability of getting 25 mm rainfall was assured during 23rd to 29th standard meteorological weeks, hence cropping can be done without supplemental irrigation during the first crop season (kharif/virippu). During the second crop season, probability of getting wet weeks was lesser and short duration crops viz. millets, tubers, vegetables etc. with assured supplemental irrigation at the critical growth stages are more recommended at the central zone of Kerala.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 697-701
A S Kadam1 and D D Namdas2*
Department of Botany, Yashavantrao Chavan Institute of Science (Autonomous), Satara - 415 001, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook. f.) is one of the most important horticultural crop of cut flower being cultivated in controlled climatic conditions. The present study aimed to assess the weed flora associated with polyhouse Gerbera cultivation. Survey was done for two years, fourteen polyhouses from Satara district Maharashtra State of India resulted into documentation of 25 weeds belonging to 12 angiospermic families. Among these, 19 were dicots and 6 were monocots. Oxalis corniculata, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Cyperus rotundus, Cynadon dactylon and Euphrbia geniculata found evenly distributed and dominated in all the polyhouses, while Mollugo pentaphylla, Pilea microphylla, Synedrella nodiflora and Trianthema portulacastrum showed their rare occurrence. Report on assessment showed fourteen species with 100% prevalence, especially Oxalis corniculata, with 100% absolute frequency (AF), 6.51 absolute density (AD) and with 5.98 abundance (Ab). Capsella bursapastoris showed 100% absolute frequency (AF), 6.6 AD and with 6.6 Ab, Cyperus rotundus with 98.21% AF, 4.08 AD and with 4.15 Ab. These three weeds were evenly distributed and dominated in all studied polyhouses. The present study will be helpful for future management plans against weeds of polyhouses.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 702-705
G Sathiya Narayanan*1, B S R V Sai Pradeep Kumar2 and D Venkatakrishnan3
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigations were carried out at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to study the effect of various invigorate pelleting treatment on quality seed production in sesame cv. VRI 1. The fresh seeds of sesame cv. VRI 1 were given with various pelleting treatments i.e. pelleted with Azospirilluam @ 50 Kg-1, Phospho Bacteria @ 50 Kg-1, ZnSO4 @ 300g, MnSO4 @ 300g, Arappu leaf powder @ 200 g, Pungam leaf powder @ 200g, Rhizobium @ 50kg-1, DAP @ 300g, Vasambu leaf powder @ 200g. Then treated seeds were evaluated for their seed qualities and production potential using untreated seeds as control. The Pungam leaf powder @ 200g pelleting treatment registered significantly higher values for initial seed qualities. In field evaluation, this above treatment seeds recorded higher growth, physiological and yield parameters when compared to other treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 706-710
G Sathiya Narayanan*1, S Yazhini2 and M Prakash3
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Quality seed production is the main goal for successful agriculture, which demands each and every seed should be readily germinable and produce a vigorous seedling ensuring high yield. Seed enhancement technologies are gaining increasing attention for their potential to confer greater disease resistance in seeds, improve seed vigor and modify seed emergence capabilities. For any crop, the time from sowing to seedling establishment is crucial, in which the seeds are exposed to wide range of environmental stresses. With this background the present investigations were carried out at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to study on the effect of various chemical seed enhancement treatments on seed yield and quality in ragi cv. TRY 1. The seeds of ragi cv. TRY 1 were given with various pre sowing chemical seed treatments i.e. ZnSO4 @ 3%, MgCl2 @ 3%, MgSO4 @ 3%, FeSO4 @ 3%, KOH @ 3%, KCl @ 3%, NaHCO3 @ 3%, CaCl2 @ 3%, CH4N2S @ 3%, KH2PO4 @ 3% along with control. All the pre sowing treatment seeds were evaluated for the initial quality characteristics. The CaCl2 @ 3% pre sowing treatment registered significantly higher values for initial seed qualities and lower electrical conductivity. In field evaluation, CaCl2 @ 3% pre sowing treatment seeds recorded higher growth, physiological and growth parameters, when compared with other treatments.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 711-713
E Suriyapriya1 and M Kavaskar*2
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Mobile phones significantly reduce communication and information costs. Poor communication facilities lead to limited access to information and this can lead to loss of income. Mobile phones also provides new opportunities for farmers to obtain access to agricultural information, such as market prices, weather report, agricultural techniques in various formats like audio, videos and text. Information Technology (IT) enabled services could help in solving some of the problems that Indian farmers are facing. The main aim of Farmer Producer Organization (FPO) is to ensure better income for the producers through an organization of their own. Small producers do not have the volume individually (both inputs and produce) to get the benefit of economies of scale. Besides, in agricultural marketing, there is a long chain of intermediaries who very often work non-transparently leading to the situation where the producer receives only a small part of the value that the ultimate consumer pays. Hence, keeping this in mind, a study was taken up to assess the farmers usage pattern of mobile agro advisory service for attaining the agricultural information. The research study was conducted in Kanchipuram district. A sample of 120 registered farmers under mobile advisory service was selected by using random sampling technique. Data were collected with the help of a well structured and pre tested interview schedule. The data collected were scored, tabulated and analysed using the statistical tools viz. cumulative frequency, percentage analysis. The respondents obtained maximum information from m-krishi (85.83%), more than three-fourth (80.83%) of the respondents had used the whatsApp, half the proportion of the respondents (52.50%) used call to other farmers/relatives for seeking and sharing of agricultural information.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 714-716
M S Sailajakumari*1 and Jibna Annie George2
Regional Agricultural Research Station (Kerala Agricultural University), Kumarakom - 686 563, Kerala
Abstract
An experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kumarakom, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala, India in farmer’s field. Different treatments tried included absolute control (T1), farmers practice (T2), treatment with application of major nutrients as per package of practices of Kerala Agricultural University (T3), application of major and micronutrient on soil test basis (T4). The experiment replicated five times. Observations on mace yield, seed yield, mace and seed weight per fruit was taken for the study. The results revealed that there was decline in the fruit drop with immature fruit splitting with application of fertilizers on soil test basis. The application of major nutrients along with micronutrients helped to increase seed yield and mace yield. Application of major and micronutrients on soil test basis in a balanced proportion as per package of practices of Kerala Agricultural University increase seed and mace yield of nutmeg.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 717-719
P Sathiya Bama*1 and A David Ravindran2
Department of Zoology, M. V. Muthiah Govt Arts College, Affiliated to Mother Teresa Women’s University, Dindigul - 624 001, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Soil fertility refers to the inherent capacity of the soil to release essential nutrients in adequate amount for optimum crop productivity. Biofertilizers most commonly refers to the use of soil microbes that increase the availability and uptake of mineral nutrients for plants. The knowledge on microbial communities within the intestinal gut of termite species Odontotermes obesus, Trinervieus trinervoides and its mound sheds light on the microbial habitat serving termites as ecologically important insect. Hence, termite microbes are utilized as microbial consortia to find its importance as organic amendment for analyzing soil nutrient status on different days of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation. Application of nitrogen fixers, phosphorus solubilizers from termite source along with inorganics had a significant effect on the availability of soil macronutrients. The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the soil was increased by the conjoint application in the initial period on 30 DAS and started to decline with increase in the age of the cultivated crop. Maize (Z. mays L.) has an expanded use in the agro industries and is recognized as a leading commercial crop of great agro economic value. Our results signify that conjoint termite microbes and inorganic fertilization greatly influenced the soil nutrient condition. In agriculture, combined fertilization promotes the sustainability and agronomic efficiency of maize crop. Therefore, the use of biofertilizers in agricultural practice would not only offset the high cost of chemical fertilizers but also mobilize insoluble form of nutrient into a soluble form for enriching soil fertility. Various environmental determinants and factors inherent to termite biology influence termite role in influencing soil fertility by providing organic nutrients for agriculture productivity.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 720-722
Surabhi Singhal1, Navneet Sharma2, Manjul Mungali2 and Alok Tripathi*2
Department of Microbiology, School of Life Science and Technology, IIMT University, Ganga Nagar Meerut - 250 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Leaf extracts of Aloe barbadensis commonly known as Aloe Gel was used with the aim of determining their antimicrobial activity against the oral swabs of 10 persons having no periodontal diseases. The exclusion criteria of the selection was Tobacco chewing, Beetal chewing, Alcoholic consumption. During the study different volumes of the plant extracts i.e. 100µl, 125µl, 150µl and 175µl was used separately against the microbes found in oral swabs. The 24-36 hours of incubation time was used for the recording of zone of inhibition. The zone of inhibition result showed good quality of antimicrobial activity. The amount of plant extract which shows maximum and minimum zone of inhibition was 175 µl and 125 µl respectively. The lowest concentration of leaf extract of the Aloe i.e. 100 µl showed absence of zone of inhibition. Current study reveals that leaf extract of Aloe Barbadensis has an effective antimicrobial activity and on the basis of finding it could be suggested that leaf extract can be used as mouth wash. Present study states that, the leaf extract of A. barbadensis can be used as mouth wash to control the periodontal diseases as it has good anti-microbial property.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 723-724
M S Sailajakumari*1 and Jibna Annie George2
Regional Agricultural Research Station (Kerala Agricultural University), Kumarakom - 686 563, Kerala
Abstract
An experimental trail conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kumarakom, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala, India in farmer’s field during 2016-2017. This study aimed at determining the influence of foliar nutrition along with liming and soil application of nutrients based on soil test data on rice yield in low-lying acid sulphate soil where the peculiar hydrological situation and soil condition posses many problems for proper soil nutrient and water management practices. Different treatments tried included Absolute control (T1), Nutrient management practices as per farmers practice (T2), NPK and micronutrients recommendation as per POP of KAU (Package of Practices of Kerala Agricultural university (T3), NPK recommendation as per POP of KAU along with foliar application of major and micronutrients at fortnightly intervals at 20, 35, 50 and 65 days after sowing (T4). The experiment replicated five times. The results revealed that treatment where soil application along with foliar spray of nutrients was done gave the highest grain yield. Supplementing the deficient nutrients partially through foliage helps the rice plant in expressing its potential in terms of grain yield.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 725-727
Hemant Kumar*, Pradeep Kumar Sahu, Suresh Kumar and Upendra Kumar Nayak
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K. N. K. College of Horticulture (RVSKVV), Mandsaur - 458 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted during the period of October 2016 to March 2017 at the Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K N. K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior (M.P). The observations on different post harvest and biochemical parameters revealed that Swapnil recorded the best performance with respect of most of the post harvest parameters i.e. days to opening of 5th florets, days to withering of 5th florets, number of florets open at a time, percentage of open florets/spike, water uptake on 5th day (ml), total water uptake (ml), vase- life (days) and pigment content. Regency show the best performance with respect of days to opening of 3rd and 4th florets, days to withering of 3rd and 4th florets. The maximum diameter of 3rd, 4th and 5th florets and reducing sugar was recorded with cv. Priscilla. The maximum non-reducing sugar and total sugar was recorded with cv. Friendship while dry weight of cut spikes at senescence was recorded with cv. Punjab Dawn.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 3 ; 728-730
K Ezhilarasan1, G Sathiya Narayanan*2 and P Senthil Valavan3
Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is a widely found tropical fruit. The fruit bears seed that represents 15-18% of the fruit weight. The seed contains around 55% moisture and is a good source of starch and protein. The major protein that has been extracted from seed is “Jacalin”. Jacalin is strongly mitogenetic for human lymphocytes, and it has proved useful for the evaluation of the immune status of patients infected with human immune deficiency virus-1. Jack fruit skin and core are an important source of pectin and could be used commercially for pectin extraction. Seed size is a component of seed quality which has impact on the performance of crop and variations exist in seed sizes among varieties. Seed size is a key factor in crop improvement. It is an important physical indicator of seed related to yield, market grade factors and harvest efficiency. Seed size was the trait that was most consistently associated with yields. Seed size was the most consistent seed trait that influenced growth and yield. Sizing of seeds, called fractionation, is based on the idea that some of the physical characteristics of seeds affect their vigour. Therefore, this procedure is often treated as enhancing seed quality value. Hence, The present investigations were carried out at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to evaluate the effect of the different weight on seedling quality in jack seeds cv. Panruti local. The result revealed that the heavier seeds performed better in terms of high germination percentage, shoot length, root length, dry weight of seedlings and seedling vigour. The heavier seeds also performed better in terms of good stem girth, more number of leaves, longer leaf length, wider leaf length and larger leaf area.


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