P- ISSN: 0976-1675
E- ISSN: 2249-4538

© CARAS (Centre for Advanced Research in Agricultural Sciences)
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Volume - 12 - March-April 2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 391–398
Muneer Saif Hasan Ahmed*1, Harish Nayaka M. A2, Yaaser Q. Almulaiky3-4 and Sam Al-Dalali5
1Department of Studies in Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Mysuru - 570 005, Karnataka, India 2Department of Sugar Technology, Sir. M. Visvesvaraya Post Graduate Centre, University of Mysore, Mandya, Karnataka, India 3University of Jeddah, College of Science and Arts, Khulis, Department of Chemistry, Jeddah, KSA 4Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Yemen 5Department of Food Science and Technology, Ibb University, Ibb 70270, Yemen
Abstract
Sugarcane jaggery contains many industrially important phytochemicals. To study the difference and characterize in phytochemicals present in lyophilized sugarcane products methanolic extracts of sugarcane juice (SJ), vacuum pan jaggery (VJ), and open pan jaggery (OJ) and their biological activity like antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against certain clinical isolates were estimated, Antioxidant activities were evaluated by ABTS (2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) DPPH (1,1 diphenyl 2, picryl hydrazyl) assay and Reducing Power. Various pathogenic strains were used to determine the antimicrobial activity where the samples showed promising inhibition of such organisms. Reference should be made to the fact that our work constitutes the first analysis to test the vacuum evaporated jaggery substance as a possible antioxidant resource to be explored in vitro in cellular systems.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 399–404
W. R. K. D. W. K. V. Wickramasinghe*1, D. Girija2, K. Surendra Gopal3 and Shilpa Kesevan4
1-4Department of Microbiology, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala
Abstract
As a suitable alternative to chemical fertilizers, the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria has been increased in recent years due to their potential as biofertilizers. Therefore, this study was aimed to isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from rice rhizosphere. In the present work, nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizosphere and evaluated for their plant growth promoting activities such as production of indole acetic acid (IAA), ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and siderophore. These isolates were further screened for their antagonistic ability against two major rice pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Xanthomonas oryzae. Eight nitrogen fixers showed positive reaction for three PGP activities such as production of IAA, NH3 and siderophore. Nitrogen fixing ability of twenty nitrogen fixers were studied and showed highest quantity of nitrogen fixation (9.33 mg of N g-1) by isolate AkNF3 (Bacillus sp.) and PkNF4 (Pseudomonas sp.). Isolate KgNF1 produced nitrogen fixation amount 8.86 mg of N g-1 with highest IAA production and showed antagonism against X. oryzae and identified as Pseudomonas putida. These findings suggest that some nitrogen fixing strains from rice rhizosphere possess multiple plant growth promoting traits which could be used as PGPR based biofertilizers for rice cultivation.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 405–410
Baba Tabasum*1 and Rajesh Dixit2
1-2P.M.B Gujarati Science College, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Devi Ahilya University, Indore - 452 017, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of monogenean helminth ectoparasitic infections on hematological parameters of catfishes (C. batrachus and C. gariepinus) in Indore, Madhya Pradesh. A total number of 453 fish samples of Clarias batrachus and Clarias gariepinus were collected consisting of 236 Clarias batrachus (143 males and 93 females) and 217 Clarias gariepinus (117 males and 100 females) a total of 217 specimens were examined for the period of two years. Results indicated presence of three species of parasites, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus sp. and Lernea caused alterations in various hematological indices of both the fishes. Hemoglobin (Hb), Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) were found decreased in the fishes infested with parasites as compared to those which were devoid of any parasitic infestations. Similarly, Total Leucocyte Count (TLC), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Differential Leucocyte Count (DLC) were found increased in parasitized fishes than non-parasitized ones. The results indicated that fishes suffer anemia, loss of appetite and reduced growth when affected with parasites.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 411–414
H. D. Chandore*1
1Department of Horticulture, Shikshan Maharshi Dnyandeo Mohekar College, Kalamb - 413 507, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Spilanthes acmella Mur., is a popularly called antitoothache plant. These are propagated in vitro condition with various plant growth regulators to avoid ex situ exploitation. Results reported that maximum shoot proliferations are observed in BAP (3 mg/l). In MS medium fortified with BAP (3 mg/l) takes 10.07 days for shoot formation along with 80% shoot formation. It also revealed that BAP (3 mg/l) produce the highest length of shoot (3.7 cm) and leaf length (2. 8 cm) after 8 weeks. It also gets maximum number of a shoot (4.6) and leaf (9.9) per explants. In auxin and cytokinin combination IBA (1 mg/l) together with BAP (3 mg/l) takes the lowest day for shoot proliferation (10.03) along with 4.3 number of shoot and 80% shoot formation. While, IBA (1 mg/l) + BAP (2 mg/l) gives lengthy shoot (3.3 cm) than any other combination.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 415–417
Tundup Dorjay1, Basant Kumar Dadrwal2 and Pandurangam Vijai*3
1-3Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Lentil production has always been important as it is the one of the most important rabi crops in India, but the low productivity of lentil in the country is mainly due to poor cultivation practices, infertile soil and low input of resources. Nitrogen is the largest nutrient required by plants. It is the most supplied plant nutrients as well as the most commonly deficient nutrient as its availability to plant has certain limit. Being a legume crop lentil has inherent capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen to fulfil its nitrogen requirements through biological nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation in legumes is governed by several factors like Rhizobial strains as well N availability in the soil. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response of Lentil crop to differential Rhizobium and starter nitrogen doses. Biochemical parameters like amounts of photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’, carotenoids and nitrate reductase activity were recorded during different growth stages and the results are presented and discussed in this paper.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 418–422
Mary Ruby Shyla R.*1 and S. Rameshkumar2
1-2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 08 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Application of gypsum is vital for corm development in gladiolus as it acts as source of calcium and soil loosening factor. Hence, a field experiment on gladiolus was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three replications in Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University, during 2019 to maximize the yield and quality of spikes and corms. The gladiolus cv. Sarala was tested with ten treatments comprised different combinations of recommended dose of fertilizers (NPK @ 120:150:150 kg ha-1), Gypsum at three levels (100 kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1, and 300 kg ha1), and foliar application of FeSO4, MnSO4, ZnSO4 and H3BO3 @5% each at single spray (at 30 Days) and double spray (at 30 and 45 Days). The growth, flowering, and corm yield parameters were periodically assessed. The results revealed that application of gypsum and micronutrients significantly increased the vegetative growth, flowering, spike yield, and corm yield. Among the ten treatments, application of NPK @ 120:150:150 kg ha-1 + Gypsum 300 kg ha-1 + foliar application of micronutrients at 30 and 45 DAP was found most effective with highest plant height, leaf area, spike length, floret diameter, spike yield, corm yield, corm weight, number of daughter corms per plant and weight of daughter corms.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 423–427
Gunamoni Das*1
1Department of Botany, Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati - 781 026, Assam, India
Abstract
Present study was carried out to investigate the important biometabolites present in the wild variety of Coccinia grandis (L) Voigt. from North East India. Powdered leaves and fresh fruits were extracted using methanol and distilled water. The methanolic extracts and water extract of leaves and fruits were taken for biochemical analysis. Laboratory investigation was carried out to know the important biometabolites available in the wild variety of Coccinia grandis such as proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic glycosides and reducing sugar etc. The Biometabolites in water extracts was higher in contents than the methanolic extracts. The protein and alkaloids contents were found maximum in the methanolic extracts of young leaves and mature leaves than the water extracts. But the contents of phenol, reducing sugar and flavanoids were higher in concentration in the water extracts of young leaves of wild variety of Coccinia grindis than the methanolic extracts. The result shows that the wild variety of Coccinia grandis is an important source of various biometabolites and has a very high nutritional value.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 428–432
Pamela Elisheba B.*1 and R. Sudhagar2
1-2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The flowering parameters of around fifty sunflower genotypes were evaluated to check their suitability as bedding plants for use in future trials to standardize their production technology in the coastal ecosystem. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design replicated thrice. The study was conducted in the Floriculture Unit of the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University. The flowering parameters viz. days to 50% flowering, number of flowers per plant, flower diameter, ray floret arrangement, ray floret length, disc floret diameter, ray floret disc floret ratio, ray floret colour, disc floret colour, carotenoid content and flower rating were observed. The cultivar with an outstanding overall performance was ‘Ring of Fire’ which has glowing golden yellow and reddish-brown petals forming an indistinct ring around the dark center. This cultivar was found to be suitable as bedding plant in the coastal ecosystem in terms of all the flowering parameters.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 433–438
Sonia N. S.*1, Divakar S.2 and George T.3
1Department of Plantation Crops and Spices, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India 2Department of Community Science, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India 3Pesticide Residue Research and Analytical Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Milk yam (Ipomoea digitata L.) is an underutilized medicinal plant having proven pharmacological potential. Its mature tubers harvested at 21 months after planting (MAP) is rich in phytochemical constituents. This study envisages gas chromatography mass spectrum analysis of mature milk yam tubers. The plants were raised in polybags, trailed in a pandal and harvested at 21 MAP for preparing powder. GCMS analysis of the tuber powder revealed the presence of sixteen different chemical constituents of which 2-tetr-Butyl-4-isopropyl-5-methylphenol was abundantly present (8.03 per cent). The study signifies the phytochemical quality of tuber and its scope for using it as a pharmaceutical.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 439–441
P. Satheeshkumar*1, S. Elakkiya2, K. Saravanan3, S. T. Ponsiva4, A. Kamaraj5 and S. Suganthi6
1-6Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Combining ability and heterosis were estimated involving six parents and their 30 F1 hybrids (evolved through full diallel matting). Based on the score made on gca effects, the parents viz., P5 and P3 were adjudged as potential parents. The hybrid viz., P1 x P5, P5 x P3 and P5 x P4 were culled out as potential filials. Both dominance and epistasis were found to control the expression of all the traits of interest. Selection may be made on the later segregating generations.

Short communication | Published online : 15-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 442–447
V. S. Patil*1
1Department of Microbiology, Lal Bahadur Shastri College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Satara - 415 002, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Green revolution enabled to increase yield from major grain crops with the help of chemical fertilizers in order to meet very serious food shortage in developing countries during the 1950s. Chemical fertilizers have been used continuously by farmers since the 1950s to improve crop productivity. The excessive and inappropriate use of these agro-chemicals has caused significant environmental harm, including to humans. Fertilizers of biological origin are considered environmentally friendly and their use is becoming increasingly important in the sustainable development of agriculture. The goal of the present study was to isolate and identify phosphate solubilizing bacteria from the digester effluent of the bio-methanation plant based on vegetable waste and to test their effect on crop plants for growth promotion. Seventeen bacteria were isolated from digester effluent, and these isolates were further screened on solid and also liquid media to determine their phosphate solubilizing ability. 16 S rRNA gene analyses identified the two most potent phosphate solubilizing bacteria and were selected further to determine their impact on crop plant growth by pot assay. The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants has been found to increase phosphorus absorption in crop plants in contrast to controls. Important effects were seen in the statistical analysis of the findings.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 448–452
G. Baradhan1, S. M. Suresh Kumar2 and G. Sathiya Narayanan*3
1-2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India 3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is global grain and staple food for more than half of the global population. Micronutrient refers to the relative quantity of a nutrient that is required for plant growth and is a key element in various metabolic activities; enzymatic process/catalysts etc., and directly or indirectly help in plant growth and development. 5- MIN is a proprietary product of T. Stanes and Company Ltd. and is a microbial formulation that possesses characteristic attributes to rapidly colonize and thrive in harsh conditions of soil and enables nutrient mobilization (Zn, P, Fe, S & fix N). 5-MIN provides natural nutrients, precursors and cofactors for improving the growth and vigor of the plants. The presence of biopolymers ensures longer viability of the microbes and act as biocatalysts for the plants under saline/acidic and alkaline conditions. Among the treatments, T4- 100% RDF + soil application of 5 MIN @ 300 g ha-1 twice at basal before transplantation and vegetative stage and foliar application at flowering stage was increasing the growth and yield components of rice grown under saline stress condition. This treatment also was found to increase nutrient availability and nutrient use efficiency in rice and improving the organic content and microbial population of the soil thereby enhancing crop productivity.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 453–457
P. Shobana Devi*1 and M. Shabana Begum2
1-2Department of Biochemistry, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram - 637 408, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Herbs provide a new efficient alternative compound for treating hyperglycemic conditions. Recently studies proved that herbs impart the huge amount of antidiabetic compounds. In our studies, it is evaluating the effect of Ipomoea staphylina (ISEE) leaves extract on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. ISEE (200 mg/kg bw) was administered orally for 45 days to diabetic animals. Plasma glucose, insulin, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, glycogen content was determined in diabetic rats. The levels were restored to normal by the administration of ISEE. The results of this study revealed the antidiabetic effect of ISEE on STZ induced diabetic models. Finally, this study also proved the application of ISEE as promising alternate and complementary pharmacological agent against diabetes and its complications.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 458–461
Neeraj Pawar*1, Sumit2 and D. P. Malik3
1-3Department of Agricultural Economics, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
The study was conducted to determine the economic profitability of the kharif maize in Karnal and Yamunanagar districts of Haryana. This study was conducted among 60 kharif maize as well as paddy farmers, 30 from Karnal and 30 from Yamunanagar district. The overall B:C ratio over total cost in kharif maize and paddy (Basmati) crops was 1.07 and 1.15, respectively. No doubt profit margin of paddy (Basmati) is higher than the kharif maize but the water saving potential is very high and cost of irrigation in kharif maize is very less as compared to paddy (Basmati). Overall irrigation cost for paddy (basmati) is near about four times higher than that of kharif maize.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 462–465
N. Kiruthika*1 and M. Shabana Begum2
1-2Department of Biochemistry, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram - 637 408, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic activities of the leaves ethanol extracts of Elytraria acaulis Lindau were estimated in normoglycemic and in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, to validate its use in traditional medicine. Examined animals were given the ethanol extracts of the herb at dosage amounts of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. After a 60-day therapy with the ethanol extract, the rats were given up and also blood was obtained for biochemical parameters examination. The main impact observed was a decrease in product glucose, insulin, lipids and also transaminases in diabetic rats after the administration of Elytraria acaulis ethanol extract. Of all dosages, the extracts at 300 mg/kg proved statistically significant hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic activities. Consequently, these outcomes confirmed the hypoglycaemic properties of the results of Elytraria acaulis.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 466–469
B. Sakthivel*1 and K. Manivannan2
1-2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during the year 2020 at the farmer’s field near Panruti, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu to study the effect of foliar application of biostimulants on growth, yield and quality parameters of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.), in a Randomized block design with three replications and eight treatments consisted of potassium humate and biostimulants such as T1 - control, T2- panchagavya@ 3%, T3- sea weed extract @ 3%, T4- fish amino acid @ 3%, T5- potassium humate @ 0.5%, T6- potassium humate @ 0.5% + panchagavya @ 3%, T7- potassium humate @ 0.5% + sea weed extract @ 3%, T8 - potassium humate @ 0.5 % + fish amino acid @ 3%. The treatments were applied at 30, 60 and 75 DAT. Studies revealed that the growth, yield and quality characters of chilli differed significantly due to foliar application of biostimulants. Among the different treatments, application of potassium humate @ 0.5% + fish amino acid@ 3% recorded significantly highest a growth characters such as plant height, number of leaves plant-1, number of branches plant-1, canopy volume, chlorophyll content in the leaves, net photosynthetic rate and total dry matter production. Similarly, the yield attributing characters such as days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, number of flowers plant-1, fruit set percentage, number of fruits plant-1, fruit length, fruit girth, fruit volume, pericarp thickness, single fruit weight, fruit yield plant-1, fruit yield plot-1 and total fruit yield (36.07 t ha-1) were also recorded the highest in this treatment. The quality parameters of ascorbic acid content of green chilli fruits (197.41 mg g-1) and capsaicin content of dry chilli fruits (0.92 %) showed better resulted in growth, yield and quality parameters of chilli. It could be concluded that foliar application of potassium humate @ 0.5 % + fish amino acid @ 3% at 30, 60 and 75 DAT can be applied to enhance growth, yield and quality parameters of chilli var. Indus 13.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 470–473
Kriti Dave*1, Madhulika Singh2 and Ragini Gothalwal3
1Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Center, Barkatullah University, Bhopal - 462 026, Madhya Pradesh, India 2Department of Biotechnology, Sadhu Vasvani College, Bairagarh, Bhopal - 462 030, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is one of the economically important diseases of soybean. 30-50% yield losses in soybean have been reported due to charcoal rot worldwide. Being a devastating disease, its management is of utmost concern for sustainable crop production. Chemical fungicides are neither ecofriendly nor safe for other life forms. Biological control is safe, economically and environmentally friendly approach to combat plant diseases. The present study aimed at isolating indigenous bacteria from soybean rhizosphere and evaluate their antagonistic activity against M. phaseolina by dual- culture technique. 20 bacterial isolates were able to inhibit M. phaseolina in -vitro. Isolate IKK7 and IOK16 exhibited strong inhibition (40.15% and 39.43%) while isolate ISKK64 moderately inhibited the fungus (28.79%) respectively. Potential isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characters. The isolates IKK7 and IOK16 were gram positive rods and biochemical characters revealed that IKK7 and IOK16 belong to Bacillus species. The isolate ISKK64 was identified as Serratia species. These isolates have the potential to be used as biocontrol agents against Macrophomina phaseolina. Bioformulations utilizing the biocontrol traits can be developed for management of charcoal rot in soybean and other crops; thereby increasing crop productivity.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 474–477
S. B. Lad*1, M. R. Abdar2 and R. S. Dubal3
1RIRD Y.C.I. of Science, Satara - 415 001, Maharashtra, India 2Department of Zoology, K. N. P. College Walwa District Sangli – 416313, Maharashtra, India 3Department of Zoology, Y.C.I. of Science, Satara - 415 001, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Molluscan are good bio-indicators of water quality or pollution on the basis of their tolerance power against extremes of physico-chemical components of water. Present study revealed, the diversity of molluscans fauna from Krishna River during June 2018 to December 2019. The collected 7 mollusks are belonging to 4 order and 5 families. The Simpson diversity index is 2.7. The dominant species Tarebia lineate with (45.73%) followed by Parreysia (Radiatula) caerulea and Parreysia (parreysia) corrugate (15.20%), Melanoides tuberculata (12.40%) Bellamya bengalensis (9.30%), Lymnaea (Pseudosuccinea) acuminate (1.55%), Corbicula striatella (0.7%) This study shows that the potential and importance of such habitats to diverse molluscan species and support many more species. It is a preliminary study on the molluscan diversity. Further studies are needed for detailed exploration of the molluscan fauna, its habitat and threats being experienced by these animals.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 478–482
B. Prakash1, S. Durai Raj2 and T. Murugan*3
1-2P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar - 604 407, Tamil Nadu 3Department of Microbiology, Sri Sankara Arts and Science College, Enathur, Kanchipuram - 631 561, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The microbial population present in vermicompost play an important role in increasing the productivity of crop as well as maintain the structural stability of the soil. This study was carried out to identify the total viable bacterial population in vermicompost using cow-dung and plant waste vermicompost by the worm Eudrilus eugeniae. In this study, the total viable count of bacteria was enumerated in both worn unworked substrate (before worms introduced) and E. eugeniae worked compost. Compare to worm unworked substrate; the vermicompost consisted of higher population of bacterial cultures. In this investigation, a maximum of 48.3 ± 1.5 CFU x 105 g-1 was recorded in Exp. 3 of processed vermicompost. Also, higher population dominant bacterial cultures recovered in processed vermicompost than unworked substrate. A total of six dominant bacterial strains were probably identified as Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter sp., Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacterial population was found to be significantly greater in the E. eugeniae worked vermicompost.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 483–488
N. S. Abbas1, Sudiksha Gupta2, Divya Suri3, Sujata Bhardwaj4 and Babeeta C. Kaula*5
1-4Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 007, India 5Department of Botany, Zakir Husain Delhi College, University of Delhi, New Delhi - 110 002, India
Abstract
Traditional medicines involve the use of herbs and plant extracts for the treatment of diseases. Right from scriptures to the current literature, herbs have carved and retained their spot as health boosters. The rise of drug resistance to antibiotics has been acting as a catalyst in capturing the interest of scientists globally to develop new medical healing models using plant-based products. Also, owing to the diverse medicinal properties and economic value of plants, there has been an increment in research studies related to their uses as food supplements. Indian cuisines seasoned with spices are therapeutic foods, as they are the cheapest source of bioactive phytochemicals essential for nutrition. Spices possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that have proven health benefits and can be exploited to even combat very serious ailments related to heart, lungs, stomach, skin, eyes etc. Phytonutrients present in spices are excellent therapeutic molecules and are essential for the very sustenance of healthy life. This review comprehends the multiple therapeutic potentials of spices of Bharat Ki Rasoi (Indian kitchen) in curing various health issues.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 489–493
R. Kirankumar1 and B. Sannappa*2
1-2Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru - 570 006, Karnataka
Abstract
An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the selective integrated management practices on the incidence of lepidopteran defoliators of castor, Ricinus communis L., a primary host plant of the eri silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini Boisduval. The investigation comprises of altogether eight treatments as integrated management practices adopted against defoliators of castor including control. Except for the control, each treatment consists of sowing cucumber along with castor + release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 2 lakh eggs/ha at 30 DAS and three chemical insecticides [Fenvalerate 20 EC @ 0.02%, Profenophos 50 EC 0.03%, Quinalphos 25 EC @ 0.05%] and three plant-based insecticides [Mahua oil @ 2%, Neem oil @ 2% and Pongamia oil @ 2%] were included in the study. The population of castor defoliators namely castor semilooper, tobacco caterpillar, castor butterfly and red headed caterpillar were recorded at different days [3rd, 7th, 11th and 15th] after imposition of integrated management practices. The study revealed that, the population of these defoliators were lowest in an integrated management practices composed of plant-based insecticides [Neem oil @ 2%, Mahuva oil @ 2% and Pongamia oil @2%] when compared to chemical based insecticides [Fenvalerate 20 EC @ 0.03%, Profenophos 50 EC @0.03% and Quinalphos 25 EC @ 0.05%] and control. Thus, the study inferred that, plant-based chemicals can be conveniently used to manage the castor defoliators as they are safe to natural enemies besides castor leaf can be used for rearing of eri silkworm.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 494–496
Zaffar Bashir*1
1Division of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The soluble potassium (K) concentration in the soil is usually very low and more than 90 percent of K exists in insoluble form. The rhizospheric microflora has the only ability to dissolve potassium from insoluble minerals. Rhizosphere bacteria of cherry have been found to dissolve K from insoluble K- bearing minerals. In this study bacterial isolates from rhizospheric soil were obtained on modified Aleksandrov medium containing mica powder as potassium source. From the 22 isolates 9 bacterial strains (KSB2, KSB5, KSB7, KSB9, KSB10, KSB11, KSB12, KSB19 and KSB22) were selected which showed highest zone of clearance on Aleksandrov medium and were characterized on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 497–501
Divya K. Das*1, N. S. Prakash2 and M. B. Shivanna3
1-3Central Coffee Research Institute, Coffee Board, Coffee Research Station, Chikkamagaluru - 577 117, Karnataka
Abstract
Coffee is an economically important crop for over 80 countries including India that cultivates on commercial scale and earn substantial foreign exchange through exports. Of the two commercially cultivated coffee types, Coffea arabica L. is prone to several diseases and coffee leaf rust known as CLR is the most serious disease-causing enormous crop losses. Though, timely sprays of prophylactic and systemic fungicides effectively control the disease, growing tolerant cultivars has been the most preferred option by the growers. Therefore, breeding for rust resistance has been the main thrust of Arabica coffee breeding across the world more importantly in India as the shade grown cultivation practiced coupled with ideal climatic conditions result in severe devastation. The article highlights the successes and disappointments of the systematic breeding programmes undertaken at Central Coffee Research Institute, especially the introgressive breeding. The implications of the vast diversity of the CLR pathogen, Hemiliea vastatrix, an obligate parasite on the longevity of rust resistance in the CLR resistant varieties released for cultivation. The gene pyramiding strategy for achieving durable rust resistance and integration of marker assisted selection for improving the selection efficiency are detailed and discussed.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 502–503
A. Mehazabeen*1 and G. Srinivasan2
1-2Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study was attempted to analyze spatial price integration of banana markets in the study area and to offer policy suggestions based on the results of the study. The primary data required for the study were collected from the 120 sample respondents from the market intermediaries of major markets. The collected data is analyzed through co-integration analysis. The results of the study concluded that banana farmers in the study area not received higher price as that of distant markets where their produce were sold through market intermediaries. The results of the study concluded that banana farmers in the study area not received higher price as that of distant market where their produce were sold through market intermediaries. This study suggested that to increase the farmers price, linking farmers with eNAM for promoting real time price discovery through transparent auction process based on actual demand and supply is necessary for them. By increasing farmers share in consumer rupee, farmers as well as consumers will be benefitted in the study area.

Short communication | Published online : 22-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 504–508
Saugata Ghosh*1
1Department of Zoology, (Supported by BOOST programme of Department of Biotechnology, GOWB), A.P.C. Roy Govt. College, Matigara, Siliguri - 734 010, Darjeeling, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Hyposidra talaca Walker is a major tea pest in the plantations of Darjeeling-Terai region. To control this looper pest, emamectin benzoate, a chemical pesticide is widely used. The commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki has also been proved to be a potential biopesticide in lepidopteran pest management system. To study the effect of these pesticides on this black inch looper pest, it is necessary to assay their cellular, biochemical, enzymatic response at the sub-lethal doses of those pesticides. In this study, lethal concentrations of these pesticides were determined by two standard bioassay methods- leaf-dip method, using tea leaves as their natural diet and diet-incorporation method, using synthetic diet. In leaf-dip method the LC values were found to be higher than the other method for both pesticides. As the population of this Geometrid moth caterpillars had not been exposed to this biopesticide, so this looper pest was expected to be more susceptible to it. The LC values of Bt for one day exposure were observed lower than that of the emamectin benzoate in both methods of bioassays according to the expectation however, for prolonged exposure the LC values of the biopesticide were found to be higher than the chemical pesticide.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 509–516
Ashraf Pulikkamath*1
1Ph. D. Scholar in Econometrics-Women Studies, University of Madras, Chennai - 600 005, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The agricultural sector is shrinking across all developing state economies in recent times and very few crops sustained a substantial portion of the sector. The state of Kerala was a notable producer of coconut - a perennial cash crop. The crop has both economic and socio-cultural underpinnings in the state. Currently, coconut farming in the state is declining, particularly as an aftermath of the popularity of rubber as a cash crop in the state during the 1980s and 1990s. Value addition of coconut remains traditional in the state, strictly confining to copra or coconut oil. This paper assesses the scenario of coconut value addition, the choice of farmers in this regard and related concerns. It is found that most of the farmers are not ready to do value addition, even if they are offered substantial assistance. By employing a logistic regression method, the determinants of the choice between value addition and no value addition of the coconut harvest have been tested and the results show that the farmers' socio-economic traits and farm traits have a statistically significant impact on the decision about coconut value addition.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 517–520
N. Kiruthika*1 and M. Shabana Begum2
1-2Department of Biochemistry, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram - 637 408, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Plants are the excellent source of various herbal medicines useful in dealing with a variety of human disorders. All-natural products from plants are conventionally used for the treating of diabetes mellitus mostly in developing countries where resources are restricted and usage of modern-day treatment method is a problem. Contra-diabetic activity of the medicinal plants is scientifically examined by in vitro and then in vivo studies. The present examine evaluates the anti-diabetic activity of Elytraria acaulis Lindau which are part of the family Acanthaceae. Elytraria acaulis Lindau is usually active in dealing with temperature, venereal conditions and cause can be used in mammary tumor, pneumonia, abscesses and infantile diarrhea. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the role leaves of Elytraria acaulis on glucose impairing metabolism during diabetes by in-vivo methods. Diabetes was stimulated in adult rats of the Wistar strain by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg) and the trial rats were treated with leaves ethanol extract of Elytraria acaulis (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bw) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg bw) in STZ induced hyperglycemia. On completion of the 60-day treatment, a range of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes (glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase) and antioxidants like SOD, GPx, CAT, GSH and LPO were tested including liver of control and STZ diabetic rats. Leaves ethanol extract of Elytraria acaulis dose-dependently altered the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase and liver glucokinase to very close to control groups as well in antioxidants activities through the oral administration of extract on 300 mg/kg bw. Leaves ethanol extract of Elytraria acaulis at doses of 300 mg/kg/day for 60 days provided a major decrease in diabetic difficulties and metabolic impairment.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 521–524
R. Manivannan*1, M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan2, P. Senthilvalavan3 and C. Ravikumar4
1-3Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 4Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiments were conducted at farmer’s field kuttalam during rabi and summer season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 to study the residual effect of organics and fertilizer nitrogen on growth, yield attributes and yield in rice-black gram cropping sequence in sandy clay loam soil. The treatments consisted of the residual effect of organics viz., composted coir pith (CCP), green manures (GM), sugarcane trash compost (STC), vermicompost (VC), poultry manure (PM) and FYM applied (100% N) and combination of above residual organics with urea @ 50% N besides 100% RDN as urea and control in rice crop. Residual effect of organics and fertilizer nitrogen were studied in rice fallow blackgram in two years. The pooled data of results revealed that application of residual organics alone or fertilizer nitrogen alone or both significantly increased the growth and yield of rice and black gram. The highest growth parameters viz., plant height (93.4cm), no. of tillers/hill (12.33), LAI (4.21), chlorophyll content (2.86 mg 100 g-1), and yield attributes viz., number of panicles m2 (213.3), number of grains/panicle (107.7) and panicle length (20.0 cm) were recorded in residual poultry manure + fertilizer N (100%) in rice. The highest grain (4637.0 kg ha-1) and straw yield (5871.0 kg ha-1) were registered in residual poultry manure + fertilizer N (100%) in rice in both years. The highest yield attributes viz., number of clusters/plant (7.69), number of pods/plant (30.00), number of seeds/pod (5.57) were recorded in residual poultry manure and fertilizer N in rice fallow black gram in both years. Application of residual poultry manure and fertilizer N were registered highest grain (311.2 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (1743.6 kg ha-1) in rice fallow blackgram in two years.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 525–530
Sangamesh Angadi*1 and S. S. Dolli2
1-2Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Agriculture in India is one of the most important primary sectors of its economy. Though, the proportion of Indian agriculture domestic the GDP has been steadily declining over the years. Main cause for deceleration in agricultural increase is declining investment in agriculture research and improvement and irrigation, inefficiency of rural credit score and extension. One greater the maximum vital component is; inefficient use of assets is the purpose for declined boom of agriculture quarter. So, the existing examine become below taken in Vijayapur district to analyse the useful resource use efficiency of principal crops. Major plants grown in the district consisting of sugarcane, redgram, onion, greengram, maize and jowar were selected for the study. Multistage random sampling was adopted for selection of sample respondents. Cobb-Douglas production technique was employed. Results of the study revealed that the farmers were using human labour, fertilizer, plant protection chemicals and machine labour more than the recommendation which unnecessarily adds to the total cost of production. Farmers using seeds, bullock labour, irrigation and FYM less than the recommendation leads to low nutrients availability to the crops. Farmers were using the FYM 50 per cent less than that of the recommended. The sum of elasticity coefficients with 0.36, 0.47, 0.77, 0.40, 0.93 and 0.34 of sugarcane, redgram, onion, greengram, maize and jowar showed decreasing returns to scale. The value of coefficient of multiple determination (R2) were 0.84, 0.91, 0.72, 0.89, 0.92 and 0.81 for sugarcane, redgram, onion, greengram, maize and jowar respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 531–534
Foozia Majeed*1, Mohit Arya2 and R. J. Rao3
1-3School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474 011, Madhya Pradesh, India 2Government Kamla Raja Girls College, Gwalior - 474 011, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Insects are highly influenced by wavelengths, exposure and luminance intensities of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Recently, light emitting diode (LED) lights have been applied to check the behavior of crop insects towards light. Rhyzopertha dominica is an important agricultural pest. In this work the phototactic behavioral response of Rhyzopertha dominica adult pests to light emitting diodes of five different wavelengths, luminance intensities and exposure time were determined under laboratory conditions. Based on phototactic response of Rhyzopertha dominica pests, it was found that the green and red LEDs are most attractive as compared to other LED lights. There are various other factors that play a significant role including exposure time in darkness, age etc. on the phototactic response of Rhyzopertha dominica. The application of LED technology is effective in containing the agricultural pests and stored food insects. The findings indicate that a green LED trap could prove useful to control Rhyzopertha dominica pests.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 535–544
Rohie Hassan*1, Showkat Ahmad Dar2 and Anilmiddha3
1Department of Zoology, OPGS University Rajasthan, Churu - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 2Scientist Entomology/Zoology, Zanaskar (SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 3OPGS University Rajasthan, Churu - 302 004, Rajasthan
Abstract
Among the areas surveyed, Kralpora (K.D. Farm), Lar and Kangan exhibited comparatively high level of infestation as compared to others. Extensive fortnightly surveys in the above mentioned three hot spot areas indicated an average of 19.89, 24.53 and 22.04 per cent plant infestation during July to October, at Kralpora, Lar and Kangan, respectively. At all these locations, larval infestation was found to increase from July to September and declined in October. Highly infested plants during September showed an average of 2.2 to 4.0 larvae/plant which was found positively correlated with number of exit holes in them. Among natural enemies, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, Cotesia ruficrus (Haliday), Euplectrus coimbatorensis Ferriere and one unidentified species each of Ichneumonidae and Tachinidae were found associated with C. partellus. Cotesia ruficrus was distributed at all the studied locations, whereas T. chilonis was found at three studied hot spot locations. Negligible and sporadic occurrence of remaining species was found from one location only. On individual basis, average egg parasitism by T. chilonis was determined as 4.98, 7.7 and 6.08 per cent whereas larval parasitism by C. ruficrus was worked out to be 9.76, 14.43 and 11.25 per cent at Kralpora, Lar and Kangan, respectively. Together these two egg and larval parasitoids afforded an average of 14.73, 22.13 and 17.33 per cent parasitism with a maximum of 30.14 per cent at Lar. Comparatively better performance of C. ruficrus was due to its higher population density and manifestation of super parasitism. Per cent emergence both in T. chilonis and C. ruficrus ranged 83.67-93.32 and 86.26-90.38 respectively, with female oriented sex ratio in both cases. Pattern of parasitism was found varying in the studied three locations due to many abiotic and biotic factors. Positive correlation was found to exist between egg and larval and also combined parasitism, separately, with host abundance. Combined parasitism yielded positive correlation with maximum relative humidity, whereas negative correlation with maximum and minimum temperatures, minimum relative humidity, rainfall and sunshine hours.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 545–547
Sesenlo Kath*1, K. Kanagasabapathi2 and V. Sakthivel3
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) Kohima, Tseminyu - 797 109, District Kohima, Nagaland, India 2-3Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Knowledge is one of the important components, which would have a major influence on the behavior of the individual. In the present study, knowledge denotes the farmers’ understanding about the climate change. The results of correlation analysis show that out of fourteen independent variables viz., educational status, social participation, mass media exposure, risk orientation, scientific orientation and innovativeness had shown positive and significant relationship with their knowledge level to overcome the adverse effects of climate change. Among the significant variable’s social participation and mass media exposure were found to be significant at one per cent level probability whereas the remaining variables viz., educational status, risk orientation, scientific orientation and innovativeness were significant at five per cent level of probability. The regression co- efficient of variables viz., social participation (X7) and mass media exposure (X9) were found to be positive and significantly associated with the knowledge level of respondents at 1 per cent. The regression co-efficient of variables viz., educational status (X2), risk orientation (X11) scientific orientation (X12) and innovativeness (X13) were found to have positive and significant association with the knowledge level of the respondents at 5 per cent of probability.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 548–551
A. H. Patil*1 and S. P. Jagdale2
1-2Department of Zoology, Dapoli Urban Bank Senior Science College, Dapoli - 415 712, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra
Abstract
Habitat loss due to intensified and managed agriculture along with use of chemicals lead to the decline in biodiversity of insect fauna. As insect pollinators are important keys for reproduction and survival of some plant species. The research aimed to assess the impact of farming on availability of habitat for insect pollinator and their abundance in mixed and isolated Allium cepa L. crops. Insect found on these crops reflects the diversity and abundance in an area. Variation in diversity and abundance of mix and isolated onion crop was recorded during January to march 2019 over time and space the 16 species of insects belonging to 6 orders and 11 families. The insects belonging to hymenoptera were most abundant followed by diptera, coleoptera, orthoptera. Higher foraging activities of insect pollinators occur in the morning as the abiotic factors like temperature, moisture have impact on foraging population.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 552–555
Gana Shruthy M. K.*1
1Department of Economics, Government First Grade College for Women, Vijayanagara, Mysore - 570 032, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Taking into account White Stem Borer (WSB) as a major limiting factor for Arabica coffee production, the paper analyses several factors impacting uprooting of Arabica due to WSB. The study was conducted in Kodagu district of Karnataka state, based on both qualitative and quantitative data collected from 60 Arabica growers during March-July 2017. The uprooting of Arabica trees due to White Stem Borer was regressed on elevation of estates (m.a.s.l), shade trees per ha (number), age of Arabica trees (years), area under coffee cultivation (ha), rainfall (mm), and expenditure on pesticides (Rs). The analyses found that the elevation of estates, indigenous shade trees and pesticides negatively influenced incidence of borer attack. The WSB incidence was higher in Arabica with the age group between 20-30 years, while lower in older trees above 30 years. Interestingly our studies reveal that uprooting was not affected by area (ha) and rainfall (mm). The study suggests cultivation of Arabica in higher altitudes, retaining traditional agro-forestry system, extension and education activities related to age structure of coffee trees and inter-country partnership research on WSB.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 556–558
S. K. Deshmukh*1 and G. Tamilselvi2
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Karda - 444 506, Washim District, Maharashtra, India 2Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in ten selected villages of Washim District of Maharashtra to study the constraints experienced by soybean growers in adoption of improved soybean production technologies. A sample size comprised of 150 trainees and 150 non-trainees from the KVK operated villages. The results of the study revealed that the major situational and economic constraints experienced by both the trainee and non-trainee farmers were labour scarcity, high cost of inputs, non-availability of good quality seeds, failure of seasonal rainfall, severe pest and disease attack, inadequate credit facilities, high cost of labour, high cost of insecticide and higher rent for threshing machine. The technological constraints were faced by majority of the non-trainee farmers, whereas the same were faced by only a lesser proportion of the trainee farmers. As the trainees have undergone training on technological aspects on soybean production, they might have not experienced these constraints.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 559–564
Aayush Pandit*1 and Inder Jeet Singh2
1-2Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The role of good quality infrastructure for agricultural development is widely recognized. Rural infrastructure is required extensively for improving the quality of farming and accelerating the process of agricultural development. It has the potential to transform the existing conventional agriculture or subsistence farming into advance, commercial and dynamic farming system in India. Regional disparities in agriculture development of Jammu and Kashmir union territory (UT) are the foremost factor related to inequality in the level of rural development of the UT, which needs to be overcome through proper planning. Hence, systematic identification of levels of agricultural infrastructure development is must. Present study has tried to comprehend the spatial variations in the level of agricultural infrastructure development in Jammu province. For this purpose, ten variables relating to pre-harvest and post-harvest infrastructure have been taken. To find out the composite picture of agricultural infrastructure development in Jammu province composite index has been prepared by using variable index. The study reveals that post-harvest infrastructure development was better in Jammu province as compare to pre-harvest infrastructure development. Spatially north-eastern part of the study area has lowest and southern part has highest level of agricultural infrastructure development which is mainly attributed to the physiographical conditions of the study area. Nevertheless, study identifies various indicators which are lacking behind in each administrative division.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 565–568
Baiakmenlang Manners*1, Pratap Jyoti Handique2 and Samrat Adhikari3
1-3St. Edmunds College, Meghalaya - 793 003, Shillong 2Gauhati University, Guwahati - 781 014, Assam, India
Abstract
A medicinal plant Myrica esculenta belonging to the family Myricaceae is utilized traditionally by the local medical practitioners in North East India for treatment of several ailments. The present investigation was undertaken to assess the suitability of different nutrient media and growth regulators for improving the propagation of Myrica esculenta zygotic embryos in vitro. The zygotic embryos were cultured in three different media namely, Murashige and Skoog (MS), B5 and Woody Pant Medium (WPM) in combination with three plant growth regulators to test their effect on callus formation and regeneration. Obtained results revealed that the cultured embryos of M. esculenta germinated only in MS medium and not in B5 and WPM media. MS media when combined with 20 µM BAP and 10 µM NAA showed maximum percentage of germination for the explant, followed by those when combined with 10 µM BAP and 20 µM NAA and the least response was represented by those cultured in 20 µM BAP with 30 µM NAA. The formed seedlings were acclimatized in sterile vermiculite: garden soil (1:1) and later shifted to field conditions. This technique can be utilized for multiplication and may help to promote conservation strategies of the species.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 569–572
Dangi Pooja Arun*1, Basavaprabhu Jirli2 and Jyoti Vishwakarma3
1Department of Extension Education, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar -125004, Haryana, India 2Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India 3Department of Extension Education, Acharya Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Ayodhya - 224 229, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study of Socio-economic status, try to explain the actual situation of population in particular region. It is necessary to understand the socio-economic condition of respondents in sociological studies. The present study was focused on how the socio-economic variables were related with the level of awareness and adoption of digitized educational resources. The study was conducted in Banaras Hindu University. The data further showed that majority of respondents belongs to 20-25 year age group. All the respondents were youth. In terms of educational background it was observed that out of 544 respondents 274 (50.36%) were from Post-graduation followed by 144 (26.47%) were from graduation and 126 (23.16%) were Ph.D. scholars. Results further revealed that there is association between different faculties and training as (Chi square value= 129.50, p =0.00). In terms of possession of ICT infrastructure by students, it was revealed that almost all students had access to mobile, computer and laptop. The study recommends that there is a need to create awareness among students and their parents should play important role in educating the students and to make them adopt digitized educational resources.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 573–576
Jhade Sunil*1 and Abhishek Singh2
1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Department of Agricultural Engineering, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Groundnut or Peanut (Arachis hypogea) is the major oilseed of India. Groundnuts are essential protein crops in India and grown mostly under rain-fed conditions. India occupies first in terms of area and second position in terms of production. China is the largest producer as well as consumer of groundnut in the world with 166.24 lakh tonnes followed by India 68.57 lakh tonnes. India exports groundnut to more than 75 countries. The country has exported 6,64,436.00 MT of groundnuts to the world for the worth of ₹5,096.39 crores during the year 2019-20. This study is to analyze the structural change in the export of groundnut from India to different major import markets by using the Markov chain model. Secondary data on groundnut yearly export data from India to other countries, were collected from 2009-10 to 2019-20. Markov chain analysis were used to obtain the results. The results have shown ‘other countries’ category, Malaysia, and Russia as stable destination for Indian groundnut exports. Other traditional importing countries such as Indonesia and Thailand countries are unstable (low retention probabilities) export share to these markets. Philippines, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Ukraine, and United Arab Emirates are the most unstable markets among importing countries. Predicted export shares of groundnut to major importing countries revealed that the export share of Indian groundnut is predicted next four years in that highest to Indonesia as 33.18 per cent and lowest to United Arab Emirates as 1.35 per cent. The study highlights the opportunity to invest in global trade of groundnut for the stakeholders involved in groundnut trade.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 577–584
Renuka S. Herakal*1 and B. B. Channappagoudar2
1-2Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Forty maize genotypes were studied for influence of moisture stress on yield and yield characters using line source sprinkler irrigation technique during rabi-summer, 2016-17 and 2017-2018 using line source sprinkler irrigation technique. The genotypes, G32-DMIL 50, G16-DMIL 13, G39- DMIDS 28, G4-DMIL 78, G28-DMIT 01, G38-DMIDS 15, G15-DMIL 23, G21-DMIL 47, G24-DMIL 84 and G37-DMIDS recorded higher yield compared to other genotypes. The genotype G32- DMIL 50 found promising under various moisture regimes. The genotype G39- DMIDS 28 (148.93 cm) recorded significantly higher plant height followed by G28- DMIT 01 (147.15 cm), G16- DMIL 13 (146.79 cm), G15- DMIL 23 (144.01 cm), G32- DMIL 50 (142.90 cm) and G38- DMIDS 15 (142.06 cm). whereas, the genotype G32- DMIL 50 (310.07g) recorded significantly higher total dry matter. The mean total dry matter at harvest was significantly lower in G2- DMIL 29 (61.73 g) and G23- DMID 05 (67.23 g). The genotypes G5- DMIL 150 (58.25 dm2), G37- DMIDS 10 (57.41 dm2) and G31- DMIT 110 (56.55 dm2) recorded significantly higher leaf area.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 585–588
S. Ranjith Raja Ram*1, R. Eswaran2 and G. Sathyanarayanan3
1-3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Heterosis for sesame yield and its important component characters was studied in a set of line x tester crosses. 14 diverse sesame genotypes were used as parents. Among these, 10 were used as female parents and highly adopted 4 local varieties were used as female parents 40 hybrids were produced and were evaluated along with parents and check variety during summer season in Randomized Block Design at Plant Breeding Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu. The data was recorded for eight biometrical traits viz., Days 60, 50 per cent flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. In the present study highly significant difference were recorded among the hybrids for all the eight traits studied in sesame. Further, four hybrids IVIS-25-06/CO1, AVTS-3/06/TMV3, IVTS-15-07/CO1 and IVTS-25-06/TMV3 had recorded highest standard heterosis for most of the traits. The hybrid IVTS-24-06/TMV3 and IVTS-25-06/CO1 recorded statistically significant superior seed yield per plant 13.56g and 12.23g respectively. Keeping above points view, these hybrids were ranked as best hybrid and can be utilized for hybrid breeding programe.

Research Article | Published online : 31-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 589–592
Mary Dorothy Anitha Sebastian*1 and D. Sudarsanam3
1-2Department of Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology, Loyola College, Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600 034, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A protease was purified from the seeds of Mangifera indica cv. Bangalora using ammonium sulphate fractionation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The protease was fractionated at 80% ammonium sulphate saturation. The chromatographic purification steps resulted in a 4.7-fold purification of the enzyme with a yield of 75%. After the chromatographic purification steps, the purity and molecular weight of the protease was checked by SDS PAGE. The protease was visualized as a single band on the PAGE gel showing that it was purified to homogeneity and the molecular weight was determined to be approximately 20 kDa. The protease from the seed of Mangifera indica cv. Bangalora is therefore a low molecular weight protease. The presence of the approximately 20 kDa protease was further confirmed by the presence of clear zone of casein hydrolysis in the area of the purified protease band after casein zymography. Since mango seeds are generally thrown as waste, an attempt was made in this study to isolate protease from the seeds to investigate if they could be used for industrial processes or therapeutic applications.

Research Article | Published online : 31-Mar-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 593–596
Shabeena Yaseen*1, Zahoor A. Kaloo2 and Iram Ashraf Qazi3
1-3Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal -190 006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The importance of nanotechnology has been increasingly contemplated in the field of medicine. For instance, the limitations of exploiting the antibacterial effect of silver ions, due to its toxicity, can be overcome with the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This is because the lower surface area allows higher efficiency of AgNPs at a much lower concentration than required to cause toxicity. Moreover, with the green approach for synthesis of nanoparticles, it is now possible to prevent the harmful effects of chemically synthesized AgNPs. In the current study, the biogenic AgNPs were synthesized using aqueous extracts of Trillium govanianum rhizomes and its antibacterial activity was observed. The formation of AgNPs was observed when 1 mM AgNO3 solution was mixed with aqueous rhizome extract in the ratio of 1:9. On comparison, it was found that the AgNPs showed higher zones of inhibition than the aqueous extracts of Trillium govanianum rhizomes. Hence, it can be concluded that Trillium govanianum contains active bio-reducing agents for green, cost effective and efficient production of AgNPs.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 597–600
Adishesha*1 and V. P. Chimmad2
1-2Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out in factorial randomized block design to evaluate six chickpea genotypes for high temperature tolerance. High temperature was imposed by delaying sowing dates i.e., October 5th, November 5th and December 5th. Based on grain yields under different growing conditions, the values of tolerance index, mean productivity, yield index, yield stability index, stress tolerance index, stress susceptibility index and geometric mean productivity were calculated to identify economically higher-yielding chickpea genotypes with greater heat tolerance capacity. There were highly significant differences observed among the tested chickpea genotypes to heat stresses. Significantly higher values of mean productivity (2062), yield index (1.184), Yield stability index (0.643), and geometric mean productivity (1842) with an associated decrease in tolerance efficiency (155.5) and stress susceptibility index (0.646) values suggested that, JAKI-9218, JG-14 and JG-11 were the most heat tolerant genotypes, whereas, BGD-128, KAK-2 and Annigeri-1 genotypes showed susceptible to heat stress.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 601–606
W. R. K. D. W. K. V. Wickramasinghe*1, D. Girija2 and K. Surendra Gopal3
1-3Department of Microbiology, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala
Abstract
An investigation was taken up to isolate, characterize and evaluate the effect of native plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) based consortia on growth and yield of rice plants. Different functional groups of PGPR were enumerated from rhizosphere of rice crop in Wayanad district by using selective media. Nitrogen fixers and solubilizers of phosphate, potassium and zinc were isolated by using Jensen’s agar, Pikovskaya’s agar, Aleksandrov agar and mineral salts medium (MSM) amended with 1% ZnO respectively. In the preliminary screening 32 nitrogen fixers, 16 phosphate solubilizers, four K solubilizers and six zinc solubilizers were selected for further screening based on their plant growth promoting activities such as production of IAA, NH3, HCN and siderophore. Promising isolates of each group were subjected to further quantification of nitrogen fixation and solubilization of nutrient (phosphate, K and Zn) in vitro. Ten most promising isolates were selected from different functional groups and they were subjected to molecular characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequences of ten promising isolates were deposited in the Genebank of NCBI and accession numbers obtained. Three new consortia were developed by using native PGPRs after confirmation of their compatibility. Each consortium consisted of five PGPR isolates; two nitrogen fixers and one phosphate, potassium and zinc solubilizer each. Three native PGPR- based consortia were evaluated on growth and yield of rice plant in pot experiment. Considering all the parameters best native PGPR based consortium was selected and it consisted native five PGPRs from rice rhizosphere viz. Bacillus sp. AkNF3, Pseudomonas putida KgNF1, Bacillus megaterium PkPS1, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MvKS3 and Cytobacillus kochii PkZnS3.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 607–611
A. S. Kadam*1 and D. D. Namdas2
1-2Department of Botany, Yashavantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara - 415 001, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Numerous unusual advancements in plant part (vegetative and regenerative) or alterations in the structure of an organ of plants referred as abnormality. Relatively few cases of abnormalities in Gerbera jamesonii of greenhouse cultivation have received attention in the literature. The cases reported are scattered over a period and no detailed historical study has apparently been made nor listed collectively. Some extra efforts regarding enhancement of yield leads to some physiological disorders. Also, insect attack, edaphic and uncontrolled environmental factors may destroy the quality and vigour of plant exhibiting abnormalities. This Paper describes abnormalities observed in commercial floriculture plots during study period.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 612–615
Sandeep K. T.*1
1Department of Agribusiness Management, Institute of Development Studies, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysuru - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study mango value chain analysis offers an opportunity to expand financing for horticultural production, improve efficiency and repayments of loans, and strengthen or consolidate linkages among participants in value chains. Each chain of activities gives the product more added value than the sum of added values of all activities put together. Since there is scope for value addition and demand for value added products of mango, the Government may take up initiatives for strengthening of the mango value chain by establishing processing units in the production belts as well as provide the required institutional framework for domestic and export promotion of value-added products of mango.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 616–618
S. Kalaipriya*1 and R. Radha2
1-2Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore -641 043, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Calcium is an essential nutrient to maintain bone health. Eggshell which is wasted in high amounts, is an excellent source of calcium carbonate which can be used as supplementation purposes. The eggshells are collected from the same batch of hens which are fed uniformly. Then eggshells are washed, powdered with mixer grinder, dried in hot air oven and processed in muffle furnace at 900oC for 4 hours. Further FE SEM analysis, Calcium analysis, Heavy metal analysis, Ash content, moisture content analysis was done. The FE SEM analysis showed results showed that the calcite powder was roughly spherical in shape, 157-81 nano mater in size. calcite powder contains 97% of calcium with no traces of heavy metals and zero moisture content. Since the developed calcite powder contains more calcium it can be used as a calcium supplement.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 619–624
S. Prabha*1 and V. Siotra2
1-2Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 016, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The study focuses on the analysis of various agricultural parameters in Jammu Province of Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir. Along with this it also focuses on measuring the magnitude of the performance of these agricultural parameters and based on their performances categorization of different districts are done. The various agricultural parameters such as Cropping Intensity, Irrigation Intensity, Crop Diversification, Agricultural Efficiency etc. are measured with the help of data collected from Digest of Statistics 2016-2017, Directorate of Economics and Statistics Government of J & K. For measuring these agricultural parameters various statistical techniques are used. For instance, in Crop Diversification Simpson Index is used, for Agricultural efficiency Bhatia’s method is used and to find the overall magnitude of performance of these parameters Composite index formula is used. Result of the study reveals that Districts of Jammu and Kathua in the whole province have the highest index value; whereas 50% of the districts fall under category of low composite index value. The districts which have low composite index value can improve their performance by focusing on the improvement of low performing agricultural parameters like crop diversification, irrigation intensity etc. As all these low performing districts have hilly terrain the irrigation system of these districts can be improved by storing water in farm ponds which are constructed by low density polythene film. Sprinkler system and gravity drip irrigation system can also help in improvement of irrigation system in these high-altitude areas. Off season fruits and vegetables are also given more importance in other hilly states of India and the same can be done in these districts. Analysis of different agricultural parameters not only helps in increasing crop production but it also helps in the growth of socio-economic status of the farmers and amelioration of the environment.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 625–628
Bhupesh Kumar Mishra*1 and Santosh Pandey3
1-2Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment has been conducted to assess the real time utility and abundance of organic minerals in cultivation of common wheat, Triticum aestivum L. in Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh with the aim of finding the effect of available soil organic minerals on various biophysical or morphological characters including yield attributes. For the experiment, the cultivar namely RAJ-4037 which is best for dry land area and crop matures in 120 days. This variety is suitable for bakery and beverage industry, has been taken. The pre availability of manures were measured and the application of various fertilizers have been done as per the recommended dose for the cultivation. The data of various biophysical characters like height of Plants, number of tillers, leaf area index, number of ears, number of grains per ear and test weight have been recorded as per standard methods. The results revealed that organic minerals had a significant impact to influence the various biophysical traits such as height (65-87cm), number of tillers (273-315) while the maximum leaf area index was recorded maximum in vermin compost treatment.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 629–636
Iram Ashraf Qazi*1, Zahoor Ahmad Kaloo2, Jasfeeda Qadir3 and Shabeena Yaseen4
1-4Plant Tissue Culture Lab, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal - 190 006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don belongs to family Ericaceae, is an ornamental and medicinal plant which is commonly known as ‘Talisfer’ in Kashmir. Rhododendron anthopogon is globally distributed. It grows in the Himalayan range across Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan between an altitudinal range of 3000-4800m asl. Within India, it has been found in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. During the present study, in vitro shoot regeneration has been achieved from callus obtained from seed explants. The seeds were inoculated on Woody Plant Medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D. Maximum callus production was observed on Woody Plant Medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1mg/l) within 35 days of culture with a percent response of 70%. Among different cytokinin -cytokinin combinations used, 2ip (3mg/l) + TDZ (4mg/l) gave best results with the production of maximum mean number (4.6±0.3) of shoots. The in vitro raised plantlets were first acclimatized using cocopeat & perlite having different ratios as well as garden soil under greenhouse conditions. In addition, mycorrhizal status of Rhododendron anthopogon was confirmed under compound microscope and later mycorrhizal inoculum was prepared. Lastly, micro-propagated plantlets inoculated with mycorrhizal inoculum were acclimatized under greenhouse conditions.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 637–646
Majid Farooq1, Suraj Kumar Singh*2 and Shruti Kanga3
1-3Centre for Climate Change and Water Research, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur - 302 017, Rajasthan, India 2Centre for Sustainable Development, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur - 302 017, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
As an ecologically vulnerable region, Jammu and Kashmir faces varying impacts of climatic change and climate variability. Reduced water availability for irrigation affected by erratic rainfall pattern, loss of soil moisture, degraded soil health, extreme drought events, shifts in snowfall regimes has resulted in agricultural productivity decline. Agriculture is a significant sector of the economy with important economic and social benefits and contributes to the subsistence of 70 percent of the population and accounts for approximately 14.8 percent of the state gross domestic as well. National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) was launched in June 2008 to fulfill India's vision of sustainable development in the light of climate change. Eight unique priorities were included in this National Action Plan, including a "National Agriculture Mission" and a "National Water Mission." India is among the few nations to have a dedicated National Climate Change Adaptation Fund (NAFCC). However, this scheme's fund limitation leaves little scope for out-scaling the adaptation practices under any particular project. This paper identifies the schemes and policies of the Government of India's flagship programs. It proposes the systematic mainstreaming of financial capital under these schemes for adaptation and mitigation actions contemplated under State Action Plans of Climate Change. Integration of adaptation into development planning is crucial in ensuring that the required adaptation can be made for the climate change crisis's scope and urgency.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 647–650
Shabir Ahmad Dar*1, Manik Sharma2, Prasoon Gupta3, Misbah Tabassum4, Jagrati Tripathi5 and Rajendra Chauhan6
1-2Department of Zoology, Career College, Bhopal - 462 023, Madhya Pradesh, India 3Natural Product Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu - 180 001, J & K 4Cancer Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu - 180 001, J & K 5Department of Botany, Government College Khimlasa, Sagar - 470 113, Madhya Pradesh, India 6MVM College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Root of Marrubium vulgare was evaluated for quantitative estimation of phytochemicals (Phenol, flavonoid and terpenoid) and antioxidant activity using spectrophotometric methods. Methanolic root extract and its Butanol fraction were also assayed for its cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines. The obtained results showed that butanol fraction (But fr) contains highest amount of both terpenoids and phenols (667.36±23.69 mg linalool/g DW and 402.356± 2.89 mg GAE/g DW). In addition, both MeOH extract and its BuOH fraction showed strong antioxidant activity against DPPH (IC50 = 54.84±3.05 and 33.93± 0.93 µg/mL) as well as significant cytotoxic effect with an IC50 value ranging from 1.414 to 6.286 µg/mL against all the three-cancer cell line (A549, MCF-7 and PC-3). These results reveal that methanol extract of root and its butanolic fraction constitutes an important source of antioxidant and can be evaluated for potential promising anticancer activity.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 651–655
R. S. Umakanth*1
1Biochemical Genetics Lab, Post-Graduate Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, University of Mysore, Manasa Gangothri, Mysuru - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The brain plays vital role in regulating the endocrine system, which serves as an important link between the environment and various physiological activities of the organism. In silkworm Bombyx mori, the Juvenile Hormone (JH) is secreted by corpora allatum and JH has a functional role in metamorphosis, reproduction, behaviour, diapause and communication. Proteins are important bio molecules, which play key role in the growth and development as well as silk biosynthesis. The 5th instar silkworm larvae (day three and day five) of two bivoltine hybrids FC1 and FC2 and a bivoltine double hybrid FC1 × FC2 were used for administration of juvenile hormone analogue (Samrudhi) in three different concentrations 15, 20 and 25 µl and their fat body was collected after 24 h. of treatment along with control and absolute control batches. The results show that a gradual increase in the protein content with the increase in JH concentration in both hybrids and double hybrid under study. The protein content is higher in double hybrid FC1 × FC2, followed by the hybrids FC1 and FC2 as well as larval duration, cocoon weight, shell weight and filament length exhibited marginal increase.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 656–658
K. Ramkumar*1 and S. Anuja2
1-2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An experiment was carried out on genetic divergence for yield attributing characters in thirty-three genotypes of yardlong bean collected from different sources and the experimental field was laid out at farmer’s field in Pudukurapettai village, Virudhachalam, Tamil Nadu, India. The Mahalanobis D2 statistics was used to estimate the divergence among the thirty-three genotypes and results revealed that the genotypes were grouped into four clusters. The intra cluster distance was maximum (280.51) in cluster IV and the cluster II (48.39) showed minimum intra cluster distance. The maximum inter cluster distance was found between cluster II and IV (408.23) and minimum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster I and II (135.61). The three top contributors for genetic diversity were pod yield per plant (50.37%), pod length (29.16%) and number of pods per plant (7.57%).

Research Article | Published online : 12-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 659–663
Ashwini R. Pandhare*1, Sri Krishna Sudheer Patoju2
1-2School of Rural Development, Tata Institute of Social Science, Tuljapur - 413 601, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The Present paper aimed to study the involvement of women workers in different stages of export-oriented agriculture. The study conducted in Osmanabad district of Maharashtra, which is emerged from last few years as exported agriculture produces fruits, flowers and vegetables. The study collected 45 respondents from women workers. This Paper discusses the women workers socio-economic conditions and their involvement at different levels in export-oriented agriculture. The study proposes a Women Skill Development Centre (WSDC) for enhancing women’s skills to meet the requirement of export-oriented agriculture in Osmanabad District.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 664–667
Bagmita Bhagawati*1 and Bhabesh Chandra Goswami2
1Department of Chemistry, Pragjyotish College, Guwahati - 781 009, Assam, India 2Vice-Chancellor, Cotton University, Guwahati - 781 001, Assam, India
Abstract
Carotenoids are plant pigments which play significant role in human beings by acting as antioxidant, free radical quencher apart from its role in converting to vitamin A. In the current study carotenoids are estimated in healthy volunteers by using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RPHPLC) and correlation coefficient (r) was calculated between serum lutein and β-carotene concentrations and Cholesterol (C), Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL). Serum lutein concentration in the current study involved a positive statistically significant correlation coefficient with HDL, LDL and C. This study also gives a significant positive correlation coefficient between serum β-carotene and HDL. A positive correlation coefficient between serum β-carotene and LDL as well as between serum β-carotene and C is found but are not statistically significant.

Short communication | Published online : 13-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 668–671
Chandrabhan Singh Jatav1, B. K. Pandey2, Pushpendra Singh*3 and Prabhat Kumar Chaturvedi4
1-4Department of Agronomy, Brahmanand P.G. College, Rath - 210 431, (Hamirpur), Uttar Pradesh, India 2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, District Shivpuri - 473 551, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The experiment was conducted at Research farm of Bhrahmanand P.G. College Rath, Hamirpur (U.P.) during rabi season of 2017-18 and 2018-19 to study the impact of tillage, nutrients and herbicides on wheat. The results of experiment indicated that maximum weed density and weed dry matter was recorded in conventional tillage as compared to zero tillage, while plant height and dry matter accumulation of wheat was also recorded maximum in conventional tillage as compared to zero tillage. Among herbicides, application sulfosulfuron 25g/ha + metsulfuron 4g/ha reduced the density and dry matter of weeds at all stages compared to other treatments of herbicides, while maximum plant height and dry matter accumulation of wheat was improved by sulfosulfuron 25g/ha + metsulfuron 4g/ha. The application of nutrients did not influence the density of weeds before spray. While application of 30kg sulphur + 5kg zinc significantly increased weed density and dry matter at all crop growth stages and it was also improved plant height and dry matter accumulation of wheat as compared to other nutrient treatments.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 672–674
Mohd. Kashif*1 and M. Z. Beg2
1-2Department of Botany, Shibli National P.G. College, Azamgarh - 276 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Five concentration of sugar industry effluent was given in irrigation medium i.e., 20% as T1, 40% as T2, 60% as T3, 80% as T4 and 100% as T5. The vegetative characters studied were height of the plant, length of petiole, length of lamina, breadth of lamina, length of stomatal aperture, breadth of stomatal aperture and number of stomata per unit area. Height of the plant was found to increase with the treatment of sugar industry effluent and maximum increase was recorded as 6.62 per cent inT3 treatment. Maximum increase in the length of petiole was noted in T2 treatment and it was 21.12 per cent. Length and breadth of lamina was found to increase with treatment of sugar industry effluent and maximum increase were noted in T3 treatment and it was 20.86 and 19.19 per cent respectively. Length of stomatal aperture was almost unaffected with the treatment of sugar industry effluent; a little increase was recorded in T1 and T3 treatment and it was 0.09 per cent and 2.23 per cent respectively. While the treatment T2, T4 and T5 showed a little decrease in the length of stomatal aperture and it was 2.39, 0.23 and 1.1 per cent respectively over the control. Breadth of stomatal aperture also found to be unaffected by the treatment of different concentration of sugar industry effluent. A little increase was recorded in T2, T3 and T4 treatment as 2.87 per cent, 4.62 per cent and 1.17 per cent respectively. A little decrease was also recorded in T1 and T5 treatments and it was 2.25, and 4.89 percent respectively. Number of stomata per unit area was also found to increase with the irrigation of different concentration of sugar industry effluent and maximum increase was 20.89 per cent in T3 treatment. It was observed that T3 treatment where plant were irrigated with 60 per cent concentration of sugar industry effluent was found to enhance the maximum vegetative growth in almost all the parameters taken into consideration except length of petiole. It is concluded that the concentration upto 60 per cent favour the vegetative growth of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Var Navodaya. The concentration above 60 per cent showed toxic effect on the vegetative growth of tomato plants.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 675–680
A. K. Vishwakarma1 and Pradeep Kumar*2
1-2Department of Zoology, S. G. N. Government P. G. College, Muhammadabad Gohana, Mau-276 403, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Trematode infections are causes zoonotic disease by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica among cattle and human. The control of fascioliasis by treatment of sporocyst, redia and cercaria larva in in vivo which can break the life cycle and check the zoonotic disease. The present study was designed for treatment of F. gigantica larva in host snail Lymnaea acuminata in in vivo at different exposures. The dried root powder of Asparagus racemosus and their different organic extract (ether, chloroform, methanol, acetone and ethanol) and column purified fractions was observed up to 8h at different concentration against Fasciola larva. In vivo mortality of larva was observed at 2h, 4h, 6h and 8h of treatment of infected snails at different concentration. The dried root powder of A. racemosus were more effective (2h LC50 71.39 mg/l and 8h LC50 63.22 mg/l) against cercaria larvae. The 8h LC50 of ethanol extract against sporocyst, redia and cercaria was observed 51.90, 48.05 and 49.76 mg/l, respectively. Among all organic extracts, ethanolic extract was more effective than other extract. The LC50 of 8h exposure of column purified fraction of A. racemosus was 50.37, 45.92 and 46.30 mg/l against sporocyst, redia and cercaria, respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 681–685
Divya Joseph Pereira*1 and Seema Tharannum2
1Department of Biotechnology, Jyoti Nivas College Autonomous, Bangalore - 560 095, Karnataka, India 2Department of Biotechnology, PES University, Bangalore - 560 085, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Anethum sowa L. a variant of Anethum graveolens called East Indian Dill or Sowa, found in India, cultivated for its foliage as a cold-weather crop has been investigated less and that could be a great loss in unleashing lead drug molecules with various potential in the field of Medicine. Intense analysis of literature on PubMed and Google Scholar databases regarding the different pharmacological potential of essential oil and extracts of Anethum sowa L. is never documented together and is first of its kind which would give the researchers much quicker understanding on the different pharmacological studies explored with this therapeutic multipurpose herb. There is always a need for a systematic and detailed review to identify this plant's current potential in various medicine systems. Herb extract of Anethum sowa L. is studied more than herb oil, seed extract, and seed oil. Among the different therapeutic applications investigated with Anethum sowa L. it is used mostly in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.

Research Review | Published online : 19-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 686–688
S. Madhavan1, S. Kamalakannan*2, R. Sudhagar3 and S. Sivasankar4
1-4Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted at Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar to study the effect of plant growth regulators on seed germination and seedling vigour in jack. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design comprising two types of growth regulators like GA3 and NAA concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm). The results revealed that jack fruit seeds treated with GA3 @ 75 ppm for 24 hours recorded maximum germination percentage (89.34%), plant height (49.78 cm), number of leaves / seedling (21.78), leaf length (13.97 cm), leaf breadth (6.68), Stem girth (2.09 mm), number of roots / seedlings (21.67), root length (24.56 cm).

Short communication | Published online : 22-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 689–692
E. Senthamil1, C. Kalaiyarasan*2, K. Suseendran3, C. Muruganandam4 and S. Jawahar5
1-5Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted at Achalvadi village, Harur block of Dharmapuri district during October 2019 – February 2020 to study the effect of VAM, sulphur and boron on growth and yield of ragi. The experimental plots were laid out in randomized block design with eleven treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of T1 - RDF alone (60:30:30 Kg of NPK ha-1) / control, T2 - T1 + Farm yard manure @ 12.5 t ha-1, T3 - T1+ Vermicompost @ 3 t ha-1, T4 - T2 + Seed treatment with Azospirillum @ 600 g ha-1, T5 - T3 + Seed treatment with Azospirillum @ 600 g ha-1, T6 - T4 + Inoculation of VAM @ 12 kg ha-1, T7 - T5 + Inoculation of VAM @ 12 kg ha-1, T8 - T6 + Sulphur @ 40 kg ha-1 through gypsum, T9 - T7 + Sulphur @ 40 kg ha-1 through gypsum, T10 - T8 + Foliar spray of Borax 0.5% twice at 30 and 45 DAT and T11 - T9 + Foliar spray of Borax 0.5% twice at 30 and 45 DAT. The application of RDF (60:30:30 kgs of NPK ha-1) + Vermicompost @ 3 t ha-1 + Seed treatment with Azospirillum @ 600 g ha-1 + Inoculation of VAM @ 12 kg ha-1 + Sulphur @ 40 kg ha-1 through gypsum + Foliar spray of Borax 0.5% twice at 30 and 45 DAT (T11) recorded the maximum values for growth attributes viz., plant height (93.63 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (34.9), LAI (4.54), DMP (5860.00 kg ha-1) and brings earliness in days to 50% flowering (57 days), yield attributes viz., number of tillers m-2 (123.00), number of productive tillers m-2 (116.33), number of ear heads m-2 (116.33), number of grains ear head-1 (921.33) and test weight (3.07 g) and yield viz., grain (2963.60 kg ha-1) and straw yield (5414.43 kg ha-1) of ragi. The lowest values of the growth attributes, yield attributes and yield were recorded under the control treatment (T1).

Research Article | Published online : 22-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 693–696
P. Bijaya Devi*1,3, Panna Deb2,3 and H. Birkumar Singh4
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Utlou - 795 134, Manipur, India 2Centre for Biodiversity and Natural Resource Conservation, Assam University, Silchar - 788 011, Assam 3Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar - 788 011, Assam, India 4CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Branch Lab, Lamphelpat, Manipur, India
Abstract
A study was conducted to assess the traditional knowledge on Eryngo (Eryngium foetidum L.) in the Bishnupur district of Manipur. To collect the information for the study, five villages were randomly selected by preparing questionnaire formats. Personal interviews were done on traditional knowledge, including indigenous spices found in the selected villages, source of Eryngo, its uses and its traditional package of practices. 18 species of spices were used by the different ethnic groups of the district. Most of the species were herbs. The Amaryllidaceae family found the highest number of species. In case of part used, a maximum number of (5) species were used for whole plant. Out of the 18 spices recorded, 11 species were cultivated while 2 species were collected from the wild habited. Seeds are the main propagation method for most of the species. The Allium species are most commonly used among all spices recorded. All the respondents were having the knowledge of eryngo as the plant grown in most of the kitchen garden of the selected five villages and some of the villagers were adopting traditional cultivation practices and earning limited income from eryngo. The whole plant of eryngo can be consumed except old inflorescence. There is similarity in preparation, application and parts used of eryngo plants among the ethnic community of Bishnupur district. The leaves were used as spices in curry preparation. The crushed leaves and liquid were used to control many human diseases and disorders. Thus, eryngo plants can be treated as high value spice as well as medicinal herb.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 697–703
Niharika Chauhan*1
1Department of Biotechnology, Government College, Hisar - 125 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
Fruit wine is an organic fruit preparation made from fermented fruits. Numerous tropical as well as subtropical fruits like kiwi mango, banana, guava, litchi, apple etc. are being utilized for organic wine preparation as they possess suitable taste, delicious flavors, easy availability, apt sugar content and satisfied chemical composition. Recently, manufacturing of fruit wines has been enhanced progressively. With increase in demand of fruit wines there is great potential for development of new fruit products. This often compensates for post-harvest losses that a crop suffers during its peak season. These organic wines are rich in healthy components such as minerals, vitamins and antioxidants that are beneficial for health. The review presents a general outline of the preparation, classification, current status and diverse types of fruit wines.

Research Review | Published online : 23-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 703–707
Daya Ram*1, Suparna Dey2, M. K. Singh3, M. D. Devi4 and N. O. Singh5
1-5Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted in Bishnupur district, Manipur during the year 2019-20. An Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. From the three villages of Bishnupur district, a total of 120 respondents were drawn following purposive and simple random sampling method. The objective of the study was to study the impact of Traditional Integrated Farming System on their socio-economic status and its relationship with the socio-personal profile. The data collected by using the structured interview schedule were encrypted, tabularized and analyzed statistically. The results showed that there is an overall positive impact of traditional IFS on their socio-economic status. Correlation analysis between selected characteristics of MGMG farmers and the impact of traditional IFS on socio-economic status revealed that variables such as age was negatively correlated at 0.01 level of probability whereas, organizational participation, farming experience, innovation proneness, mass media exposure, source of information, extension contact, annual income and economic motivation were positively correlated at 0.01 level of probability. Multiple regression analysis showed that age, organizational participation, farming experience, innovation proneness and economic motivation contributed significantly to the prediction of impact of IFS on the socio-economic status of the farmers and they may be entitled as good predictors of impact.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 708–712
M. Deepa Devi*1, H. Yadii2 and Daya Ram3
1-3Department of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Central Agricultural University, Imphal - 795 004, Manipur, India
Abstract
The study was conducted during December 2019 to February 2020 in Lower Subansiri District, Arunachal Pradesh to assess the training need areas of kiwi growers wherein a total of 104 farmers were drawn as respondents through random sampling. The data were collected personally through pre-tested well-structured interview schedule. The response collected from 104 respondents showed that majority (61.54%) of the respondents had exhibited medium level of training needs. Plant protection measures, propagation and planting, and climate and soil were the top three areas perceived as priority areas in regard to training need areas of the respondents, and the least training need area was in flowering and pollination. The study also revealed that weed problems under bio-physical constraints; high cost of inputs under socio-economic constraints; lack of improved irrigation system and lack of suitable technology for the region under technological constraints; non-availability of insurance under institutional constraints were among the many constraints perceived by the kiwi growers.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 713–716
Harpal Singh*1 and Rajdeep Kudesia2
1-3Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 182, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
In the diversified farming system, integrated nutrient management under different crop geometry along with growth regulators is the most appropriate approach to solve various issues related to productivity, quality as well as sustainability in efficient and economic way. Cabbage is well known for its nutritive and health benefits. A field experiments were conducted to study the effect of vermicompost, inorganic fertilizers and growth retardant (cycocel) with different spacing on cabbage carried out in factorial randomized block design at Experimental Farm of Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (U.P.) during rabi season 2017-18 and 2018-19. Results indicated that yield and yield contributing components of cabbage cultivar Pusa Drum Head were found to be highest and significant in the treatment where 50% RDF (Inorganic Fertilizer) + 50% Organic (vermicompost) were applied at wider crop geometry (45cm × 45cm spacing) along with spraying of 300 ppm cycocel (growth retardant). The head yield of cabbage was positively correlated with various yield components. Application of vermicompost along with inorganic fertilizers with cycocel treatment reduce the days taken to head maturity. The experimental findings indicated that reduction in the amount of inorganic fertilizer was not detrimental to total yield to cabbage. So, 50% doses of recommended fertilizer would be supplemented with vermicompost. It is also evident that integration of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizer at wider spacing under cycocel treatment enhances the productivity of cabbage beside sustaining soil fertility status.

Research Article | Published online : 27-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 717–719
Ramesh Singh*1, Santosh Pandey2, Arvind Kumar Tripathi3 and Bhupesh Kumar Mishra4
1-4Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi Season at KarguvaJi Agriculture Research Farm, Department of Agronomy Institute of Agriculture Science at Bundelkhand University Jhansi UP India, during 2015-16 with the objective the studies effect of FYM and Rhizobium on growth plant height, no. of pods/plant, no. of branches per plant. The results of the study could be concluded that all the growth Physiological characters of chick pea germination 69.74% to 51.00%, Plant height 58.00 cm to 31.00 cm, number of branches per plant 40 to 21.00, number of pods per plant highest 106 and lowest 56.00, test weight of 1000 seeds 194.33gm to 141.00gm and yield 990.00gm 502.67gm, yield as compared to control due to balance use of Rhizobium15 gm/kg seed and FYM @ per ha. Further it was suggested that the INM is best option to improve the seed yield of chick pea.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Apr-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 2 ; 720–726
Sultana Bano*1 and Md. Sultan Ahmad2
1-2Department of Zoology, Shibli National (P.G) College, Azamgarh - 276 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A popular ayurvedic herb Ashwagandha is commonly known as “Indian Winter cherry” has been reported for its anti-tumorigenic activity against various cancer cells. In these studies, we used alcoholic extract of root of this plant. We have selected four optimum doses of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) suspension 100, 150, 250, 300 and 350 mg/Kg. body weight for in vivo experiments. The methods adopted were total clastogeny and frequencies of aberrations in the bone marrow cells of albino mice in vivo. The data were collected at three durations of 16, 24, and 32 h for in vivo experiments. Withania extracts significantly reduce number of aberrant cells ranges from 31, 36 and 42 percent for 16, 24 and 32 h respectively, frequency of aberrations per cell was also reduced significantly at p<0.05 level in vivo.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Apr-2021