Volume - 11 - July-August 2020
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 731-738
Gousiya Begum and Srinivas Munjam
Department of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, Warangal - 506 009, Telangana, India
Abstract
The request for enzymes in the global market is expected to rise at a fast pace in recent years. With this regard, there has been a great increase in industrial applications of pectinase owing to their significant biotechnological uses. This study was undertaken with main objectives of meeting the growing industrial demands of pectinase, by improving the yield without increasing the cost of production. In addition, this research highlights the underestimated potential of agroindustrial residues for the production of biotechnologically important products. In this study, the maximum pectinase production was attained by using wheat bran, among the tested agro residues. These studies deals with to produce pectinases enzyme using A. niger in SmF. Agroindustrial residues used as pectin sources were wheat bran, citrus peel, sugarcane bagasse, rice husk, potato peel and orange peel. Best pectinolytic activity based on the diameter of clear hydrolyzed zones on the pectin agar media plates was obtained with A. niger. The strains of A. niger have good prospect for pectinase production. Wheat bran is a good low-cost fermentation substrate for pectinase production by the investigated fungus. The increased level in the production of pectinases was noticed when the agrowastes were supplemented with additional metal ions was more effective in submerged fermentation.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 739-745
Anugya Kumari1, Manoj Kundu2, Rewati Raman Singh3 and Deep Lata4
Department of Fruit and Fruit Technology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour - 813 210, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India
Abstract
Mango is one of the most popular fruit crop of India having high nutritional value. Among the all cultivars Langra is most popular under North Indian conditions. But it has shorter shelf life of 4-5 days. The present investigation was carried out to assess the effect of nutrients on yield, quality as well as postharvest behaviour of Cv. Langra. The treatments included CaCl2 @ 4%,CaCl2 @ 6%, CaCl2 @ 8%, K2SO4 @ 1.0%, K2SO4 @ 1.5%, K2SO4 @ 2.0%, Borax @ 1.0%, Borax @ 1.5%), Borax @ 2.0%, ZnSO4 @ 0.2%, ZnSO4 @ 0.4%, ZnSO4 @ 0.8%. Pre-harvest application was done at 30 days before harvest and fruits were evaluated at intervals of 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after ambient temperature storage. The foliar application of macro and micronutrients had immense potential to increase the quality as well as shelf life of fruits. Results showed that calcium chloride (4.0%) was found best in reducing weight loss along with minimum decay on the 10th day of storage. However, borax (1%) effectively maintained other quality attributes like TSS, sugar, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid till 10 days of storage. Therefore, CaCl2 & Borax could be an effective treatment for enhancing yield and postharvest quality.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 746-752
Reshma M R*1 and P Sureshkumar2
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Top soils (0-15 cm) from seven different soil types were collected in order to analyze the status of different S fractions and their relation with available S and other physico-chemical properties of soil. All the S fractions (sulphate S, total water soluble S, heat soluble S, sulphate soluble after ignition and total organic S) and total S were reported very high in Pokkali soils due to the presence of high organic matter and sea water inundation. Total S content of Pokkali soils were recorded with an average value of 26903.33 mg kg-1. In other soils total S content ranged from 230 to 4400 mg kg-1. Other low land soils were also reported with high S fractions where high amount of organic matter was present. Sandy soils from Onattukara sandy plain and northern coastal plain were recorded with lower S fractions. Among the different fractions, sulphate S contributed least to the total S (1.67 to 29.27 per cent). Sulphur fractions showed significant positive correlation with EC, OC, AEC, clay content and negative correlation with pH and sand content. Sulphur fractions were significantly and positively correlated with available S, which is indication of their contribution to the available pool. Organic carbon content showed significant positive correlation with total N (0.988**) and total S (0.906**). Narrowest C:N:S ratio of 2.2:0.16:1 was recorded in Pokkali soils and the widest ratio of 59:6.42:1 was recorded in soils from north central laterite.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 753-759
V Vintohkumar1, P Senthilvalavan*2 and C Ravikumar3
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Development of alleviation strategies and mitigation of metal toxicity by the use of different amendments may be an important approach for improving the plant growth and yield in heavy metal polluted soils, is of prime important. In this regard, present study was conducted during July 2017 to October 2017 at the pot culture yard of the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University to evaluate the effect of organic (FYM, press mud) and inorganic (EDTA, potassium humate, lime, gypsum, natural zeolite) amendments on sunflower performance and nutrient uptake (sulphur and micro nutrients - Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu) under lead and cadmium stress conditions. Results revealed that significantly more Pb and Cd were immobilized by FYM, press mud and gypsum amended pots by having positive influence on physico-chemical properties compared to other amendments. Consequently, enhanced the uptake of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and sulphur (S) and improve DMP and seed and stover yields of sunflower. Whereas lime and potassium humate amended plants registered lower nutrient uptake, DMP and yield indicating that increased metal-nutrient interactions due to lesser immobilization of heavy metals by lime and potassium humate in soil. From the findings, FYM and press mud application alleviated the negative effects of Pb and Cd in soil and enhanced the dry matter production and yield of sunflower as a result of decreased heavy metals interactions with plant nutrients which increased the plant nutrient uptake.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 760-767
Vandana Tyagi1, Anjala Durgapal*2, Anfal Arshi3 and Dinesh Chandra4
Department of Botany, Motiram Baburam Government Post Graduate College, Haldwani - 263 139, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represents a broad diversity of bacteria resides on the root surface and root vicinity. They involved in varied biotic activities of the soil ecology to make it active turnover and sustainable for agricultural crop production. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Azospirillum lipoferum, Rhizobium radiobacter and Bacillus megaterium on the plant growth parameters, yield and nutrient content in finger millet. The results showed that inoculation with bacteria either individual or combined had an encouraging effect on growth and yield of treated plants as compared to control. Among all the treatments, consortium was best and significantly increased shoot and root length; fresh and dry shoot biomass, fresh and dry root biomass, and number of leaves and tillers. Yield parameters viz. 1000-seed weight (62.29%), grain yield per plant (77.31%), length of finger (45.16%), weight of finger (76.70%), width of finger (29.56%), fingers per panicle (38.28%), and number of grains per spikelet (36.99%) were observed maximum in consortium treatment followed by individual treatments over control. Our results showed that combined treatment also reduced the maturation period of the crop by 33 days. A nutrient profile such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron of different plant parts and soil were improved best in consortium treatment. The present study depicted that combined inoculation of PGPR is an efficient and sustainable resource for the better yield and quality of finger millet.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 768-774
A Prabhakaran*1, G Singaravelu2 and R Reginamary3
Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore - 632 115, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In the primary stage of investigation is the cultivation of different types of mulberry and selected a mulberry variety of Morus alba for the experimental purpose of fortification and synthesis of selenium nanoparticles on green technique using plant extract of Prosopis cineraria leaf and characterized by UV, FTIR, XRD and TEM. In the second stage of investigation is the fortification of mulberry leaves with green synthesized selenium nanoparticles was dissolved in double-distilled water and diluted into 500ppm, 1000ppm and 1500ppm concentrations on fortified V1-mulberry leaves. In the tertiary stage of investigation is the estimation of influences of biochemical parameters on midgut physiology among selected biomolecules such as protein, protease, amylase, reducing sugars, glycogen, and invertase activities in 5th instar stage. In the quaternary stage of investigation is an evaluation of the influences of fortified green synthesized selenium nanoparticles. Ultimately in the results of biochemical parameters are significant increases at different concentrations of green synthesized selenium nanoparticles has enhanced the digestion of ingested food which in turn reflects in the quantity and quality of cocoon and silk filament of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 775-779
B Nagendra Reddy1, V Jhansi Lakshmi*2, T Uma Maheswari3 and G S Laha4
Cashew Research Station (Dr. Y. S. R. Horticultural University), Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Compatibility between organo phosphorous compounds like monocrotophos 36 SL, Dichlorovas 76 EC and Acephate 75 WP and entomopathogenic fungi studies were conducted at IIRR (Indian Institute of Rice Research), Hyderabad. Each insecticide was tested at three concentrations viz. recommended concentration (RC), sub lethal concentration (0.5 RC) and more than recommended concentration (1.5 RC) against three entomopathogenic fungi viz. Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Lecanicillium lecanii (Verticillium lecani) by using poison food technique under laboratory conditions. At recommended concentrations monocrotophos 36 SL found harmless to all the three tested fungi (<20% reduction of the growth of the fungus), acephate 75 WP found harmless to B. bassiana and L. lecanii and slightly harmful to M. anisopliae (20-35% reduction of the growth of the fungus), Dichlorvos caused complete inhibition of growth of the B. bassiana and L. lecanii and 72.40 per cent reduction of M. anisopliae indicating its toxicity to all the tested fungi. So, avoiding mixing of dichlorvos with entomopathogenic fungi.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 780-783
Rashmi Tyagi*1, Jatesh Kathpalia2 and Subhash Chander3
Department of Sociology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Rice is one of the most important cereals in the world feeding 4 billion people across the world. Direct seeding is becoming an important alternative of rice transplanting and spreading rapidly in Haryana due to labour shortage, escalating cost of production and water crisis. Transplanted rice method on the other hand required flooded water, more labour in the fields. Stress free condition in DSR like it can withstand non availability of electricity for upto 7 days resulting in delay of water supply. This was endorsed by 35% conventional and 68% DSR growers. Early maturity (7-10) days in timely sowing of succeeding crop and DSR is a better economic technology was observed by about 1/3rd of respondents (conventional growers), weedicide cost is less was reported by (94% conventional and 90% DSR growers); low production cost of DSR than conventional (63% conventional growers and 73% DSR growers); followed by less pesticide are required in DSR than conventional were reported by (48% conventional growers and 50% DSR growers).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 784-787
Biplab Kahar*
Department of Zoology, Panchakot Mahavidyalaya (Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University), Sarbari, Purulia - 723 121, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Bio-efficacy of different treatment schedules of intercropping, viz. T1 (potato + onion), T2 (potato + garlic), T3 (potato + tomato), T4 (potato + coriander), T5 (potato + radish), T6 (control) and T7 (recommended insecticide) were evaluated against incidence of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in single potato variety, Kufri Jyoti during rabi season of two potato-growing years in 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 from November to February. A great deal of variation in the incidence of whitefly was observed on potato crop and with different intercrops. Among the intercropped treatments potato intercropped with onion (T1) and garlic (T2) resulted in minimum incidence of whitefly, while potato intercropped with tomato (T3) recorded the maximum incidence of whitefly. But intercropping method is not as effective as recommended insecticide (T7) in reducing whitefly incidence on potato.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 788-790
K Megala, N Subramanian and N Ramadass*
P/G Research Department of Zoology, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar - 604 407, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Glycine max (Soybean) is one of the most widely grown leguminous crops belongs to the family Fabaceae grow in tropical, subtropical and temperate climates in the world and providing abundant protein and oil for human diet and animal feeding. It seeds contain more than 36% protein, 30% carbohydrates and appreciable amount of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It also contains about 20% oil. Phytochemical analysis of Glycine max has revealed that numerous compounds in plants traditionally used for medicinal purposes have many therapeutic properties. The results of the Phytochemical studies showed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, steroids and numerous other phytochemicals compounds.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 791-794
Jatesh Kathpalia*1, Rashmi Tyagi2** Mukesh Jain3*** and Vinod Kumari4****
Department of Sociology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Generally farmers are in a hurry to sow next crop (wheat) after cultivation of kharif crop (rice) and dispose off the straw immediately by burning and without recycling of crop residues. This is a great loss to the farmer as well to the land. Farmers resort to burning of the crop residue as removing it involves higher costs for labour to uproot, chop and mix in the soil. In order to encourage farmers to change this practice, rotavator machine was introduced to chop the harvested crop stalks / stubbles into small pieces and incorporated in-situ into the soil with varying efficiencies depending upon the left over residue. The rotavator prepares the field in single operation. It carries out secondary tillage operations such as harrowing and leveling in single operation. It destroys weeds, incorporates left-over stubbles of previous crop, conserves soil moisture and pulverizes soil. It prepares seed bed in both wet and dry conditions. It saves time, labour and cost. Keeping in view the perspectives of rotavator a study was conducted among 80 rotavator adopters in Kaithal district of Haryana to know socio economic impact of its adoption on farming families in 2017-18. Regarding reasons for adoption of overwhelming majority of the farmers (83.75%) reported that rotavators are capable of tilling large areas of land in a short time period and break up the soil and land leveling followed by eradicating of weeds (82.50%). Water management, time and fuel saving were also reported by majority of the respondents. Cumulative socio-economic impact of using rotavator like increased in investment on quality education of the children (83.33%) and social ceremonies (79.16%) by medium land holding farmers were reported while investment on quality education of the children, payment of amount of credit availed from bank increased, extension contacts increased (80% each) were reported by marginal land holding farmers.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 795-800
Mohammad Azam*1 and Mohan Singh2
Department of Post Harvest Process and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Food extrusion is an ideal process for the manufacture ready-to-eat snacks. Response surface methodology with Central Composite Rotatable Design was used to investigate the physical properties of extruded kodo millet flour-defatted soy flour-water chestnut flour blends in a Brabender Single screw extruder. The effect of extrusion operating parameters mainly moisture content in feed, barrel temperature, die head temperature, screw speed and blend ratio on quality of extruded products were determined. The properties of product were evaluated on the basis of mass flow rate (MFR), specific length (SL), volumetric expansion index (VEI) and true density (TD) of extrudates. CCRD based prediction model were developed and optimization to relate the product responses to process variable as well as to obtain the response surface plots.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 801-807
Deepak Dewaji Barsagade1, Shruti Arvind Gharade*2 and Sushma Dilip Pankule3
Department of Zoology, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur - 440 033, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A pair of ovaries present in Antheraea mylitta (D.) (tasar silk moth) is polytrophic meroistic type. Each ovary consists of four ovarioles and each ovariole divided in to 3 regions- a terminal filament, germarium and vitellarium. The germarium is the distal part of ovariole consisting of germinal oocytes and vitellarium is proximal part of ovariole consisting of developing ovarian follicles in a linear arrangement. The ovarian follicle consists of an oocytes surrounded by follicular cells. The development and maturation of oocytes in the female insects passes through three phases, the previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis and choriogenesis. The ultrastucture of vitellogenic follicles reveals the transport of yolk material through follicular cells in oocyte. The microvilli are developed between follicular cells and oocyte to incorporate yolk protein from haemolymph to oocyte in the form of electron dense micropinocytic vesicles or pinosomes. Later on, microvilli undergo degeneration and formation of vitelline membrane as well as chorion takes place. The oocyte development process is over prior to emergence of adult female moth from pupa. The present study illustrates the different events in the process of vitellogenesis at cellular level during the ovarian development in A. mylitta (D).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 808-816
Mahak Tufchi*1, Rashmi2, Neha Dahiya3 and Narendra Kumar Singh4
Department of Biotechnology, Government College for Women, Parade, Jammu - 180 001, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Maize is a cereal crop consumed worldwide and its improvement involves a detailed understanding of the biological processes underlying various qualitative and quantitative traits including yield. Opaque2 (o2) a transcriptional factor influences the expression of zein fractions in maize kernel protein. During the development of Quality Protein Maize (QPM) having enhanced levels of essential amino acids, the genetic background of the recipient maize line has an impact. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is one of the dynamic interaction network that help to unravel the molecular basis of such anomalous behavior. Our current research thus thrusts upon the delineation of all the possible interactions of opaque2 protein through In silico approaches to understand their functional impacts; as many in vitro and in vivo methods of PPI detection have limitations. Sequence based prediction approach databases, DIP and BioGRID depicted the interaction with proteins involved in development, calcium signal transduction pathway and response to external stimuli paving emphasis on its multidimensional function other than quality improvement. Cytoscape version 3.6.1 software retrieved records from IMEx and IntAct databases showed DNA (EBI-1578952) from arath as an interactor conferring its TF behavior. STRING software a gene expression database showed Heat Map of o2 protein with co-expressing dzs18 and pdf1 proteins. A cumulative RNA co-expression score of 0.234 was obtained in Zea mays and none in other organisms.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 817-823
P Saravanan and A Karthikeyan
Post Graduate and Research Department of Zoology, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Karur - 639 005, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Present investigation on population dynamics of sucking pests and their natural enemies on Bt cotton was carried out in Bt cotton fields of Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu during 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. The present study reported that sucking pests like jassids (Amrasca biguttula biguttula), thrips (Thrips tabaci), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), aphids (Aphis gossypii), mirid bug (Creontiades biseratense) and mealy bugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis, Paracoccus marginatus) were commonly found in the Bt cotton fields during 2016-2017 and consecutive season. The density of a particular pest varied in accordance with the crop growth, climatic factors etc. The maximum population of jassids (18.59 and 19.29 nos/3 leaves/plant) was recorded during 43rd and 44th standard meteorological week (SMW) of the year 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 respectively. The maximum population of thrips was observed in 43rd SMW (21.43 nos/3 leaves/plant) during 2016-2017 while 42nd SMW (28.38 nos/3 leaves/plant) during 2017-2018. The peak activity of whitefly was recorded from 43rd to 48th SMW while the highest incidence of 16.64 nos/3 leaves and 18.49 nos/3 leaves was observed during 43rd SMW during both 2016-2017 and 2017-2018. The results of the present study was also indicated that the population of mirid bug C. biseratense was progressively increased and reached its peak (5.32 nos/plant, 3.27 nos/plant) during 49th SMW of 2017-2018 respectively. The peak population of aphids (46.42% and 48.55%) were recorded in 51st SMW of 2016-2017 and 52nd SMW of 2017-2018. The maximum population grade of 4 were recorded during 52nd, 3rd and 4th SMW of 2016-2017 and 52nd, 2nd, 3rd and 4th SMW of 2017-2018 in respect to Phenacoccus solenopsis whereas 52nd, 2nd and 3rd SMW during 2016-2017 and 3rd SMW of 2017-2018 in respect to Paracoccus marginatus. With respect to natural enemies, ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, green lace wing, Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi and various types of spiders were recorded during the course of study.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 824-827
C Ravikumar*1, M Ganapathy2, R Krishnamoorthy3 and P Senthilvalavan4
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Experimental trials were conducted during two consecutive seasons on 2015-16 at Experimental Farm, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India to assess the response of different sources and levels of sulphur on hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The experiment comprised ten treatments includes RDF, RDF combines with three sources and levels of sulphur viz. elemental sulphur, single super phosphate and gypsum with each applied at three levels such as 15, 30 and 45 kg S ha-1. The trials were laid out in randomized block design and replicated thrice. Among the treatment combinations, elemental sulphur @ 45 kg ha-1 with RDF (T7) found to be promising with increased seed yield increase up to 86.7 and 103.4 per cent over RDF alone during both the period of experimental study. Highest accumulation of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and potassium were noticed during the period of study. Application of RDF + Sulphur @ 45 kg ha-1 through elemental sulphur enhanced the availability of nutrients and eventually increased the nutrient uptake of N, S, P and K and thereby increased the growth and yield of hybrid sunflower under northern Cauvery Deltaic region.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 828-833
N C Sharma*1 and C L Sharma2
Department of Fruit Science, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan - 173 230, Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
The studies were carried out in a private orchard at Kotkhai (Shimla), India for two years during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to find out the optimum doses of calcium nitrate as an alternate of calcium ammonium nitrate for nitrogen application to the apple trees. Fifteen years-old trees of apple cultivar Starking Delicious raised on seedling rootstock and planted at a spacing of 6.0 × 6.0 meters were selected for the study. Different calcium nitrate doses significantly influenced growth, yield, fruit quality and nutrient contents of apple. Highest trunk diameter, annual shoots growth, leaf area, chlorophyll content, fruit size, weight, total sugars, reducing sugars, soil pH, soil N, soil K and Leaf NPK contents were recorded under RDN through CN, followed by RDN through CAN and decreased with decreasing doses of calcium nitrate. However, highest fruit yield, TSS and available soil P contents were observed under RDN through CAN, followed by RDN through CN and decreased with decreasing doses of calcium nitrate. Application of 60 per cent recommended dose of N through calcium nitrate was found as effective as recommended dose of N through calcium nitrate and CAN for maintaining adequate tree growth and nutritional status of the orchard and improving the yield as well as fruit quality of apple. Thus calcium nitrate dose equivalent to 60 per cent recommended dose of nitrogen could be considered optimum for improving the growth, yield, fruit quality and nutrient status of apple orchards.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 834-839
Rakesh Kumar*, N D Singh and G S Chhina
Faculty of Agriculture, Khalsa College, Amritsar - 143 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
Data was collected during 2014-15 and 2015-16 from 120 small farmers of 12 villages from randomly selected Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts of Punjab, India, to evaluate the performance of various pulse based crop rotations viz. rice-wheat-summer moong/mash (summer pulse based crop rotation (SPBCR1)), Rice-sugarcane-summer moong/mash (summer pulse based crop rotation (SPBCR2), Arhar-Wheat (main pulse based crop rotation (MPBCR3)), Rice-lentil (main pulse based crop rotation (MPBCR4)), Arhar-lentil (pulse-pulse based crop rotation (PPBCR5) compared to the existing non-pulse based crop rotation i.e. rice-wheat cropping system as (non-pulse based crop rotation (NPBCR6)). Rice equivalent yield in SPBCR1 (129.42 q/ha) and SPBCR2 (126.58 q/ha) was found statistically at par but observed significantly higher compared to all other crop rotations. Rice equivalent yield in NPBCR6 (99.28 q/ha) witnessed significantly higher than MSPBCR3 (87.43 q/ha), MSPBCR4 (87.20 q/ha) and PPBCR5 (68.52 q/ha), gross returns (₹ 185063.46/ha), net returns (₹ 118116.83/ha), crop profitability (₹ 334.58/ha/day) and system profitability (₹ 323.61/ha/day) compared to all other cropping systems. Benefit cost ratio was significantly higher in MSPBCR3 (1.99) than all other crop rotations and SPBCR1 (1.76), MSPBCR4 (1.74) and PPBCR5 (1.66) witnessed significantly higher benefit cost ratio than NPBCR6 (1.55). Among various problems faced by small farmers for cultivation of pulse crops, low production and productivity, low market price of the produce, marketing problems, non availability of suitable varieties and high cost of cultivation was ranked-I (65.28%), ranked-II (57.98%), ranked-III (56.31%), ranked-IV (55.83%) and ranked 5th (51.44%) respectively. The other problems such as unpredictable weather conditions, major price fluctuations, lack of harvesting mechanization, large number of pests and diseases and non- availability of labor etc were found important with less than 50 per cent of mean value.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 840-843
Girraj Singh Meena*
Department of Botany, Government College, Dholpur - 328 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Separate and simultaneous effect of gamma rays and NMU on Lathyrus sativus (P- 24) and Cicer arietinum (RSG- 963) has been undertaken in the present study. The current varieties of grass pea and chick pea were subjected to different doses of gamma rays (5kr, 10kr and 15kr) and 0.02% Nitroso Methyl Urea (NMU). The effect of mutagens was observed in the percentage of seed germination, seedling height on the 15th day and survivability and chlorophyll mutants on the 25th day of sowing. From the result it was observed that all the selected traits significantly affected with the increasing and combined doses of gamma rays and 0.02% NMU in both the legumes. But the simultaneous application of physical and chemical mutagens was more effective. Result indicated variations for the selected characteristics in grass pea and chick pea.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 844-849
Muddasir Basheer*1 and O P Agrawal2
Vermibiotechnology Unit, School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474 011, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
This study examines the potential of the African night crawler Eudrilus eugeniae in the bioconversion of paper waste and cow dung into vermicompost and effect of some additives. Free choice experiment was conducted to see the preference of worms towards mixture of paper waste and cow dung. Paper waste was mixed with cow dung to make it feasible for earthworms and after introduction of non clitellate earthworms, various parameters were assessed. It was found that a mixture of waste paper and cow dung acts as a good medium for the survival and reproduction of earthworms. Free choice experiment showed the preference of earthworms towards differentially treated media. Trichoderma treated media was the most preferential medium followed by Vermiwash and Jaggery+buttermilk and control. Significant increase was found in all the parameters like percent increase in number, weight, percent population growth and biomass production. Physico-chemical parameters also showed increment in comparison to control. Vermicomposting is thus a very useful and economic stabilization of this waste.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 850-853
Champa Lal Khatik*
Agricultural Research Station (SKN Agriculture University), Fatehpur-Shekhawati, Sikar - 332 301, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Genetic divergence analysis in rainfed green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] was carried out using 16 genotypes for eight component characters including seed yield. A field experiment was laid under a randomized block design with three replications; observation was recorded on ten plants were selected at random from each plot for each genotypes viz. plant height, pod length, number of seeds per pod, test weight, seed yield per plot and seed yield per hectors whereas for days to 50% flowering and days to maturity data were recorded on whole plot basis among the genotypes of green gram. On the basis of D2, the genotypes were grouped into four clusters where cluster IV had single genotype only. Cluster I contains maximum seven genotypes while cluster II contains five genotypes and cluster III contains three genotypes. Among characters subjected to D2 analysis, test weight (37.50%) contributed maximum towards total divergence closely followed by seed yield per plot (32.50%), days to 50% flowering (14.17%) and plant height (13.33%). In the D2 analysis the characters viz. test weight, seed yield per plot, days to 50% flowering and plant height jointly contributed 97.50 per cent towards genetic divergence. The genotypes RMG-1147, RMG-1139, RMG-1132 and RMG-1134 were having high mean values of these traits. Hence these could be utilized as parental material in future breeding programme for green gram improvement.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 854-859
Manzoor Ahmad Ganaie*1, Mohd Yaqoob Dar2, Irfan Illahi3, Ravindra Kumar Dubey1 and Azad Gull4
Department of Zoology, Government Model Science College, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Current study was conducted to record the seasonal incidence and severity of Pink Mealy Bug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on two popular mulberry varieties viz. V1 and S36 grown in the mulberry gardens of two villages Kulamdi and Raipur of district Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh. Studies on incidence (PI) and percent disease index or severity (PDI) of Pink Mealy Bug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on the selected mulberry varieties were carried out from the months of October to April during the year 2017-18 and 2018-19 by deploying standard methods. The said pest had been found dangerous to the mulberry gardens caused a significant lose to mulberry yield. Its incidence and severity started increasing suddenly after monsoon seasons and reached to peak in the month of October, afterwards showed a decline with the onset of winter thus indirectly causing loss to silk yield by damaging the quality of mulberry leaf needed for autumn and spring rearing. Role of weather factors in PI and PDI was find out by deploying Pearson correlation. Correlation studies showed significant relationship between weather parameters and pest outbreak. Temperature both maximum and minimum and relative humidity (RH%) of same fortnight and previous fortnight weather showed highest positive correlation with incidence and severity of pink mealy bug. Though the precipitation showed negative impact but not significant enough to show the relationship.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 860-870
Chandra Ghosh*1, Satyajit Sarkar1 and A P Das2
Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling - 734 013, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present work has significantly contributed to the methods of weed control in tea gardens of Terai region of Darjeeling District of west Bengal. Chemicals need to work under the influences of local environment and the genetic makeup of the assemblages of taxonomically very widely diversified wild plants. However, presently increasing awareness against the use of chemicals in agriculture and horticulture is a healthy trend and may be in near future we shall be able to develop proper local methodology in controlling weeds of our valuable plantations. In this work the efficacy of two herbicides (Paraquat and Glyphosate) is studied in pre monsoon and post monsoon seasons. Glyphosate is found to be most effective in pre monsoon whereas the Paraquat in the post monsoon season.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 871-875
R S Kallurmath*
Department of Botany, Government First Grade College For Women, Bijapur, Gandhi Chowk, Vijayapur - 586 101, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The incidence of airborne Aspergillus group and other fungi was determined over onion crop fields, for the period of one year from October 2017 to September 2018, in the selected field locations of Bijapur. It is found that, 14 different type of fungi were isolated, amongst air borne fungi, A. niger is dominant and is a potential pathogen, causing black mold disease and rotting in onions leads to heavy monetary loss to both grower and traders. Survey of this study may help in forecasting and management of onion diseases in fields and storage following crop rotation method can reasonably reduces the incidence of fungal diseases in onion.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 876-880
Piyush Kumar Bhargaw* and D K Roy
Department of Agronomy, Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur - 848 125, Bihar, India
Abstract
A field experiment conducted during kharif season of 2017 at the research farm of RPCAU, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar to study the influence of integrated weed management practices on nutrients uptake by crop and weed under dry direct seeded rice. Hand weedings at 20, 40 and 60 days after sowing was found significantly superior over all the integrated weed management practices on nutrient uptake by crop and weed. While in herbicidal treatments Pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha at 0-2 days after sowing followed by two hand weedings at 20 and 40 days after sowing was superior on to rest of all herbicidal treatments. Highest net return retained under Pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha at 0-2 days after sowing followed by 2,4-D Na salt @ 0.5 kg/ha at 20 days after sowing followed by one hand weeding at 40 days after sowing (₹ 32,244/ha) and which was statistically at par with Pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha at 0-2 days after sowing followed by two hand weedings at 20 and 40 days after sowing (₹ 31,997/ha). The highest Benefit-cost ratio of 1.0 was recorded from Pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha at 0-2 days after sowing followed by Bispyribac-Na @ 25 g/ha at 20 days after sowing which was statistically at par with Pendimethalin @ 1 kg/ha at 0-2 days after sowing followed by 2,4-D Na salt @ 0.5 kg/ha at 20 days after sowing followed by one hand weeding at 40 days after sowing (0.97).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 881-884
Kumari Jyoti*, A K Singh and Saikat Maji
Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study of beneficiaries who have accomplished vocational training under skill development mission in various categories was assessed and their pattern of using communicational sources were analyzed. This study was conducted in Bilaspur district as there were majority certified beneficiaries were found in mentioned district. Top five most popular courses were selected i.e. Garments making (86), ICT (80), Electricals (30), Medical and Nursing (29) and Construction (25). Hence, 250 respondents were selected with proportionate method. The data regarding subscription of mass-media was found to low among the majority (49.20%) of the respondents. However, 54.00 per cent of the majority respondents had medium level of exposure towards mass-media. Cosmopoliteness was analyzed to determine the connectivity of respondents outside the society which depicted that 46.00 per cent of the majority had low level of cosmopoliteness.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 885-888
Suresh Kumar Dudwal*1, S P Singh1, Babulal Dudwal2, Shri Rakesh1 and Rajpal Bochliya1
Department of Agronomy, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner - 334 006, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2017-18. The results revealed that weed control measures markedly reduced crop-weed competition. Both pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha (Dry) and pendimethalin + imazethapyr at 0.80 kg/ha (dry), were found significantly reducing weed density and nutrient depletion by both broad leaved and grassy weeds. Pre plant incorporation of pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha and pendimethalin + imazethapyr at 0.80 kg/ha were more effective in controlling broad leaved as well as grassy weeds. Weed free treatment gave the higher value of root nodules per plant, seed yield, straw and biological yield and nutrient uptake by crop which were found significantly higher over rest of treatments. Among herbicidal treatments, pendimethalin + imazethapyr at 0.80 kg/ha as PPI seed yield, biological yield and nutrient uptake by crop which were found significantly higher over rest of treatments. Higher root nodules per plant found in pendimethalin at 0.75 kg/ha as PE.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 889-894
Tanmay Ghosh*1, Mohan Kumar Biswas2, Debokinandan Maity3 and Pradyut Dutta4
Department of Microbiology, Dinabandhu Andrews College, Baishnabghata, South 24 Parganas (South), Kolkata - 700 084, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Chrysopogon zizanicides is a well-known medicinal plant use in several purpose. The plant extract of vetiver grass use as perfumery purpose, antibacterial agent, healing wound. This plant extract is very effective and safe. The vetiver root extracts are prepared by methanol, ethanol, chloroform, hexane solvents. The extract are evaporated and stored at 4°C in an airtight container. The antibacterial activity of vetiver roots extracts was determined. Here well diffusion method is used to determine the activity of vetiver root extract. The inhibitory concentration of the extracts 50 mg/ml, 100 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml, 400 mg/ml are tested by dilution broth method. The Ampicillin was used as positive control of bacteria. The DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) 10ml were used as blind control. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in 400 mg/ml vetiver roots methanol extract against Staphylococcus aureus. The lowest zone of inhibition observed in 50 mg/ml vetiver roots Chloroform extract against Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 895-898
S Shafi*1, I L Khan1, N A Ganie1, M Yaqoob2, S Gull3 and S Maqbool4
College of Temperate Sericulture (SKUAST- Kashmir), Mirgund - 193 121, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Disease free layings of popular double hybrid (CSR6 x CSR26) x (CSR2 x CSR27) were utilized for the present study which was carried out at College of Temperate Sericulture, SKUAST-Kashmir Mirgund during summer in the year 2017. The larvae were fed with normal mulberry leaves till fourth moult. Silkworm larvae in the fifth age till spinning were fed on mulberry leaves sprayed with different concentrations of vermiwash 5, 10 and 15 percent alone and in combination with one percent nitrogen. Daily four feeds of mulberry leaves were given to the silkworms. There was significant improvement in growth and yield of mulberry and also in most of the commercial characteristics of silkworm through foliar application of vermiwash and nitrogen. The maximum larval weight (46.53 g) was observed in T7 (15% vermiwash and 1% nitrogen) and the minimum value (40.97 g) was recorded in T0 (control). The larval duration was statistically non-significant. Cocoon weight was highest (1.979 g) in T7 (15% vermiwash and 1% nitrogen) and the lowest cocoon weight (1.536g) was recorded in T0 (control). The shell weight (0.448 g) was maximum in T7 (15% vermiwash and 1% nitrogen) and the minimum shell weight (0.343 g) was recorded in T0 (control). The maximum shell ratio (22.63%) was observed in T7 (15% vermiwash and 1% nitrogen) and the lowest shell ratio (19.40%) was observed in T0 (control). The filament length (1171.70m) was maximum in T7 (15% vermiwash and 1% nitrogen and the minimum filament length (929.50m) was observed in T0 (control). The cocoon yield by number was statistically non-significant. The maximum yield of cocoons (17.88 kg) was recorded in T7 (15% vermiwash and 1% nitrogen) and minimum yield (12.73 kg) was recorded in T0 (control). The thinnest denier (2.890) was recorded in T0 (control) and the thickest denier (3.370) was recorded in T7 (15% vermiwash) however the treatment is non-significant. The highest raw silk percentage (14.322) was recorded in T7 (15% vermiwash and 1% nitrogen) and the lowest raw silk percentage (11.061) was observed in T0 (control). Foliar application of (vermiwash 15% + I% nitrogen) on mulberry leaves resulted in improvement in most of the commercial characteristics of silkworm. Vermiwash can thus be used as a component in integrated nutrient management for improvement in leaf quality and consequently the commercial characteristics of cocoon crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 899-902
Abhishek Rana*, R S Chandel, Manishkumar J Joshi and K S Verma
Department of Entomology, Chaudhary Sarwan Kumar Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur - 176 062, Himachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
The biology of D. epijarbas was studied under laboratory conditions. The eggs were laid singly on calyx end of young fruits and on leaves. The average incubation period was recorded to be of 6.1±0.28 days. The developmental period of first, second, third, fourth and fifth instar was 3.4±0.16, 3.9±0.28, 4.4±0.16, 5.8±0.25 and 7.8±0.25 days, respectively. The first instar larvae were creamish-white to light-brown and cylindrical in shape. First thoracic region of first and second instar larvae was marked with black triangular line. Fourth instar larvae were reddish brown with pinkish tinge, whereas fifth instar larvae were dark brown with yellowish patches and short scattered hairs all over the body. The total larval period was found to be of 25.3±0.50 days. Newly formed pupae were dark brown anteriorly and yellowish posteriorly but later, whole body became dark brown. Pupal stage lasted for 9-11 days (9.7±0.26 days). The adult males and females survived for up to 6.67±0.39 days and 8.78±0.26 days, respectively. The wings of male butterfly were dark orange in colour and dull in case of female butterfly.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 903-906
Anu Kurian*1 and K Ajith Kumar2
Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
A research trial was carried out in the experimental field of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Wayanad, Kerala during two seasons (2016-2018) to evaluate performance of strawberry cultivars. One month old tissue culture plants of eight strawberry cultivars viz. Hadar, Sweet Charlie, Sabrina-1, Sabrina, Crystal, Winter Dawn, Gili and Barak were planted at 30 x 40 cm apart on the raised beds during last week of September. The design of experiment was randomized block design. The results of the study indicated that out of the cultivars tried, the strawberry cv. Winter Dawn proved to be best in producing maximum height, number of leaves, number of crowns, number of flowers, number of clusters and yield. Variety Gili was the least among all these parameters. Hadar recorded maximum plant spread. Minimum number of days to first flowering was recorded by Gili. Hence the variety Winter Dawn can be recommended for cultivation in the high ranges of Kerala.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 907-910
K Keerthishankar*1, Balaji S Kulkarni2, H A Yathindra3 and G P Mutthuraju4
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted on Jasminum sambac cv. Mysuru Mallige to study the effect of fertigation, micronutrients spray in the soil and leaf nutrient contents in Doddamaragowdanahalli village, Mysuru during 2017-2018. The design used was RCBD with 9 treatments and 3 replications. As there is no standard fertigation schedule for jasmine, so the farmer practicing dosage (200 DAP, 200 g MOP, 50g Urea/plant/year) was considered as a control. The study revealed that, plant applied with 100% RDF (60:120:120 NPK g/plant/year) along with foliar spray of micronutrients (Humic acid at 0.5%, Chelated Zinc and Borax at 0.75g each per plant) recorded highest soil pH (7.18), EC (0.82 dSm-1), available soil N (748.33 kg ha-1), P (294.00 kg ha-1) K (611.75 kg ha-1), Zn (0.77 ppm) and B (0.47 ppm) and highest leaf nutrient status like N (1.85%), P (0.31%) K (1.20%), Zn (39.50 ppm), and B (12.53 ppm) content.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 911-913
Manjot Kaur, Rakesh Sharma and Jaspreet Singh Randhawa*
P. G. Department of Agriculture, Khalsa College, Amritsar - 143 001, Punjab, India
Abstract
Among the various factors responsible for successful cultivation of barley, the optimum uses of nitrogen as well as potassium are of prime significance. Nitrogen is the main constituent of photosynthetic pigments and amino acids which are precursor to protein. On the other hand, potassium is essentially required for plant growth and regulates crop yield and quality. Foliar application of potassium helps in increasing plant height as well as number of spikes and tillers per unit area. Keeping above considerations in mind a field experiment was conducted to study the response of malt barley (Hordeum distichon L.) to nitrogen and foliar application of potassium during the rabi season of 2017-18. The study revealed that plant height, dry matter accumulation, leaf area index, effective tillers, ear length, grains per ear and test weight increased significantly from N0 (control) to N2 (100% recommended N) but N2 (100% recommended N) and N3 (125% recommended N) remained at par with each other. The highest grain yield (48.60 q/ha) and straw yield (66.84 q/ha) was recorded with application of 125% recommended N which was significantly higher than control and 75% recommended N but at par with 100% recommended N. Among foliar application of potassium, there were significant results obtained in growth and yield attributes. The highest grain yield (41.21 q/ha) and straw yield (58.46 q/ha) was obtained in K3 (1% at ear emergence + 1% at 50% flowering) which was significantly higher than K0 (Control) and K1 (1% at ear emergence) but at par with K2 (1% at 50% flowering).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 914-918
Anuj Mamgain*1 and Mohan Kumar Biswas2
Department of Biology, Allen Career Institute, Mumbai - 400 077, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria brassica (Berk.) Sacc. has been reported to be the most widespread and destructive fungal disease of rapeseed-mustard throughout the world. It has a drastic effect on various yield components which is reflected in reduction of yield up to the tune of fifty percent. Pathogen attacks the mustard crop and develops spots on leaf, pods and seed. Infection of seed results in loss of seed yield and germination. The experiment was conducted with a view to study the effect of different biological control agents on the management of Alternaria blight in rapeseed -mustard under the agro-ecological conditions of red and lateritic belt of West Bengal. The in vivo evaluation of biocontrol agents against Alternaria brassicae showed the supremacy of fungicide, Mancozeb among all the treatments tested and reduced the disease severity (PDI, 9.62). Among the bio-control agents, T. viridae proved to be the best treatment with reduced PDI value (29.44) followed by T. harzianum (31.54), T. virens (33.14) and finally A. niger (43.35) all of them showed significant differences against control (PDI, 58.60). This reduction in PDI was reflected in yield with maximum yield obtained in case of T. viridae (1161.3 kg/ha) followed by T. harzianum (1093.2 kg/ha), T. virens (1041.5 kg/ha) and A. niger (1019.9 kg/ha) against control treatment (990.05 kg/ha). These values were also found to be comparable with Mancozeb (1383.75 kg/ha) proving the scope of using these biocontrol agents in reducing Alternaria blight and enhancing yield of mustard and rapeseed. The effect of these biocontrol agents on various yield components like test weight, 100 siliquae weight and number of siliquae per plant was also studied which again validated T. viridae as the most preferred biological control agent against Alternaria blight, while Aspergillus niger was considered as the least preferred biological control agent. Apart from these studies, the most effective mode of application of biocontrol agent was also studied. It was found that the most effective method of combating Alternaria blight is seed treatment followed by spraying of culture filtrate at regular intervals followed by seed treatment and lastly culture filtrate application. The present study not only validated the role of the studied biological control agents in combating the disease but also provided a scope of using these biocontrol agents for resistance against Alternaria blight without an adverse effect on plant and soil, thereby forming an important part of integrated disease management.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 919-924
Sandipan Chatterjee and Anirban Paul*
Department of Botany, Suri Vidyasagar College, Suri, Birbhum - 731 101, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of acetamiprid on Allium cepa L. root tip cells. A. cepa L. roots were treated with different concentrations of acetamiprid (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 gL-1) for different time intervals. The results indicate that acetamiprid significantly decrease the mitotic index when compared with their controls (distilled water) at all concentrations and treatment periods. As well as it significantly increases chromosomal abnormality frequency and mitotic inhibition. Different types of physiological and clastogenic kinds of chromosomal aberration were also recorded. This study therefore confirms that acetamiprid acts as a mitotic depressor and mutagenic agent on plant cells when absorbed in a high dosage with prolonged time duration. Therefore, for every chemicals EC50 dose must be determined before field application.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 925-929
Reena Parmar, Anuj Kumar*, M Vidhya Sankar and Shiwani Kshirsagar
Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, KNK College of Horticulture (RVSKVV), Mandsaur - 458 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation entitled “Effect of rooting media on propagation of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) through shoot cutting” was conducted during October and November 2018 at the Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, K. N. K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur, Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior (MP). The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with eleven treatment of different growing media and their combination viz. Sand 100% (T1), FYM 100% (T2), Vermicompost 100% (T3), Soil 100% (T4), Soil 50% + Sand 50% (T5), Soil 50% + FYM 50% (T6), Soil 50% + Vermicompost 50% (T7), Sand 50% + Vermicompost 50% (T8), Sand 50% + FYM 50% (T9), Soil 33.33% + Sand 33.33% + FYM 33.33% (T10), Soil 33.33% + Sand 33.33% + Vermicompost 33.33% (T11). The treatments were replicated thrice and the cuttings were planted on polybags under shade net house. The result revealed that soil 33.33% + sand 33.33% + vermicompost 33.33% (T11) had significant effect on shoot and root growth of marigold cutting and recorded the maximum value of various attributes of root and shoot parameters like final survival of percentage (76.56%), number of branches per cutting (3.07), average length of shoot per cutting (15.03 cm), number of leaves per cutting (10.33), fresh weight of shoot per cutting (1.30 g), dry weight of shoot per cutting (0.14 g), number of root per cutting (56.67), average length of root per cutting (11.73 cm), fresh weight of root per cutting (0.32 g), dry weight of root per cutting (0.11 g) recorded the maximum values.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 930-936
C Ravikumar*1, A Snehaa2, M Ganapathy3, A Balasubramanian4, G B Sudhagar Rao5, P Senthilvalavan6 and K Muthuselvam7
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field investigations were carried out during the summer and kharif seasons of 2017 at the Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu and India to study the effect of different organic manures on the yield of organic baby corn grown in clay soil. The experiments were laid out in randomized block design and replicated thrice. The experiment comprised of eight treatments with different organic sources viz. Farmyard manure, Vermicompost, Fish amino acid, Farm compost, Neem cake, Mahua cake, EMI Farmyard manure and inclusion of inorganic fertilizer schedule (RRDF) as a comparative treatment. The results of the experiments revealed that application of a recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer treatment (T1) had a positive influence on all soil health-promoting characters, steady supply of nutrients and growth-promoting substances and eventually increased the growth attributes viz. LAI, DMP, CCI, cob and green fodder yield of Baby corn. In addition to that this treatment was showed the increasing trend of N, P and K uptake due to its betterment of root proliferation in RDF applied treatment and this was at par with the application of vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 937-943
P T Sharma*, K N Dewangan and Ng Joykumar Singh
Department of Agricultural Engineering, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology Nirjuli - 791109, Arunachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
Effect of moisture content on physical properties of three local varieties of field pea of Manipur namely Makhyatmubi, Makuchabi, Ningtekpi and one commercial variety namely Rachna were investigated at three different moisture content levels (15%, 20% and 25% dry basis). The properties such as length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, 1000 seed mass, bulk density, true density, terminal velocity, angle of repose and static coefficient of friction of the four pea variety seeds were determined using standard methods. The results obtained from the study revealed that as the moisture content increased from 15% to 25% d.b., the seed size dimensions (length, width, thickness, and geometric mean diameter), and thousand seed mass increased. Bulk density and true density of all the seed varieties decreased linearly as the moisture content increased from 15% to 25% d.b. Average geometric mean diameter of 7.40±0.52 mm and 1000 seed mass of 308.92 ± 5.06 g for Makhyatmubi seeds were observed as the largest and heaviest among the four pea variety seeds. The angle of repose, terminal velocity and static coefficient of friction increased with increase in moisture content from 15% to 25%.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 944-952
Md Aktar Hussain*1, Bodrul Islam2 and Pradyut Guha3
Department of Economics, Sikkim University, 6th Mile, Tadong, Gangtok - 737 102, Sikkim, India
Abstract
The present study endeavors to examine direction of farm wage in North Eastern states (NES) of India with the maturity of Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), using longitudinal data collected from various published sources. The study also assessed the implication of the change in sectoral contribution to gross state domestic product (GSDP) on farm wage in the study area. Beside increase in sectoral contribution to GSDP evidences suggests that farm wage in the study area has moved together with the maturity of MGNREGS. The administrative and locational characteristics might be the reason for higher farm wage in Manipur relative to other selected NES.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 953-958
Vicky Bareh*, Phaibiang Lapasam, A Imtilemla, Samia Begam Barbhuiya and Lalzikpuii Sailo
Department of Pharmacy, Regional Institute of Paramedical and Nursing Sciences (RIPANS), Zemabawk, Aizwal - 796 017, Mizoram, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in East Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya to accumulate the information related to traditional plants used. The particular area was selected for the study because of the diverse communities having sufficient knowledge for medicinal plant used in the subject area. Out of 42 phyto species the prime parts of the plant used were 42.85% Leaves, 4.08% flowers, 10.20 roots, 6.12% whole plants, 12.24% fruits, 14.28% rhizomes, 4.08% seeds and 6.12% barks. The maximum plant species are used against different affliction such as stomach problems, wounds and cut, dysentery and diarrhea, insect or snake bites, skin diseases, boils, jaundice, fever and cough and throat problem, etc. The most important plant families were Zingiberaceae, Asteraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Liliaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae and Theaceae.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 959-965
Naleen1, M Bharath1, B Sannappa*1, K G Manjunath2 and A Umesha3
Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, University of Mysore, Mysuru - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Sericulture in India has turned to be a highly remunerative cash crop with minimum investment and maximum returns. The present investigation was undertaken to know the knowledge and adoption levels of farmers on mulberry and cocoon production technologies in Srirangapatna Taluk of Mandya district. Results of the study revealed that maximum number of farmers possesses full knowledge on season of planting, method of planting and number of DFLs reared/acre. Similarly, more number of farmers who had partial knowledge with respect to soil type, mulberry variety, number of buds/cutting, length of the cutting, plant spacing, quantity of FYM, fertilizer dose, weeding, mulching, number of prunings/year, preservation of leaf, plant protection and number of crops/year. Majority of the farmers had full adoption of type of rearing house, recommended silkworm hybrid, number of feedings/day, type of leaf required for late-age worms, mountages required for 100 DFLs, control of Uzi fly, day of harvesting cocoons, sorting of cocoons and marketing of cocoons. The practices that are coming under partial adoption are location of rearing house, roof type for rearing house, disinfection, temperature and RH for late-age worms, frequency of bed cleaning and leaf required for different instar, maintenance of temperature and RH and tray/racks required for rearing of 100 DFLs of silkworm.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 966-968
Sundar Anchra*1, R C Bairwa2, S P Singh2 and Shri Rakesh1
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner - 334 006, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted on fodder pearl millet during kharif season of 2018 at Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner Rajasthan. The treatments consisted of four fertility levels (N + P2O5 Kg ha-1) viz. 0, 40 + 20, 80 + 40 and 120 + 60 and three varieties viz. Raj bajra -1, Raj- 171 and Local. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that variety Raj bajra -1 recorded higher plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and number of tillers, higher green fodder yield, dry fodder yield, green fodder productivity as compared to Raj 171 and Local variety, respectively, among fertility levels 80 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 recorded higher plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and number of tillers and higher green fodder yield, dry fodder yield and green fodder productivity as compared control and 40 kg N + 20 kg P2O5 ha-1 being statistically at par with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 ha-1.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 969-971
Sesenlo Kath*, K Kanagasabapathi and V Sakthivel
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The climate is a complex, interactive system consisting of the atmosphere, land surface snow and ice, oceans, and other bodies of water and living things. Climate is the weather condition prevailing in a place over many years. It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation, atmospheric particles and other meteorological variables in a given region over an extended period. Timely and useful information about the possible consequences of climate change, farmers perception of those consequences and available adaptation options etc. is necessary and beneficial of slowing the rate of climate change. To examine how farmers have perceived the consequences of changing climate conditions, a study was conducted in Kohima district of Nagaland State in North-East Region (NER) of India. Kohima district comprised of seven Rural development blocks, out of which one block was selected randomly for the study. The data were collected from 300 respondents identified based on proportional random sampling technique. The perception of respondents about the climate change is studied under the following heads (i) Perception on precipitation (ii) Perception on temperature (iii) Perception on wind speed (iv) Perception on Relative humidity and (v) Perception on impact of climate change. The results revealed that more numbers of farmers have moderate level of perception followed by low and high levels of perception about the climate change.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 972-976
Ashok Kumar1, H P Singh1 and Mukesh Kumar*2
Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study attempted to estimate the yield gap and constraint in Green Gram cultivation in the Nagour district of Rajasthan. The multi-stage random sampling procedure was adopted to choose the sample farmers. In the first stage, Nagour district was selected based on highest green gram area in Rajasthan. In second stage, tehsil having highest area under Green gram ware selected. Later two villages from each tehsil having highest area under Green gram crop were selected in the third stage. For the collection of primary data, a sample of 80 farmers were randomly selected with probability proportion to number of farmers in each size group.Farmers were grouped into three categories such as (1) Small farmers holding land less than 2.0 ha, (2) Medium farmers holding land between 2.0 to 10.0 ha and (3) Large farmers holding land above 10.0 ha. The data pertained to the agricultural year 2015-16. The Total Yield Gap (TYG) is computed as the difference between the potential yields (Yp) and the actual yield (Ya). The results revealed that among the three categories of farmers the yield (gap–I) at overall level, was higher for green gram crop in the selected district, which implies that the technology developed at research station cannot be duplicated on demonstration plots to exploit the full potential of green gram. Maximum yield (gap–II) was observed highest on small farms followed by medium farms and large farms in the study area. The farmers usually do not adopt a technology as package but take up individual practices suitably trimmed to fit into their budget and skills which lead to the variation in the adoption of cultural practices and consequently to the yield gaps. These are constraints found from (over all farmers) that the water shortage was ranked first followed by weeds, and severity of disease and pest attacks were ranked 3rd and soil fertility ranked fourth. Non-availability of input like was ranked fifth.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 977-979
Ajay Haldar*, Riya Thakur1, K C Meena2 and D K Patidar2
Regional institute of Education, Bhopal - 462 013, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Bryonia laciniosa (L.) commonly called as shivlingi is a medicinal plant belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae. The plant multiplied by seeds easily in all type of soil and climate in Madhya Pradesh. A number of seeds are efficiently produced by the plant per year during their life phase indicating by the yellowing and drying of leaf and fruits are red in colour. Many fruits developed which colour changes from green to red after their maturation. Focusing on the points of their medicinal properties it should be protect in all possible manners especially, anti inflammation, anti asthmatic, analgesic, antimicrobial, antidotes, stomachache, aphrodisiac and tonic, constipation, stomach problem, diarrhoea, malaria fevers. One of the most important parts in medicinal use is infertility.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 980-981
C V Nazmin Banu*
Department of Botany, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Vellimadukunnu, Kozhikode - 673 012, Kerala, India
Abstract
Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as turmeric, is native to Southwest India with its rhizomes being the source of a bright yellow spice with various medicinal applications. It is widely cultivated throughout the tropics. Rhizome is used for its medicinal value and as a dye. In the present study epicuticular wax content of turmeric leaves were analyzed as a part of germplasm screening of turmeric. Thicker wax deposition is correlated with drought resistance in plant species. The epicuticular wax load (EWL) on leaves reduces surface transpiration and thus improves crop water use efficiency. Wax estimation allow us to evaluate the importance of surface waxes in regulating non stomatal water loss. SL 4 and SL7 genotypes had the highest values of EWL, 15.96 and 15.71 µg/cm2 respectively thus expected to have higher tolerance to drought and NTC 189 andPH2 genotypes had the lowest wax of 6.24 and 9.51 µg/cm2 respectively. Genotypes selected based on such criterias will be further used for analyzing biochemical mechanisms underlying drought tolerance. SL 4 and SL7 genotypes had the highest values of 15.96and 15.71 respectively. NTC 189 and PH2 genotypes had the lowest wax of 6.24 and 9.51 µg/cm2 respectively. Cuticular wax potentially decrease transpiration and thus these plants may give higher yields under drought climate condition.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 985-987
A S Kiran1, C Kavitha*1, K Soorianathasundaram1 and N Sritharan2
Department of Fruit Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of fruit bagging on post-harvest attributes of grape cv. Muscat Hamburg at farmer's field, during 2018-19 in two seasons. The grape bunches were covered with five different colours viz. blue, white, yellow, red and green non-woven UV stabilized polypropylene bags immediately after fruit set and uncovered bunches were treated as control. The grape bunches were harvested after proper ripening and were stored at ambient condition (26±1°C, 75±5% RH) to assess the shelf life and post-harvest loss in weight. The bunches bagged with white colour non-woven UV stabilized polypropylene bags registered highest berry firmness (9.04 N and 11.16 N), peel thickness (0.12 mm and 0.16 mm), calcium ion concentration in peel (0.47% and 0.53%) and pulp (0.33% and 0.30%) in winter and summer season respectively. Highest shelf life (5.31 days and 9.10 days) and lowest physiological loss in weight (10.17% and 11.16%) were observed in winter and summer season crops respectively in bunches bagged with white colour UV stabilized non woven polypropylene bag (T3).
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 988-990
S Shafi*1, I L Khan1, N A Ganie1, M Yaqoob2, S Gull3 and S Maqbool4
College of Temperate Sericulture (SKUAST- Kashmir), Mirgund - 193 121, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The present study was carried out at College of Temperate Sericulture, SKUAST-Kashmir Mirgund during summer 2017. Foliar spray of Vermiwash with different concentrations 5%, 10% and 15% alone and in combination with 1% nitrogen was prepared and sprayed on the established mulberry plantation to study the impact of the foliar application on mulberry growth and yield attributing characters. There was significant improvement in growth and yield of mulberry through foliar application of vermiwash and nitrogen. The total branch length was maximum (3,774.667cm) in T7 (15% vermiwash + 1% Nitrogen) and minimum (2819 cm) was recorded in T0 (control). The highest Fresh weight of 100 leaves (453.733 g) was observed in T7 (15% vermiwash + 1% Nitrogen) and the lowest (331.517 g) was observed in T0 (control). The maximum yield (2.875 kg) was observed in T7 (15% vermiwash + 1% Nitrogen) and the minimum leaf yield (2.346 kg) was recorded in T0 (control).The maximum moisture content (73.07%) was found in case of T7 (15% vermiwash + 1% Nitrogen) and the lowest (67.34%) was recorded in case of T0 (control). There was an improvement in yield / plant, fresh weight of leaves, total branch length and moisture content of mulberry leaf with treatment T7 (15% Vermiwash + 1% N). Vermiwash thus can be used as a component in integrated nutrient management for improvement in leaf quality and consequently the commercial characteristics of cocoon crop.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 991-994
Dipankar Saikia*1, Pabitra K Das2 and Indrajit Barman3
Department of Extension Education, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa - 848 125, Samastipur, Bihar, India
Abstract
A scale was developed to measure the attitude of the Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs) towards Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) based on Likert’s technique. Tentative lists of 60 statements were drafted keeping in view the applicability of statements suited to the area of study. The statements collected were edited in the light of the informal criteria suggested by Thurstone and Chave (1929), and Edward and Kilpatrick (1948). These statements were framed in such a way that they expressed the positive or negative attitude. There was no scale available to measure the attitude of the Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs) towards Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs). The present study was contemplated to develop and standardize the same. The final scale consists of 20 statements and the reliability and validity of which indicates its precision and consistency of the results. This scale can be used to measure the attitude beyond the study area with suitable modifications. The reliability and validity of the scale indicated the precision and consistency of the results. This scale can be used to measure the SMSs attitude beyond the study area with suitable modification.
Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol : 11 - Issue : 4 ; 995-996
A Srikanth and V Sakthivel
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Tapioca is an important staple food crop in many tropical and subtropical regions in the world. It is grown in India more than a century. Tapioca is drought tolerant crop, can be successfully grown in marginal soils. It is now a major industrial crop in Tamil Nadu. Tapioca is an enterprise that provides support to the rural industrial sector. More than 5 lakhs of rural people are directly employed in tapioca-based industries. This has given employment for the rural mass and augments the economic growth of rural India. Hence this study was taken up to know the market perception of the tapioca growers in Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu State with a sample size of one hundred and twenty respondents. The respondents were selected based on proportionate random sampling method. The results of the study revealed that majority of the tapioca growers had low level of market perception followed by more than one-third of the tapioca growers with medium level market perception and less than one-fifth of them had high level of market perception. Hence, it should be definitely noted down by planners and policy makers at State and District level to make arrangement for marketing the products for maximum price. It is also necessary to streamline all the marketing channel. An effective marketing strategy also needs to be framed by the State Department of Agriculture in co-ordination with the regulated markets, commission agents and other marketing organizations functioning at village level. There is a need to establish a separate co-operative society and regulated exclusively for tapioca growers.


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