P- ISSN: 0976-1675
E- ISSN: 2249-4538

© CARAS (Centre for Advanced Research in Agricultural Sciences)
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Volume - 12 - July-August 2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1113–1118
Bhumisuta Bhoi1 and Binodini Majhi*2
1 School of Geography, Gangadhar Meher University, Sambalpur - 768 001, Odisha, India 2 Department of Applied Geography, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack - 753 003, Odisha, India
Abstract
The agricultural development of a region can be evaluated and quantified with the association of various agricultural attributes relating to physical, social, economic, technological, and organizational production system and so on. Thus, the development refers to a qualitative improvement of all the attributes of the agriculture. The present research paper is an attempt to identify the spatial pattern of agricultural development in Odisha at district level for the period of 2011-12 to 2014-15. Eight variables have been selected for analyzing the spatial pattern of agricultural development in the state. The analysis revealed that the coastal districts of the state have high level of agricultural development and districts of northern and southern Odisha shows less and least developed in terms of agricultural development is concerned.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1119–1123
Kailash Chand Bairwa*1, G. L. Meena2, P. C. Meena3 and Hari Singh4
1,3 Department of Agricultural Economics, Agriculture University, Jodhpur - 342 304 Rajasthan, India 2,4 Department of Agricultural Economics, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, MPUAT, Udaipur - 313 001 Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The production of seed spices are a component of the agriculture sector and supply of agriculture is uncertain in nature. This uncertainty in supply leads to fluctuation in prices by two ways seasonal and cyclical variations. The main objective of this study was to examine the growth rate in acreage, output and yield of Rajasthan and instability and seasonal indices of major seed spices in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. For the study, monthly (2015 to 2018) and yearly (1998 to 2018) wholesale price and market arrivals time series data were collected from Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti, Jodhpur. The results indicated that coriander (57.02 percent), cumin (38.38 percent) and fennel (69.0 percent) crops were highly unstable. The highest seasonal indices of arrivals and prices for coriander and cumin were found in the month of March (358.53), November (114.53), October (111.29) and April (392.98), respectively. In case of fenugreek and fennel, highest seasonal indices of arrivals and price were observed in the month of May (240.18) December (110.95), April (590.71) and August (122.03), respectively in the same market. The low coefficient of variation was found for fenugreek (6.32) and fennel (12.27) in Jodhpur market.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1124–1128
Anuj Kumar*1, Poonam Tomar2 and Sunil Kumar3
1 Department of Economics, Government P.G. College, Dholpur - 328 001, Rajasthan, India 2-3 Department of Economics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Agricultural is the backbone of Indian economy. In India, majority of the places are occupied by agricultural land. The agriculture sector, which engages 64 per cent of the rural workforce, assumes a predominant role in improving the overall welfare of rural society. Unfortunately, the farmers are very poor in the economical level. Wheat and Paddy cultivation is the major cultivation in agriculture sector. This paper is going to study about the status of agricultural farmers. An attempt was made to study the economic analysis of wheat and paddy cultivation in western Uttar Pradesh. An investigation was done to work out the cost of production, cost of cultivation, returns and profitability from Wheat and Paddy crops in order to identify which crop is more profitable and economic for the farmers of Uttar Pradesh. Ghaziabad and Buland Shahr district of Western U.P. was selected purposively for study. The primary data were collected by personal interviews of the selected farmers with the help of a set of schedules specially prepared for this purpose for the. A four-stage stratified random sampling was used in the study for the selection of tehsils, villages and farmers in the study area. Simple statistical tools like averages and percentages were used for processing the data. Various cost and income concepts were also employed to examine cost and returns structure due to change in irrigation potential. The overall findings of the study revealed that the rental value of land contributes maximum to the total cost of production in each category of the farmer followed by human labour and agro-chemicals. The Canal + Diesel Tube well Irrigated Farms were getting the higher returns as compare to the other farms because this system has an advantage and supremacy over other irrigation systems in providing timely, adequate and assured supply of water. The observations indicated that per quintal cost of production for wheat crop was less than paddy crop, on the other hand per hectare net return, Percent Profit and Output- Input Ratio was the highest for wheat when compared to paddy crop.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1129–1132
Lalbiakdika1, F. Lalnunmawia2 and H. Lalruatsanga*3
1-2 Department of Botany, Mizoram University, Tanhril - 796 004, Mizoram, India 3 Department of Botany, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl - 796 001, Mizoram, India
Abstract
Investigations were carried out on the effect of seasonal variation on soil chemical properties and soil enzyme activity during 2020. A total of fifteen samples were collected during pre-planting (April), growing (August), and post-harvest (December) of paddy. A total of fifteen samples were collected from various places of paddy fields, and soil fertility indicators like pH, soil organic carbon (SOC) total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), available potassium (K), and soil enzymes viz. dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease activity were analyzed. Soil organic carbon was found highest during post-harvest and found to be lowest during pre-planting of paddy. Soil macronutrients like available phosphorus (P), available potassium (K) and total nitrogen (N) were found to be highest during the growing season and followed by post-harvest and lowest during pre-planting of paddy. Soil enzyme activity of the study area shows the same pattern i.e., highest during growing season followed by post-harvest and lowest during pre-planting of paddy.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1133–1135
E. Senthamil*1, C. Kalaiyarasan2, K. Suseendran3, C. Muruganandam4 and S. Jawahar5
1-5 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 4 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted at Achalvadi village, Harur block in Dharmapuri district to study the effect of VAM, Sulphur and boron on yield, nutrient uptake and availability of ragi during October 2019 – February 2020. The experiment consisted of eleven treatments with three replications and the experimental plots were laid out in randomized block design. The results of the present investigation revealed that application of RDF (60:30:30 kgs of NPK ha-1) + Vermicompost @ 3 t ha-1 + Seed treatment with Azospirillum @ 600 g ha-1 + Inoculation of VAM @ 12 kg ha-1 + Sulphur @ 40 kg ha-1 through gypsum + Foliar spray of Borax 0.5% twice at 30 and 45 DAT (T11) produced the higher grain and straw yield (2963.60 and 5414.43 kg ha-1 respectively), nutrient uptake (71.80, 22.53, 51.33 and 18.48 kg ha-1 of N, P, K and S respectively) and available soil S (25.33 kg ha-1) while the highest available soil N, P and K (292.72, 19.98 and 273.25 kg ha-1 respectively) were recorded under the application of RDF (60:30:30 kgs of NPK ha-1) + Farm yard manure @ 12.5 t ha-1 + Seed treatment with Azospirillum @ 600 g ha-1 + Inoculation of VAM @ 12 kg ha-1 + Sulphur @ 40 kg ha-1 through gypsum (T1). The lowest values of yield, nutrient uptake and available soil nutrients were recorded under the control treatment (T1).

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1136–1140
T. Amarnath1, S. Ranjith Raja Ram*2 and G. Sathiya Narayanan3
1-3 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to estimate the heterosis for yield and yield component traits in sesame. In the present investigation, Line x tester analysis involving 7 lines and 3 testers were used to identify standard heterosis and heterobeltiosis in association with yield and its component characters in sesame. The trail was conducted at plant breeding farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University during 2018-2019. For seed yield per plant, the cross-combination GT 10 × TMV 7 was identified as the best performing hybrid since it had possessed significant and positive heterobeltiosis 29.62 per cent and standard heterosis 29.49 per cent for all the traits. The hybrid GT 10 × TMV7 and ORM 17 x TMV5 recorded the maximum significant and negative heterobeltiosis -15.10 per cent and 11.02 for days to 50 per cent flowering. The hybrid GT 10 × TMV5 recorded maximum significant and negative standard heterosis -16.56 per cent for days to 50 per cent flowering. The next best hybrid identified was ACM 14-007 SI-2 × TMV5, since it possessed desirable standard heterosis for almost all the traits except the days to 50 per cent flowering. Among the 21 hybrids, GT 10 × TMV 7, GT 10 × TMV5 and ACM 14-007 SI-2 × TMV 5 were identified as superior hybrids as they recorded high magnitude of standard heterosis for number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsules ,1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. These heterosis will be exploited through selection of superior and trait specific genotypes in the segregating generation for the evolution of high yielding varieties.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1141–1144
M. Ramanan*1, N. Muthukumaran2 and R. Poovizhi3
1-3 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Okra or Bhendi, Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench) (Malvaceae), is an economically important vegetable crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae) is one of the most serious agricultural pest and polyphagous. Control measures commonly used against insect pests in horticultural crops mainly on consist of pesticides, but these products are often toxic to the environment and to non-target species. Botanicals are naturally occurring chemicals extracted from plants and used as pesticides. It is safer and biodegradable than synthetic pesticides. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the acaricidal activity of certain botanicals against two-spotted spider mite in bhendi. Botanicals, Neem oil, NSKE, Pungam oil, Vitex negundo leaf extract and Turmeric Powder extract were used for this investigation. Among the treatments, Neem oil (5%) caused maximum mortality was recorded under laboratory condition. The reduction in the mite population in different treatments was in the order of Neem oil > NSKE > Pungam oil > Vitex negundo leaf extract > Turmeric powder extract under both kharif and summer season in pot culture.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1145–1149
D. Modanwal*1 and N. Singh2
1 Department of Food and Nutrition, School for Home Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Soya powder are very healthy and it is a rich source of protein (essential amino acids). The objective of the study was to develop functional soya cookies and to know the sensory acceptability of developed functional soya cookies. The present study is conducted in Food science and technology, BBAU for period of 9 months, the experimental design was conducted to prepared functional soya cookies among community people. Cookies were evaluated by 15 consumers for color, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. The major finding of the study was (20:4), F2 formulation sample found more acceptable because of their texture, flavour, colour, appearance and overall acceptability of the cookies, which was higher than other that formulation samples in general acceptability. The study concluded that functional soya cookies are substitute of high rich protein diet in term of bakery product and suitable for all age groups.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1150–1152
Thamarai Selvi M.*1, Ramalakshmi G.2, Jaiganesh V.3, Darwin Christdhas Henry L.4, Kannan C.5 and Sutha Raja Kumar R.6
1-6 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of native isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) against Fusarium wilt of tomato. All Pf isolates showed similar results in gram staining (Gram negative), motility, starch hydrolysis, gelatin liquefaction, fluorescent pigment (all are positive). All the P. fluorescens isolates also produced positive results in production of IAA. Among the various isolates, the highest inhibition was shown by isolate Pf5 and it was followed by Pf3. The least inhibition was recorded by isolate Pf2. Also, the effective isolate Pf5 recorded the maximum inhibition of mycelial dry weight under liquid and solid medium. The comparison fungicide Carbendazim 50% WP @ 0.1% conc. showed the highest percent inhibition over control.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1153–1157
A. Mary Sharmila1, L. Vengadeshkumar*2, S. Sanjaygandhi3 and T. Meera4
1-3 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 602, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India 4 Department of Agricultural Sciences, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Tambaram - 600 073, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to assess the antifungal activity of different solvent extract of Rhizophora apiculata against R. solani and evaluation of its antimicrobial compounds. Different solvent extracts of R. apiculata (15%) considerably inhibited the growth of test pathogen when compared to control. The highest percent inhibition (95.82%) over control recorded with methanol extract which accounted with minimum mycelial growth of 3.76mm followed by aqueous, ethanol and choloroform extract of R. apiculata (15%) accounting 93.37, 91.45 and 89.37 per cent inhibition in the decreasing order of merit respectively. The maximum mycelial growth (13.58 mm) was recorded with acetone extract which account for the lowest per cent inhibition (84.91%) over control. The standard chemical fungicide Hexaconazole 5% EC at 0.1% concentration showed 100 per cent inhibition of the test pathogen. Also, lyoniresinol-3α-O-β-arabinopyranoside was recorded highest peak area (69.757%) with retention time RT (8.013 min). My-3-O-ribose was recorded least peak area (2.144%) with retention time RT (13.042 min). Remaining compounds are elevated at various retention time under HPLC analysis.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1158–1161
P. Monisha*1, S. Sanjaygandhi2 and L. Vengadeshkumar3
1-3 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani khun. Biological method is more ecofriendly and easily managing the fungal disease. This method would be more effective and less time consuming, gaining popularity, and cheaper strategy for managing the fungal disease. Plant extracts are more effective control of plant diseases is gaining importance due to their antifungal and antibacterial properties. In the present study, seven medicinal plant product and biocontrol agent were evaluated viz., Azadirachta indica, Vitex negundo, Justicia adhatoda, Curcuma longa, Aloe barbadensis miller, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Allium sativum, and P. fluorescens were screened against R. solani, the rice sheath blight pathogen. The biocontrol agent was P. fluorescens and plant extracts showed most effective inhibition of radial growth of the pathogen but most effective plant extracts was Allium sativum (garlic) extract. The combination of and P. fluorescens and plant extract expectedly inhibited the pathogen growth of R. solani for in vitro and in vivo condition.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1162–1164
A. U. Sutar
1 P. G. Department of Zoology, S. G. M. College, Karad, Satara - 415 124, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
There is an increasing demand for organic fertilizers due to the harmful effects of chemical fertilizers on the soil as well as human health. The overuse of chemical fertilizers has hardened the soil, decreased fertility, strengthened pesticides, polluted air and water and thereby bringing hazards to human health and environment. Therefore, in modern agricultural practices, the chemical fertilizers are now replacing by organic fertilizers. Bat guano is not known to the farmers due to very few works is done on its plant promoting properties. Therefore, present study was undertaken to study its effect on the growth of Zea mays. The pot experiment was conducted in the laboratory. This study is mainly concern with the bat guano of Indian flying fox, Pteropus medius, which is collected from the roosting colonies and used in different quantities (soil: guano ratio- 20:1, 20:2, 20:3) and two types of soil (Autoclaved and Non-autoclaved). The plant growth study indicated that, there is increase in shoot and root length at soil: guano ratio of 20:2 for both autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil. The biomass was also better at the same ratio.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1165–1168
Suresh Kumar Yadav1, M. L. Meena*1, Rajmani Singh3 and Shree Kant Maurya4
1-4 Department of Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Vidya Vihar Raebareli Road, Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
In general, the estimates of genotypic correlation were higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlation coefficient. It may result from the modifying effect of environment on the association of characters at genotypic level. The character bulb yield had highly significant positive correlation with characters like bulb weight, weight of 10 uniform cloves, fresh weight of bulb, dry weight of bulb, neck thickness, and vitamin C. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the characters like bulb weight, fresh weight of leaves, dry weight of bulb, and circumference of bulb, neck thickness, and volume of bulb, and vitamin C had high direct effect on bulb yield. These above characters also had positive indirect effect with each other. Fresh weight of leaves, dry weight of bulb, neck thickness and circumference of bulb, volume of bulb, and vitamin C showed high and positive indirect effect towards bulb yield through bulb weight.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1169–1172
Devi Ritismita1, Sony Deka2, Shanaj Yasmin Borborah3 and Sarma P. Manash*4
1-4 Department of Biotechnology, Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati - 781 026, Assam, India
Abstract
Bamboo shoots one of the widely varied and indigenous growth of North East India is still not completely explored. The various phytochemicals /secondary metabolites present in succulent bamboo shoots come with great health benefits. Keeping that in view the preliminary work on two most widely consumed bamboo shoot in Assam has been done. The results found are quite promising with high amount of phytochemicals and necessary biochemicals. Further research on those extracts with GCMS, FTIR and various bioinformatic tools are highly recommendable in this aspect.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1173–1176
B. Vaishali*1 and V. Jaiganesh2
1-2 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The pot culture studies were undertaken to investigate the changes in the enzymatic contents in rice var. ADT 36 after the application of bioprotectant fluorescent pseudomonads, Resistance inducing chemical Salicylic acid, Organic immunizer Navagavya and inoculation of brown spot pathogen Bipolaris oryzae. Among the various treatments undertaken, seed treatment of fluorescent Pseudomonads with sprouted rice seeds at the rate of 10 g/kg of seeds, along with foliar application of Salicylic acid 50 ppm at 15 DAT and Navagavya (5%) at 30 DAT recorded the minimum disease incidence, increased biometrics and yield parameters. Results also revealed that the same treatment increased the activity of β-1,3 glucanase, Peroxidase (PO), Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). The activity of β-1,3 glucanase, PO, PPO, PAL increased upto 14 days of sampling and then decreased in the test plants.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1177–1182
P. Sathiya Bama*1
1 P. G. Department of Zoology, M. V. Muthiah, Govt Arts College, Affiliated to Mother Teresa Women’s University, Dindigul - 624 001, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Butterflies are the most beautiful insects on the earth and are recognized for their splendour, attractiveness and graceful flight. They are good pollinators impacting good amount of benefits to humankind and ecosystem. Considering the importance of this species, the diversity of butterfly fauna in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu was documented. The study was carried out in three different study areas of different ecosystems at Dindigul. Field observation was carried out between September 2020 to March 2021. The study revealed a total of 40 species of butterflies belonging to 29 genera, grouped under four families and 9 sub families were recorded. Some species namely Danaus chrysippus, Acraea violae, Catopsilian pomona, Euploea core, Pachliopta aristolochiae, Papilio polymnestor, Appias albino and Zizula hylax were observed regularly and very common (VC) in occurrence. Likewise, 6 species Euploea klugii, Phalanta phalantha, Vaenessa cardui, Colotis danae, Chilades lajus and Spindasis vulvanus were observed as rare occurrence species (RO). The percentage of occurrence was found to be high in the month of November, December and January on par with plant productivity and flowers bloom. The distribution might also be associated with specialties in the floral composition of plants in a particular habitat. Many of the butterfly species are strictly seasonal with less population and they are good indicators in terms of anthropogenic disturbance, poor vegetation and habitat degradation.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1183–1186
Jeya R.*1 and N. Nadim2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Extension, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The investigation was taken-up in Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu to study the extent of adoption of ATMA beneficiaries on recommended ragi cultivation practices. Out of the ten blocks Hosur, Krishnagiri and Shoolagiri were selected based on a greater number of respondents participated in the ATMA training. A sample size of 120 respondents were selected by using proportionate random sampling technique. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. The results of the study revealed that nearly half the proportion (46.66 per cent) of the respondents had medium level of adoption followed by low (30.84 per cent) level of adoption on ragi cultivation practices recommended by ATMA. The important constraints expressed by majority of the beneficiaries were labour scarcity. low price to the product, high cost of inputs, non-availability of inputs, non-availability of credit on time, lack of extension services, middle man interaction, inadequate transport facility and delayed repayment.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1187–1190
B. Kamatchi Kala*1 and R. Kowsalya4
1-2 P. G. Research Department of Botany, Sri Parasakthi College for Women (Autonomous), Courtallam - 627 802, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Fertilizer plays a significant role in production of any agricultural crops but continuous and improper use of chemical fertilizer will have an adverse effect on the environment and soil health. VAM offer an eco-friendly biological alternative to chemical fertilizers for enhancing plant quality and productivity in agriculture. The present study was carried out to study the influence of VAM on seed germination, seedling growth and nutrient contents of some selected leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus dubius, Anethum graveolens, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Spinacia oleracea and Coriandrum sativum. The results show that seeds of leafy vegetables inoculated with VAM had a significant effect on seed germination, seedling growth and nutrient contents of all the five selected leafy vegetables.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1191–1196
P. K. Srivastava*1 and N. S. Singh2
1-2 Department of Foods and Nutrition, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University), Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Pasta is a rapidly increasing segment of the food sector. Nutrient imbalance can often be caused by the usage of wheat basis goods. The expansion rate, mass density and reasonable texture quality of the elephant foot yam (EFY) products are good. We have prepared a functional pasta using Moringa leaves, Yam and Mushroom flour. This product development and its sensory study has been conducted in the Food Science and Technology Lab, BBAU, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The overall time of experiments was 9 months. The current trial consists of experimental studies as well as powdered samples of yam, mushroom, and moringa leaves. Results of this research have indicated that sample T5 and its features of colour and appearance, flavour, smell, taste and general acceptability at composition Y (60%), MF (30%) and MLF (10%) at community level have been approved.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1197–1200
Bhupesh Kumar Mishra*1, Santosh Pandey2 and Ramesh Singh3
1-3 Department of Agronomy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment has been conducted to assess the real time utility and abundance of organic minerals in cultivation of common wheat, Triticum aestivum L. in Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh with the aim of finding the effect of available soil organic minerals on various biophysical or morphological characters including yield attributes. For the experiment, the cultivar namely RAJ-4037 which is best for dry land area and crop matures in 120 days. This variety is suitable for bakery and beverage industry, has been taken. The pre availability of manures were measured and the application of various fertilizers have been done as per the recommended dose for the cultivation. The data of various biophysical characters like Hight of Plants, Number of Tillers, Leaf Area Index, Number of Ears, Number of Grains Per Ear and Test Weight have been recorded as per standard methods. The results revealed that organic minerals had a significant impact to influence the various biophysical traits such as height (65-87cm), number of tillers (273-315) while the maximum leaf area index was recorded maximum in vermin compost treatment.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1201–1207
Raosaheb Sawant*1, S. M. Pawar2 and Sangram Chavan3
1,3 Hytech Seed India Pvt. Ltd, At-Pakhora, Post Pakhora, Gangapur, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India 2 Shivaji Art, Commerce and Science College, Kannad, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Higher crop production by cultivating climate smart crops and addressing their biotic and abiotic production constraints by eco-friendly way is required for sustainable development. Sorghum shoot fly is a major pest and causes economic losses to sorghum growers’ through-out the world. 8 CMS lines were crossed with 8 testers in line x tester passion to investigate the role of glossy leaf character in imparting shoot fly resistance. All 16 parents, 64 crosses, maintainers of CMS lines and specific checks comprising total 112 genotypes were evaluated by infester row technique in randomized block design with three replications for two consecutive years in rainy season. Data were recorded on leaf glossiness, eggs per plant, percent egg laying and percent dead hearts at 14, 21 and 28 DAE (days after emergence). There was sufficient variability for all traits among the genotypes tested. Pooled data of two years was analyzed for mean performance, combining ability, correlation and genetic variance components. Strong, positive and highly significant correlation between leaf glossiness and percent egg laying (r = 0.837**), percent dead hearts at 14 DAE (r = 0.945**), percent dead hearts at 21 DAE (r = 0.880**), percent dead hearts at 28 DAE (r = 0.886**) was observed. All these traits were under the control of additive gene action and selection in early generation will be effective for improvement in these traits. Additive genetic control, high narrow sense heritability coupled with high genetic advance makes stable expression of glossy trait across the environments. It was found that the glossy trait acts through non-preference to oviposition. So, glossy trait can be used as morphological marker for selection and development of shoot fly resistant genotypes. Parents PA4, PR1, PR2 and crosses, PA4 X PR1, PA4 X PR7, PA7 X PR1, PA5 X PR3, and PA4 X PR2 may be evaluated further across more locations and used in breeding program for development of shoot fly resistant genotypes and commercial utilization.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1208–1210
P. Monisha1, S. Sanjaygandhi*2 and L. Vengadeshkumar3
1-3 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In the present study the efficacy of biocontrol agent against Rhizoctonia solani. The biocontrol agent was B. subtilis is most effective against rice sheath blight pathogen. The screening of seven isolates of B. subtilis against R. solani on nutrient agar plates. All the isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of the pathogen. Among the isolates of B. subtilis (BS3) appeared to be the most effective against the test pathogen showing 69.68 per cent inhibition of colony growth, followed by BS7, BS5 isolates. The results of the experiment showed the superiority of B. subtilis (BS3) and hence the same was used for subsequent studies.

Short communication | Published online : 19-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1211–1215
Shreya*1 and Shalini Mehta2
1-2 Department of Botany, Ranchi University, Ranchi - 834 001, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
Higher plants have been used extensively to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of different type of mutagens along the years. The clastogenic effects of two physical mutagens viz. X-rays [260 and 520 mAs] and laser beam [Wavelength- 632.8nm; 1 minute and 2 minutes] were investigated on the root tip of Vicia species. For determining the radiation stress and self-protecting system, cytological studies were calculated: Mitotic Index (MI%) and Total Abnormality Percentage (Abn%). Mutagenic parameters were percentage of dividing cells which showed a linear relationship between the dose absorbed and chromosomal anomalies. Bridges and fragments were the pronounced abnormalities noticed in X-ray treated seeds whereas stickiness, were dominant in laser beam treatment, with some phenomenon like prolonged nucleus, unequal separation was found stage specific. It was found that X-ray > Laser Beam deleterious showing a marked mito-depressive effect on mitosis of the Vicia species cells.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1216–1219
Purnima Beohar1, Renu Pathak2, Prashant Chaturvedi3 and Divya Singh*4
1-4 Post Graduate Studies and Research in Biological Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ranidurgawati University, Jabalpur - 482 002, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Biomethanation is a mechanism to receive "biogas". It is a clean, effective and a strong fossil-fuel substituent. In this paper we will discuss the optimum production of Biogas from different mixing ratios of horticultural waste (HW), cow dung (CD) and poultry waste (PW) using gravel filter as well as analyzing the biofertilizer and vermicompost. Horticultural waste / cow dung mixing ratios are (HW, CD) 1:1, 1:2, 1:3. The results showed that the co-digestion greatly affected the production of biogas and the yield of methane. Maximum production of biogas is seen in the ratio 1:1. Likewise, the mixing ratios of cow dung, poultry waste and horticultural waste are also defined in order to evaluate the product's improvement. The higher yields of biogas from the ratio 1:1:1 (CD, PW and HW) were achieved. Gravel filter was used and wash water from various ratios of waste was collected and analyzed and then vermicomposting of the decomposed waste using earthworms was performed and this vermicompost analysis was also performed.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1220–1226
Bratindra Krishna Das*1 and Tapan Sarkar2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Raiganj University, Raiganj -733 134, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Noctuid moths and caterpillars act as very serious pests in causing damage to crops throughout the world. Owing to their wide distribution and polyphagy, these pests attack different parts of the plant causing huge economic losses. In this study, the morphology of the gut canal is described and illustrated for the fifth instars of Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera litura based on light microscopic images. For this study histological preparation was made from gut wall tissues of two genera. This histological preparation was done by section preparation of gut tissue with ultramicrotome which is followed by staining of tissues with haematoxylene – eosin (Delafieled) method. Particular attention was given to the gut histology of two genera Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera litura. The digestive system of species in these two genera was similar, but some differences in morphology and cytology were reported between the two genera. The histology of these pests are also compared with same species feeding on another host to unveil the effect of host plant on gut structure. The knowledge gained through this study will clarify the biology of these pests.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1227–1232
Khangembam Pranali Devi1, Nanam Ronya2 and Daisy Sharma*3
1-3 Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Assam Downtown University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati - 781 026, Assam, India
Abstract
A food product using Capsicum chinense Jacq. (King chilli) was developed to standardize different products by using king chilli, and to study overall acceptability, chemical characteristics, and shelf- life stability of the developed products. Two products namely King chilli puree (KCP) and Leftover king chilli pickle (LKCP) were developed from king chilli and tomato with three formulations under each products. The acceptability trials was conducted after each formulations using nice point hedonic scale. Out of all the formulations, KCP3 exhibited highest scores for all the sensory attributes with an overall acceptability score of 8.80. Thus, KCP3 were selected for carrying out further analysis. Nutrients content of the KCP3 products were moisture (96.51g/100g), total ash (0.22g/100g), fat (0.41), protein (0.79g/100g), carbohydrate (2.07g/100g), energy (15.1kcal), and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) (210.75mg). The shelf life and the sensory scores of the formulation remain intact in all the sensory attributes at 45 days of storage and the microbiological quality was under food low allowance of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) due to king chilli`s anti-bacterial substance. The nutrition education program and demonstration was conducted with a major objectives of entrepreneurship development to encourage people to grow and developed products from king chilli. As the development and utilization of such functional ingredients will enhance the overall health of the population as well as prevent the various life-threatening diseases, such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, arthritis and also help in the economic development of the king chilli growers.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1233–1236
Unnikrishnan R.1 and Jayasree Sankar*2
1-2 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
The electrochemical properties of a soil have a major role in crop production as well as soil management practices. Kari soil is an acid sulphate soil whereas Kole land is a potential acidic soil. Electrochemical properties - pH, EC, CEC, OC and biological properties MBC, dehydrogenase activity, Aryl sulphatase activity were analyzed and studied during the course of study. Kari soil reported the lowest average pH (4.37) when compared to Kole land but Kari soil l recorded the highest average EC (0.884 dSm-1). Kari soil recorded the highest average CEC (13.11 cmol (+) kg-1) as well as average OC (5.02%) in comparison to Kole land. The Kari soil recorded relatively higher values for all the three biological properties. The aryl sulphatase activity as well as MBC positively correlated with OC, EC, CEC and negatively correlated with pH.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1237–1239
S. Sinduja*1 and T. Uma Maheswari2
1-2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
This present investigation on “Effect of auxins on rooting of cuttings in Pear (Pyrus communis L.)” was carried out at the Brooklands Estate, Coonoor, Nilgiris district during November, 2019. This experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design with ten treatments and three replications. The treatments comprised of using three auxins such as IBA, IAA and NAA with three different concentrations viz., 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm. The pear cuttings were dipped in the auxins and then planted in the polybags and kept inside the mist. The result of the experiment revealed that the root parameters viz., minimum number of days taken for rooting (20.81) and maximum value for rooting percentage (96.56%), number of roots per cutting (9.72), root length (10.92 cm), fresh weight of roots (3.51g) and dry weight of roots (0.94 g) were recorded in the treatment where the cuttings treated with IBA @ 2000 ppm (T3). This was followed by IBA @ 1500 ppm (T2) which recorded the minimum number of days taken for rooting (23.15) and maximum value for rooting percentage (93.02%), number of roots per cutting (9.21), root length (9.89 cm), fresh weight of roots (3.32 g) and dry weight of roots (0.81 g). The least value for root parameters were observed in control. Hence, from this above experiment, it is concluded that the auxin with IBA @ 2000 ppm followed by IBA @ 1500 ppm performed the best compared with other treatments.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1240–1244
Jitendra Singh*1 and Neelam Kumar Singh2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Economics, BNPG College, Rath - 210 431, District- Hamirpur, Uttar Pradesh
Abstract
The present study is undertaken to examine the costs and return in production of field pea and their marketing. A two-stage random sampling technique were adopted for selection of village, farmers and the market functionaries for the investigation. Block “Dakore” was selected purposively on the basis of highest area under Pea crop in the district Jalaun. The study reveals that the highest average yield 30.25 qt/ha was obtained through large farms size group followed was 27.50 qt/ha on small size group of farms and 25 qt/ha on marginal size group of farms. Maximum net return of Rs. 41544 per hectare was obtained through large farms followed by Rs. 36402 on small farms and Rs. 31305 on marginal farms. The average cost of production was calculated to Rs. 1310, it was lowest (Rs. 1253/qt) on large farms and higher on (Rs.1374/qt) on marginal farms. In channel I of marketing of field pea, producer’s share observed 85.80 percent and, in the channel II, total producer’s share found 81.94 percent. It was lower in comparison to channel because of existence of one more middleman. The marketing charges paid by whole seller and retailers came to Rs. 43 and Rs. 35 per quintal, respectively. Price spread in channel I is 14.21 and in channel II is 18.06. From the above findings, it may be concluded that farmers get a little more share in the price paid by the consumer under regulated marketing system in comparison to unregulated marketing.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1245–1249
S. Kathiresan1 and T. Raj Pravin*2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Climate changes distress the farming with droughts, floods, aberrant rainfall and changes in temperature which affects farming and livelihoods of millions of farm families in our nation. In drought prone areas, small and marginal farmers are affected by inadequate rainfall situation which affects their livelihood security. Avoidance of climate variability is not possible and is a new normal in farming today. The need of the hour is to integrate various component of farming to satisfy farmers needs with the available resources at their disposal. Farming community needs to be obtained more knowledge about climate change and its impact on farming and allied activities to mitigate climate change related issues. Namakkal district was selected for this study as it was prone to frequent natural vagaries as a result of climate change issues. Erumapatty block in Namakkal district was selected because of National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) scheme was under implementation. Among the 24 village panchayats in Erumapatty block, Vadavathur village panchayat was selected for this study. The data was collected from 120 farm respondents through a pre-tested interview schedule. The findings of the study revealed that more than half (53.33 per cent) of the farmers had low level of knowledge followed by 3 0.00 per cent and 16.67 per cent of the farmers had medium and high level of knowledge on climate change.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1250–1255
Dhiraj Kapila*1
1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara - 144 001, Punjab, India
Abstract
Smart agriculture is an automated and directed information technology implemented with the IOT (Internet of Things). IOT is implementing sharply and globally applied in all wireless domains. In this study, wireless sensor technique and interfacing of wireless networks of IOT technology has been studied and revised based on the physical condition of agricultural system. A hybrid technique with internet and wireless communications is projected. Main aim of this technique is to gather real time data of agriculture production environment that offers simple admittance for agricultural services such as alarms through Short Massaging Service (SMS) and give smart assistances on weather form, crops etc.

Research Review | Published online : 24-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1256–1261
Yasir Ayoub*1 and Waqar ul Ashraf2
1 Division of Agricultural Economics and Agri-business Management, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu - 180 009, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The study entitled Consumer perception: Case of restaurants in Jammu was carried in Jammu district of J and K during the year 2019. The study was descriptive type in nature and the total 150 number of respondents were conveniently selected for the study. The study revealed that the highest number of the respondents i.e., 42.67 per cent visit the restaurants weekly. The majority of the respondents i.e., 92.00 said that they like the restaurant food while as other 8.00 per cent said that they do not like the restaurant food. The highest number of respondents i.e., 42.66 per cent said that they prefer two-star restaurant. Furthermore, the highest number of the respondents i.e., 30.66 said that among the all-factors price of food influences their perception towards the restaurant.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1262–1266
Suman Mukherjee*1
1 Parasitology and Immunobiology Laboratory, Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Bidhannagar College, Eb-2, Sector-1, Saltlake City, Kolkata - 700 064, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Freshwater edible molluscs Bellamya bengalensis (Molluscs: Gastropoda) is an economically important species. Chlorpyrifos is a crystalline organophosphate insecticide and is used in the agricultural field for control insect pests. Mollusc mostly elucidates effective immunological responses by producing cytotoxic molecules like generation of superoxide anion and nitric oxide against environmental xenobiotics. Haemocytes of B. bengalensis are an immune effector cell of haemolymph and are capable of discrimination self and nonself surface, phagocytosis of foreign particles and production of cytotoxic molecules as an antimicrobial agent. The cells lining the digestive tubule participate in moving the food, secreting substances in the lumina, phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules. Fresh water Bellamya bengalensis were exposed to sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos for varied span of time in controlled laboratory condition to examine phagocytic response in haemocyte, histopathology and cytotoxic activity in digestive tubule. The tissue pathology demonstrates a state of inflammation which is related to possible disruption of cellular homeostasis Alteration in phagocytic response of haemocyte challenged with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and increment of activity of superoxide anion (SOA) along with parallel decrease in the activities of nitric oxide (NO) in digestive tubule appeared to be detrimental for survival of Bellamya bengalensis in the chlorpyrifos contaminated environment. Data is indicative of cellular metabolic stress in the edible gastropod that may lead to decline of population size in freshwater aquatic system of West Bengal.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1267–1268
Surekha B. Bansode*1 and Prashant J. Gavit2
1-2 ASS and SPS’s Arts, Commerce and Science College, Navapur, District Nandurbar - 425418, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Present work was carried out to find out any adverse effect of bioneem on lipid content in the intestine of freshwater fish Garra mullya. The lipid content of the intestine was found to be decreased after acute exposure of bioneem from 6.65% to 6.15%. The total lipid content in the intestine of fish Garra mullya (Sykes) was found to be decreased in acute treatment of pesticide bioneem. Biochemical changes induced by pesticide lead to metabolic disturbances, changes in behaviour and physiology. It is concluded that the pesticides promote utilization of lipid from intestine in order to meet the increased energy requirement of enhanced metabolic activity due to pesticidal stress. Present investigation indicates that the fish G. mullya treated with the neem or botanical insecticides (Bioneem) which is although considered to be eco-friendly have shown decreasing lipid content with increase in the exposure period even at the sub lethal concentrations thus experimental fish is not able to maintain a normal physiological balance compared to the control. These pesticides can also be one of the threats to fish and aquatic environment.

Short communication | Published online : 26-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1269–1272
G. R. Aruna*1 and R. S. Umakanth2
1 Krishi Vigyan Kendra (GKVK, UAS), Chintamani, District Chikkaballapura - 563 125, Karnataka, India 2 Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, Manasa Gangothri, University of Mysore, Mysuru - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Sericulture is production of silk by rearing of silkworms on large scale. Silkworm is one of the important laboratory model to study the longevity or adult life span among insects. In silkworm, the total life span from egg to moth is known as ontogeny which varies based on the voltinism it belongs to, and is a genetically controlled biological phenomenon. In the present study longevity duration of unmated and mated female and male moths of PM x CSR2 and PM x FC2 in three seasons was calculated following the standard statistical procedure. At present adult lifespan or longevity is an important fitness parameter of silkworm breeding. It is clear from the present findings that there is sexual differentiation in the longevity of adults based on continuous and discontinuous mating. It is observed that the heterogametic sex i.e., females (ZW) exhibited shorter duration of survival compared to homogametic sex i.e., males (ZZ). Among the crosses, unmated moths show longer duration of survival than mated moths; of the three seasons longevity was higher in post-monsoon season followed by monsoon and pre monsoon. PM x CSR2 showed higher longevity hours over PM x FC2 among the hybrids for all the three seasons understudy.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1273–1276
Madhulika Gautam*1 and Priya Yadav2
1-2 Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University) Dayalbagh, Agra - 282 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The novel coronavirus has caused the worldwide pandemic. Safety precautions are given by world health organizations for the general people awareness to stop the transmission of this infectious disease. There are focus on four parameters such as social distancing, use of face mask, hand sanitization and disinfected surfaces at home. The present study was done to know the safety precautions taken by adults during Covid-19. The study was conducted on 115 adults of Bareilly. The sample was selected by quota sampling technique. The selected adults were in the age group of 20-40 years. Self-prepared questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings of the present study indicate that safety precaution taken by adult regarding social distancing according to educational status indicates that the adults of above graduate had higher mean scores (5.89) as compared to the below graduate (4.63) and obtained t value 3.79 is significant. According to the use of face mask, above graduate adults had higher mean score (2.98) as compared to below graduate (2.61). The obtained t value is significant (2.34). Regarding hand sanitization, above graduate adults had higher score (3.55) than the below graduate (3.12) and obtained t value is significant (1.52). Regarding the disinfected surfaces at home, adults of below 30 years had higher score (2.84) as compared to above 30 years adults (2.22) and obtained t value 5.14 is significant. Adults of below graduate had higher score (2.84) than the above graduate (2.22). This difference found to be significant (t=5.11).

Research Article | Published online : 26-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1277–1280
Jaiganesh V.1, Vaishali B.2, Darwin Christdhas Henry L.3, Sudha Raja Kumar R.4, Thamarai Selvi M.5 and Kannan C.6
1-6 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The field trial studies were undertaken to investigate the changes in the brown spot disease incidence and yield parameters in Rice var. ADT 36 after the application of bioprotectant fluorescent Pseudomonads, Resistance inducing chemical Salicylic acid, Organic immunizer Navagavya. Among the various treatments undertaken, Seed treatment of talc based fluorescent Pseudomonads with sprouted rice seeds at the rate of 10 g/kg of seeds, along with foliar application of Salicylic acid 50 ppm at 15 DAT and Navagavya (5%) at 30 DAT recorded the minimum disease incidence, increased biometrics and yield parameters. In all the treatments there were significant increase in yield over check.

Research Article | Published online : 27-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1281–1284
Akhil Kumar S*1, A. Palavesam2, M. G. Sanal Kumar3
1-2 Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli - 689 012, Tamil Nadu, India 3 N. S. S. College, Pandalam - 689 501, Kerala, India
Abstract
The fish visceral waste is contemplated as one of the wealthiest sources of proteolytic enzymes. The fish viscera are not being used as a food item and considered as a waste material, which generally dumped or hauled into ocean. The large accumulation of such waste shows the way to pollution of water and other resources. The present study authenticated the ability of fish visceral protease to hydrolyze gelatin on waste X-ray film. This study also confirmed that Fish Visceral protease has the potential of being reused for extracting silver from used X-ray films in a recyclable way. Since the emulsion layer on X-ray film contains silver and gelatin, it is feasible to break down the gelatin layer using proteases and release the silver without damaging the polyester film base. In the present study, it was observed that treatment of X-ray films with protease enzyme obtained from Sphyraena obtusata resulted in the sliver bound with gelatin being stripped off into the reaction mixture and the clean plastic film being recovered. The optimum range of temperature on protease activity and stability were obtained as 50°C and optimum pH obtained was 8. The gelatin layer was stripped entirely within 45 minutes under optimum condition of pH 8 and temperature 50°C. The silver was recovered from the hydrolysate and the presence was confirmed using qualitative test.

Short communication | Published online : 27-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1285–1288
Kumari Shivani1, Mishra Smriti2, Bharali Deffodil3 and Mishra Sunita*4
1-4 Department of Food and Nutrition, School for Home Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A rich source of Functional compounds is found with food residues, which are usually wasted. In this study, fruits and vegetable residue (FVR) flour was developed and evaluated. The application of FVR flour as nutritional, cheaply available, inexpensive raw material, for the development of Nachos and biscuits were studied. FVR flour with its numerous health benefits offers lot of scope for future food industry. The present work was based on development of FVR flour generated from the food pulp and vegetable residues and minimize the wastage. The main objective of this study is to standardize and develop the product FVR flour from the fruit and vegetable residue, which are used in the treatment of several diseases and other conditions. This study is carried out to use some selective fruits such as – raw papaya, apple and guava residue flour with multigrain atta and vegetable such as – amla, carrot, moringa residue flour with chickpea flour for the preparation of biscuits and nachos. The microbiological stability 60 days and consumer acceptance are analyzed, the organoleptic acceptability of the prepared food product averaged around 6-7 and are extremely liked and accepted. For packaging of the product, aluminized aseptic bag’s is used which protect the products against physical, chemical, biological and environmental factors.

Research Article | Published online : 28-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1289 –1293
R. Vallipriya*1 and M. S. Begum2
1-2 Department of Biochemistry, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram - 637 408, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Ipomoea Biloba on isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity using Albino rats by monitoring the enzymatic, non-enzymatic, serum enzyme levels, microscopical examinations. The rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I served as a normal control; Group II rats were administered isoproterenol (20mg/kg) through sub cutaneous injection to induce the myocardial infarction. Group III and IV were pretreated with ethanolic extract of Ipomoea biloba leaf (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg respectively) before to the subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (20mg/kg, b.w) for 2 consecutive days. Group V received ethanolic extract of Ipomoea biloba (200mg/kg b.w) alone for 28 days excluding the treatment procedures. After the completion of experimental period, the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and lipoproteins were estimated. The myocardial damage was assessed by quantifying the serum levels of cardiac marker enzymes (AST, ALT, LDH, CK, and TP) uric acid, and ceruloplasmin. The results of this experiment revealed that the Isoproterenol induced rats showed a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and phospholipids in both serum and heart homogenate. A rise in the levels of LDL, VLDL with significant decrease in the level of HDL was also observed in the serum of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats. Interestingly our findings were proved that the treatment with the ethanolic extract of I. biloba leaf was showed the noticeable decrease in the lipid profiles and myocardial marker enzymes in the experimental rats. The extract treatment also prevented the elevation of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids in myocardial infarction induced rats. Hence, the findings of this work was clearly proved that the I. biloba leaf was appreciably prevented the isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.

Research Article | Published online : 28-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1294–1297
S. Uma1, R. Gobi*2, A. Balasubramanian3, S. Sathiyamurthi4 and K. Suseendran5
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar – 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiments were conducted to improve the growth and productivity of cowpea through different nutrient management practices at Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University during March to May, 2018 and at farmer’s field, Minnampalli Village, Manmangalam Taluk, Karur District during September to December, 2018. The experiments were laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with three replications comprising of 10 treatments viz. T1: control, T2: 100% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through fertilizer [25 kg Nitrogen], T3: 50% RDN through fertilizer + 50% N through Vermicompost, T4: 50% RDN through fertilizer + 50% N through FYM, T5: 100% RDN through fertilizer + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray (30 and 45 Days After Sowing), T6: 50% RDN through fertilizer + 50% N through Vermicompost + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray (30 and 45 DAS), T7: 50% RDN through fertilizer + 50% N through FYM + 0.5% ZnSO4 foliar spray (30 and 45 DAS), T8: 100% RDN through fertilizer + 0.5% Zn-EDTA foliar spray (30 and 45 DAS), T9: 50% RDN through fertilizer + 50% N through Vermicompost + 0.5% Zn-EDTA foliar spray (30 and 45 DAS) and T10: 50% RDN through fertilizer + 50% N through FYM + 0.5% Zn-EDTA foliar spray (30 and 45 DAS). The result of the study revealed that application of 50% RDN + 50% N through Vermicompost + 0.5% Zn-EDTA foliar spray on 30 and 45 DAS showed a significant increment in the growth characters viz. Plant height, leaf area index and dry matter production, yield attributes viz. number of branches plant-1, pod length and number of pods plant-1 and yield of cowpea over the control.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1298–1301
K. Parani*1 and M. Nanthini2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Botany, Sri Parasakthi College for Women (Autonomous), Courtallam - 627 802, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this present study, the inorganic fertilizers (urea, complex) were used as supplements for the growth of chilli seedlings. There was a significantly higher percentage of seed germination as control i.e., soil alone (92%) whereas urea + complex supplemented soil enhanced the seed germination at (80%) followed with complex mixed soil showed as 64% of seed germination after 7 days respectively. Growth parameters in terms of plant height (15.5 cm), shoot length (10 cm) and root length (5.5 cm) were recorded in mixture of urea + complex supplemented soil followed by control (soil alone) at 30 days growth of chilli seedlings. Biochemical parameters viz., nitrate reductase activity showed the maximum enzyme (0.045 mg/g Fresh weight) in soil alone grown seedlings of chilli plants and lowest NR activity was seen in complex treated soil. Highest amount of carotenoids, proteins and sugars (0.37 mg/g Fresh weight, 0.96 mg/g Fresh weight and 5.83 mg/g Fresh weight) were recorded in chilli seedling grown in Urea treated soil, followed by complex treated soil, (0.64 mg/g Fresh weight of proteins and 5.69 mg/g Fresh weight of sugars) respectively as compared to other treatments.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1302–1307
Ramesha Naika*1 and Shivanand Pawar2
1 School of Rural Development, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Tuljapur Campus, Maharashtra, India 2 Central University of Karnataka, Kadaganchi - 585 367, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In India's circumstance, more than 60% of people are engaged directly and indirectly in agriculture work. An integrated farming system proved a practical approach with an appropriate combination of farms and enterprises. The integrated farming system will help to increase farm income and employment to the farmers for sustainable agriculture. The present study is focused on understanding the integrated farming system and its significance towards sustainable agriculture, to know the benefits of Integrated Farming System on Indian farmers, to assess the improvement in the standard of living of the farmers after introducing Integrated Farming System. The study is based on primary data. A well-structured interview schedule and also qualitative methods were used as a case study for depth study to understand the integrated farming system from the farmers. Overall, this study found that an integrated farming system has significance towards sustainable agriculture, Integrated Farming System brings more benefits than other agriculture systems on Indian farmers, and brought improvement in the standard of living of the farmer after adopting the Integrated Farming System.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1308–1315
Abaas Ahmad Mir*1 and Rayees Ahmed2
1-2 Department of Geography and Disaster Management, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal - 190 006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
SWAT “Soil and Water Assessment Tool” model has been extensively utilized for the prioritization of watersheds / sub-watershed and to estimate sediment yield index. Arc-SWAT, an Arc-GIS extension and interface for SWAT has been employed using Arc-GIS10.2 software. Climate data (temperature and precipitation) for a ten-year time period i.e., 2006-2016 of weather station in vicinity of the study area, Land use/Land cover map (IRS LISS III P6 of 2016), and Soil map derived through “National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning of India” are the main datasets that have been utilized to extract the necessary input parameters for SWAT model. ASTER-GDEM has been used to delineate watershed outlines, generating sub-watersheds and slope map. A total of 41 sub-watersheds are delineated by selecting the appropriate threshold. Based on the post-processing, 6 sub-watersheds were placed in the very high priority category, 5 in high priority category, 12 in medium priority category, and 18 sub-watersheds in low priority category. Sub-watersheds which come under high priority category (i.e., 1, 2, 8, 10, 17 and 38) and high category (7, 15, 24, 31, and 35) are recommended for adopting on immediate basis for best soil loss management planning and sustainable agro-horticultural activities.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1316–1319
Devendra Baghel1, Tajamul Hussain Sheikh*2 and Archana Purohit3
1-2 Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore - 452 001, Madhya Pradesh, India 3 Department of Geography, Mata Jijabai Govt. Girls' P. G. College, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Education has a great significance in modern society; hence education is often called the key to bright future. Education is a determinant of social, economic cultural as well as political development of an area. Education as a tool eradicates poverty and unemployment, generates job opportunities, economic growth and standard of living among the social groups. In India, we find that non tribal groups have been benefited with the help education, but tribal groups are still lagged behind socially, economically and as well as culturally. Education is important for all including tribal groups. Although, the Central Government and State Government of Madhya Pradesh has taken many steps towards the development of education level of tribal people but their education level still remains poor. This paper reveals the impact of government schemes on education of tribal women in Madhya Pradesh and their issues and challenges, where scheduled tribe population holds 21.1% of the state population according to the 2011 census.

Research Article | Published online : 31-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1320–1324
Swati Shakya*1, Seema Bhadauria2 and Neelam Tripathi3
1,3 Department of Biotechnology, Sri Satya Sai University of technology and Medical Science Sehore - 466 001, Madhya Pradesh, India 2 Department of Botany, RBS College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Cultural heritage monuments can be compromised as well as obscured by the turn of occasions and activity of living organic entities. Bio-structures framework microbial biofilm on surface areas of sandstone, producing injury to design as well as greatness. Living beings involved with this are bacteria, algae, fungi, as well as lichen. Among all the opportunities of bacteria in the development of all-natural spots and shades, the most essential task of weakening as well as fragmentation of different kinds of sandstone in cultural heritage. In the existing exam eight examples were collected from different destinations which are included sandstone. The 3 biocommunities were divided which have control over sandstone layouts of the monuments. The exam demonstrated that the strain exposed substantial level of 16s comparability with Bacillus cereus (MT994833), Bacillus paralicheniformis (MT994830), Bacillus subtilis subsp. Stercoris (MT994828).

Research Article | Published online : 31-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1325–1329
Monika Nagrani*1, Dharamveer Singh2 and Purti Chaturvedi3
1-3 Department of Physics, Agra College, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Yamuna River originates from glacier Yamunotri, it traces its path passing through parts of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Agra, Mathura, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Delhi NCR. The river has traces of heavy metals and pollutants which are harmful for marine inhabitants and green belt around the Agra region. Agra people have to bank upon million-dollar project of Ganga water for the requirement. But still people are not getting enough water. So, need to visualize the situation and provide some green technology solution is required for its purification. Moreover, it is good for agricultural and irrigation process also. Data shows that nano technology can be efficient solution to it. In this series of nanomaterial, halloysite nanomaterial proved to the be the best, out of them for the purification of river suggested in literature. Along with-it incorporation of sewage plant is also required suggested by Government of India to preserve the green belt around and safeguard the river.

Case Study | Published online : 31-Jul-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1330–1332
S. Srinivasan*1, T. Mathana2 and S. Kalaisudarson3
1-2 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
To evaluate the effect of integrated organic nutrient sources on growth and yield of barnyard millet, the field experiment was conducted in the Farmer’s Field at Anaikkudam Village, Udaiyarpalayam Taluk, Ariyalur District, Tamil Nadu. The experimental design was randomized block design with eight treatments replicated thrice. The treatments of the study were T1: Control, T2: 100% RDF, T3: CPC @ 10 t ha-1 + BMP @ 1.0 t ha-1 + PG (3%), T4: CPC @ 10 t ha-1 + PG (3%), T5: CPC @ 10 t ha-1 + BMP @ 1.0 t ha-1, T6 : T3 + Liquid Bio- fertilizer (1%), T7: T4 + Liquid Bio- fertilizer (1%), T8: T5 + Liquid bio-fertilizer (1%). The results revealed that application of 100% RDF (T2) recorded significantly the highest grain yield and straw yield of 2172 and 4518 kg ha-1, respectively in barnyard millet. The next best was found to be with CPC + BMP + PG + LBF (T6) (grain yield - 1923 kg ha-1 and straw yield - 4071 kg ha-1).

Research Article | Published online : 02-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1333–1337
Kumar Harsh*1 and Akhilesh Kumar Pal2
1-2 Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The knowledge of the direction and magnitude of correlation is used to know the improvement in a character that causes simultaneous changes in other characters. Further correlation studies alone can’t point out inter-relationships between heritable characteristics, so path analysis in combination with correlation is shouted which splits the estimated correlation into direct and indirect effect and specifies the causes and determines their relative effects. Therefore, it would provide a better index for selection rather than the correlation alone. Hence, the genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients along with the path coefficients were worked out and studied for thirty-six characters in twenty-six muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes. The result revealed that, in general genotypic correlation coefficients were higher than that of the phenotypic correlation coefficients which may be due to the modified effect of the environment on the composition of characters at the phenotypic level or due to strong genotypic association between traits. The path analysis based on genotypic associations revealed that fruit yield plant per plant was the main yield attributing characters in yield of muskmelon for determining the true form of character association. Total female flowers, total leaves, pulp weight, and leaf area etc. exhibited positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant thus, a significant improvement in fruit yield can be expected through selection by giving them more weightage.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1338–1342
Poonam Dehariya*1 and Deepak Vyas2
1-2 Lab of Mushroom Biology, Department of Botany, Dr. HS Gour, V. V., Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Six substrates viz. Soybean straw, wheat straw, paddy straw, domestic waste, fruit waste and used tea leaves was taken for the purpose. For the improvement of yield supplementation of Embelica officinalis was done. Among all test substrates soybean straw was give maximum yield 935.0 gm/Kg, 956.7 gm/Kg, 96.0 gm/Kg at 1%, 2% and 3% supplementation respectively. It was observed from the data that different concentrations of Embelica offcinalis was proved good for the enhancement of yield but 3% concentration was giving maximum yield and biological efficiency.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1343–1346
Edara Bala Tejaswi*1, B. G. Suresh2 and G. R. Lavanya3
1-3 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Naini Agricultural Institute, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (SHUATS), Prayagraj - 211 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation consists of 52 upland rice advanced breeding lines used for the experiment was conducted during Kharif-2018 in randomized block design with three replications at Field Experimentation Centre, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Prayagraj (Allahabad). The data were recorded on fourteen quantitative characters to study genetic diversity. Based on the relative magnitude of D2 values, the genotypes were grouped into seven clusters by Euclidean methods of divergence study. Cluster I consist of a maximum of thirty-one advanced breeding lines, followed by cluster II with thirteen advanced breeding lines, cluster III with four breeding lines and cluster IV, V, VI, VII had one breeding line each. The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster VII and III followed by cluster VI and III. Thus, the breeding lines from the clusters having maximum inter cluster distance can be selected and used as parents for hybridization programme to develop desirable lines. Maximum genetic divergence was exhibited by panicle length followed by plant height, spikelets per panicle, harvest index and flag leaf length contributed to 95.11% of total divergence which is needed to be focused while selecting parents for hybridization programme.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1347–1349
Priyanka Kumari*1, Pushpa Jagarwal2 and Dileep Kumar3
1-3 Department of Botany, St. Wilfred’s P. G. College, Jaipur - 302 020, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
In vitro antimicrobial activities of crude chloroform and ethanolic extracts of various plant parts of Manilkara zapota L. was investigated. The extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities with zones of inhibition ranging from 6mm to 16mm. All the extracts exhibited appreciable activity against all the clinically important bacterial and fungal species investigated. In Manilkara zapota L. maximum zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed in ethanolic extract of leaves against Streptomyces grisveus and minimum in ethanolic extract of stem bark (6mm) against Fusarium oxysporum. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was compared with the standard drugs. The ability of the crude extracts of Manilkara zapota L. plant parts to inhibit the growth of various bacteria and fungi showed its broad-spectrum antimicrobial potential, which may be employed in the management of microbial infections. Hence this study offers a base of using Manilkara zapota L. as herbal alternative for the synthesis of antimicrobial agent.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1350–1352
Rohini Darade*1 and Kavita Kadu3
1-2 Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
India is predominantly an agrarian economy with more than 75 per cent of its population living in villages and depending on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. Land and cattle have traditionally been the two basic income yielding assets of Indian farmers. Dairy farming is an important source of subsidiary income to small farmers and agricultural labourers Maharashtra state is pioneer and rank first in the growth of co-operative movement in India. The study of this SWOT analysis shows that the ‘strengths’ and ‘opportunities’ far outweigh ‘weaknesses’ and ‘threats’. Strengths and opportunities are fundamental and weaknesses and threats are transitory. Dairy co-operatives have thus, multiple linkages in development of agriculture, employment, income, and health nutrition and education level in urban as well as rural area.

Short communication | Published online : 02-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1353–1357
Kapil Sharma1, C. K. Dixit2 and Rajneesh K. Agnihotri*3
1-3 Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Khandari Campus, Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Agra - 282 005 Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The allelopathic potential of weeds on germination and growth of crops varies with the weed and crop. The present investigation was undertaken to assess the allelopathic effects of two common weeds Chenopodium murale and Solanum nigrum on the germination and growth of Triticum aestivum (wheat). To achieve the above objectives, in-vitro and greenhouse experiments were set up to assess the allelopathic effects of selected weeds on seed germination and seedling growth. In the petri dish experiment, wheat seeds were treated for ten days with 50 % and 100% concentrations of cold and hot water extracts of weeds. In the pot experiment dried leaf residues of each weed were applied separately to pots in two concentration 5g/kg and 10g/kg soil and maintained for three weeks. Above two weeds affected the physiological parameters of wheat to different degree. Overall, C. murale was found to have the strongest negative effects on germination and growth of Triticum aestivum. In the lab study, the germination of wheat was highly decreased in case of both the weeds. The inhibitory effect increased with the concentration of leachates applied. It was observed that cold aqueous leachates of C. murale was more effective than their hot aqueous leachates. The reverse was true in the case of Solanum nigrum. In the pot experiment also the germination of wheat was decreased due to dried leaf residue of weeds incorporated in the soil. However, the efficacy observed was very different from what was seen in the lab experiment with aqueous extract. Chenopodium murale had the strongest negative effects among the test weeds in the petri-plate study. It had the most detrimental effects on all the physiological parameters of wheat as well. On the other hand, in the pot study C. murale proved to be the strongest inhibitor in all the growth parameters tested. Solanum nigrum had the least negative effect on germination, SVI, shoot length in the laboratory and was ranked third in the pot experiment.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1358–1360
S. Kalaisudarson*1, A. P. Srinivasaperumal2, S. Srinivasan3, T. Balakrishnan4 and V. Balamurugan5
1-2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu 4-5 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at Annamalai University experimental farm, Annamalainagar to find out the impact of weed management practices on weed control index, nutrient removal by weeds and nutrient uptake by irrigated sunflower. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with twelve treatments and replicated thrice viz., unweeded control (T1), Hand weeding twice at 15 and 30 DAS (T2), Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.68 kg ai ha-1 (T3), Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1 kg ai ha-1 (T4), Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.68 kg ai ha-1 + one hand weeding (30 DAS) (T5), Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1 kg ai ha-1 + one hand weeding (30 DAS) (T6), Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.68kg ai ha-1 + Intercropping with blackgram (T7), Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1 kg ai ha-1 + Intercropping with blackgram (T8), Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 0.68kg ai ha-1 + Mulching with sugarcane trash at 21DAS (T9), Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1kg ai ha-1 + Mulching with sugarcane trash at 21 DAS (T10), Intercropping alone (T11), Mulching alone (T12). Results of the experiment revealed that Hand weeding twice at 15 and 30 DAS was found to be superior in weed control index and nutrient uptake by crop. This was on par with Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 1kg ai ha-1 + Intercropping with blackgram.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1361–1363
T. Balakrishnan*1, V. Balamurugan2, S. Kalaisudarson3, A. P. Srinivasaperumal4 and B. Uma Maheshwari5
1-5 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Indian turmeric cultivation and production trend has increased gradually over the past decades and also area of cultivation shows an increasing trend. India accounts for 80 per cent of world turmeric production. Production and export of turmeric has a significant impact on the economic development of the country. The study was taken-up in erode district of Tamil Nadu. Out of the ten taluks, Kodumudi taluk were selected based on the respondents list obtained from the State department of Agriculture were more number of turmeric growers present. There are 14 blocks in the Erode district, Kodumudi block were selected purposively. A sample size of 120 respondents was selected by using proportionate random sampling technique. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. The results of the study revealed that more constraints were expressed by the respondents.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1364–1365
V. Balamurugan*1, S. Kalaisudarson2, T. Balakrishnan3 and A. P. Srinivasaperumal4
1,3 Department of Agricultural Extension, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu 2,4 Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The present investigation was designed to determine the farm power and livestock of farm women in participation with groundnut production and post-harvest technologies. The study was undertaken in selected six villages from Keelpennathur block of Thiruvannamalai district in Tamil Nadu. A sample size of 120 was fixed for the study considering the limitations of time and other resources. Based on the proportionate random sampling method, one hundred and twenty respondents were identified for the study from selected six villages. Data collection was done with the help of well-structured interview schedule. The data were collected by the researcher by personally interviewing the respondents and the collected data were interpreted and tabulated for appropriate statistical analysis. The results of the study showed that majority of them were Low level of Farm Power and low level of livestock of farm women in groundnut technologies and post- harvest operations.

Short communication | Published online : 04-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1366–1371
R. S. Umakanth*1
1 P. G. Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, University of Mysore, Manasa Gangothri, Mysore - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Silk is the outcome of various activities of sericulture, it can be defined as the cultivation or production of silk by rearing silkworms on large scale. Small, medium and large land-holders and even landless farmers under rain-fed and irrigated patterns practice silkworm rearing. The present study is the outcome of 60 respondents who rear commercial and seed cocoons and trade them in respective markets; the primary data was collected using a model questionnaire by personal interview. Totally 13 important parameters of mulberry cultivation viz. land area, mulberry varieties cultivated, manure and fertilizers used for mulberry cultivation along with the composting details. The farmers are actively involved in extension activities and utilizing the latest knowledge, technologies and innovations in the lab as per the data collected from 60 respondents. The primary data collected was analyzed and the results are presented in tabular forms and are herein discussed.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1372–1376
Sunil Kumar Jha*1
1 Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, University Department of Botany, Ranchi University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
The study was carried out to isolate bacteria from a field having history of mining and for their identification biochemical test were performed. The mining land was later used for agriculture. History with mining led to degradation of soil fertility. Bacteria are biological agents that are environmental friendly, which can be used to reduce heavy metal toxicity and increase soil fertility on post-mining land. On the basis of biochemical analysis ten indigenous bacterial colony were isolated which were resistant to pesticide and iron toxicity were found to belong to the genus Bacillus sp. is gram-positive bacteria that do not have the catalase enzyme, do not have the ability to use carbohydrates and produce endospores in their life cycle while indigenous bacteria from the genus Clostridium sp., Streptomyces sp. is a gram-positive bacteria which in part has the enzyme catalase, all of which have the ability to use carbohydrates and only some of them produce endospores.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1377–1382
Paritosh L. Mishra*1, Ajay B. Lad2 and Urvashi P. Manik3
1-2 Department of Physics, Amolakchand Mahavidyalaya, Yavatmal - 445 002, Maharashtra, India 3 Department of Physics, Sardar Patel Mahavidyalaya, Chandrapur - 442 402, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In this paper an attempt is made to understand the structural (molecular) alterations of fertilizer in saline soil salts which results various solute-solvent, solvent-solvent and ion-solvent interactions in order find a way to control the problem of soil salinity. These interactions depend on the nature of solvent, size and structure of ion. For this purpose, Potassium Sulfate (PS) fertilizer is being used which contain the 43% of K concentration. The ultrasonic parameters and characterization help to forecast and understand the behavior of intermolecular interaction, strength as well as the nature of the liquid mixture exist in this system. In view of above facts, the density (ρ) and speed of sound (U) measurements studies on fertilizer: Potassium Sulfate of number of concentrations varying from 0.02-0.2 mol-kg-1 in 0.5M solution of saline soil salt solutions and the results were explored in terms of solute-solvent, solvent-solvent interactions. These are of great importance in understanding the extent and nature of solutions as well as to counteract the problem of soil salinity.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1383–1384
A. P. Srinivasaperumal1, S. Kalaisudarson2, V. Balamurugan*3, T. Balakrishnan4 and Arun5
1-5 Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was carried out in the farmers field at Sivapuri village, Chidambaram Taluk, Cuddalore district to study the effect of cultural and chemical weed management practices on weed parameters in irrigated cowpea. The cowpea variety Co (CP) 7 was used for this study. There were altogether nine treatments. The weeds observed in the field were Echinochloa colonum, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Trianthema portulacastrum, Cleome viscosa, Phyllanthus niruri and Eclipta alba. Among the weed control measures, application of Pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 as pre-emergence + inter cultivation by star weeder at 20 days after sowing significantly reduced the weed population, weed biomass and recorded the highest Weed Control Index increase and regarded as the best treatment. It is followed by two hand weeding at 20 and 40 days after sowing. The treatment unweeded control recorded the highest weed population, weed biomass and lowest weed control index with decreased yield of cowpea. From the results of the field experiments carried out, it is evident that the treatment application of Pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 as pre-emergence + inter cultivation on 20 days after sowing by star weeder was most effective weed management practices of cowpea with an optimum growth.

Short communication | Published online : 06-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1385–1389
S. Parthasarathy*1 and G. Ajithkumar2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Chemistry, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Musiri - 621 211, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The adsorption studies include the manufacture of Adsorbents and adsorption studies by using any of the chief cultivated waste material, Banana Flower Activated Carbon [BFAC] and Sorghum Bicolor Activated Carbon [SBAC]. The heavy metal treatment processes of wastewater by using adsorbent which contain Zn (II) ion. The adsorption experiment study includes the variation with Initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, temperature and pH of the experimental solution. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was measured by means of linear models of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. The kinetics study helps to find pseudo first order rate factors for Zn (II). This Gibbs free energy change (∆Go), the entropy Change (∆So) and enthalpy change (∆Ho) were calculated. The best fit with the isotherms Langmuir and Freundlich indicating the applicability of the chosen adsorbent for the removal of Zn (II) ions successfully.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1390–1392
D. H. Mitrannavar*1 and D. Halaswamy2
1 Department of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India 2 School of Business and Management, Christ University Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The marketing system in India is totally unorganized and dominated by the private traders. The study is been conducted in the fish landing centre of Karwar in Karnataka. This is one of the major fish landing centre in the coastal Karnataka. Attempt was made to study the awareness level of the fishermen regarding various welfare schemes for the fisherman and various costs associated with the sale of the fishermen was calculated. It was observed that majority of the fishermen were having the awareness of Matsya Ashrya Yojane. Fishermen consumer rupee was more in case of pomfret variety which was followed by sardine variety, mackerel and at last anchovy variety which were traded in the fish landing centre of Karwar. Government needs to create the awareness about the various schemes as well as facilitate in marketing of fishes by the fishermen in the landing centre.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1393–1396
K. Suseendran*1, S. Nidheesh2, S. Jawahar3, C. Kalaiyarasan4, J. Divakaran5 and R. Gobi6
1 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field at Gudamalai village, Gangavalli taluk, Salem district during Rabi season 2019 to evaluate the performance of different pre-emergence and early post emergence herbicides on weeds and productivity of blackgram under irrigated conditions. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The experiment consists of ten treatments T1- Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS, T2- PE Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS + EPOE Imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) 70 g/ha (Odyssey), T3- PE Pendimethalin (38.7%) @ 0.75 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS, T4- PE Pendimethalin (38.7%) @ 0.75 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS + HW on 25 DAS, T5- PE Pendimethalin (38.7%) @ 0.75 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS + EPOE Imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) 70 g/ha (Odyssey), T6- PE Oxadiazone @ 250 g ha-1 on 3 DAS + EPOE Imazethapyr @ 70 g ha-1 (2 -3 leaf stage of weeds), T7- PE Oxadiazone @ 250 g ha-1 on 3 DAS + EPOE Imazethapyr @ 70 g ha-1 + Quizalofop-ethyl @ 50g/ha (2-3 leaf stage of weeds, T8- EPOE Imazethapyr @ 70 g ha-1 + Quizalofop-ethyl @ 50g/ha (2-3 leaf stage of weeds) – Tank mix, T9- Hand Weeding twice @ 20 and 40 DAS, T10- Unweeded check. Among the different weed control treatments imposed hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS (T9) registered the maximum growth (Plant height, leaf area index and dry matter production) yield attributes (Number of pods per plant, Number of seeds per pod) and yield (Grain yield kg ha-1, Haulm yield kg ha-1) of irrigated blackgram due to reduced weed growth, weed dry matter production and reduction in nutrient depletion by weeds and increased nutrient uptake by crop and this was followed by pre emergence application of Pendimethalin (38.7%) @ 0.75 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS + EPOE Imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) 70 g/ha (Odyssey) (T5). The lowest growth and yield and yield attributes was recorded under unweeded check (T10).

Research Article | Published online : 09-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1397–1400
B. Prakash1, S. Durairaj2 and T. Murugan*3
1-2 P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar - 604 407, Tamil Nadu, India 3 P.G. and Research Department of Microbiology, Sri Sankara Arts and Science College, Enathur, Kanchipuram - 631 561, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Vermicompost is the one of the natural organic fertilizer, which is commonly available to plant. The present study was conducted to investigate the proximate composition of plant nutrients in vermicompost from plant waste using Eudrilus eugeniae. In the present study, compost was prepared using fruit peel waste of Ceiba pentandra, dried cow dung and humus soil. Six experiments were conducted for different concentration for the production of compost. After 40 days of experiment, dry weight of the compost and major macronutrient were determined. The dry weight of the vermicompost was considerably decreased than the control. The vermicompost produced by Eudrilus eugeniae had high major macronutrient such as nitrogen (N) (1.026 ± 0.012%), phosphorus (P) (0.149 ± 0.004%) and potassium (K) (0.845±0.0034%). The increased amount of available N, P and K shows the superior quality of vermicompost.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1401–1407
Tanmay Ghosh*1 and Mohan Kumar Biswas2
1 Department of Microbiology, Dinabandhu Andrews College, Baishnabghata, South 24 Parganas, Kolkata - 700 084, West Bengal, India 2 Department of Plant Pathology, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva - Bharti, Sriniketan, Birbhum, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Pesticides and fertilizers are in intensive use due to agricultural push of needs in high productivity. This ruthless practice of chemical fertilizers negatively on humans’ animals along with the natural properties as water soil etc. to reduce these environmental problems scientist studying on plant probiotic microorganisms in short PPM which are also known as bio-control Bio-protectants, Bio-stimulants and Bio-fertilizers that can by the microorganism to the plant and reduce environmental stress. The PPM mostly is engaged with a harmonious free-living relationship with the plant or they can work diversely in an unexpected way, now and again with explicit capacities to accomplish acceptable plant advancement. The study is about the PPM introduction, portrayal and several function and various ways of function with the application. A huge group that is named as plant growth promoting group or in short PGP. The group contains some bacterial and fungal species that stimulate plant growth and they can stimulate the growth through various mechanism. Many of the biogeochemical process are maintained by the soil borne microflora. Soil chemical fertilizers are needed to replace by an alternative. Scientist are studying on PPM to have it as the alternative as they don’t provide with any environmental problems, they directly improve the nutrient supply. The species are truly organic. They have high role in biodegradation of pollutants. They also can decrease the chances of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and disease. The principle approaches are explained includes, the way of life subordinate methodology for the microorganisms contained in the plant material are additionally disengaged by refined and are distinguished by a blend of phenotypic and sub-atomic techniques and the refined free temperature microorganisms are recognized without developing them.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1408–1414
B. Sangeetha1, V. Indra*2 and D. Sheela3
1-3 Department of Zoology, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
More biological advantages are generated by the crustaceans: their physiology, non-toxicity, bio digestibility, and the capacity to chelate. These chitosan biological values depend on consistency factors which are directly related to the source of the raw material. This research has utilized two commercially disposable waste crustaceans, such as crabs, for the extraction of Chitin and Chitosan (Portunus sanguinolentus and Scqulla serrata). The chemical treatment for demineralization, deproteinization, and chemical treatment has been employed for the preparation of chitosan. The yield of Portunus sanguinolentus (23.8 g) in the shell is found in addition to the chitin production in Scqulla serrata (20.3 g). Even the chitosan production was better than the Scqulla serrata in the Portunus sanguinolentus shell. Chitosan with these consistency criteria is regarded an excellent biological advantage. The chemical composition of the crab shell, separated chitin and chitosan was studied by a UV-vis, FT-IR, and XRD analysis. The Portunus sanguinolentus CHS was highly active in all bacterial species tested equivalent to conventional medicines. The data together suggest that chitosan is to be employed in biological applications for potential scaffolding.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1413–1415
Chetankumar Sharma*1, Geeta Patil2 and Rupali Tayade3
1-3 Arts, Commerce and Science College, Bodwad, District Jalgaon - 425 310, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Pests are the most pressing problem today in agriculture field by affecting crops yield and nutritional values. Present investigation evaluates the adverse effect of leaf extract of Nerium oleander in 2 different solvents i.e., acetone and ethanol. For the study, larvae of Heliothis armigera were exposed to different concentration of acetone and ethanol extracts of Nerium oleander in artificial medium. At higher doses emergence of adults are reduced and mortality was increases. The duration of the larval and pupal period was prolonged due to the effect of leaf extract of Nerium oleander were observed.

Short communication | Published online : 16-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1416–1418
Rambabu Midathapally*1, R. Vijay Kumar2 and M. Krishna Reddy3
1-3 Reproductive Physiology Unit, Department of Zoology, Kakatiya University, Warangal - 506 009, Telangana, India
Abstract
Plants play a great role in the human life and also with other animals. Humans are facing so many health problems day to day because of their regular habits and habitats. In coping that, medicinal plants involvement is very huge. The present approach is also helpful in treating the hepatic problems. This experiment was conducted for seven days to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Millingtonia hortensis lin. in CCl4 induced hepato toxic rats. The leaf extracts of these plants were prepared by the maceration technique by aqueous, methanol solvent. The rats were divided in 5 different groups. Among them control, CCl4 induced (1 ml/kg), CCl4 + Liver tonic, CCl4 + MHAE (150 mg/kg) and CCl4 + MHME (150 mg/kg). After 7 days, on 8th day blood was collected from all group of rats by retro orbital punture to perform serum tests like SGOT, SGPT and albumin, bilirubin, ALP, Total protein. The reduced values of serum parameters like SGOT, SGPT, and bilirubin total protein in the extract administered rats indicate the hepatoprotective activity of the plant. The aqueous extract of the plant is more effective than to methanol extract.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1419–1424
Nanda Ram1,2, K. Agrawal*1,4, V. Sharma1, S. Khorwal1 and M. Agrawal3
1 Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 2 Department of Botany, S. K. Govt Girls College, Sikar - 332 001, Rajasthan, India 3 Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 4 Department of Life Sciences, Vivekananda Global University, Jaipur - 303 012, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
This study aimed to look at changes in nutritional value, essential oil profiling, and enzymatic activity in ajwain seed samples caused by natural seed-borne Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii (PSA) bacterial infection. The nutritional value, essential oil profiling, and enzymatic activity of three naturally infected seed samples of ajwain, with higher incidence (78.25-82.25 per cent) of PSA on King's medium B, and healthy seed samples were investigated. Infected seed samples had much lower moisture, fat, fibre, ash, protein, and essential oil content, while healthy seed samples (control) had significantly higher carbohydrate content. The main phytochemicals of infected ajwain seeds were adversely altered by PSA infection, as shown by GC-MS analysis of the essential oil. Peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and cellulase enzyme activity were considerably higher in infected seeds than healthy seeds.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1425–1429
Sharmila Ramasamy1, Anbarasu Kaliyaperumal*2 and Thamilarasu Pommanaickar3
1-2 Department of Chemistry, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Musiri, Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of Chemistry, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Namakkal - 637 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Textile industries discharge wastewater containing various dyes including Methyl red dye. These dyes are very harmful for human health, animals and plants. Therefore, the attempt is made for studies of adsorption on removal of Methyl Red dye by using Vigna radiata L. pericarp - activated carbon carried out under various experimental methods and optimization conditions. Adsorption data presented to Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin adsorption isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters like as ∆Go, ∆Ho and ∆So are calculated; it showed adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic process. Based on kinetic study, pseudo-second order kinetic more fit than the pseudo-first order kinetic. The adsorbent used to study and characterized by SEM study before and after adsorption of dye solution.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1430–1432
B. S. Rajawat1, Vinit Kumar2 and N. K. Kushwaha*3
1-3 Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India, India
Abstract
A field survey was conducted during 2018-2020 in Mihona Block of Bhind district Madhya Pradesh to Know the agroforestry practices adopted by the farmers trees species is existing on the farmers’ field. The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), considered to be a key component of carbon cycle, is still poorly understood in semi-arid region. The aim of this research was to determine soil organic carbon sequestration at four soil depth under agroforestry system and cropland. The sample were taken from 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 6-90cm soil depth. The average soil organic carbon in the agroforestry was estimated to be 19.98 Mg C ha-1 in depth upto 90cm. The Agroforestry soil has high soil organic carbon stock 7.99 Mg C ha-1 in upper layer of soil (0-15cm) than crop land in 0-15cm soil depth (4.12 Mg C ha-1). In general, estimated soil organic carbon stock was observed to be higher in the topsoil (0-15 cm) compared to lower depths in various land use types. It is the found that the agroforestry is potential to improve soil organic carbon and it can play a role in mitigation of climate change.

Short communication | Published online : 18-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1433–1436
S. K. Deshmukh1, G. Tamilselvi*2 and V. Sakthivel3
1 Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Karda - 444 506, District Washim, Maharashtra 2-3 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in ten selected villages of Washim District of Maharastra to study the impact of training programs conducted by KVK, Karda on knowledge and adoption levels of soybean growers. A sample size comprised of 150 trainees and 150 non-trainees from the KVK operated villages. The results of the study revealed that the trainee farmers had greater knowledge and adoption levels on improved soybean cultivation practices than the non-trainee farmers. The knowledge and adoption indices for various soybean cultivation practices were also found to be more for trainee farmers than their counterparts. The impact of training organized by KVK was found to be 48.15 per cent. This indicates that KVK played a significant role in promoting the knowledge and adoption levels of soybean growers.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1337–1442
Preksha Shrivastav1, Teg Bahadur Singh2 and Prem Kumar Dantu*3
1-3 Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Deemed to be University, Agra - 282 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Knowledge of micronutrient availability in the soil is fundamental for suitable fertilization recommendations, to avoid deficiency or toxicity problems. Heavy metal contamination of soil is a threat to the quality and well-being of all components of the biosphere. Pb, Cu, Zn and As are the elements suggested to have the highest adverse effect on organisms. In an attempt to assess the concentration of these micronutrient and heavy metals, samples were collected from different locations of Dayalbagh and heavy metal analysis was done. To make a comparative detail of the soil, 16 sampling sites were selected for collection. Irrigation water was also collected from same sites to study the heavy metal load. A negative correlation has been observed between micronutrient and pH, whereas positive relationship exists between pH and organic carbon. However, there is no such correlation exists between pH and heavy metals. Lesser contamination was observed in these sites with negligible concentration of heavy metals.

Research Article | Published online : 21-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1443–1448
D. Venkatakrishnan*1, V. Arul Kumar2, M.V. Sriramachandrasekharan3, T. Muthukumararaja4, P. Karuppaiah5, S. Ravichandran6 and P. Anandan7
1-4 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 5 Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 6 Department of Agricultural Economics, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu 7 Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the important root vegetables cultivated in India mainly for its tender which are used as salad or cooked vegetable. The soil was collected from Vallampadugai farmer’s field, Chidambaram taluk, Tamil Nadu having sandy loam texture pH 7.6, EC 1.37 dSm-1 (Typic Ustifluvents). Regarding the available nutrient status, it was low in KMnO4, medium in Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K. The pot experiment was conducted in Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University to evaluate the response of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) with conventional, non-conventional organic sources and industrial by-products combined with inorganic fertilizers. The recommended dose of fertilizers, conventional organic source (FYM 12.5 and 25 t ha-1), non-conventional organic source (Municipal solid waste compost 5 and 10 t ha-1+), industrial by-products (Rice husk ash and bagasse ash @ 5 and 10 t ha-1) are used as treatments. There were nine treatments combinations replicated thrice in CRD. The results showed that application of 100% RDF + FYM @ 25 t ha-1, significantly recorded root yield (845.9 g pot-1) and shoot yield (501.9 g pot-1), dry matter of shoot (46.06 g pot-1) and dry matter of root (84.54 g pot-1). Oven dried samples of root and shoot were analyzed for NPK uptake and expressed in g pot-1. The application of 100% RDF + FYM @ 25 t ha-1 registered maximum nitrogen uptake of root and shoot was recorded 2.28 g pot-1 and 6.84 g pot-1, phosphorus uptake of root and shoots was recorded 1.86 g pot-1 and 1.82 g pot-1 respectively. The application of 100% RDF + Bagasse ash @ 10 t ha-1, recorded the highest potassium uptake of root and shoot which was 3.1 g pot-1 3.12 g pot-1 respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 21-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1449–1453
Sanjoy Das*1 and Ashis Kumar Panigrahi2
1 Ecotoxicology, Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani - 741 235, Nadia, West Bengal, India 2 Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani - 741 235, Nadia, West Bengal, India
Abstract
In India the increasing demand for electricity and combustion of fossil fuels are the major sources to fulfill our need of energy but combustion of coal produces fly ash and bottom ash. Which are the major environmental pollution issued when fossil fuels or coal are used as raw material for generating energy in thermal power plants that produces by-product as fly ash, some are contaminated with water through cooling system of machine and discharge of fly ash containing waste water into the aquatic water bodies from the different Coal based Thermal Power Plants causes changes in physico-chemical parameters of water, such as- pH, DO, BOD, COD, temperature, alkalinity, hardness, color, odor, conductivity, total solid and there also caused metal pollution in the aquatic environment such Silica, Iron, Aluminum, Manganese, Zinc, Copper and trace amount of heavy metals such Molybdenum, Mercury, Selenium, Cadmium, Chromium increased above the threshold limits. These are results in loss of aquatic biodiversity, extinction of some native fish species, natural fish food organism’s phytoplankton or zooplankton and aquatic plants. Fishes are suffered from different types of diseases. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals occurs in the liver, gill, kidney, muscle and blood; resulting changes in fish physiology, behaviors, early reproduction, low life span and other problems. Histological analysis of liver, kidney, muscle shows severe damages due to toxic effects of trace elements. The main objective of this review work is to draw the attention on to set proper treatment plant before release of waste water into the aquatic ecosystem and to minimize the toxicity level on aquatic organisms to resist in the environment.

Research Review | Published online : 23-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1454–1457
Hari Prakash Namdev*1, Ram Subhag Singh2 and Bharat Lal Kushwaha3
1-3 Department of Agricultural Entomology, Brahmanand P. G. College, Rath (Hamirpur) - 210 431, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research farm of Brahmanand P.G. college, Rath, Hamirpur, U.P. during 2016-17 and 2019-20 cropping season. It was observed that the infestation of chickpea pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hub.) was initiated from 51st SW (third week of December) with minimum population (0.33 larva-mrl) during both cropping season. Its population growth pattern showed two peaks first on 3rd SW (third week of January) i.e., 1.33 larvae and 2.00 larvae-mrl respectively on 2016-17 and 2019-20 and second peak on 11th SW (third week of March) i.e., 3.67 larvae-mrl during both cropping seasons. Thereafter, its population decline gradually to reach 0.33 larva-mrl during 2016-17 at 13th SW (last week of March), while during 2019-20 its population was negligible at 13th SW. The maximum and average temperature had significant positive correlation with population dynamics of Helicoverpa armigera, while minimum temperature, maximum and minimum relative humidity and rainfall were negatively correlated with population dynamics of Helicoverpa armigera during 2016-17. Whereas, during 2019-20 cropping season relative humidity (maximum and minimum) had negative correlation and temperature (maximum, minimum and average) and rainfall had positive correlation with population buildup of Helicovera armigera.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1458–1461
Taj Uddin Khan*1 and Rafiul Amin Laskar2
1 Department of Botany, Srikishan Sarda College, Hailakandi - 788 151, Assam, India 2 Department of Botany, Bahona College, Jorhat - 785 101, Assam, India
Abstract
In silico bioactivity of a natural compound (a) 4-Carvomenthenol (Terpinen-4-ol) isolated from Homalomena aromatica (Roxb.) Schott was tested by following a particular method. In the Swiss Target prediction and Pharmmapper Estradiol 17-b-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (17bHSD1) was found as the target for the isolated compound. Estradiol 17-b-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (17bHSD1), also called Estradiol dehydrogenase, catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of the weak estrogen, estrone, into the more potent estrogen. 17-b-estradiol (17bHSD1) is an attractive drug target in hormone-sensitive breast cancer. In addition, a large fraction of breast tumors is hormone-sensitive. E2 functions at the nuclear level through interaction with the estrogen receptor, leading to subsequent regulation of a battery of genes that control the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Consequently, interfering with the mtogenic activities of E2, either through blocking its production or by inhibiting its receptor interaction, has become a major goal. The working hypothesis of the recent study was based on two facts (1) Target fishing for the isolated natural compound and (2) Establish the compound as a suitable inhibitor for the target. In the study it was found that the compound passed the Lipinski filter and ADME/Tox screening, which is a basic criterion for a compound to be a drug. In the molecular docking the compound showed significant score and also it bonded with the active site much efficiently.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1462–1466
S. Elakkuvan*1, G. Samlind Sujin2, S. Madhavan3 and R. S. Sugavanam4
1-4 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to study the effect of foliar application of potassium nitrate and ethephon on yield characters of papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Red lady at a farmer’s field, Idappadi, Salem district, Tamil Nadu during 2018-2020. The prime objective of the study was to identify the best treatment that improved the yield characters of papaya. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) with nine treatments replicated thrice. The treatments comprised of different concentrations and combinations of KNO3 and ethephon. The results revealed that foliar application of KNO3 @ 2% + Ethephon @ 800 ppm significantly reduced the time taken to first flowering, time taken to first fruiting and time taken from flowering to fruit maturity, peel weight and increased number of fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, pulp weight, pulp - peel ratio and yield per plant followed by KNO3 @ 1.5% + Ethephon @ 800 ppm.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Aug-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 4 ; 1467–1470
P. Kamalakannan*1
1 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted in a farmer’s field during 2019-2021 to assess the response of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients in micronutrients uptake on groundnut in loamy sand soil of Chinnathanakuppan village, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu. The experimental soil having loamy sand in texture (Typhic Rhodustalf) had the value of pH 7.8 and EC of 0.41dSm-1. The soil was low in organic carbon, alkaline KMnO4–N, and Olsen-P and medium in NH4OAC-K. Field experiment was conducted with the following treatments T1 - RDF, T2 - RDF + ZnSO4, T3 - RDF + Boron, T4 - RDF + ZnSO4 + Boron, T5 - RDF + FYM, T6 - RDF + ZnSO4 + FYM, T7 - RDF + Boron + FYM, T8 - RDF + ZnSO4 + Boron + FYM, T9 - 75% RDF + HA, T10 - 75% RDF + ZnSO4 + HA, T11 - 75% RDF + Boron + HA, T12 - 75% RDF + ZnSO4 + Boron + HA, T13 - 50% RDF + LFA, T14 - 50% RDF + ZnSO4 + LFA, T15 - 50% RDF + Boron + LFA, T16 - 50% RDF + ZnSO4 + Boron + LFA. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Maximum uptake of micronutrients such as zinc, manganese, copper and boron as compared to 100% RDF alone at all stages of crop growth. Application of 100% RDF + FYM (T5) @ 12.5 t ha-1 recorded the highest DTPA-extractable Cu and Mn. The highest DTPA extractable zinc was noticed in treatment 100% RDF + ZnSO4 + FYM (T6) but the highest boron was observed in treatment 100% RDF + Boron + FYM (T7) in loamy sand soil. The results of the field experiment indicated that application of FYM @ 12.5 t ha-1 along with 75% RDF, ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + B @ 10 kg ha-1 + HA @ 20 kg ha-1 maximized the micronutrients uptake of groundnut in loamy sand soil of Cuddalore district as well as improved the availability of macro and micronutrients status of soil.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Aug-2021