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Volume - 12 - September-October 2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1471–1476
Asgar Ali*1 and Kamal Singh2
1-2 Department of Botany, D. S. College, Aligarh - 202 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A study was managed to determine the distribution, incidence and intensity of nematode disease of eggplant in ten (10) localities of Aligarh (U.P.) India. It was observed that the crop of eggplant was affected with root-knot nematodes in all of these localities. Hundred percent (100%) frequency was observed in Dhanipur, Atrauli and Bhakraula. It was maximum frequency. Our investigation was under taken to determine infestation, distribution and identification of Meloidogyne species associative eggplant. The disease incidence in all locations was being represented higher by our results. All root-samples of eggplant observed in all 10 localities were found infected with root-knot nematodes. However, wide variations were found with regard to disease intensity in all the observed root samples. The range of gall index and egg mass index were reported from two to five and two to five (2 to 5 and 2 to 5) respectively. Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica were identified from all infested areas associated with eggplant. All three species were observed either individually or in aggregated populations. Meloidogyne incognita showed off the best frequency (86.36%) and was the dominant species in the studied areas. Meloidogyne javanica (79.09%) was the second most common species. Finally, M. arenaria (44.54%) was also a common species.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1477–1484
N. Packialakshmi1 and K. Vijayalakshmi*2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Microbiology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Trichy - 620 020, (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-24), Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Agricultural crops require phosphorus as a major macronutrient for its better growth and yield. Though the phosphorus that is available in soil and the added phosphorus in the form of fertilizers will not be able to fully utilize by the crops due to the insoluble form of phosphorus. So, the major thrust of the research work is to convert the insoluble form of phosphate in to soluble as well as easily accessible form to the crops, for that indigenous phosphate solubilzing bacteria are collected from the rhizosphere soil of Tephrosia purpurea which is one of the green manure crop and studied their efficiency for the betterment of growth and development of agriculture crops. Totally 86 strains of phosphate solubilizing bacteria have been collected from the different locations in Tamil Nadu by plating in Pikovskaya medium. Among them 10 efficient strains were selected which shows the greater zone of inhibition and for these strains morphological; biochemical studies and pH reduction were performed. Out of these 2 strains (PVJ 1 and PVJ 5) were selected based on the maximum zone of inhibition (total diameter) of 49 mm and 51 mm and shows the fastest reduction in pH from 7 to 2.5 and 2.3 respectively within 3-4 days were further subjected to FITR and GCMS analysis. From the analysis the compounds such as Benzenepropanoic acid, Benzenedicarboxylic acid, Phosphonic acids and Sebacic acid has the antimicrobial properties that produced by both the bacteria involved in the mechanism of phosphate solubilization by chelating the iron present in the medium in the form of Calcium phosphate and ferrous phosphate thereby reducing the pH of the medium and formation of zone. On application of these strains as a biofertilizer it results in good growth and yiel9d due to their efficiency in phosphate solubilization and their compounds exhibits antimicrobial activity against the plant pathogens.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1485–1488
Pradeep Kumar*1 and V. K. Dhangrah2
1 Department of Horticulture (Vegetable Science), IFTM University Lodhipur Rajput, Moradabad - 244 102, Uttar Pradesh, India 2 IFTM University Lodhipur Rajput, Moradabad - 244 102, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of I.F.T.M University, Lodhipur Rajput, Moradabad (U.P.). India to evaluate the impact of micronutrients and plant bio-regulators on yield of okra and potato crop. The experiment consists of 16 treatment combination with some foliar application micronutrients and plant bio-regulators which were laid out in factorial randomized design with three replications. Maximum fruit yield q/ha of okra was 154.88 and 159.50 was noted with application of M0 (RDF) which was statistically at par with application of M1 (Zn-2g/l) and M3 (Bo-2g/l) during first year however during second year it was at par with M1 (Zn-2g/l) only. Minimum fruit yield q/ha of okra was 140.88 and 145.20 was noted under treatment M2 (SI-2ml/l) during first and second year of experimentation respectively. Maximum fruit yield was noted as 154.00 q/ha and 158.68 q/ha under application of P1 (GA3 @100 ppm) which was non significantly followed by P0 (RDF) and P3 (Humic acid 2ml/l) and significantly followed by P2 (Na para nitro phenolate 2 ml/l) during both respective years of study. Maximum tuber yield (q/ha) of potato was 329.85 and 339.68 was noted with application of M0 (RDF) which was statistically on par with application of M1 (Zn-2g/l) and M3 (Bo-2g/l) during first year however during second year it was at par with M1 (Zn-2g/l) only. Maximum tuber yield was noted as 326.70 q/ha and 336.33 q/ha under application of P1 (GA3 @100 ppm) which was non significantly followed by P0 (RDF) and P3 (Humic acid 2ml/l) and significantly followed by P2 (Na para nitro phenolate 2 ml/l) during both respective years of study. Minimum tuber yield (q/ha) of was 268.25 and 276.13 was noted under treatment M2 (SI-2ml/l) during first and second year of experimentation respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1489–1492
M. Venkatapathy1, M. Venkatesan2 and K. Anbarasu*3
1-3 Department of Chemistry, Arignar Anna Government Arts College (Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu), Musiri - 621 211, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The conversion of benzaldehydes to the corresponding benzoic acids was performed in an equivalent mixture of acetic acid and water. This oxidation kinetics was followed by the spectrophotometric method. The orders concerning benzaldehydes and oxidant were both one and fractional order concerning perchloric acid. The substituent effect of rate of reaction was analyzed by employing various meta- and para-substituted benzaldehydes. The rate of reaction was increased concerning electron-releasing groups and decreased concerning electron-removal groups. The excellent linear Hammett plot behaves with negative -values, it supports the role of chromate ion intermediate in the slow step of the mechanism. The produced intermediate state is established to be rigid as the negative value of entropy. The values of change in free energy (ΔG#) are found to the nearly constant and this designates all the substituted benzaldehydes follows a common mechanism.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1493–1497
Manishi Tripathi*1, Shilpa Kaistha2 and Reeta Goel3
1-2 Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur- 208024, Uttar Pradesh, India 3 Department of Microbiology, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar - 263 153, Uttarakhand
Abstract
Heavy metals, being phytotoxic, cause growth inhibition and even plant death. Siderophore producing bacterial strain KNP3, isolated from the soil of a thermal power plant was found to be heavy metal resistant as well as plant growth promoting. It caused significant increase (P>5%) in root and shoot length of soybean (Glycine max) in presence of 660 M lead acetate. Moreover, concentration of accumulated lead in soybean shoots and root were decreased in the presence of this isolate. Loss in chlorophyll content due to presence of lead could be overcome in the presence of bioinoculant (KNP3), which was comparable to plants grown in uncontaminated soil. 16s ribosomal DNA (16s r DNA) sequencing identified KNP3 as a strain of Proteus vulgaris.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1498–1502
Bidisha Mondal*1
1 School of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, The Neotia University, Diamond Harbour Road, Jhinger Pole, Sarisha - 743 368, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The South 24 Parganas of West Bengal harbours huge number of fruit nursery-cum-orchards dealing with fruit business. This nursery business leads to earning of a descent revenue and generates local employment. The nurseries are old but applies innovative species-specific techniques for sapling generation. Ex-vitro lime cultivation is a lucrative business producing air-layered plants within a very small timeframe. This rapid asexual regeneration of lime sapling may lead to genetic instability affecting performance. To examine the genetic performance of the clones DNA based marking was done with 10 saplings including the mother stock plant as check. 7 primers yielded 31 bands in range of 120 bp-2.1kb for both RAPD and SSR. OPA01 detected polymorphism in a single locus covering 3.4% of the total variation addressed by the marking system. The field performance and fruit quality traits were nearly uniform. The application of molecular marking technique on ex-vitro nursery clone examination is rare and could be included as a part of on-farm authentication programme of progressive nurseries. The periodic assessment of genetic stability in rapid clonal propagation is essential and the detected variation needs scrutiny and replacement of the off-type facilitating uniform plant material production, perfect nursery management and enhanced business growth.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1503–1506
V. Jaiganesh*1, B. Vaishali2, Darwin Christdhas Henry L.3, Sudha Raja Kumar R.4, Thamarai Selvi M.5 and C. Kannan6
1-6 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar -608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The pot culture studies were undertaken to investigate the efficacy of certain plant activators for the management of brown spot of Rice caused by Bipolaris oryzae. The resistance inducing chemicals viz., Acetyl Salicylic acid, Nicotinic acid, Propionic acid, Naphthalene Acetic Acid, Salicylic acid were sprayed at 20, 50 and 100 ppm conc. individually at disease initiation stage and repeated once at fifteen days interval under pot culture conditions. Among them, salicylic acid @ 50 ppm was the most effective in reducing the disease incidence followed by Salicylic Acid (@100 ppm). It was followed by Acetyl salicylic acid (50 ppm) and Naphthalene acetic acid (100 ppm). Propionic acid at 20 ppm was least effective. Also, four organic sources tested against brown spot pathogen, Navagavya recorded maximum growth inhibition. It was followed by Panchagavya and Biogas slurry.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1507–1510
Priyanka Kumari*1, Pushpa Jagarwal2 and Dileep Kumar3
1-3 Department of Botany, St. Wilfred’s P. G. College, Jaipur - 302 020, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Selected plant for study was Manilkara zapota L. belongs to family Sapotaceae and have many medicinal values. Flavonoids from Manilkara zapota L. were identified and quantified. Flavonoids were identified using chromatographic and spectral studies. Kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin were identified by IR and GC-MS. GC-MS profiling showed various compounds. In Manilkara zapota L. one compound 1,3-Butanedione, 1-Phenyl- found in highest amount with area of 24.79%, at the retention time of 9.155 while one compound 1-Heptacosanol found in lowest amount with area of 0.16% at the retention time of 23.383.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1511–1514
Abinaya N1, Sekar K*2, Sudhagar R3 and Prakash M4
1-3 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 4 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is an important commercial flower crop grown in India. It is grown for loose flower, cut flower and potted plant trade throughout the world. Unlike traditional chrysanthemum cultivation, cut chrysanthemum focuses more on the quality of stem and flower. The present investigation was carried out during 2019 at Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out with seven different treatments involving two growth regulators with three levels (Gibberellic acid @ 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm and Paclobutrazol @ 30 ppm, 45 ppm, 60 ppm) sprayed at 30th and 45th DAP, along with control (Water spray). The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with three replications. The result revealed that the maximum values for Plant height (70 cm at 120 DAP) Number of leaves (218.2), Flower diameter (8.6cm) and Vase life (4.2days) were recorded in the treatment which was sprayed with Gibberellic acid @ 150 ppm.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1515–1518
K. Dhanasekaran*1, D. Venkatakrishnan2 and C. Anbarasu3
1-3 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annmalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In order to establish the effect of NPK and foliar application of micronutrients with growth regulators on the performance of ragi, a field experiment during January-April 2019. The experimental soil (Typic haplustalf) was clay loam in texture, neutral in reaction (pH 7.4), medium in organic carbon (6.5 g kg-1), low in available N (272 kg ha-1), high in available P (24 kg ha-1) and medium in available K (176 kg ha-1). The DTPA extractable Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, are 0.7, 11.5, 7.8, 0.6 mg kg-1 respectively. The soil analysed the hot water-soluble B of 0.4 mg kg-1, Ammonium oxalate extractable Mo of 0.2 mg kg-1 and ammonium acetate buffer extractable Si of 0.4 mg kg-1. The experiment was laid out in a factorial randomized block design with two levels of NPK viz., L1-100 % (60: 30: 30 kg NPK ha-1) and L2- 150% (90: 45: 45 kg NPK ha-1) and eight treatment combination of micronutrients and growth regulators were applied as foliar spray. The eight treatments are T1- Water spray, T2- Micronutrients spray, T3- Micronutrients + Humic acid (0.3 %), T4- Micronutrients + Ascorbic acid (200 ppm), T5- Micronutrients + Salicylic acid (200 ppm), T6- Micronutrients + Humic acid (0.3 %) + Ascorbic acid (200 ppm), T7- Micronutrients + Humic acid (0.3 %) + Salicylic acid (200 ppm) and T8- Micronutrients + Humic acid (0.3 %) + Ascorbic acid (200 ppm) + Salicylic acid (200 ppm) and each treatment was replicated three times. Ragi cv. CO 13 was grown as a test crop. The results of the field experiment revealed that application of 150% NPK and foliar feeding of micronutrients with humic acid, ascorbic acid and salicylic acid (L2T8) registered the highest value in respect of growth characters (plant height, leaf area, and number of tillers per plant) and yield parameters (number of ears per plant, ear length, finger numbers ear head and thousand grain weight) of ragi. Foliar application of micronutrients with humic acid, ascorbic acid and salicylic acid to 100% NPK applied plants was identified as the next best treatment in respect of growth and yield of ragi. Application 150% NPK + foliar fertilization of micronutrients enriched with humic acid, ascorbic acid and salicylic acid recorded the highest grain and straw yield of 3051.1 and 5190.6 kg ha-1.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1519–1523
Sangamesh Angadi*1, S. M. Mundinamani2 and S. S. Dolli3
1 Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India 2 ABEKC, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India 3 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Cost of cultivation is taken into consideration as a critical economic indicator for decisions on monetary policies made through the Government of India. Early to 1970’s farmers used farm produced inputs best for cultivation of crops representative estimates on cost of cultivation of agricultural crops were obvious to formulate an appropriate strategy for planned agricultural development. The present study was under taken in Vijayapur district of Karnataka. A total of 60 sample farmers were selected through multistage random sampling technique for the study. Tabular analysis and budgeting techniques were used. The study revealed that farmers in the study area used more seed rate than recommended in the case of maize (20.18 kg/ha), redgram (13.25 kg/ha), greengram (12.89 kg/ha), jowar (12.83 kg/ha) and onion (5.39 kg/ha). The cost of cultivation of major selected crops under irrigation was found to be Rs. 138210, Rs. 78570, Rs. 66922, Rs. 59756, Rs. 45458 and Rs. 36477 for sugarcane, onion, maize, redgram greengram and jowar respectively. The net profits were found highest in sugarcane (Rs. 65905) followed by onion (Rs. 38136). Based on B:C ratio, it is more profitable to grow redgram (1.53), onion (1.49), sugarcane (1.48) and maize (1.19).

Research Article | Published online : 06-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1524–1526
S. Suganthi*1, S. Raghul2, A. Kamaraj3 and P. Satheeshkumar4
1-4 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Experiments were carried out to study the influence of post- harvest treatment on seed quality during storability of green gram seeds var. VBN 2. The seeds were treated with chemicals and plant products at different dosages to identify their efficacy towards seed quality on storage. Seeds pelleted with neem leaf powder @ 200g kg-1 of seed performed better for seed quality characters viz., germination percentage (90%), root length (14.29 cm), shoot length (17.02 cm), seedling dry matter production (17.86 mg / 10 seedling), vigour index I (2816.76) and vigour index II (559.12) as compared to all other treatments. This may be due to the neem product has anti-oxidant property like acetyl salicylic acid in reducing the lipid peroxidation, protein degradation and chromosomal aberrations and simultaneously controlling the deterioration process.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1527–1530
Shivanand Pawar*1 and R. M. Channaveer2
1-2 Central University of Karnataka, Kadaganchi - 585 367, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The agriculture sector is facing significant challenges, which may have an impact on entrepreneurs and livelihood activities in India. The mindset of practice that that leads to sustainable agriculture is one of the major issues. As per result, it's essential to look into the attitude of farmer's primary actors in agriculture. This study aims to assess the attitude of the farmers towards Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP). Study data were collected by face-to-face interview using a questionnaire tool from 50 farmers (practicing agriculture). The standard questionnaire consists of two parts. The independent variables in the first and standardized scales measured farmers' attitudes toward Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) in the second part. A Non-parametric, Mann Whitney U Test was applied to understand the significance of the farmer's attitude. The study finding reveals that 26 percent of respondents have a low attitude, 74 percent of respondents had a medium attitude, and a had on high attitude towards SAP. Study reveals that there is a significance at the p=0.5 level between farmer's ages and education status towards SAP. Therefore, the study suggests that respondents should get proper training, field exposures, and capacity-building programs from production to marketing to alter their attitude towards SAP.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1531–1535
V. Kabila*1
1 Department of Zoology, Sri Meenakshi Government arts College for Women (Autonomous), Madurai - 625 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Esterase-derived metabolic resistance is a major issue in vector populations. Although many esterases may be involved in pesticide metabolism, the carboxylesterase gene family appears to contain the principal esterases engaged in insecticide metabolism. Numerous endogenous and exogenous ester-containing substances are hydrolyzed by these carboxylesterases. Agrochemicals, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, and carbamates, are found to be detoxified by them. At the proteome level, the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of proteins is extremely functional. In the current study, as no 3D structural details are available for Carboxylesterase in Spodoptera litura, in silico analysis is performed. Various physicochemical parameters, secondary structural elements, and 3D structural details are studied using computational techniques. The model predicted is found to be of good quality as evidenced by various tools of validation. Structure to function analysis, a fundamental premise in protein biology, demonstrates that structural information can be used to predict not only the functions of proteins but also various mechanisms involved. The predicted molecular model of Carboxylesterase described in this study could be useful to know more about substrate selectivity and pesticide metabolism. It may provide new insights regarding carboxylesterase-mediated pesticide resistance in the pest of choice regarding gene expression studies.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1536–1539
Pushpa Jagarwal1, Priyanka Kumari2 and Dileep Kumar*3
1-3 Department of Botany, St. Wilfred’s P.G. College, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 020, Rajasthan
Abstract
Natural products are the most significant agents of life saving drugs globally. Phytochemicals have acted as drugs for decades and 50% medicines in these days are derival from bioactive compounds. Flora is regarded as molecular factory synthesizing enormous diversity of by-products called as "Bioactive compounds” i.e., plants are the richest source of many compounds like flavonoids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, alkaloids, Phytosterols, vitamins, tannins and lignin etc., represented as phytochemical. Phytosterols from Plumbago capensis L. was identified and quantified in vivo. Phytosterols were identified using chromatographic and spectral studies. ß-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and lanosterol were identified by IR and GC-MS. Total amount of phytosetrol were found in Plumbago capensis L. (0.62 mg/gdw in stem and 3.10 mg/gdw in leaves). GC-MS profiling showed 26 compounds. (Z) 6, (Z) 9 Pentadecadien 1ol (area of % 39.63) was found in highest amount.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1540–1542
Nayan Talukdar1, Sutila Barchung2 and Indrani Barman*3
1-3 Programme of Biotechnology, Assam Down Town University, Guwahati - 781 026, Assam, India
Abstract
The male flower carries only stamens and they are also incapable of producing fruits. However, these flowers are reported to have medical significance in various aspects. The present study was aimed to determine the presence of phytochemicals, protein estimation and antibacterial activity of male flower of Carica papaya L. The aqueous extract showed presence of carbohydrate, steroid, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, phenolic compounds. The protein estimation was determined by Lowry’s method and the value was found to be 300 µg/mL at 660 nm. The antibacterial activity was determined against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by disc diffusion method using standard VA30 antibiotics. From both the test Gram negative bacteria is found to be more effective than Gram-positive bacteria. The finding of the study provided evidences that aqueous extract of Carica papaya L contain medicinally important bioactive compounds which can be an alternative source to replace some commercially available drugs. This study also signifies the folk ware claim of Carica papaya L.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1543–1546
Munuru Srikanth1, Satya Sandeep Tata*2 and Sudhakar Godi3
1-2 Department of Biotechnology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003, Andhra Pradesh, India 3 Department of Human Genetics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Rice is an important staple food crop and it is cultivated in many countries. To reach sufficient productivity many biotechnological strategies are being applied to improve the productivity by increasing the quality and quantity of the crop. There are some abiotic factors which are extremely affecting the growth of the crop and its productivity. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system is considered as one of the specific and effective types of genomic editing in plant biotechnology. This helps in studying the gene function and creating new rice varieties which shows tolerance against different abiotic factors i.e., drought, salinity, high and low temperatures, etc. The review aims to provide recent information about abiotic stress tolerant varieties of rice produced by genome editing using CRISPR-Cas9 system.

Case Study | Published online : 09-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1547–1552
Shaju Reema Thankam*1 and Suba G. A. Manuel2
1 Department of Life Sciences, Bangalore University, Bangalore - 560 056, Karnataka, India 2 Department of Life Science, Mount Carmel College, No. 58, Palace Road, Bangalore - 560 052, Karnataka
Abstract
The continuous rise in demand for food has forced men to improve crop productivity. This is achieved by increasing amounts of fertilizers to boost the growth of the plants, invention of genetically modified plants and use of pesticides to reduce the attack of pests and pathogens. The use of these chemicals may have a negative impact on the microorganisms present in the soil and the plants, they also tend to reduce the fertility of the soil and increase the mineral content in the long run. The plants act as a host to different kinds of microorganisms known as endophytes which helps in developing resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses, promote plant growth, and also protect them against herbivores. In the present study, the endophytes isolated from Curcuma longa were introduced into a crop plant Solanum lycopersicum grown in three different field conditions. The effect of temperature and soil composition in the transmission and growth of the endophytes were observed. Maximum colonies were isolated from the samples collected from Field 3 and maximum diversity from Field 2. Hence the change in temperature and soil composition can influence the number and type of bacterial endophytic strain grown in the same host plant.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1553–1557
Davinder Singh1, Tajinder Kour*2 and Sandeep Singh2
1-2 Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir 3 Government Higher Secondary School Sohal, Akhnoor - 181 201, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Study focuses on assessing the impacts of fuelwood consumption on the livelihood of households in the Jammu District. The field survey data were employed for the study. The primary sources involved the use of questionnaire, while the secondary sources involved the use of documented information from books, reports and internet. The study revealed that 70% of the people within the study area are involved in agricultural activities, whereas more than 65% population are depending on the extraction of forest resources for their livelihood. Forests also help to control erosion and enhance aesthetic beautification and temperature regulation in the rural areas of the study region. The study reveals that seasonal variations affect availability of fuelwood as well as quantity of fuelwood used during the cold and warm days. Fuelwood collection is an important and time-consuming activity, whether done at daily or weekly intervals for the majority of rural areas. The use of LPG significantly influenced the domestic fuelwood consumption. The overall fuelwood consumption in agroforestry in the study area i.e., 40.8% followed by LPG (29.5%), Crop residue (14.1%), Dung cake (10.4%) and Kerosene oil (5.2%). Fuel wood consumption per household was estimated in 7.5 kg/day in summer and 10.7 kg/day in winter.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1558–1563
Sajad Hussain Shah1, Sandeep Kumar2 and Vimala Yerramilli*3
1-3 Department of Botany, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut - 250 004, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Abiotic stresses adversely affect growth, physio-biochemical processes and yield of crop plants. Among abiotic stresses, salinity stress is a major environmental threat that reduced crop productivity. It causes osmotic stress, ionic toxicity, metabolic imbalance and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that disturb cellular homeostasis and lead to cell death. To cope with such adversities, plants develop certain internal mechanism to tolerate salt stress. Among these, the enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities is a well-known intrinsic defence mechanism of plants. In the present mini review article, the focus has been given on the role of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) under salinity stress in plants.

Research Review | Published online : 11-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1564–1568
Phurailatpa Pooja Sharma1 and S. Jawahar*2
1-2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment were conducted at Annamalai University, Experimental farm, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu State, India in Kuruvai and Navarai seasons during July 2019 – March 2020 to study the effect of Zn and Fly ash as source of silicon in combination with silicate solubilizing bacteria on productivity of rice. There are nine treatments viz., T1- Recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF), T2- T1 + ZnSo4 @ 25 kg ha-1, T3- T2 + Si @ 50 kg ha-1 through Fly Ash (FLA) T4- T2 + Si @ 100 kg ha-1 through FLA, T5- T2 + Si @ 150 kg ha-1 through FLA, T6- T2 + Silicate Solublizing Bacteria (SSB), T7- T3 + SSB, T8- T4 + SSB and T9- T5 + SSB. The treatments were arranged in randomized block design and with three replications. Among the different treatments, T9- T5 + SSB registered the higher values for growth attributes (plant height - 105.21 and 115.16 cm , number of tillers hill-1- 13.27 and 15.61, chlorophyll content - 5.34 and 6.74 mg g-1, leaf area index - 7.21 and 8.83 and dry matter production (DMP) - 9436 & 9633 kg ha-1), yield attributes (number of panicles m-2- 544 and 602, number of grains panicles-1 - 110 and 121 and test weight - 16.69 and 17.89 g) and yields (grain-4745 and 5210 kg ha-1 and straw - 8280 and 8989 kg ha-1) of rice, which was followed by T8 - T4 + SSB. Thus, it can be concluded that cultivation of rice fertilized with RDF + ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 + Si @ 150 kg ha-1 through FLA + SSB is a viable practice to enhance the growth, yield attributing characters and yield of rice.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1567–1571
Mahaling V. Hattalli*1, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu2, D. Srinivas Reddy3 and D. Srinivas Chary4
1, 3 School of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India 2 National institute of Rural Development and Panchayat Raj, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -500 030, Telangana, India 4 Department of Statistics and Mathematics, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
The study on business viability of dragon fruit aimed to bring more area under cultivation and to help the policy makers to formulate policies. The present study was conducted in Sanga Reddy and Nalgonda districts of Telangana with the following objectives; to analyze the business viability of the dragon fruit cultivation in Telangana and to identify the constraints in production and marketing of dragon fruit in Telangana. To fulfil the objective of the study, data was collected through personal interviews from the selected dragon fruit growers with the help of structured questionnaire/schedule. The data collected was subjected to various analytical tools like project appraisal techniques (NPV, B:C ratio and IRR) and garret ranking technique. The study revealed that total cost of establishment for 1ha of dragon fruit cultivation is Rs. 9.05 lakh. The total annual cost for production of dragon fruit is Rs. 2.02 lakh with the net returns of 15.58 lakhs. The NPV of 1 ha area under cultivation at 10.25 per cent discount rate is 84.53 lakhs, Benefit cost ration is 4.26 and Internal Rate of Return is 53.53 per cent this indicates investment on dragon fruit cultivation is financially feasible. The major production constraints affecting the returns to the producers were high installation cost and unavailability of quality planting material. The major marketing constraints associated with the producers were lack of marketing information and new markets availability.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1572–1576
Richa Dubey*1, Dhari Sheth2, Shivangi Mathur3 and Ruby Patel4
1,3 Department of Microbiology, President Science College, Shayona Study Campus, Ghatlodiya, Ahmedabad - 380 061, Gujarat, India 2 Institute of Advanced Research, Koba Institutional Area, Gandhinagar - 382 426, Gujarat, India 4 M. N. College, Visnagar, Mehsana - 384315, Gujarat
Abstract
Human genome manipulation, each in vitro and in vivo, remains a subject for moral dialogue. The safety and toxicity of all clinical trials and processes still be strictly monitored. The invention of the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and CRISPR-Cas 9 adjustive immune systems has revolutionized scientists’ understanding of the human genome. Recent advances in this technology have opened the doors for genome editing research in basic science to new age. The prokaryote-derived CRISPR–Cas genome editing systems have revolved our ability to control, detect, image and annotate specific polymer and ribonucleic acid sequences in living cells of various species. In CRISPR-Cas technique Genome editing is done by utilizing non-homologous end joining and homology-directed DNA repair and single-base editing enzymes. Initial successes have impressed efforts to get new systems for targeting and manipulating nucleic acids, together with those from Cas9, Cas12, Cascade and Cas13 orthologous. Additionally, to targeting polymer, CRISPR-Cas-based RNA-targeting tools are also being developed for diagnostics and new age medicines. Current review is aimed to describe the recent improvement, challenges, future prospects and innovative applications of Cas9 in a diverse field range from basic biology to biotechnology and medicine.

Research Review | Published online : 13-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1577–1579
S. Uma*1 and P. Jeevan2
1-2 P. G. and Research, Department of Microbiology, J. J. College of Arts and Science, (Autonomous), Pudukkottai, Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Thiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
It was reported that yield of the spinach reduced due to the plant disease. Fusarium wilt, consider to be a soil borne disease which highly influence the production of crops. Outbreak of fusarium diseases causes major economic lose on crops throughout the world. Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatium, Fusarium culmorum, Gaeumannomyces graminisi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Phytophthora cactorum are some of plant pathogens that cause severe diseases in various cash crops. It was reported that fusarium oxysporum species “Spinaciar” proven to be the most dreadful disease of the crop spinach. Fusarium species also causes damping-off, root rot, and discoloration of both vascular system of seedlings and mature plants. To overcome this situation biocontrol methods should be followed. It was reported that Trichoderma species – are recorded to an effective biocontrol agent that act against pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium aphanidermatium, Fusarium culmorum, Gaeumannomyces graminisi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Phytophthora cactorum, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria species effectively. Thus, Trichoderma species isolated from the coastal area Athirampattinum was tested against the fungal pathogens which are isolated from the spinach cultivating field of Thirukalapatti Village to overcome the disease and to found the potentiality of marine Trichoderma (Antagonistic) by dual culture method which was recognized to be a viable alternative method to manage plant diseases.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1580–1582
Ganesh Narayan Meena*1, Kusum Kurdiya2, Kailash Chandra Sharma3 and Manju Sharma4
1-4 Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, JLN Marg, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Present study was conducted at University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. Five treatments named as control (no fertilizer and manure), chemical fertilizer (DAP), cowdung, vermicompost and biofertilizer were taken for study. Biochemical analysis for different seed parameters viz. protein content, total soluble sugar, starch content, total lipid content and total phenol content were done by standard methods. Results revealed that protein content (238.33 mg/gm), total lipid content (476.77 mg/gm), total phenol content (6.93 mg/gm), total soluble sugar (92.33 mg/gm) and starch content (191 mg/gm) was reported significantly higher in vermicompost treatment (T4) compare than Rhizobium (T5), DAP (T2), cowdung (T3) and control (T1) treatment. It was concluded that chemical fertilizers could replace by vermicompost and biofertilizer for better nutrient quality in groundnut.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1583–1584
R. Karan*1, P. Renganathan2 and P. Balabaskar3
1-3 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Brown leaf spot is a serious disease caused by a fungal pathogen Bipolaris oryzae. Various management strategies adopted to minimize the brown leaf spot incidence. Among them, fungicides are promising one. Fungicides are tested against B. oryzae in poisoned food technique and agar well diffusion method. In poisoned food technique, Propiconazole completely arrested the mycelial growth at 500 ppm concentration followed by Azoxystrobin, Hexaconazole, and Carbendazim + Mancozeb which completely inhibited the radial growth of B. oryzae at 750 ppm. Minimum inhibition was recorded by Mancozeb. In Agar well method, Propiconazole produced maximum inhibition zone (36.50 mm) at 1000 ppm concentration followed by Azoxystrobin (33 mm) and Hexaconazole (32.75 mm). In the present study, various fungicides were tested against brown leaf spot pathogen. As a result, propiconazole was found to most effective against brown leaf spot caused by B. oryzae.

Short communication | Published online : 15-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1585–1589
Kandasamy*1, R. E. Arivazhagan2 and M. Saranya3
1-3 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Vegetable Yard, Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram during the year 2020 with objects to influence the plant growth regulators on growth and yield of sponge gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.) cv. Thalaivasal local. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with three replications and ten treatments viz., three concentration each of NAA (50, 100 and 200 ppm), Ethrel (125, 250 and 500 ppm), CCC (100, 200 and 400ppm) with control. Observations recorded on different growth and yield characters showed significant differences among different treatments. With regard to growth characters, application of NAA @ 200 ppm significantly increased the vine length, while Ethrel @ 250 ppm recorded maximum number of branches, induced earliness in flowering, more number of female flowers and reduced sex ratio, whereas highest node number of first male flower and more number of male flowers were observed in the application of CCC @ 100ppm. Ethrel @ 500 ppm evinced better performance for the fruit length and fruit weight, whereas fruit girth was found to be more in plants sprayed with CCC @ 400 ppm. The treatment Ethrel @ 500 ppm was produced heavy weight fruit. Application of Ethrel @ 250 ppm recorded more number of fruits per vine and yield per vine. The highest net return and benefit cost ratio were observed in Ethrel @ 250 ppm. Among different treatments, Ethrel @ 250 ppm was found superior to other treatments for increasing yield potential in sponge gourd.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1590–1595
Kumud Das*1, Apurba Saikia2 and Soneswar Sarma3
1 Department of Botany, Nowgong College (Autonomous), Nagaon - 782 001, Assam, India 2 P. G. Department of Life Sciences, D. R. College, Golaghat - 785 621, Assam, India 2 Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati - 781 014, Assam, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted with efficient AM fungal isolates from the rhizosphere soil of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve (DSBR) forest of Assam, India in both laboratory and field condition with maize and black gram. Application of efficient isolates viz. AMF3, AMF7, AMF10 and AMF17 with host plant (Zea mays L.) had shown highest root colonization (75.86, 44.52, 52.90 and 73.11% respectively) and number of spores (17.67, 6.67, 7.33 and 12.67 g-1, soil respectively) out of total isolates in vitro experiment. Lone inoculation of these four isolates in black gram with prominent parameters like dry weight (g, plant-1) of shoot and root, chlorophyll content (mg, g-1 fresh wt.), N and P content (g/plant) and yield (kg, ha-1) was done in field condition. Dry weight of nodule (0.99 g, plant-1), shoot (8.15 g, plant-1) and root (3.32 g, plant-1) was high in AMF3 inoculation while low (nodule= 0.54, shoot= 7.00 and root= 1.55 g, plant-1) in AMF17. The N and P content showed high (in shoot 3.33 mg/plant and in root 0.88 mg/plant) in AMF3 in comparison to others. Subsequently, the highest productivity (450.65 kg, ha-1) of the test crop observed in due application of AMF3 while lowest (371.67 kg, ha-1) in AMF5. This study thus underlines the potentials of the AM fungi correspondence to the growth and development of black gram and submit the work in original form for greater benefit of mankind in future.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1596–1599
J. Meenambigai*1 and R. Jalagandeshwaran2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The Information Technology (IT) enabled extension systems are acting as a key agent for changing agrarian situation and farmers’ lives by improving access to information and sharing knowledge. In today’s world of competition, information is the key word to success. Use of internet has given the globe a shrinking effect. Hence, the present investigation was designed to study the socio – personal and psychological characteristics of farmers, to assess perception of Information Technology Enabled Systems. The present study was conducted in Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu state. A sample size of 120 farmers were selected for this study using digital literacy test. A well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule was used for data collection. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyse the data. Most of the Information Technology Enabled Systems were perceived as good by the respondents especially Uzhavan App, TNAU AGRITECH portal, AGRISNET, Mobile Advisory services of state department of Agriculture etc. It may be due to the fact that the above mentioned ITES are easily accessible and user friendly and also to meet out the information needs and rendering effective advisory services.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1600–1604
Nowsheen Hassan*1 and Shafiq-ur-Rehman2
1-2 Division of Environmental Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Fungal infections are one of the major causes of post-harvest rots of fresh fruits and vegetables whether in transit or storage. They cause significant economic losses in the commercialization phase, and are rendered unfit for human consumption. There are many reports on the antimicrobial properties of plant extracts containing different classes of phenolic compounds. The Phenolic compounds represent a rich source of preservatives that have been explored for a long time as postharvest alternative control measures to fungicides. The in vitro assaying of aqueous and ethanol extracts of five different plants viz. Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Curcuma longa, Mentha spicata and Zingiber officinale at different concentrations viz., 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per cent in comparison with control (without extracts) was carried out in the laboratory for their efficacy against the pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae using Poison Food Technique. All tested plant extracts produced some antifungal activities although the rate of inhibition of test fungus varied with the different plant extracts and concentrations. The results revealed that all the tested plant extracts inhibited growth of pathogenic fungus but Allium sativum has shown best antifungal activity at all the concentrations both in aqueous and ethanol solvents. It was also observed that the effectiveness of extracts increased with the increase in extract concentration and the maximum inhibition in mycelial growth was found at highest concentration. However, ethanolic plant extracts proved to be more effective than aqueous plant extracts.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1605–1609
C. Praveen Sampath Kumar*1, T. Tamil Mathi2, J. L. Joshi3, Darling B. Suji4, R. Ebenezer Babu Rajan5 and Ajish Muraleedharan6
1-3,5 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 4 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 6 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate six parents and fifteen hybrids through half-diallel mating system to study general and specific combining ability effects and genetic analysis for various yield and yield attributing characters. Six parents viz., Arka Anamika (P1), Thanvi 66 (P2), Villupuram Local (P3), Dhaanya (P4), Ankur 41 (P5) and Varsha Uphar (P6) were crossed in half-diallel fashion at the Plant Breeding Farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University. Resulting fifteen hybrids along with their parents were evaluated for their combining ability. Observations were recorded on single plant basis. The observations were made on characters namely, days to first flowering, plant height at maturity, number of primary branches per plant, number of nodes per plant, number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit, fruit length, fruit girth, single fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. In half-diallel analysis, the variance of the genotype for all the characters were highly significant indicating high genetic variability among the parents studied. The variance due to GCA was higher than the corresponding variance due to SCA for most of the characters except number of fruits per plant, fruit length and fruit girth. The combining ability variance revealed the preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters studied. The parents P1 and P6 were found as good general combiner. Based on the sca effects, the hybrid P1  P6 considered as the best followed by crosses P2  P4 and P3  P4 considered as the better hybrids.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1610–1612
D. Karnaraja*1 and M. Natarajan2
1-3 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The conclusion vividly resulted that majority of them belonged to middle age category, illiterate, agriculture as the primary occupation, joint family, farming experience and fatalism. The results also concluded that the respondents possessed medium level of annual income, social participation, extension agency contact and socio-economic status, cosmopoliteness, information source utilization and achievement motivation. However, a result indicated that majority of the respondents belonged to low level of and farm category and mass media exposure. This concluded result enhances the policymakers, government officials, programmers to enhance more development activities in the tribal track to improve the socio-economic status and welfare of the tribal family livelihood.

Short communication | Published online : 18-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1613–1617
Ramsi Vakayil1, Thasfeeha Abdul Nazeer2 and Maghimaa Mathanmohun*3
1&3 Department of Microbiology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram - 637 408, District Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India 2 M. K. Bioland Research Centre, District Salem, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Antibiotic drugs continue the leading therapeutics for healing microbial infections. The multidrug resistance has a global health crisis, and seek other substitutes. The present research work aimed to explore the in-vitro antibacterial property of A. calamus acetone extract against nosocomial pathogens. A total of 24 wound and skin specimens were collected and 28 significant nosocomial pathogens were identified based on their phenotypic and biochemical profiling viz., E. coli (5), Staphylococcus aureus (6), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6), Klebsiella pneumonia (4), K. oxytoca (3), and Acinetobacter baumanii (4). The sensitivity and resistance pattern was observed on all the isolates. K. pneumoniae was 100% resistant against all three antibiotics. All six isolates were resistant to an antibiotic. They showed a multidrug-resistance (MDR) pattern. E. coli, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia were resistant to Tetracycline (30µg), K. pneumonia, and K. oxytoca were resistant to Gentamycin (10µg), S. aureus, K. pneumonia, and A. baumanii were resistant to Chloramphenicol (30µg). Hence, considerable inhibition of A. calamus acetone extract was found in all the isolates. The maximum inhibition of 17mm on S. aureus and the minimum inhibition of 13 mm on A. baumanii at 60 µg concentration. This research work evidenced that this plant extract has antibacterial potential to persuade a quick, wound healing.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1618–1620
Ruyida Mushtaq*1, Rajesh Yadav2 and Harmeet Singh3
1,3 Department of Geography and Disaster Management, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal-190006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 2 Department of Geography, Mohanlal Sukhadia University Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Horticulture plays a crucial role in Jammu and Kashmir economy which is not only important from the viewpoint of potential income generating activities but also contributes to the GDP of the Jammu and Kashmir economy. Pear is a horticulture crop in temperate region of Kashmir valley which provides different value-added products and ensures sustainable development of the region. The high production of pear crop in Kashmir valley is due to its favourable agro-climatic conditions and topography of the region. The present study has been obtained from secondary sources of data which aims to explain trend of area, production and productivity of pear cultivation in Kashmir valley from 2004-05 to 2017-18 for a period of 14 years. The results observed that trend of area and production under pear cultivation has witnessed considerable increase from year 2004-05 to 2017-18. The trend is explained in the compound annual growth rate of area and production which has witnessed an increase at the rate of 2.65 and 6.14 respectively during last one decade. The productivity shows signs of decreasing trend at rate of 0.85 from year 2004-05 to 2017-18. Therefore, supply chain management and effective government intervention along with development strategies of pre- and post-harvest techniques is required to improve productivity of pear crop.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1621–1625
Suman Chandolia1 and Chitra Choudhary*2
1-2 Department of Economics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The objective of the study is to examine the impact of Agricultural Credit on Agricultural Gross Domestic Product in India and also tries to investigate the relationship between both of them. The study is based on secondary data ranging from the period of 1982 to 2019, congregated from the various reports of RBI. Various statistical tools such as Ordinary Least Square Method, Johansen Cointegration Test, VECM and Granger Causality test have been applied. Double log specification of the model shows that one per cent increase in agricultural credit will significantly raise agricultural GDP by 0.24 per cent. Error correction term is negative which indicate that there is a convergence between the variables and the existence of long-run causality. Agricultural credit only has a long-run relationship with agricultural GDP and has an influential impact in the long run only. Further, it is also found that agricultural credit granger causes agricultural GDP but vice-versa does not exist. The findings comprehend that the ability of credit to induce agricultural GDP growth is limited. Hence, adequate attention should be given to building other capabilities required to promote agricultural growth. This may include productivity increases, expansion of infrastructure, higher public expenditure on agriculture and allied activities, effective extension services, sound institutions, and export competitiveness. The impact of credit on agricultural growth would be more effective in the presence of these non-credit growth ingredients. The weak contribution of credit to agricultural growth also emphasizes the need for proper targeting of agricultural credit to achieve the desired impact on agricultural growth.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1626–1629
Umesh*1 and Vishal Warpa2
1-2 Discipline of Geography, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) Maidan Garhi, New Delhi - 110 068
Abstract
Soil is considered as a storehouse of various macro and micro nutrients that provide a backbone to the agricultural activities. It also lends a natural base to support spatial economic ventures of human beings. As far as the question of crop productivity is concerned, it gets highly influenced by the availability of nutrients in the soil. Needless to mention, certainly a healthy soil with adequate nutrient balance helps the plant to withstand certain level of calamities and also possess the capacity of higher production than a poor soil. To evaluate the status of nutrients in Haryana, the nutrients index at the district level is constructed for the two times periods (2015-17, 2017-19). In general, the whole state is deficient in micronutrients. The availability of phosphate has reduced to the half of the value in the successive cycle. In paddy cultivation areas, intensive paddy cultivation has caused zinc deficiency. The other micronutrients are depleting at a faster rate. Therefore, it has been seen that multi-nutrient deficiency has emerged as a serious threat for the farmers and policy makers alike across the districts of Haryana.

Research Article | Published online : 21-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1630–1631
Sesenlo Kath*1 and Ruokuovilie Mezhatsu2
1-2 Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Kohima, Tseminyu - 797 109, Nagaland, India
Abstract
Empowerment is a process in which the person gains greater share of control over resources and control over decision making in the home, community, society and nation. Self-help group are informal association of people who chose to come together to find ways to improve their living conditions. Economic independence is one of the means to empower the farmers particularly self-help group. This study was conducted in Chunlikha block of SHG under Kohima district of Nagaland. The study revealed that, among various income generating activities the extend of involvement of SHGs in backyard poultry farming (Rank I), Vegetable cultivation (Rank II), orchard (Rank III), backyard piggery farming (Rank IV), backyard Rabbit farming (Rank V), Backyard Guinea pigs (Rank VI), mushroom cultivation (Rank VII), bee keeping farming (Rank VIII) and fisheries (Rank IX). The economic parameters like self-confidence, decision on expenditure, living standard, decision making in financial aspects, helping in family finance, food habit and saving are the positive outcomes and were rank according in ascending order. The development department of Agri and allied, funding agencies and financial institute needs to intervene, participate and assist more for economic independence. But there were some areas of concern where progress was limited. Therefore, there is a need to thrust these factors with suitable changes in training and empowerment curriculum to fill the gaps by designing suitable empowerment programmes. Thus, the farmers need to be strengthened more to achieve social, economic and technologies empowerment.

Short communication | Published online : 21-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1632–1636
Tania Nuri*1 and Mohan Kumar Biswas2
1-2 Department of Plant Pathology, Palli-Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan - 731 236, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) black scurf is caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a seed and soil born disease making severe problem in many potato growing regions in the world since age, resulting huge economic losses. An experiment was conducted by using ecologically sound products, botanicals (Neem, onion, ginger, turmeric and garlic) in laboratory condition as well as in pot condition and bio-agents (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma asperellu, T. koningii, T. harzianum and T. longibrachiatum) in pot condition to find out the more effective approaches for disease management during two consecutive years. In laboratory, botanicals were amended with Potato Dextrose Agar for growing the fungus and for pot condition potato seed tubers were treated with different concentration of aqueous extract of botanicals and spore suspensions of bio-agents. Among all 15ml, 20ml and 25ml of garlic extract successfully 100% restrict the growth of Rhizoctonia solani. All concentrations of ginger extract were found to be less effective. 25% garlic extract registered 79.22% of eye germination of seed tuber and 5% of ginger extract registered the least 11.84%. Minimum disease incidence (5.68%) and disease severity (0.16%) were recorded in 25% of garlic extract and maximum (disease incidence 78.17% and disease severity 12.95%) were recorded in 5% of ginger extract. T. harzianum did the best at eye germination %, reduction of disease severity and incidence over control during 2 years (89.74%, 83.30% and 57.60% respectively). Oppositely, T. longibrachiatum was not enough efficacious for controlling the disease compare to others. These tested selective treatments can shift effective, profitable and ecologically sound management of this potato disease.

Research Article | Published online : 21-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1637–1640
A. Singh1, Santhini S. Nair*2 and S. T. Mehetre3
1-2 VES College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Chembur, Mumbai - 400 071, Maharashtra, India 3 NABTD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Grey water accounts for about 75% of the total household wastewater and is reusable if treated properly for activities like gardening, toilet flush, irrigation, car wash etc. and helps in saving 50-60% the total water we consume. This paper describes demonstration of novel and economical system capable of treating greywater and making it suitable for the above-mentioned purposes. The system has been designed by integrated scientific approach and successfully tested in the laboratory. Further a pilot plant for treatment of 400 L/day capacity has been installed for treating greywater generated at a hostel campus as a ‘Lab to Land’ model. The system consists a of 3 stage process comprising of bacterial treatment followed by filtration and disinfection at the end. Consortium of bacteria was used for treatment of waste water and resulted in complete removal of BOD and TSS levels to the extent by 90-95% and 75% respectively. The finally treated greywater was used for gardening purpose. The overall system helped in saving 50% of water consumed in the kitchen (approximately 400 L/day) and demonstrated a sustainable example of effective waste management and optimizing resource utilization.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1641–1645
Chandopal Saikia1, Susmita Sonowal2 and Moirangthem Kameshwor Singh*3
1-3 Department of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University - 786 004, Assam, India
Abstract
Butterflies are very subtle and charming creature in the world which is considered as pollution indicator and natural pollinator. The present study aims to elucidate the richness and diversity of butterflies from Lower-Doigrung (Bijuli) reserve forest of Golaghat, Assam. A total of 60 species of butterflies belonging to five families were recorded during the study, of which, 5 species were found to be included in the rare category. The family Nymphalidae was found to be most dominant with 26 number of species followed by Lycaenidae (13 species), Papilionidae (9 species), Pieridae and Hesperiidae with 6 species each. The results of the current study will help in implementing proper conservation strategies of butterfly diversity in the protected area.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1646–1653
Rubi Raina*1, Inder Jeet Singh2 and Sudamani Sharma3
1-3 Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The word food security is recurrently used in the past few years as the government is putting more stress on ensuring food security. Despite remarkable progress in economy, India still faces extensive hunger and poverty. Hence, improving food security of the population is an issue of immense significance as it is vital for the upholding of human well-being. The present study is an endeavor to investigate food security status at district level in Himachal Pradesh. The study is entirely based on secondary information. Food security is analyzed through three key dimensions of food availability, food accessibility and food utilization. Selected indicators under each dimension have been analyzed by using variable index. In addition, food security index has been calculated at district level by using Composite Index given by UNDP. The findings revealed that the districts like Shimla, Mandi and Kangra are more food secure due to better performance in the selected indicators while the districts located in the eastern and the northern part has registered low food security.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1654–1659
Arunsagayaraj Irudayasamy1, Janaky Ranjithkumar2, Sivaelango Gopal3 and Durga Devi Munireddy*4
1,3-4 P. G. and Research Department of Biochemistry, Sacred Heart College (Autonomous), Tirupattur - 635 601, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Research and Development, Kaleesuwari Refinery Pvt. Ltd, Chennai - 600 126, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Camellia sinensis (green tea) is widely known for its medicinal quality in treating ailments and acts as an excellent antioxidant and stimulator for decades. It is rich in phyto constituents and has high amount of active compounds like phenols, polyphenols and caffeine. Polyphenols found in Camellia sinensis (green tea) exhibits many beneficial biochemical effects in vitro and in vivo. Nano biopharmaceutics is the recent technology, which is used for drug delivery system. Transdermal is an application process by which, skin permeation enhancers promotes skin fluidity and ‘Nano-porosity’ which increase the capability of low molecular weight lipid- based vesicles to cross the skin. Using different lipid mediated carriers as nanovesicle loaded with desired effective drugs to the targeted sites in treating diseases has been an effective method in the recent past. The present study focuses on extraction and quantification of phenolic content present in the green tea leaves extract by means of physical and chemical stability, λ max determination, Entrapment efficiency and SEM analysis. Optimizing the effective Nanovesicle tranfersomes is done by various process variables like Soy lecithin with Tween 80 (1:1 and 1:2 ratios) and Cholesterol with span 60. The entrapment efficiency is found to be high at Soy lecithin with Tween 80 (1:1 ratio) 6000 rpm at room temperature. Thus, the present finding infers that the transferosomes entrapped with Green tea leaf extract would be a promising approach in preparing transdermal patches that would treat many diseases and be an efficacious targeted drug delivery system.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1660–1664
Murulidhar M. Venkannanvara*1 and N. M. Kerur2
1-2 Department of Agribusiness Management, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study is an attempt to know the growth performance and instability in oilseeds sector using secondary data. The results of the study indicated that negative and significant growth rates were observed in the area and production of majority of oilseeds, except soybean, castor seed. Where growth rate in production was positive and non-significant in groundnut and sesamum. Growth rates of productivity were positive and significant in case of groundnut, castor seed, linseed, sesamum, Niger and rapeseed mustard. Area and production of soybean and sunflower were highly unstable when compare to other oilseed crops. The overall oilseed crops production and productivity in the country has registered a positive and significant growth during the study period, whereas slight significant decline in area under oilseeds in the country. It may due to low productivity of oilseed crops, fragmented and underutilized processing facilities and lack of technological inputs hampered the oilseeds area under cultivation in the country, resulting the shift in cultivational practices towards cereals and other crops and heavy reliance on import of oilseeds. Area was found to be the major contributor to the production of soybean and castor seed, whereas productivity was found to be the major remarkable contributor to the production of groundnut, rapeseed and mustard and castor seed. Both area and productivity together influence the production of castor seed and soybean in the present study.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1665–1667
Harshdeep B. Sartape*1, Noman Azeem Khan2, Shaikh Jawed Ahmed3 and Ashfaque M. Khan4
1,3-4 Department of Botany, Maulana Azad College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad - 431 001, Maharashtra 2 Microbial Solutions Private Limited, Hingoli - 431 531, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
There are various weeds at the road sides and in the agriculture field that having endophytes and makes resistant to their hosts. Now-a-day farmers are more shifting towards the use of the bio-fertilizers (organic fertilizer) rather than the chemical fertilizers. Endophytic bacteria and fungi with media directly used as bio-fertilizers. In present investigation, endophytes isolated from weeds Achyranthes aspera L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Isolated Endophytic fungi were applied on the chili and tomato seeds. These vegetables have showed positive response to samples used.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1668–1675
K. Malathi*1, S. Kamalnesan2 and Tiny S. Palathara3
1-3 Department of Economics, University of Madras, Chennai - 05, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The most important development challenge in India is to improve our agriculture sector. As we all know that majority of the workforce in India depends on agriculture and the growth production in agriculture cannot be equalized with the ever-increasing population in India. Hence the pattern and technologies adopted should be changed and this paper highlights the best practices that are being adopted by Israel. Israel is fast improving in agriculture and this country has become a world leader for adopting the best technologies to increase the production in agriculture. In fact, more than half of the land area in Israel is desert and their climatic condition and other resources do not favour farming. In spite of all these disadvantages Israel has become the major exporter and world leader in agriculture. This study aims to give an over view about the recent status of agriculture sector and the reasons for the slow growth of production in India, and also throw light on the best practices that is adopted by Israel in their agriculture sector and finally to adopt the important technologies that will be best suited for India to improve the production in the agriculture sector.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1676–1682
Elavarasu Raji1 and Sivaelango Gopal*2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Biochemistry, Sacred Heart College (Autonomous), Tirupattur - 635 601, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Presently, metallic nanoparticles have various uses for special scientific, pharmaceutical, and Agricultural applications. Nanobiotechnology, blended with green chemistry, has awesome capacity for the improvement of novel and important products that advantage human fitness, surroundings environment, and Industries. Green chemistry has a crucial position because of its contribution to the unconventional synthesis methods of silver nanoparticles from plant latex extracts from Euphorbia heterophylla, that have exhibited antimicrobial Capacity, among other top outstanding properties. The Fresh E. heterophylla latex was collected from Mandalavadi Village, Tirupattur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The confirmation of silver nanoparticles by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and SEM-EDAX. The UV-Vis Spectral investigation of integrated AgNPs showed a peak. The FTIR characterization studies presence of biomolecules in the plant latex play a double part in synthesis and confirmation of silver nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscope technique was studied to investigate the morphological characteristics. And EDAX spectra, plainly silver nanoparticles diminished by E. heterophylla have the weight percentage of Silver, Oxygen and Carbon. Antimicrobial activity refers to the process of killing or inhibiting the disease-causing microbes. Various antimicrobial agents are used for this purpose. The synthesized silver nanoparticles are used in the agricultural field. E. heterophylla plant latex is naturally present in a small amount of antibacterial and antifungal activity.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1683–1688
A. V. Prasheetha*1 and C. V. Sreeranjit Kumar2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
India is one of the major countries in the world that produce fish through aquaculture. In India, carp culture has the major economic importance in freshwater aquaculture practice. Fish are the main source of animal protein and lipids for the growing human population. But the changes in the water quality affected the quality of fish significantly. The indiscriminate use of pesticides in agricultural fields polluted the water and environment and thus the aquatic fauna. In our present study, we analyzed the effect of new generation insecticide fipronil, a phenyl pyrazole chemical on the lipid metabolism in the brain of fresh water fish Labeo rohita (Rohu). The result showed significant changes in the lipogenic enzymes like β-hydroxy methyl glutaryl Co-A reductase, glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme and a significant reduction in lipid profiles like total lipid, cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, and free fatty acids in the fish brain after the exposure of sub-lethal concentration of fipronil. This study revealed the adverse effect of indiscriminate usage of fipronil in the agricultural field.

Research Article | Published online : 27-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1689–1693
E. Arivazhagan*1, R. Kandasamy2 and T. Naveena3
1-3 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The experiment on “Studies on the effect of plant growth regulators on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. Sivam” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University during 2019 – 2020. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with 10 treatments in three replications. The treatments consist of foliar spray of three plant growth regulators viz., NAA, GA3 and Ascorbic Acid along with recommended dose of manures and fertilizers. The foliar application of NAA @ 40 ppm resulted in improving the growth characters like plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, days to fifty per cent flowering and yield components like number of flowers plant-1, number of fruits plant-1, fruit length, fruit girth, single fruit weight and fruit yield plant-1 which was followed by NAA @ 60 ppm. Fruit set percentage was found to be highest in plants sprayed with NAA @ 20 ppm followed by NAA @ 40 ppm. Yield characters like fruit yield plant-1 was also found to be significantly influenced by the application of GA3. The Ascorbic Acid @ 400 ppm increased the ascorbic acid content of chillies. The highest net return and benefit cost ratio were observed in NAA @ 40 ppm.

Research Article | Published online : 28-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1694–1696
S. Kumar*1, S. Ramya2, Ajish Muraleedharan3 and K. Sanjeev Kumar4
1-4 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002. Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of media on growth parameters of red ginger (Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum.) for perfect growing media mixture suitable for production of good quality plants at Swamithoppu village, Kanniyakumari District, Tamil Nadu during 2018-2020. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with eleven treatment combinations of various growing media mixtures, comprising of red earth, river sand as basic components in combination with organic manures viz., FYM, coir pith, vermicompost and leaf mould compost. Control treatment was maintained with red earth and river sand. Red ginger plants were planted in polythene bags filled with respective planting media as per treatment schedule and biometric observations were recorded. The results revealed that the red ginger growth parameters were enhanced with the media sand + red earth + vermicompost + coirpith @ 1:1:1/2:1/2, v/v (T8) which recorded maximum values in plant height (69.68 cm), number of leaves per plant (92.75), number of suckers per plant (22.66), leaf length (25.47), leaf width (7.42), leaf area (126.62 cm2), plant spread north-south (78.51 cm), plant spread east-west (65.23 cm), fresh weight of shoot (76.14 g), fresh weight of root and rhizomes (45.71 g), dry weight of shoot (10.82 g), dry weight of root and rhizomes (6.51 g), total fresh biomass of the plant (121.81 g) and dry matter production of plant (17.19 g) at 240 days after planting. The next best results on these parameters were obtained with T9- sand + red earth + vermicompost + leaf mould compost (1:1:1/2:1/2, v/v), while the minimum values for the above parameters were noticed with control.

Research Article | Published online : 28-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1697–1702
Lingamurthy Sathu*1 and C. A. Priyesh2
1 Department of Economic Studies and Planning, School of Business Studies, Central University of Karnataka, Kadaganchi, Kalaburagi - 585 367, Karnataka, India 2 Department of Economics, University College, Kerala University, Thiruvannathapuram-34, Kerala, India
Abstract
Krishi Mahotsav, held across Gujarat State of India, is an intensive, month-long programme of mass contact, promising an innovative approach to reinvent agricultural extension, to reconnect scientists with famers, and to expand the farmers’ production possibility frontier through the active and creative involvement of 18-line departments of Gujarat government. The campaign was started in April - May 2005 with the objective to double agricultural income within five years in a sustainable manner. A total of 13 Krishi Mahotsavs have been successfully conducted up till now. In the past, the farmers desperately sought the help and direction of agricultural scientists for farming operations, but the scientists did not have time to hear their concerns and offer counsel. In fact, farmers were unable to make an appointment with the scientists. But, after the introduction of Krishi Mahotsav by the then Chief Minister, the farmers opined that now the agricultural scientists and the whole government machinery associated with farming and agricultural practices have come to the farmers’ fields with serious intention to address their issues relating to faming, electricity, revenue and land, agricultural and rural finance, animal husbandry, etc. It has proved beneficial in terms of increasing farm income, motivating the youth to engage in progressive farming, and the holistic development of agricultural and rural economy. Krishi Mahotsav has become an Indian Model of Agricultural Extension.

Case Study | Published online : 29-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1703–1708
Shilpa Deshpande Kaistha*1, Pramila Devi Umrao2 and Manishi Tripathi3
1-3 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur - 208 024, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Bacteriophages that show lytic replication cycle resulting in bacterial cytolysis form excellent biocontrol agents for phytopathogens. Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of bacterial wilt of economically important crop plants worldwide for which bacteriophage-based control therapy is currently being evaluated. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of Myoviridae phage vB_RsoMSS4 (фSS4) capable of reducing R. solanacearum infection in potato tubers as well as tomato plantings. The select phage also showed host specificity with no lytic activity against beneficial plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1709–1711
Kamlesh Paraste*1, Bhumesh Kumar2-3 and S. S. Sandhu3
1 Department of P. G. Studies and Research in Biological Sciences, R. D. University, Jabalpur - 482 001, Madhya Pradesh, India 2 ICAR-Directorate of Weed Research, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India 3 ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal - 132 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
The investigation was carried out to study the response of wheat and associated weed species against Elevated carbon dioxide. The weed species selected for the study were Phalaris minor and wild oat. The experiment was conducted under Ambient and Elevated CO2 conditions. The physiological parameters including Relative stress injury, Chlorophyll ‘a’, Chlorophyll ‘b’ and total Chlorophyll were analyzed under the study. Results obtained from the investigation revealed that Elevated CO2 significantly influenced the studied parameters. Similar trend of increment in all parameters was found in wheat as well as associated weed species in Elevated CO2 environment in comparison to Ambient environment. The findings of the study confirm that Elevated CO2 is helpful in enhancement of physiological activities of crop plants as well as weed species.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1718–1721
S. Srinivasan*1, D. Venkatakrishnan2, S. Kalaisudarson3 and A. P. Srinivasa Perumal4
1-2 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu 3-4 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The field investigation was undertaken during Kharif season, 2018 to study the effect of integrated plant nutrient supply system on post-harvest soil physical, chemical and biological properties with ambrette crop (Abelmoschus moschatus Medic.). The experiment was laid out in RBD with eight treatments and replicated thrice. The recommended dose of fertilizers for ambrette was 120:30: 40 kg N: P2O5:K2O ha-1. As per the treatment schedule neem coated urea (NCU), enriched pressmud compost (EPMC) and sea weed extract (SWE) were applied to the respective plot. Ambrette crop was grown to maturity with recommended cultural practices. After harvesting, the post-harvest soil samples were collected, processed and analyzed for their physical, chemical and biological properties. The results revealed that combined application of 75% RDF- N(NCU) + P(EMPC) + SWE (T8) registered the bulk density and pore space of 1.37 Mg m-3 and 50.62%, respectively. The same treatment significantly influenced WHC, pH, EC, OC, CEC, available N, P and K in the post-harvest soil. Application of 75% RDF- N(NCU) + P(EMPC) + SWE (T8) also registered the highest bacterial population (65.82CFU × 10-6), fungal population (16.46CFU × 10-4) and actinomycetes population (6.79 CFU × 10-5).

Research Article | Published online : 30-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1722–1725
Nandita Bhakat*1 and Ishwari Prasad Gupta2
1-2 University Department of Botany, Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee University, Ranchi - 834 008, Jharkhand
Abstract
Lianas are woody climbers, which because of having poor mechanical strength climbs up a support with the help of different climbing mechanisms, mostly trees to reach the canopy. The present study focused on the diversity of the woody climbers (lianas) found in the district of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India. Along with the study of the liana diversity, the ethnomedicinal importance of the lianas were also documented with an aim to protect the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) of the tribal people. The study revealed a total of 26 liana species belonging to 18 different families comprising of both monocots and dicots. The following result concludes that the study area is rich in biodiversity. Lianas are even rich in the field of ethnomedicine having diverse group of active biomolecules. Apart from that, the documented lianas are also used in the non-medical field for the purpose of ornamentation, fencing and making of ropes and jewelry.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Sep-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1726–1732
Sourav Sikdar1 and Santanu Debnath*2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Brahmananda Keshab Chandra College, Kolkata - 700 108, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Cancer is the major health problem in the modern era. According to recent survey, 63% of deaths due to cancer are reported in developing countries. Cancer derives from differential factors like environmental fluctuations, smoking, alcoholism, solar-UV radiation, etc. According to American Institute for Cancer Research, 2018, there are five most common cancers including lung, breast, colorectum, prostate, and stomach cancers, comprising nearly 48.8% of total 34 types of cancers. Surgical resection is the common treatment for cancer patients at earlier stages, whereas patients with later stages are treated with combination therapies, have considerable side-effects on normal cells. Recently, many researchers are targeting on development of biotechnological drugs and anti-tumour vaccines, that have shown promising outcomes in preclinical studies. Advanced cancer cases are often treated with cisplatin or in combination with gemcitabine, docetaxel, etc. that hampers the normal cells too. Therefore, there is a vital demand to develop an agent which has target-specific anti-cancer efficacy without affecting normal cells. Application of natural medicines is extensively made to treat different human diseases whereas cancer is difficult to cure by any agents till today. Traditional medicines including homeopathy, Ayurveda, Unani, etc. are included in the list of alternative remedies often used against cancer.

Research Review | Published online : 01-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1733–1741
Chandra Ghosh1, Kishor Biswas*2 and A. P. Das3
1 Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling - 734 013, West Bengal, India 2 Department of Botany, Darjeeling Government College, Darjeeling - 734 101, West Bengal, India 3 Department of Botany, Rajiv Gandhi University, Rono Hills, Doimukh - 791 112, Arunachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
The allelopathic effect of different concentration of leachates and extracts of six dominant weed species was studied on seed germination and early seedling growth of tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze]. Almost in all the cases of leachates and extracts, the highest concentration (1:2.5) showed inhibitory effect on germination of seeds and subsequent seedling growth of tea. However, interestingly, it was noted that in case of Persicaria runcinata the highest concentration (1:2.5) of leachate showed slightly stimulatory effects on seed germination. The leachates or/and extracts of those test species having no major effect on seed germination, affect seedling elongation especially the root elongation. The inhibitory or stimulatory effect of a test plant leachate or/and extract depends on the concentrations. The study also suggests further allelopathic investigation, isolation and identification of active allelochemicals as well as their potential uses as growth and yield promoting agents.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1742–1746
J. Sam Ruban*1, B. Gayathri2 and M. Nandhinidevi3
1-3 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Vegetables are the prime source of vitamins and minerals. As the population increases there is also increase in demand for nutritional vegetables, but in the conventional method of horticulture the production and productivity is considerably less. Thus, to increase the productivity and to feed the over burgeoning population there is a need for novel fertilizers such as Nano fertilizers. An experiment was hence conducted in Chinapettai village, Panruti to investigate the Bio-efficacy of Nano nutrients (Nano Nitrogen, Zinc and Copper) on growth and yield of Capsicum. The experiment was carried out in RBD design (Randomized block design) with three replications and ten treatments. Results showed that the treatment with 100% RD-N + 100% RD-P + 100% RD-K + Nano N + Nano Cu + Nano Zn followed by 100% RD-N + 100% RD-P + 100% RD-K + Nano N and 75% RD-N + 100% RD-P + 100% RD-K + Nano N + Nano Cu + Nano Zn recorded maximum growth parameters. In contrast 50% RD-N + 100% RD-P + 100% RD-K + Nano N showed increase in growth than the control (100% RDF (-N: -P: -K) (250:150:150 kg/ha)) to conclude that Nano nitrogen could have compensated the 50% urea recommendation in conventional fertilizer and also had enhanced effect than control.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1747–1751
Mohammad Faizan*1 and Abdullah2
1-2 Department of Botany, Shibli National College, Azamgarh - 276 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The Taal Ratoi is a shallow fresh water lake having an average depth of about 200 cm. It is situated near village Fatehpur Mandao of Mau district of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India, spread over an area of 1837 hectare. The present work is carried out to assess the seasonal variability in species composition of lake, as there is no considerable work has been carried out before on ecology and limnology of this lake. The survey, collection and identification of macrophytes were carried out between March 2019 and February 2020. The samples were collected in March and November for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season, respectively. Ten sampling sites were chosen for collection of samples due to logistic reason. The macrophytes were categorized into Emergent, Submerged, Rooted with Free-floating leaves and free floating along with shoreline species on the basis of habitat. Total twenty-eight species belonging to nineteen families were recorded. In pre monsoon sampling total thirteen species of macrophytes were obtained out of which, four emergent, four submerged, two rooted with floating leaf and one free floating and two shoreline species. Likewise in post monsoon sampling total fifteen species were observed out of which five emergent, two submerged, one rooted with free floating leaves and one free floating along with six shoreline species. The important observation which has been made in present study that in both pre monsoon and post monsoon season Hydrilla verticillata and Potamogeton crispus were growing so abundantly that in the littoral zone almost bed is total covered with these species.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1752–1755
P. T. Patel1, A. D. Raj2 and V. R. Jinjala*3
1-3 Department of Agronomy, N. M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2019 at the College Farm, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari to study the response of summer green gram (Vigna radiata L.) varieties to row spacing and foliar sprays under south Gujarat condition. Significantly the higher seed yield (1318 kg ha-1) and stover yield (2301 kg ha-1) were recorded with variety GM-7. The maximum net return (₹ 70490 ha-1) with BCR (3.19) were obtained by variety GM-7. Significantly higher seed yield (1408 kg ha-1), stover yield (2252 kg ha-1) and harvest index (38.58 per cent) were recorded by 30 cm row spacing. The maximum net returns of ₹ 75673 ha-1 with BCR 3.35 were recorded under 30 cm row spacing, significantly higher seed yield (1352 kg ha-1), stover yield (2280 kg ha-1) and harvest index were recorded by foliar spray of 2% Enriched banana pseudostem sap which were statistically at par with 2% urea spray as compared to water spray. The maximum net returns of ₹ 68660 ha-1 with B:C ratio 2.63 were recorded under foliar spray of 2 % Enriched Banana Pseudostem sap followed by 2% Urea spray.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1756–1759
S. Sinduja1, T. Uma Maheswari*2 and S. Kamalakannan3
1-3 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
This present investigation was carried out at the Brooklands Estate, Coonoor, Nilgiris district during November, 2019. This experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design with ten treatments replicated thrice. The treatments comprised of using three auxins such as IBA, IAA and NAA with three different concentrations viz., 1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm. The pear cuttings were dipped in the auxins and then planted in the polybags and kept inside the mist. The result of the experiment revealed that the shoot parameters viz., minimum number of days required for sprouting (10.50 days), maximum value for number of sprouts per cutting (5.31),shoot length (18.46 cm), number of leaves per cutting at 45th and 90th DAP (8.21 and10.12), fresh weight of shoot (5.48 g), dry weight of shoot (2.25 g), and survival percentage of rooted cuttings (94.68%) were also observed the highest in the treatment where cuttings treated with IBA @ 2000 ppm (T3) and this was followed by cuttings treated with IBA @ 1500 ppm (T2) which recorded the minimum number of days required for sprouting (13.20 days), maximum value for number of sprouts per cutting (5.03), shoot length (17.26 cm), number of leaves per cutting at 45th and 90th DAP (7.68 and 9.62), fresh weight of shoot (5.19 g) and dry weight of shoot (2.05 g). The least value for shoot parameters were observed in control. Hence, from this above experiment, it is concluded that the growth regulator IBA @ 2000 ppm followed by IBA @ 1500 ppm showed the best performance in pear propagation based on the shoot parameters observed when compared with other treatments.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1760–1766
S. N. Bagal1 and Patil Manasi S.*2
1 Karmaveer Bhaurao Patil Mahavidyalaya, Pandharpur - 413 304, Maharashtra, India 2 Sadguru Gadage Maharaj College, Karad - 415124, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Punica granatum (pomegranate) is a high-polyphenol, high-bioavailability fruit that is often regarded as a superfood. The fruits have long been employed in the prevention and treatment of many malignant illnesses, and their involvement in pathophysiological processes has been documented in both scientific and non-science literature. The medicinal potential of pomegranate fruit is extensively mentioned in the ancient literature and also used in different system of medicines. These fruits are known for major bioactive compounds such as quercetin, ellagic acid, punicalagin, pedunculagin, tannic acid, anthocyanins, rutin, catechin and polyphenols. These compounds are well known for their antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, anticancerous, anti-mutagenic, cytoprotective, cardiovascular protective, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcerogenic, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal potentials. The present review highlights the beneficial effects of pomegranate on human health and also represents the mechanisms involved in its action. [Peel extracts (rind), seed extract, juice and whole fruit on the selected bacteria and fungi activity]. The review will be extended to anti-microbial, wound healing activities and anti-cancerous activity. The pomegranate genotypes have an important value in health and nutrition of the human. The pomegranate peels could be utilized by the food industry and pharma/nutraceutical’s industry (Pomegranate peel extract-based nanoparticles by chemical complication method). Pomegranate contains secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic, terpenes and volatile oils. This review will focus the areas for which pomegranate has shown therapeutic properties in different mechanisms. This review article presents the recently published findings on different aspects of this plant, with a focus on its bioactive compound properties. The pomegranate peel is an inexhaustible resource with many potential functions in numerous industries; added exploration of the fruit peel infected, premature and damaged fruit peel due to natural calamities may lead to new and novel ways of creating wealth from waste.

Case Study | Published online : 05-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1767–1772
Amir Khan*1 and Abrar Ahmad Khan2
1-2 Plant Pathology and Nematology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is a soil-borne and sedentary endoparasitic nematode, reduces the growth and yield of almost all vegetable crops. This experiment was performed to found the level of susceptibility/resistance of five cabbage cultivars against root-knot nematode, M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. All the cultivars showed a different level of susceptibility against M. incognita, none of the cultivars was found completely resistant or immune. The cultivar ‘Mahi’ was found susceptible as 41 galls were observed on the roots and showed maximum reductions in growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments among all five cultivars evaluated. Other cultivars viz., Early-55, Quick ball and Golden acre were moderately susceptible with 28, 23 and 19 galls respectively and comparatively less reduction in growth, yield and photosynthetic pigments. Cultivar ‘Parvati super cross’ with 6 galls considered resistant because it showed a significantly less or negligible reduction in both growth and yield than other susceptible and moderately susceptible cultivars. A negative correlation was occurred between number of galls and parameters of plant growth and yield.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1773–1779
Vivek K1, Sandhia G. S2 and Subramaniyan S*3
1-3 Postgraduate Department of Botany and Research Centre, University, College, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 034, Kerala, India
Abstract
Lipase with good activity and unique properties is significant due to its wide commercial applications in various industries. Microbes especially bacteria, fungi, and yeast inhabiting diverse habitats can form the major sources of lipase with unique properties. Growth and secretion of enzymes by any organism depend on many factors which can be nutritional, physical and chemical. The proposed work is focused on understanding the influence of various carbon and nitrogen sources, substrates, pH, agitation speed/aeration, and inoculum size on the secretion of extracellular lipase by the newly isolated bacterium Serratia marcescens VT 1. Sucrose (12.49 U/ml), casein (16.08 U/ml), and olive oil (24.11 U/ml) were identified as the promising carbon source, nitrogen source, and substrate for lipase induction. Nitrogen sources like sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, urea, and thiourea were inhibitive on lipase production. Neutral pH (23.63 U/ml) and slightly basic pH (21.99 U/ml) were most effective, while agitation speeds of 120 and 150 rpm (23.01-23.41 U/ml) were efficient for lipase production. The different inoculum sizes used in the study were found to have the least effect on lipase secretion. The results from the preliminary study are useful for further optimization studies using statistical tools.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1780-1782
Vishnu Priya Kondapalli*1 and B. Sujatha2
1-2 Department of Botany, Andhra University, College of Science and Technology, Visakhapatnam - 530 003, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Contamination of environment due to release of pollutants such as chromium may influence the life on earth. Exchange of gases takes place through stomata into a leaf is influenced by several factors. The present study is focused on to determine the effect of heavy metal chromium exposure on the changes of stomatal structure of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.)) using pot culture. The present study shows that the growth of the pigeon pea genotypes is significantly reduced when compared with the control with increasing concentration of Chromium. The Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) studies showed changes in stomatal structures of the 10th leaf of both control and chromium treated pigeon pea plants.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1783–1788
A. Rajeswari*1 and M. Shabana Begum2
1-2 Department of Biochemistry, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram Taluk, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In Diabetes Mellitus (DM) induced complications, oxidative stress plays a key role. In this research, protective impact against diabetes-induced liver oxidative stress and dysfunction of ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis (PmL-Et) was assessed. Rats were split randomly into six groups. An intravenous injection of any freshly prepared STZ solution at 45mg/kg bw in acidified saline solution made a group of diabetic rats (0.9 %; pH 4.5) Group I was treated as a typical control, receiving distilled water orally. After 72h, when the DM situation stabilized, the animals with blood glucose levels over 200mg/dl were chosen for the research. The ultimate aim of the research is to determine how the ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis impacts oxidative stress in hepatic tissue of diabetic rats. This was accomplished via the administration of the streptozotocin (STZ). All of the groups were tested for biochemical variables such as protein, urea, uric acid, and creatinine, liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP), enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidants. Treatment with PmL-Et resulted in reduced levels of these enzymes in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In the liver of STZ induced diabetic rats treated with PmL-Et, antioxidant enzyme activities such as SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and Vit C and Vit E levels were found to be decreased.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1789–1799
Meena Singh*1, Archana Kushwaha2 and Poonam Dehariya3
1-3 Lab of Mushroom Biology, Department of Botany, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar - 470 003, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Mushrooms are nutritionally low in fat and energy but high in protein and carbohydrate. Polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, protein, peptide, glycoprotein, nucleosides, triterpenoids, lectins, lipids, and their derivatives are part of the chemical nature of the bioactive substances present in the mushroom. Pleurotus species can be cultivated easily because of their rapid colonization and biological efficiency in various agro-substrates. Modern pharmacological research reveals a substantial part of traditional knowledge, as well as use as functional foods, the medicinal effects of mushrooms due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant and antiviral qualities. The present report aims to provide a critical review of aspects related to the cultivation and nutritional values of the genus Pleurotus.

Research Review | Published online : 06-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1800–1803
P. K. Karthikeyan*1, T. Sowmiyan2, R. Bhuvaneswari3, R. Kandasamy4 and Ajish Muraleedharan5
1,3 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu 4-5 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Oilseed occupies an important place in Indian economy as it is directly involved in food and industrial needs. Among the oilseed crops grown in India, groundnut crop plays a predominant role in oilseed production. A field experiment was conducted during 2019 at farmers field Mattaparai, Sengapalli village, Paramathi Velur taluk, Namakkal district to study the effect of potassium on growth and yield of groundnut in cv. TMV 13. The initial experimental soil was analyzed with pH of 8.2, EC of 0.6 dS m-1 with clay loam in texture. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. It includes nine treatments viz., T1- Absolute control, T2- RDF (NP alone), T3- RDF (NP alone) + 25 kg K2O ha-1, T4- RDF (NP alone) + 50 kg K2O ha-1, T5- RDF (NP alone) + 75 kg K2O ha-1, T6- RDF (NP alone) + 100 kg K2O ha-1, T7- RDF (NP alone) + 125 kg K2O ha-1, T8- RDF (NP alone) + 150 kg K2O ha-1, T9- RDF (NP alone) + 175 kg K2O ha-1. The results of the field experiment revealed that application of potassium significantly increased the oil content and protein content, quality and economic parameters of groundnut. The quality parameters include iodine value, saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acid and fatty acid profile. The economic parameters include cost of cultivation, gross income, net income and B: C ratio. The maximum oil and protein content were recorded in the treatment T6 which receives 100 kg K2O ha-1 and the least oil and protein content were recorded in the treatment T1 (absolute control). The maximum values for quality were recorded in the treatment T6 which receives 100 kg K2O ha-1 which was on par with the treatment T7 which receives 125 kg K2O ha-1. The maximum B: C ratio of 1.85 was recorded by the application of 100 kg K2O ha-1 over other treatments. The lowest B: C ratio of 1.29 was registered in absolute control.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1804–1810
Taj Uddin Khan*1, Baby Chowdhury2 and Rafiul Amin Laskar3
1-2 Department of Botany, Srikishan Sarda College, Hailakandi - 788 151, Assam, India 3 Department of Botany, Bahona College, Jorhat - 785 101, Assam, India
Abstract
The matcane of tropical Asia, Schumannianthus dichotomus, is an underutilized fiber plant of India. In the north-eastern region of India, the plant is grown for mat production. A significant section of the rural people in Assam's Barak Valley area makes a living by producing handicrafts from the plant locally known as ‘Patidoi’ or ‘Murta’. However, the profitability and sustainability of such small-scale enterprises is gradually shrinking from the overexploitation of the species causing shortage of raw materials due to lack of agro-technological support to the cultivators. Considering this fibre factory has the potential to be a huge boon to the rural economy, an attempt has been made to collect germplasms of matcane from wild habitats of the region for development of suitable agro-technological interventions for its profitable cultivation in commercial scale. The current study gives details on the species, production and economics of S. dichotomus.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1811–1814
A. Poongothai*1, M. Sudha2, G. Sivaelango3 and V. Gopalakrishnan4
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Biochemistry, Sacred Heart College (Autonomous), Tirupattur - 635 601, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Traditional medicine is used to cure many diseases. Recent remedy has advanced after natural plant as a source of drugs. The present study is to evaluate the preliminary work of anti-elastase activity and GC MS analysis of methanolic leaf extract of Lantana camara. The results showed that the clearly demonstrated that methanolic leaf extract of Lanatana camara exhibit more elastase inhibition property when compared to control, aqueous and diethyl ether extracts. In GC MS analysis showed the methanolic leaf extract of Lanatana camara have identified 24 bioactive compounds. Out of 24 compounds showed only two compounds of MELcL showed highest peaks value (i) Stigmasterol (17.13%), (ii) Heptadecene-(8)-Carbonic acid-(1) (14.53%), were respectively. Based on these results these beneficial leaf extract of Lanatana camara were identified for its potential application as an anti-aging agent in skin creams as well as an anti-proliferation compound against tumor cells. In future, the isolation of above-mentioned bioactive compounds from the methanolic leaf extract of Lantana camara would be useful to find out the novel drugs.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1815–1818
Shebriya Abdulla1 and K. S. Santhy*2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Herbal concoctions have recently been investigated for various chronic and complicated ailments as effective therapeutics. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the Semecarpus anacardium nuts, has been investigated as a potent anti tumour agent against Daltons Ascites Lymphoma in mice by evaluating the tumour growth, toxicity and hematological parameters. The results of acute toxicity study of EESA have no mortality or change in body weight was observed in rats at a dose level of EESA500mg/kg body weight. These observations indicated that the calculated LD50 value (Dixon’s likelihood method) for the oral doses of the EESA was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg body weight, accordingly 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight were taken as low and high dose of EESA for the experiment. After 24 hours of tumor inoculation, ethanol extract at doses of 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 days. After administration of the last dose and 18hour fasting, the mice were sacrificed. Antitumor activity was assessed by monitoring tumor growth parameters and hematological parameters. The standard drug, 5- Fluoro Uracil, was used as a positive control. The ethanol extract of Semecarpus anacardium (EESA) was observed to restore the hematological parameters as compared with the DAL bearing mice in a dose dependent manner indicating a significant anti-tumour activity, thus indicating Semecardium anacardium nuts to be a potent ethnomedicine.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1819–1821
V. Prakash1, S. Manimaran*2, S. Elankavi3, D. Venkatakrishnan4, G. Baradhan5 and S. M. Suresh Kumar6
1 Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai - 600 073, Tamil Nadu, India 2-6 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar – 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field investigation was conducted during Kharif season (June to Oct. 2019) to explore the Maize – pulse intercropping system. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design consists of seven treatments viz., T1 - Sole maize, T2 - Sole maize + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 + eM Power @ 12.5 kg ha-1, T3 - Sole maize + Poultry manure @ 6 t ha-1 + eM Power @ 12.5 kg ha-1, T4 - Maize + Black gram + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 + eM Power @ 12.5 kg ha-1, T5 – Maize + Black gram + Poultry manure @ 6 t ha-1 + eM Power @ 12.5 kg ha-1, T6 – Maize + Green gram + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 + eM Power @ 12.5 kg ha-1, T7 - Maize + Green gram + Poultry manure @ 6 t ha-1 + eM Power @ 12.5 kg ha-1 with three replication. The Maize “Co-1” was sown with a spacing of 60 × 20 cm with duration 105 days. The intercrop, Black gram “ADT-3”, Green gram “ADT-3” were sown with a spacing of 30 × 10 cm. The yield attributes, TMEY and BCR of maize were favourably influenced by the treatments. The treatment, T4 - Maize + Black gram + Vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 + eM Power @ 12.5 kg ha-1 recorded the higher cob length, number of grains cob-1, Total Maize Equivalent Yield (TMEY) and B:C ratio.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1822–1826
A. Rajeswari*1 and M. Shabana Begum2
1-2 Department of Biochemistry, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram Taluk, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present analysis was aimed towards the assessing the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials in the leaves ethanolic extracts from Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L. leaves in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes rats. Animals had been orally treated for sixty days with P. maderaspatensis extracts at dosages of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bw. The anti-diabetic impact was evaluated by determining blood glucose (BG) at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after STZ treatment method and, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and lower density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels at sacrifice (day 61). Glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg bw) was applied for comparing. STZ-provoked diabetic wistar rats proved modest to significant raises from the ranges of BG, TG, TC, LDL-C while body weight, HDL-C levels and relative weight of liver and pancreas were lowered in evaluation with normal rats. Administration in the leaves ethanolic extracts from P. maderaspatensis to STZ diabetic rats contributed to a noteworthy decrease in BG, TG, TC and LDL-C and the dosage 300 mg/kg bw of the leaves ethanolic extracts from P. maderaspatensis was the most effectual the HDL-C level was markedly greater after 60 days when assessed with untreated diabetic rats. A dosage-based raise in relative weight of diabetogenic organs was seen within the P. maderaspatensis groups. It can be also noticed that the leaves ethanolic extracts from P. maderaspatensis, particularly the dosage 300 mg/kg bw (p<0.05), generated a lot more effects than glibenclamide. Rats cured with glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg bw) generally presented reduce effects in association with groups cured with the leaves ethanolic extracts from P. maderaspatensis. Outcomes of the current investigation showed that P. maderaspatensis extracts and particularly its ethanolic extract have antidiabetogenic potentials and advantageous outcomes on diabetic hyperlipidemia. Every one of these consequences might be because of the active biomolecules exposed from the P. maderaspatensis extracts like flavanoids and phenols and that could justify its ethnomedical use.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1827–1828
Priya P. Menon*1, V. V. Radhakrishnan2 and K. V. Jayamol3
1 Department of Statistics, Maharaja’s College, Ernakulam, Kochi - 682 011, Kerala, India 2 Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Thenhipalam - 673 635, Kerala, India
Abstract
Ninety cardamom accessions (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) were subjected to Tocher’s clustering, in order to assess the genetic diversity available in the accessions. The analysis showed wide diversity for growth and yield attributes among the accessions. The accessions were grouped into eight clusters. Based on the inter cluster distance, the accessions belonging to the most distance clusters can be used for hybridization programmes to produce better and promising hybrids. Mahalanobis D2 method provides an efficient technique to identify the genetic divergence present in the population. This technique helps in the selection of genetically divergent parents and can be exploited in the hybridization programme.

Short communication | Published online : 11-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1829–1832
Ajish Muraleedharan*1, C. Praveen Sampath Kumar2 and J. L. Joshi3
1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608002, Tamil Nadu, India 2-3 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) is a genus of about 100 to 120 species of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Most of them are herbaceous perennial species growing from woody caudices or rhizomes. In floriculture industries, post-harvest losses of flowers are the major problem due to its highly perishable nature and it ultimately affects the quality and vase life of flowers. To overcome these issues proper post-harvest practices are essential. The present research work on the “postharvest quality of goldenrod cut flowers on different vase solutions cv. tara gold” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar during 2017 to 2018. The experiment was with five replicates in completely randomized design. Cut flower spikes treated with silver nitrate and 8-HQS at 200 ppm along with sucrose at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8% and control (distilled water) were used in the study. The results showed that all treatments had improved the keeping quality and vase life of cut flowers when compared to control. Among all these treatments, silver nitrate 200 ppm + sucrose @ 6% (T3) recorded maximum water uptake, transpirational loss of water, water balance, loss of water and water uptake ratio. Fresh weight, cumulative physiological loss in weight and vase life which was extended to maximum on T3.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1833–1850
Shambhu Swarnakar1 and Arka Pratim Chakraborty*2
1-2 Department of Botany, Raiganj University, Raiganj - 733 134, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Long-lived plants, such as perennial woody species, are subjected to harsh environmental circumstances as a result of global warming. Drought stress is one of the most harmful abiotic stresses to plant growth and productivity of all the abiotic stresses. A group of microbes and microbe-derived substances that have been shown to improve plant development under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Plants are home to a wide variety of microorganisms. Members of these microbial communities interact with one another and with the plant, and there is mounting evidence that the microbial community can help plants develop, enhance drought tolerance, aid disease defence, and even help with environmental remediation. These bacteria supply the plant with a variety of services and benefits in exchange for the plant providing decreased carbon and other metabolites to the microbial community. Soils are typically moist environments with low carbon content that support diverse soil microbial populations. The rhizo-microbiome's microbes are involved in nutrient acquisition and assimilation, improved soil texture, and extracellular substances such as hormones, secondary metabolites, antibiotics, and different signal chemicals are secreted and modulated, all of which leads to improved plant development. The microbes and compounds they produce are bio stimulants that help plants respond to stress. Studies have demonstrated that inoculating plants with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) or treating plants with microbe-to-plant signal molecules is an effective way to stimulate crop development. The goal of this review is to highlight the various ways in which plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPM) can be used to improve crop production under drought stressed condition. The most up-to-date information on microbial inoculant technology is discussed. As a result, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that determine the composition and structure of microbial communities, as well as the involvement of the host in the recruitment and management of its microbiome, is critical. Plant defence mechanisms, in particular, appear to provide a layer of protection against pathogens while also actively managing the makeup of the general microbiome, according to a growing body of studies. Plants detect water deficits at their roots and send a signal to their shoots, which cause them to synthesize abscisic acid (ABA) in their leaves. ABA is a crucial phytohormone that controls physiological and molecular responses to drought stress, including stomatal closure, gene expression, and osmo-protectants and stress proteins accumulation. The initial stage in the propagation of synthesized ABA is through ABA transporters. ABA inflow in guard cells is sensed by numerous protein kinases that regulate stomatal closure, such as SnRK2s and MAPKs, to limit water loss. To develop drought stress resistance in entire tissues, ABA mediates a wide array of gene expression machines using stress-responsive transcription factors like DREBs and AREBs. We present an overview of current research into the mechanisms used by the plant host to select and control its microbiome in this review. Recent research on the role of keystone microbial species, phytohormones, and abiotic stress in plant-driven dynamic microbial structure is reviewed in detail.

Research Review | Published online : 12-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1851–1853
N. K. Kushwaha*1 and Vinit Kumar2
1-2 Department of Agroforestry, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field survey was conducted during 2018-2020 in Narwar Block of Shivpuri district Madhya Pradesh to know the agroforestry practices adopted by the farmers trees species exists on the farmer’s field. The vertical distribution of SOC, considered to be a key component of carbon cycle, is still poorly understood in semi-arid region. The aim of this research was to determine SOC sequestration at four soil depth under agroforestry system and cropland. The samples were taken from 0-15, 15-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm soil depth. The top 0-15 cm soil layer in homegarden system registered the highest SOC (0.81%), followed by Block plantation system (0.78%) and lowest value was recorded under agrihorticultural (0.14%) SOC. In sub-surface layer (60-90 cm). In general, estimated SOC stock was observed to be higher in the topsoil (0-15 cm) compared to lower depths in various land use types. It is the found that the agroforestry has potential to improve soil organic carbon and it can play a role in mitigation of climate change.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1854–1857
Balagangadharaswamy Shobha1, Sumanth Basavaraju2 and Srinivas Chowdappa*3
1 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bengaluru - 560 056, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present work is focused on isolation of endophytic fungi and its antibacterial activity against Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The secondary metabolites from endophytic fungi are useful in preventing the host from being attacked successfully by other microbes and pests. Biological control is an ecology-conscious, cost-effective, and sustainable alternative method in BLB management. The previously maintained Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) cultures in the laboratory were used for the study. Selected endophytic fungi were screened against the Xoo to check for its antibacterial activity. Sixteen endophytic fungi were screened in vitro against Xoo. Among 16 endophytic fungi only fourteen endophytic fungi showed zone of inhibition ranging from 8-20mm in diameter against Xoo.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1858–1860
S. Senthil Kumar*1 and S. Ganesh2
1-2 School of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram - 624 302, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
An experiment was conducted for two consecutive years during 2015-16 and 2016-17 at T. Pudhupatti village, Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu to study the influence of fertigation, microbial consortium and bio-stimulants on bulb yield of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. ‘Prajwal’. The treatments consisted three levels (125, 100 and 75 per cent) of recommended dose of fertilizer through fertigation (RDFTF), microbial consortium (MC) of 12.5 kg ha-1, foliar spray of panchagavya (3 and 4 per cent) and humic acid (0.4 and 0.5 per cent). The results revealed that, 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer through fertigation + microbial consortium @ 12.5 kg ha-1 + panchagavya @ 3 per cent and humic acid @ 0.4 per cent recorded significantly higher number of bulbs, bulblets, length of bulb, diameter of bulb and bulb yield. Fertigation of recommended dose of fertilizer along with microbial consortium and foliar application of panchagavya and humic acid increased the bulb yield by 14 to 47 per cent, compared to the rest of the treatments. Therefore, an integrated approach with specific emphasis on fertigation, microbial consortium and biostimulants could be recommended for obtaining higher bulb yield in Tuberose.

Short communication | Published online : 14-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1861–1864
P. Ramadevi1, J. Kalaiarasi2 and C. Pragathiswaran*3
1 Department of Chemistry, V. S. S. Government Arts College Pulankurichi, Sivaganga District, India 2-3 Postgraduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Periyar E. V. R College, Tiruchirappalli - 23, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this study, the imidazole was studied as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibitory impact of Imidazole (IZ) in combination with Ag+ (monovalent) on Mild steel in 0.1 N HCl has been studied. The weight loss method's outcomes, polarization study, and AC impedance measurements are used to determine the mechanistic characteristics of corrosion inhibitors. The weight loss investigation found that a formulation containing 300 ppm IZ and 30 ppm Ag+ has an Inhibition efficiency (IE) of 89 percent in controlling Mild steel corrosion in 0.1 N HCl. Between IZ and Ag+, there is a synergistic effect.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1865–1870
Bagmita Bhagawati*1 and Satya Sandhya Das2
1-2 Department of Chemistry, Pragjyotish College, Guwahati - 781 009, Assam, India
Abstract
Anthocyanin, a coloured natural pigment possesses many phytochemical activities along with various health benefits, so can be used as colourant in food and as drug in pharmaceutical industry. In this study anthocyanin was extracted from flower bracts of ‘Bhimkol’, confirmed by TLC and coloured tests; TAC (Total Anthocyanin Content) was determined using pH-differential method and calculated by using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer under different extraction conditions. The findings of the study reveals that TAC is found to be 40.35 mg/100g in the studied flower bracts using 50% ethanol acidified with 3% citric acid, a naturally occurring antioxidant. The extraction conditions used in this study is mild, avoids degradation of anthocyanin and environmentally benign too. The solvents used are cheap, easily available in common laboratory and can be reused by recovering it using simple distillation technique.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Oct-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 5 ; 1871–1875
C. Mathu Mitha1, V. Mohan Raj*2, R. Sangeetha3, Susan George4 and M. Ragumaran5
1-5 P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, Sir Theagaraya College, Chennai - 21, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Rapid industrialization along with advanced agricultural activities led to the contamination of aquatic environment with heavy metals. Heavy metals ultimately pass into human body through aquatic animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) arsenic (As) chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb), in the tissues of fish, shrimp, crab, mussel and lobster from the Ennore estuary. The result shows that all the tested animals were highly exposed to heavy metal concentration in the Ennore estuary. Higher metal contamination in Ennore estuary is posing considerable ecological risk as per environmental quality indices, exposing to heavy metals at higher concentrations might be toxic to fish species as well as humans.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Oct-2021