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Volume - 12 - November-December 2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1900–1906
Aditya Kumar*1, Sanjay Kumar Shahi2 and Avanendra Yadav3
1-3 Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi - 221 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted during 2020 to investigate the effect of farm yard manure (FYM), phosphorous solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and Sulphur on the growth and yield of mungbean along with soil sustainability. The various treatments applied to mungbean were control i.e., RDF (T1), RDF + FYM @ 5 tons ha-1 (T2), RDF + FYM @ 5 tons ha-1 + PSB (T3), RDF + FYM @ 5 tons ha-1 + PSB+ 40 kg Sulphur (T4), 125% RDF (T5), 125% RDF + FYM @ 5 tons ha-1 (T6) and 125% RDF + FYM @ 5 tons ha-1 + PSB (T7). Significantly higher growth parameters like plant height, number of branches plant-1, dry matter accumulation plant-1, number of nodules plant-1 was observed with 125% RDF + FYM @ 5 tons ha-1 + PSB (T7). Significantly higher yield parameters like number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, test weight, seed and stover yield and protein content was also observed with 125% RDF + FYM @ 5 tons ha-1 + PSB (T7). Soil sustainability in terms of soil pH, EC, organic carbon, NPK availability and uptake was also noticed significantly superior in T7.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1913–1916
Biswabhusan Ghadai*1 and Neelam Yadava2
1-2 School of Rural Development, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Apsinga Road, Osmanabad - 413 601, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The recent spate of farm suicide in India clearly indicating a state of crisis in its agriculture sector. The paradox is still this sector is main livelihood source for majority of rural population. The present study tries to look at various causes of agrarian crisis and farm suicide by a detailed survey of literature. The unique feature of this present study is it looks at the contemporary data relating farm suicide as well as focusing on more recent study on this subject. The present study is basically dealt with data from various sources such as journals, reports, thesis, working papers, newspapers and various website which is basically secondary in nature. The present study identified multi-faceted nature of agrarian crisis and farmer suicide that ranging from social-Psychological to economic and hereditary. The study concludes that if we need to save our farmer and agriculture sector then we need to a farmer friendly policy at all levels otherwise our future food security would be in danger.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1913–1916
Amar1, Geeta Rai2 and Akhilesh Mishra*3
1-2 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, C. S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur - 208 002, Uttar Pradesh, India 3 Legume Section, C. S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur - 208 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was executed at the Oilseed Research Station Kalyanpur, C. S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India, during the rabi 2018-19 with goal to investigate the correlation among various traits including their direct and indirect effects on seed yield in the fifty chickpea genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed the presence of sufficient variability among the genotypes for all the traits under the study. Correlation studies revealed seed yield per plant had positive and significant association with 100 seed weight (g), number of pods per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and number of seeds per pod, whereas negative and significant association was found with days to maturity. Path analysis revealed direct positive effect of 100 seed weight, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and number of secondary branches per plant and negative effect of days to maturity, harvest index and number of primary branches per plant with seed yield per plant. Selection index traits for increasing seed yield per plant are 100 seed weight (g), number of pods per plant, number of secondary branches per plant and number of seeds per pod.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1917–1922
Raosaheb Sawant*1 and S. M. Pawar2
1 Hytech Seed India Pvt. Ltd, At- Pakhora, Post Pakhora, Gangapur, Aurangabad - 431 133, Maharashtra, India 2 Shivaji Art, Commerce and Science College, Kannad, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], one of the most suitable crops for rainfed agriculture facing production problem due to shoot fly (Atherigina soccata Rondani) infestation. So, to increase the production and reduction in the cost of cultivation, development of shoot fly resistant cultivars for rainy season is necessary. With this aim, a wide array of 112 genotypes were screened by Infester Row Technique in randomized block design for shoot fly resistance and observations on various seedling morphological characters viz., leaf sheath and plumule pigmentation (LSPP), leaf colour (LC), leaf erectness (LE), seedling height (SH), percent egg laying (%EL) and percent deadhearts (%DH) at 14 days after emergence (DAE) were recorded over consecutive two rainy seasons to study the correlation among them. Pearson correlation coefficient of pooled data over year exhibited, strong, positive, highly significant correlation of leaf sheath and plumule pigmentation (r = 0.504*), leaf erectness (r = 0.780**) and percent egg laying (r = 0.924**) with percent dead hearts at 14 DAE. The correlation of percent dead hearts was highly significant, strong, and negative with leaf colour (r = - 0.736**). Leaf sheath and plumule pigmentation had large, negative, highly significant association (r = -556**) with leaf colour. Leaf colour also had the highly significant large negative association (r = -0.630**) with leaf erectness. The association of seedling height was non-significant; negative with leaf sheath and plumule pigmentation, leaf colour, and positive with leaf erectness. This shows that seedlings with pink pigmented leaf sheath and plumule, pale yellow erect leaves and more height collectively or in combination of few of them, imparts the shoot fly resistance through non preference to egg laying. It is concluded that these closely associated traits can serve as marker and selection for more than one trait is possible at a time to speed up the shoot fly resistance breeding.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1923–1927
K. Velavan*1 and M. Natarajan2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Extension, Annamalai University, Annamalinagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was undertaken to understand the relationship of association and contribution to assess the strength of the adoption of indigenous agricultural practices. The 15 profile characteristics of the tribal respondent of Kalrayan hills were analyzed by using Zero-order correlation and multiple linear regression with a sample of 300 respondents. The analysis gives a detailed picture about the contribution and association with 1 per cent level of significance and 5 per cent level of significant relationship to the factor influencing the adoption of indigenous agricultural practices.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1928–1931
Salita Devi1, P. S. Shekhawat2, Sonu Jain3 and Hemant Sharma*4
1-3 College of Agriculture, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner - 303 329, Rajasthan, India 4 Agro Economic Research Centre, Sardar Patel University, Anand - 388 120, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The present study carried out on an economic analysis of different farming systems prevailing in Nagaur district of Rajasthan. The main aimed to work out the economics associated with income and employment generated through different farming systems. Four farming systems were existed in both rainfed and irrigated situations of Nagaur district viz: FS-I: Crop + Dairy (C+D), FS-II: Crop + Dairy + Goat (C+D+G), FS-III: Crop + Dairy + Goat + Sheep (C+D+G+S) and FS-IV Crop + Poultry (C+P). Two tehsils namely; Merta city and Riyan Badi were selected for the study purpose. The total cost per households, was the lowest under FS-II and it was the highest under FS-IV in both the rainfed and irrigated situation. Under rainfed situation, FS-III (Crop + Dairy + Goat + Sheep) was the most profitable farming system on net return basis (Rs. 236889.92) and return per rupee investment i.e., Rs. 1.74. While on the basis of net return per household, the most profitable farming system adopted under the irrigated situation was FS-IV (Crop + Poultry) with Rs. 400540.71 per farm while on the basis of returns per rupee investment; it was FS-I (Crop + Dairy) i.e., Rs. 1.45. On per household basis employment generation under rainfed situation was minimum under FS-I (325 man days) and it was maximum under FS-IV (533 man days). In irrigated situation the lowest employment was generated under FS-I (350 man day) and it was the highest under FS-IV (570 man day). The employment generations were more under irrigated situation as compared with the rainfed situation because under irrigated situation, such as cotton, cumin and wheat crops required more labours.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1932–1936
Snigdha Chakraborty*1 and Kivitoli Achumi2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati - 781 026, Assam, India
Abstract
This present study deals with various fishing gears used by the Sumi tribe of Dimapur (Nagaland). The study described a wide range of fishing gears as well as some indigenous methods that are used by the tribal people. Eight different fishing gears were observed during the study. Scooping gear, traps, impaling gear, encircling gear and hook are commonly used by the people along with the electric fishing and plant poisoning. Three indigenous methods- AZULA XE, AKHA KI and AKHA HEPHE CHEKEU were also recorded during the study.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1937–1943
P. Sowmiya*1 and P. Karuppaiah2
1-2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University during the year 2017-19 in randomized block design with ten treatments and three replications. The results indicated that foliar spray of cycocel 1000 ppm recorded the maximum reduction in plant height (112.28 cm) and internodal length (6.68 cm), whereas the other growth characters like number of branches per plant (81.65) and number of leaves per branch (135.97) were recorded the best in the treatment T6 which received the application of mepiquat chloride 75 ppm foliar spray. The plant spread was recorded the maximum of 120.63 cm2 in T10 (control), which was closely followed by treatment T6 (Mepiquat chloride 75 ppm foliar spray at 45th and 90th DAP) with the value of 119.01 cm2. A moderate reduction in leaf area (13.07 cm2) and the maximum chlorophyll content (1.648 mg g-1) were observed with the application of mepiquat chloride 75 ppm foliar spray (T6) followed by T3 (Cycocel 1000 ppm foliar spray at 45th and 90th DAP). The early flower bud appearance (61.58 days) was noticed in the treatment T3 (Cycocel 1000 ppm foliar spray at 45th and 90th DAP), which was closely followed by T6 (62.73 days). The yield and yield attributes viz., hundred flower bud weight (9.53 g), flower buds yield per plant per year (3.12 kg) and estimated flower buds yield per hectare per year (10.45 tonnes) were also found to be the maximum in the plants treated with mepiquat chloride 75 ppm foliar spray on 45th and 90th DAP (T6). The application of mepiquat chloride 75 ppm foliar spray on 45th and 90th DAP (T6) exerted favourable influence and enhanced the quality parameters viz., flower bud length (4.37 cm), corolla tube length (2.28 cm), flower bud diameter (0.41 cm), flower diameter (3.82 cm), shelf life (33.23 hours) and visual scoring (9.60). Therefore, the present study has resulted that the application of mepiquat chloride 75 ppm foliar spray at 45th and 90th DAP (T6) was found to be beneficial for the effective cultivation of jasmine – jathi malli (Jasminum grandiflorum L.).

Research Article | Published online : 04-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1944–1948
Hemant Sharma*1, S. S. Kalamkar2 and M. Ojha3
1-3 Agro Economic Research Centre, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagr, Anand - 388 120, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The present study is proposed to examine the need, application, pertinence and efficiency in distribution of seed minikits in Rajasthan. The primary data were collected from the state of Rajasthan. For the selection of sample two districts were selected, one irrigated (Bundi) and one dryland (Naguar) based on highest seed minikits distributed during the reference period of 2017-18 and 2018-19 were selected and out of 225 sample household, 145 seed minikit beneficiary farmers and 80 control group pulse growing farmers were selected using random sampling method and comparative analysis the cost of cultivation and returns of selected pulse crops by seed minikit beneficiary and non-beneficiary farmers. The value of output, cost and net returns by the farm size of selected households indicate that production per acre of all crops on average was reported to be the highest in case of marginal farmers and the lowest yield rate was realized by large farmer group. While among rainfed and irrigated condition crop production, marginal farmers have realized highest crop yield, however, large farmers group recorded highest yield under rainfed condition. The kharif pulse crops cultivation found to be more profitable for beneficiary farmers than non-beneficiary farmers. The major problems faced by farmers in availing the seed minikit were less supply of seed minikit was the major problem faced by the selected farmers. In order to overcome these problems, by more supply of seed, suitable variety suitable to local condition and seed should be given to all farmers.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1949–1955
Priyanka L. P1, Subramaniyan S*2, Sandhia G. S3 and Sathish D. K.4
1-5 Post Graduate Department of Botany and Research Centre, University College, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 034, University of Kerala, Kerala, India
Abstract
In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the cultural and nutritional conditions of Bacillus mojavensis PSS1 for xylanase production under submerged fermentation conditions. Several factors influence enzyme production by microorganisms. Selection of substrate, different media components and physical parameters significantly influences xylanase production. Different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, initial medium pH, inoculum size, incubation period, and agitation speed were studied to understand their role in the enhancement of xylanase production. PSS1 favored maximum xylanase production in the presence of 0.5% beechwood xylan, yeast extract and peptone at a concentration of 0.25% each, an initial medium pH of 8, inoculum size of 10%, 72 hours of incubation period, and rotation speed of 150 rpm. Characterization of crude xylanase was also carried out. Crude xylanase shows an optimum pH of 7 and optimum temperature at 50ºC. The enzyme retained maximum activity in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl (99.5%). It shows resistance to all the metals tested except the presence of Hg2+. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of organic solvents like Hexane (164%), Methanol (141%), ethanol (140.8%), and ethyl acetate (128.2%). Surfactants such as Triton X 100 (174%), SDS (168%), and inhibitors like PMSF (162.92) and EDTA (140%) also enhanced enzyme activity. So that the properties of xylanase from Bacillus mojavensis PSS1 confirmed its potential application in industrial field.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1956–1959
Naskoori Kaveri*1, Krishna Reddy Kakumanu2, D. Srinivas Reddy3 and D. Srinivas Chary4
1,3 School of Agribusiness Management, College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India 2 Center for Natural Resource Management, National Institute of Rural Development and Panchayat Raj, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -500 030, Telangana, India 4 Department of Statistics and Mathematics, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad - 500 030, Telangana, India
Abstract
Hydroponic farming is advanced and alternative farming method of agriculture in which crops are grown without using soil and wide space. This farming method mainly avoids the losses that are resulting from natural calamities and infestation of pests and diseases. The plants grown under hydroponic conditions are having better quality than the crops cultivated under traditional farming methods. In this perspective, the study is focused to analyze the constraints for production and marketing of hydroponic farming. To develop a deep understanding on the above, Hyderabad region was preferred as the study area with eight hydroponic farms. To perform the analysis, data was collected through personal interviews from the selected hydroponic farmers, with the help of structured questionnaire/schedule. Data on establishment of hydroponic farms, production and marketing constraints was collected from the farmers. The marketing and production constraints were analyzed by using garret ranking technique. The results revealed that the majority of the hydroponic farmers cultivated small scale area with adoption of NFT system and most of the farms grow different types of lettuce, herbs, kale and all kinds of leafy vegetables. The largest consumers belong to higher-income people because hydroponics products were sold at higher prices compared to traditional farming. The main constraints identified were high initial investment, lack of availability of credit and lack of marketing information and lack of awareness among consumers.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1960–1966
Vindhya V. S1, Sandhia G. S2 and Subramaniyan S*3
1-3 Postgraduate Department of Botany and Research Centre, University College, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 034, Kerala, India
Abstract
There has always been an increasing demand for an alternative to fossil fuels and for effective biomass utilization. Microbial cellulases a class of hydrolytic enzymes can convert cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on Earth into useful products. In this study, 50 different bacterial isolates were isolated from forest soil samples collected from distinct regions of Kerala, India. Different screening techniques have been conducted to find out the potent cellulolytic isolates. 32 isolates showed positive results on Congo-red staining and they were subjected to quantitative screening by submerged fermentation in CMC medium followed by cellulase assay. Isolate SSV-2 collected from Peechi forest area was observed to be the best cellulase producer and that was identified as Bacillus velezensis based on morphological, biochemical evaluation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In order to enhance the cellulase producing capacity of the strain, optimization of different physical and chemical parameters were carried out. Maximum cellulase production was observed when the medium pH was at 7 and CMC was found as the best carbon source. Peptone is observed to be the better nitrogen source with a cellulase activity of 22.67 U/mL. Maximum CMCase activity was observed after 72 hours of growth by Bacillus velezensis SSV-2.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1967–1971
Govinda Pal1 and Thaneswer Patel*2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Engineering, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli - 791 109, Arunachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) is an extensively recognized parameter as it is superior to quantify cardiovascular fitness, maximal aerobic power or maximum aerobic capacity, physical work capacity etc. The physical work capacity (VO2 max) of workers mainly depends on some important factors such as psychological, physiological, environmental, etc. Therefore, to know the physical work capacity, we conducted a study at Nerist, Nirjuli, AP on twelve local agricultural workers of the 20-30 years age group. The mean height, body weight, BMI, BSA, and LBM of selected Northeast Indian agricultural workers of 20-30 age group were 162.75±3.04 cm, 63.75±6.86 kg, 24.02±1.80 m2, 1.69±.094 Kg/m2 and 46.63 ± 3.27 Kg respectively. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory on a treadmill (Model: Model:900 EXL) using a fitmate pro (Made: Cosmed Italy, Range: 0-22% O2 Measurement, Accuracy: ± 0.02%) to measure oxygen consumption (VO2) and a heart rate monitor (Polar M200) to measure heart rate (HR). The submaximal test was continued until the HR reached 75% of the HRmax. The mean value of HRmax was 186.96±1.35 bpm. The recorded data of HR and VO2 were plotted, and a regression equation was developed to extrapolate the VO2 w.r.t. to the HRmax for getting VO2 max. We found the physical work capacity in the age group of 20-30 years of twelve agricultural workers of Northeast India was 50.60±2.74 ml/kg/min, which was in between the VO2 max of North and South Indian people. The study on Northeast Indian agricultural workers will be helpful for the scientific community to design human-centered tools and implement and make government policy in the agricultural section. Further in a future study on the impact of heat and humidity in the form of climate change on the physical work capacity of agricultural workers can also be carried for the same sector to make the policy for workers sustainable livelihood.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1972–1975
Ningombam Sushma Devi1, Ningombam Bijaya Devi*2 and Sushanti Thokchom3
1 Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 485 013, Assam, India 2 G. P. Women's College, Dhanamanjuri University, Manipur - 795 001, Imphal, India 3 Central Agricultural University, Barapani - 793 104, Meghalaya, India
Abstract
Gladiolus is one of the top cut flowers in the international market and the demand for gladiolus flowers among the consumers is increasing every year due to its magnificent, unrivaled beauty, striking colours, different sizes, and shapes of flowers with long-lasting spikes. Apart from the flowers the planting material i.e., the corm is too in high demand. But Gladiolus are susceptible to many diseases and one of them is Fusarium corm Rot and its occurrence has become a major drawback in production and the pathogen is soil-borne, so it is difficult to control. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli is a soil-borne fungus that persists in soil and plant debris as chlamydospores and can endure in the absence of gladiolus for several years. Infected corms show tissue discoloration. The corms become softer, crumpled, and dried out in storage. Despite many attempts to control this disease, the problem still occurs worldwide. The management practices include resistant cultivars, chemical applications, cultural practices, and biotechnological approaches. However, eco-friendly management measure provides a better opportunity to manage this disease in long term and helps to eliminate synthetic chemicals, decreasing environmental hazards, improve soil conditions. In this review, the major measurement taken up to control Fusarium corm rot in gladiolus species through eco-friendly management have been discussed.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1976–1981
Suresh Kumar*1
1 Department of Zoology, Government College, Sirohi - 307 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
A large amount of castor straw production in arid and semi-arid environment warranted a need for its management through vermicomposting. Hence a comparative efficacy of the epigeic earthworm species Eisenia fetida and Perionyx sansibaricus in castor straw recycling was analyzed. The earthworm species E. fetida and P. sansibaricus were employed in bedding material containing a mixture of castor straw and cow dung in equal proportions (1:1 w/w). Vermicomposting was carried out for 90 days and changes in physicochemical parameters of beddings were observed at an interval of 15 days. The process of vermicomposting showed a significant increase in electrical conductivity (1.25 to 2.60 dsm-1), total nitrogen (7.03 to 15.31 g kg-1), available phosphorus (3.13 to 6.76 g kg-1) and potassium (2.34 to 6.94 g kg-1) but a decrease in pH (8.25 to 7.27), organic carbon (342 to 195 g kg-1) and C/N ratio (48.62 to 12.75) in worm worked bedding substrates from 0 day to 90th day. The E. fetida performed better than P. sansibaricus in decomposition of agrowaste (castor straw) and production of nutrient rich vermifertilizer. The earthworm E. fetida and P. sansibaricus can be employed for stabilization of castor waste and production of vermifertilizer and in turn socioeconomic upliftment of farmers in rural areas.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1982–1986
Aarif Ali1, Irfan Maqbool Sheikh2, Aadil Ayaz3, Manzoor ur Rahman Mir4 and Showkat Ahmad Ganie*5
1, 5 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Kashmir, Hazaratbal - 190 006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 2 Department of Biochemistry, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura - 190 011, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 3 Department of Microbiology, SKIMS Medical College, Bemina - 190 018, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 4 Division of Veterinary Biochemistry, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shuhama, Alusteng - 190 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is the persistent inflammation of the mammary gland accompanied by subsequent damage to mammary gland tissue resulting in changes in composition of milk. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical utility of diagnostic tests like California mastitis test (CMT), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) for diagnosing SCM and intramammary infections. The profiles of CMT, pH, EC were studied in 135 composite milk samples which consisted of apparently healthy (n=25) and SCM (n=110) Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Milk samples from Holstein- Friesian dairy cows were collected in different areas of Ganderbal district, Jammu & Kashmir from June 2017 to January 2019. The overall incidence of SCM among Holstein Friesian dairy cows was 81.48% by CMT. The rate of prevalence in +1, +2 and +3 CMT scores was 35.45%, 48.18% and 16.36% respectively. In this study, mean values of EC and pH in healthy animals was 4.01±0.09 mS/cm & 6.30±0.06, whereas in SCM it was 4.83±0.06 mS/cm and 6.90±0.05 respectively. The Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis of EC and pH is at a cut-off values of 4.44 and 6.75. A significant increase (p<0.0001) in concentration and ROC curve analysis of EC and pH in milk were observed in dairy cows having sub-clinical mastitis as compared to the healthy animals.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1987–1992
R. Harikrishnaraj1, R. Ramkumar2, R. Valarmathi3, K. Kalaiarasi4, S. Ponmani5, R. Manikandan*6 and T. Natarajan7
1 Department of Microbiology, Padmavani Arts and Science College for Women, Salem - 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India 2-7 Department of Biotechnology, Padmavani Arts and Science College for Women, Salem - 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Antibiotics applications in food animal production have led to enhance the antibiotics resistant bacteria and transmitted to human through food chain. In globally, India has consumption of 3% antibiotics in food animal production farms, particularly in Mumbai, Delhi and south coasts. It is estimated that in India antibiotics uses in food animal will increase to triple by the year of 2030. Generally, antibiotics are entre into the soil and water bodies by municipal sewage, animal husbandry, pharmaceutical industries, livestock manure and leachate of antibiotics and it easily affects human health through food chains. Antibiotics residues enter into human body by food chain interact with gastrointestinal tract microbiome and cause allergic reactions and develop antimicrobial resistance. This review addresses the antibiotic application in food animal production industry and its impact on human health, and has also suggested some antibiotic biodegradation methods.

Research Review | Published online : 09-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1993–1997
A. Arunachalam1 and P. Sivasakthivelan*2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Rice is a staple food in many countries and faces a variety of production constraints due to pests, diseases, and nutritional deficiencies. Currently, agrochemicals are being used to address these issues in economic perspective. However, their long term uses exhibit serious consequences on health, environment, and sustainability under present food production systems. Considering these facts and to overcome the issues in a much safer way, the use of biological components like endophytic bacteria could be a better choice. The purpose of this research was to extract and characterize endophytic bacteria from rice plants and to bring out their ability to promote plant growth. Endophytic bacterial isolates from different parts of the rice plant were tentatively identified as Bacillus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Lysinibacillus spp. in morphological and biochemical characterization, and invitro plant growth promoting activity of different bacterial endophytic isolates from rice were assessed for their efficiency to fix nitrogen and to produce IAA, GA3, siderophore (iron sequestrating chemical) production, and phosphate solubilization. Among the different isolates compared, the highest IAA production efficiency was recorded with Root Endophytic Bacteria REB 2 (64.19±0.84). The highest quantity of the gibberellic acid (GA3) production was also recorded with the isolate REB 2 (1.94±0.03) (g/ml). For the ACC deaminase activity, most of the isolates tested positive with the exception of Leaf Endophytic Bacteria LEB 3 and Stem Endophytic Bacteria SEB 2. In case of siderophore synthesis the isolate LEB 3 (16.25±067) (µmolmL-1 CFCF) was at its peak. The ability to solubilize phosphate was investigated, and the isolate REB 2 recorded the maximum solubilization zone of 0.69 mm. After tentative identification of these species by morphological and biochemical methods, the best and most effective isolate identified was REB 2, which performed superior in best production of IAA and GA3, with maximum phosphate solubilization ability. For siderophore production the best performance was LEB 3 followed by REB 2. Further, characterization at molecular level sequencing found to confirm REB 2 as Lysinibacillus sp.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 1998–2001
S. R. Nikam*1 and D. D. Namdas2
1-2 Department of Botany, Sadguru Gadage Maharaj College, Karad - 415 110, District Satara, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Parthenium hysterophorus L. belongs to family Asteraceae. Popularly known as Congress weed, Carrot weed, Star weed, Fever few, White top, Chatak Chandani, Bitter weed etc. The seeds have ability to germinate in any season of the year makes it a constantly flourishing components of the vegetation. The present investigation includes the phytochemical screening of Parthenium hysterophorus L. abundantly available weed species from the crop fields. Phytochemical tests were carried out specially for screening of secondary metabolites from the selected plant. Phytochemical surveys are now acted as the first step towards the discovery of useful drugs. Weeds are the richest resource of drugs and useful for the various biological activity. The four extracts used aqueous, acetone, ethanol and methanol of leaves of the fresh Parthenium hysterophorus L. were screened for the presence of different phytochemical constituents by standard procedures. Phytochemicals are certain non-nutritive plant chemicals which have a property of allelopathic effect. Therefore, it is aimed to investigate the phytochemical constituents of Parthenium hysterophorus L. The research findings showed that, the tested plant contains different classes of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, amino acid and protein, saponin, tannins, terpenoids, quinones, coumarins etc.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2002–2006
Darling B. Suji*1, R. Jeya2, R. Divya Bharathi3 and C. Praveen Sampath Kumar4
1-3 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 4 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Green revolution in our country, while ushering in the much-needed self-sufficiency in food production also paved way for intensive use of harmful chemical pesticides. Excessive and indiscriminate use of these chemicals played havoc with our agro ecosystems, caused numerous problems and hazards to man and his environment besides inducing resistance in insects and undesirable residues in the food stuff. One of the best alternative methods of approach to pest control is achieved by replacing the chemical pesticides by products derived from plants. These plant products also known as botanical pesticides being non persistent and biodegradable contribute admirably to the preservation of ecosystem. Among the plant products neem-based botanical pesticides occupy a unique position and these emerged as viable alternative to chemical pesticides. Today more than three dozen commercial formulations of neem are available in the Indian market. Besides neem, nearly 500 compounds derived from 275 plant species were found to have pesticidal properties. The principal barriers to commercialization of botanical pesticides include the relative scarcity or availability of the natural resources, standardization of extract and quality control based on active ingredients and special problem in regulatory approval of botanicals. A study was conducted in Pudukottai district to find out the adoption of botanical pesticides. The data were collected from 120 farmers. More than half of the respondents were found with medium level of adoption. The occupational status showed a positive and significant relationship with extent of adoption.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2007–2011
Mashud Ahmed*¹ and Paramita Saha2
1-2 Department of Economics, Tripura University (A Central University), Suryamaninagar - 799 022, Tripura, India
Abstract
The primary goal of this research is to explore the impact of climate change on major crop production in Assam's Cachar district. The study examines the trends of rainfall and temperature in the district over the period of 1981-2019. The study also investigates the trends in the major crop production over the period 1981-2017. Mann-Kendall test has been used to detect the trend in the series and Sen’s slope test has been performed to evaluate the magnitudes of trends. The strength of the relationship between agricultural output and climate variability was measured using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The study finds that average annual temperature maximum is showing a significant decreasing trend whereas average temperature minimum and rainfall series are showing significant positive trends. Rice production and maize production are showing significant positive trends whereas rapeseed and mustard production is showing a significant negative trend. Climate variables have distinct effects on the production of different crops, according to the study. The rice and maize production are negatively correlated with temperature maximum whereas rapeseed and mustard production is positively correlated. The minimum temperature has a significant positive correlation with rice and maize productivity. Average rainfall has significant positive correlation with rice and maize productivity, but a significant negative correlation with rapeseed and mustard production.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2012–2015
Ekta Singhal*¹ and Archana Singh2
1-2 Department of Botany, Government M. S. J. P.G. College, Bharatpur - 321 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Charcoal rot, a root and stem disease, is one of the most important disease caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in sorghum that limits their productivity worldwide. Fungal infection caused both quantitative and qualitative damage to the seeds. An attempt was made to study the quantitative changes in primary metabolites on the infected seeds and seedlings of sorghum at different stages after sowing. Observations revealed that content of total sugars and starch were highest in healthy (control) seeds and lowest in heavily infected seeds and were continuously increased in healthy (control), weakly and in moderately infected seedlings and decreased in heavily infected seedlings from 10 to 30 days after sowing. Phenols and proteins decreased as the severity of infection increased and were highest in weakly infected and lowest in heavily infected seeds among naturally infected seeds. Proteins in seedlings decreased as the infection increased and the total phenol contents were increased throughout from 10 to 30 days after germination.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2016–2019
Rashk E Eram*1, M. Anwar Mallick2 and Biplab Sarkar3
1-2 University Department of Biotechnology, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh - 825 001, Jharkhand, India 3 ICAR-Indian Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology (IIAB), IINRG Campus, Namkum Ranchi - 834 010, Jharkhand, India
Abstract
Nanotechnology is the most promising technology, with wide range of applications in practically every aspect of life. Its applications rely totally on the type of the nanoparticles used. Metal nanoparticles are immensely valued. In spite of chemical synthesis being easier biological synthesis using plants, microorganisms, enzymes are preferred. The antibacterial property of silver has been recognized since ages. Silver has powerful inhibitory, bactericidal effect on broad spectrum of bacteria, fungi, virus. In this work, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles biologically using Crescentia cujete L. leaves extract and characterized by standard physical techniques. The antibacterial property of these nanoparticles were studied on gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The synthesized AgNP was found to be stable with a size of 52 nm and show SPR at 441 nm. The results clearly showed that the growth of Staphylococcus aureus as well as Escherichia coli were inhibited by the synthesized silver nanoparticles.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2020–2023
Damini Soni*1 and Gargi Saxena2
1-2 Department of Home Science, IIS (Deemed to be University), Jaipur - 302 020, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Banana flower is a banana male bud which is the by-product of banana plant. It is a large dark maroon color flower grown from the end of bunch of bananas. In the present research work, the flower was studied for its proximate composition and functional properties. Moisture, ash, total fiber, fat, carbohydrate, Iron, phosphorous, calcium and vitamin C of the flower were analyzed and it was found that the flower is a good source of fiber and can be used to develop fiber rich food products. The flower was also assessed for its antioxidant and phytochemical properties as, it is a rich source of a class of bioactive compounds i.e., alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds and hence the flower is known to possess various bioactivities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antivirus and anti-cancer. The functional properties of the flower were also analyzed which included bulk density, oil and water holding capacity, swelling power and solubility. The bulk density of the flower was found to be low which showed that banana flower powder can be incorporated in various food products to enhance the antioxidant profile and fiber content.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2024–2028
A. Afrose Banu*1, V. Anuradha2, Aneesh Nair3 and Florida Tilton4
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, Justice Basheer Ahmed Sayeed College for Women, Chennai - 600 018, Tamil Nadu, India 3-4 Biozone Research Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Chennai - 600 117, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is considered as an economically important plant, belonging to Asteraceae family. The leaves have been noted to possess a high concentration level of sweet tasting secondary metabolites such as Steviosides and Rebaudiosides. It not only contains sweetness but also maintains the normal blood sugar level and hence it is also being used in homemade recipes and industries for diabetics. In the current study, chemical extracts from its leaves were subjected to microbial assay using three solvents (Hexane, ethylacetate, and ethanol) against four pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniaand E. coli) and two food spoiling fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) using a well diffusion method. 10 mg/ml of ethanoilc extract (minimum inhibitory concentration) was found sufficient enough to inhibit the growth of test microorganism (Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli) by well diffusion method. Amongst fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) was found to have the highest resistance to Hexane and ethanol extract except ethyl acetate. The highest zone of inhibition (16mm) was obtained for E. coli against ethanolic extract. The highest zone of inhibition is (17mm) was obtained for Candida albicans against hexane extract. Ethyl acetate extract was found to have the least effective (lowest ZI). Invariably ethylacetate did not show any anti-microbial activity except demonstrating selective inhibition to specific organisms (Klebsiella pneumonia and E. coli). This study clearly validated the use of Stevia metabolites as natural sweetener, with an additional anti-microbial property.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2029–2033
K. Abirami1, Karthikeyan Murugesan2 and Maghimaa Mathanmohun*3
1, 3 Department of Microbiology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram - 637 408, District Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Quest International University, Malaysia
Abstract
Medicinal plants have diverse therapeutic properties, due to the existence of phytochemical constituents. That are non-nutritive substances with the properties of disease prevention and protectives. The majority of the global population trust on therapeutic plants for their prime health concern desires. Bacterial infections are a universal civic health crisis, and their antibiotic drug resistance has augmented hastily. In this work, we evaluated the Piper nigrum fruit extract for antibacterial and phytochemical activity against the bacterial pathogens of the wound. Twenty-three significant pathogens were identified based on the microscopic and biochemical profiling viz Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6), E. coli (5), Staphylococcus aureus (5), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5). Antibiotic sensitivity of these pathogens was executed. P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and E. coli were resistant to Penicillin 10mcg and Streptomycin 10mcg. P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia were resistant to chloramphenicol which shows a drug-resistant pattern. Antibacterial activity of P. nigrum aqueous and ethanolic extract exhibited a considerable zone of inhibition to all the isolates. The maximum zone of inhibition (17mm) was found at 60µg on E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The existence of phytochemical constituents are alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, anthraquinone, and steroids. Our results disclosed that P. nigrum fruit extracts displayed good antimicrobial potential against pathogens and might be applied to treat wound pathogens in the future.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2034–2036
J. Keerthana*1 and S. Kalaisudarson2
1-2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted at Appedu village, Chetpet block, Tiruvannamalai during summer, 2020 to evaluate the effect of integrated weed management practices in transplanted ragi. The results revealed that the lowest total weed count, weed biomass and higher weed control index were recorded in pre-emergence application of bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + pretilachlor 6% G @ 660 g a.i./ha on 3 DAT fb one hand weeding on 30 days after treatment (DAT) and it was followed by two hand weeding on 15 and 30 days after treatment (DAT).

Short communication | Published online : 15-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2037–2043
Amit Rakshit1 and Soma Sukul*2
1-2 Department of Botany (UGC- DRS & DST- FIST Sponsored), Visva- Bharati (A Central University), Santiniketan - 731 235, Birbhum, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Endophytic bacteria isolated from the various parts such as leaf, rachis, rhizome and root of Thelypteris interrupta (Wild.) K. Iwats were screen for Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) production. Two isolates STL1 and RT5 were identified as Kocuria flava (MZ310566) and Bacillus sp. (MZ310573) respectively based on 16s rDNA sequencing were produce significantly high amount of IAA (≥60μg/ml) in the presence of tryptophan. The enzymatic activities, sugar fermentation and antimicrobial agent resistance abilities of the isolates were recorded. In vitro application of those isolates for growth promotion resulted to increase in the root, shoot length, primary and secondary leaf length, biomass, chlorophyll and protein content as compared to the control.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2044–2045
J. Jeevamathi*1, G. Srinivasan2 and S. Radhakrishnan3
1-3 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Guava is also known as ‘Super Fruit’ because it has high nutritive value with many health benefits. Even though, Guava cultivation has been very popular in the Tamil Nadu, the farmers were unaware of the improved cultivation practices and they have many problems relating to production and marketing. At this juncture, this study was carried out in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu with following specific objectives: i) To analysis constraints on production of guava in the study area, ii) To analysis constraints on marketing of guava in the study area and (iii) To offer policy suggestions based on the results of the study. For the study, Thiruvennainallur block of Villupuram district (Rank first in area among the blocks) was selected and from the block, four villages were selected and finally, 120 growers were selected from the villages randomly. The most important constraint identified by the farmers in guava production was high cost of digging out pits (Garrett score: 59.17) while the most important marketing constraint was method of sale by pre harvest contractor (Garrett score: 56.67), followed by low market price (Garrett score: 54.09). The study suggested that state government may provide transport and storage facilities to help the farmers in the study area. The area under Guava cultivation has been increasing in the study area due to its popularity and adoptability but the identified production and marketing constraints were limit the profitability of the guava farmers. The study suggested that scarcity of labour mainly due to the migration of labour from rural to urban has to check with suitable incentives, so that labour required for field operations would be available in time in the study area. The Guava cultivating farmers might be encouraged to adopt drip irrigation to enhance the water use efficiency and the Government may provide transport and storage facilities to help the farmers to increase the efficiency of guava marketing in the study area.

Short communication | Published online : 15-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2046–2048
Pompy Malakar*1 and Manoshi Baruah Deka2
1-2 Department of Extension and Communication Management, College of Community Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 785 013, Assam, India
Abstract
A study was conducted to find out the background characteristics including personal and socio-economic characteristics and use of ICTs in agriculture and allied areas by the rural women of Jorhat and Nagaon districts of Assam, India. A total of 400 rural women were selected randomly for the present study. The results showed that little less than half i.e., 42.25 per cent of the respondents belonged to lower middle age group i.e., 35-47 years. Large majorities (94.75%) were married and 39.75 per cent of respondents had education up to high school level. Majority (60.25%) of rural women belonged to Other Backward Caste (OBC). A large majority 82.50 per cent of the respondent family occupation was farming with 68.75 per cent. Data on use of ICTs in agriculture reflected that television was used for gathering information on improved farming methods (88.47%), mobile phone for availing information about fertilizers (78.10%), radio for accessing information on weather (66.17%) etc. The study explores the areas were ICTs were used.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2049–2052
P. Kamalakannan*1, D. Madhupriyaa2 and D. Elayaraja3
1-3 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at farmers field in Vanniyarpalayam village, Kurinjippaditaluk, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu with chilli hybrid Mahyco Sierra as test crop, during February – May 2020 to evaluate the response of hybrid chilli to macro and micronutrients fertilization in sandy clay loam soils of Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu. The experimental soil was sandy clay loam with a pH of 5.7, EC of 0.26 dsm-1. The available N, P, K and B content of soil were 196 (Low), 9.5 (Low), 232 kg ha-1 (Medium) and 0.074 mg kg-1 (Low). The treatments consisted of application of inorganic fertilizers like Complex fertilizer (17:17:17) @ 0.5% foliar spray, DAP @ 0.5% foliar spray and Borax @ 0.5% foliar spray were applied in different combinations. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and replicated three times. The growth and yield parameters were recorded at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAT. The experimental findings revealed that among the different treatments tried, the highest value of the growth parameters regarding plant height, number of primary branches plant-1, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area index, total chlorophyll content, dry matter production, number of flowers plant-1 and days to 50 % flowering as well as fruit yield were recorded from the application of (RDF + Complex fertilizer 17:17:17 @ 0.5 % foliar spray + DAP @ 0.5% foliar spray + Borax @ 0.5% foliar spray). Among the different treatment combinations experimented, application of RDF + complex fertilizer 17:17:17 @ 0.5% foliar spray + DAP @ 0.5% foliar spray + borax @ 0.5% foliar spray (T8) significantly increased the growth components. The highest plant height of 49.36, 98.34, 108.72 and 124.27 (cm) was recorded at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAT respectively. The highest number of leaves plant-1 was recorded in the treatment T8 (RDF + complex fertilizer 17:17:17 @ 0.5% foliar spray + DAP @ 0.5% foliar spray + borax @ 0.5% foliar spray). The highest leaf area index was recorded in the treatment T8. The highest number of branches plant-1 of 43.76, 89.92, 105.32 and 121.16 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAT respectively was recorded in the treatment T8. The highest number of primary branches was recorded in T8 of 13.28. The per cent increase in fruit yield due to RDF + Complex fertilizer (17:17:17) @ 0.5% foliar spray + DAP @ 0.5% foliar spray + Borax @ 0.5% foliar spray treatment (T8) varied from 7.3 to 23.81 per cent over control. This was followed by treatment T6 (RDF+ complex fertilizer (17:17:17) @ 0.5% foliar spray+ borax @ 0.5% foliar spray. The least growth components at all stages of growth were registered in the treatment T1 with application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizers.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2053–2055
Mukesh Jhariya*1, Shikha Bansal2 and M. K. Thakur3
1, 3 Government Science Collage, Jabalpur - 482 001, Madhya Pradesh, India 2 St. Aloysius Collage (Auto.) Jabalpur - 482 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Hemidesmus indicus Linn commonly known as ‘Anantmool’ belonging to the family Asclepiadaceae is highly valued plant for home garden and commercial cultivation. It is also known as “Indian Sarsaparilla”. In the present investigation, leaves of H. indicus were extracted with four solvents viz. chloroform, methanol, ethanol and water. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, protein, lipds, saponins, glycosides, resins, tannins, steroids and tannins in leaf extracts of solvents. The present study opens a window for future research on the chemical identification of these phytochemicals in leaves of H. indicus.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2056–2058
Uma S.*1 and Jeevan P.2
1-2 P. G. and Research, Department of Microbiology, J. J. College of Arts and Science, (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Pudukkottai - 622 422, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
From the study, it can be concluded that marine Trichoderma viride (ATJJC1) strain harbours many important volatile secondary metabolites that have been reported to perform diverse functions ranging from anti-pathogenic to plant growth promotion. Thus, this marine Trichoderma viride (ATJJC1) strain could be further studied for management of plant pathogens as well as to promote the biofertilizers production.

Short communication | Published online : 19-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2059–2062
Parwez Qayum*1 and J. D. Shaikh2
1 Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Aurangabad - 431 001, Maharashtra, India 2 Department of Zoology, Maulana Azad College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Aurangabad - 431 001, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Based on soil depth and nutritional requirements, fungi are the basic components of soil microbes that usually make up more of the soil biomass than bacteria. Phosphate solubilizing fungi were isolated from the soil of the Marathwada district of Maharashtra in the current study and all fungal isolates were tested for their capacity to solubilize phosphate. Total 40 isolate were isolated and only 11 fungal isolates were showed P-solubilizing ability. Among these Aspergillus niger (PQ9), Trichoderma spp (PQ36), Penicillium spp (PQ19) fungal isolates showed significant zone of solubilization with 34, 31 to 30 mm selective agar medium after 48 hours of incubation. The potent phosphate solubilizing fungi were identified 18S rRNA analysis. The study therefore proposed that these fungal species have strong phosphate solubilizing properties and can be used for excellent crop productivity as a biofertilizer.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2063–2067
Senthil Kumar S.*1 and S. Ganesh2
1-2 School of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram - 624 302, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The experiment was carried out in Tuberose cv. Prajwal to investigate the effect of fertigation and organic nutrients on yield attributing parameters and yield during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with nineteen treatments and replicated twice. The pooled mean of first and second year results revealed that, 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer through fertigation along with microbial consortium @ 12.5 kg ha-1, panchagavya @ 3 per cent and humic acid @ 0.4 per cent (T9) registered the highest number of spikes clump-1, spike length, number of florets spike-1, length of floret, diameter of floret, single flower weight, hundred flower weight and flower yield ha-1. The increase of flower yield ha-1 by the T9 over soil application of recommended dose of fertilizer was 40 per cent.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2068–2074
Hitlar Rahaman Bosunia1, Kiran Pradhan2 and Kinkar Biswas*1-3
1 Department of Chemistry, Raiganj University, Raiganj - 733 134, Uttar Dinajpur, West Bengal, India 2 Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling - 734 013, West Bengal, India 3 Asim Kumar Bothra Environment Conservation Centre (PAKBECC), Raiganj University, Raiganj - 733 134, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The presence of amylose and amylopectin in rice or any other cereals is an important parameter to determine the quality of rice or cereals. Due to emerging interest on indigenous rice varieties in recent time, we have chosen one indigenous rice variety of India (Begun Bichi) and determined the amylose and amylopectin content by standard Juliano’s method. The amylose content for the prepared solution is 12.37% and the stock solution is 14.93%. The amylopectin content is 87.62% and 85.06% for the prepared and stock solution respectively. The increment of amylose in stock solution from the prepared solution was also found and this result was corroborated with the previous literature. We have also isolated the pure starch from this rice via alkali extraction methods. The morphology of the isolated starch was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and powder XRD (p-XRD). The microstructure of this rice starch granules appears mainly as polyhedral (5.06 mm in size). The different p-XRD peaks observed at 15°, 16.5°, 18.5°, 22.5°, and 26° indicates A-type crystallinity. Based on the data collected from various experimental results, the Begun Bichi rice starch can be used both in the food as well as the pharmaceutical industry.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2075–2080
S. K. Meena1, P. Nagar3, M. Agrawal*1,3 and K. Agrawal2-4
1 Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 2 Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 3 Design Innovation Centre, Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 4 Faculty of Basic and Applied Science, Vivekananda Global University, Jaipur - 302 012, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The present study aimed to develop a mix fruits and vegetable juice and assessment of sensory, physical, and nutritional quality of developed juice and shelf life. Various combinations of juices of three fruits and one vegetable were tried and sensory quality was assessed. Based on the sensory quality scores, one recipe was finalized. The finalized juice recipe was further studied for sensory, physical and nutritional quality- as assessed by antioxidant contents and antioxidant activity and microbial quality. The freshly prepared juice had mean pH 4.68, total soluble solids (TSS) 15.50 and total acidity 0.31. The raw ingredients and freshly prepared mix fruits and vegetable juice were assessed for different qualities. The freshly prepared mixed juice contained considerable amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, flavonoids and showed antioxidant activity above 50%. Microbial quality of the juice indicated that the total bacterial counts were within the permissible limits.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2081–2084
Sanjay Cyril Masih1, Ravindra Kumar Pathak2, Rubia Bukhari3 and Bhat Rayees Ahmad*4
1-2 Department of Zoology, Ewing Christian Post Graduate College, Allahabad - 211 003, Uttar Pradesh, India 3 P. G. Department of Sericulture, University of Jammu, Poonch Campus, Poonch - 185 101, Jammu and Kashmir 4 Department of Zoology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra - 136 119, Haryana, India
Abstract
The administration of penfluron and diaino-furyl-s-triazine was done by feeding and residual technique to Euproctis icilia and Euproctis fraterna larvae, to see its interaction on the experimental insects. The effect of the chemical at lethal and sublethal levels was recorded. The parameter of study was mortality, deformity, development, food consumption, growth and weight loss during exposure period. The results obtained in different experiments on these parameters were processed and are presented in tabular form. In the present study the insect growth regulators, penfluron and diamino-furyl-s-triazine, suppressed the food intake and larval growth of the treated insects, both in feeding as well as residual treatment. Results obtained showed that diamino-furyl-s-triazine reduced the food intake capacity more than penfluron, in third instar larvae. Reduction in food consumption was greater in Euproctis icilia than in E. fraternal in feeding treatment and was almost the same in residual treatment with penfluron. Similar results were also seen by diamino-furyl-s-triazine.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2085–2091
Navin Kumar Rajpal*1 and Sharmila Tamang2
1-2 Sidho Kanho Birsha University, Purulia - 723 104, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The definition of common property resources varies with its availability, utilization, location as well as ownership. Access to the available common property resources are governed/guarded by rule and regulations created by the local powerful, potential and politically associated players. There exist several ownership protocols ranging from state machinery till individual control. Many studies have highlighted the dependency upon CPR for livelihood while none of them have addressed the status of most accessed CPR of tribal Odisha i.e., Sal leaf (kendua leaf) and Sabai/golden grass. The study found three major sources of input arrangements i.e., procurement/production via self and family members, purchasing from other sources and households utilizing both the sources. Seventy seven percent of rural households are highly dependent on Sal leaf and Sabai grass activities for sustaining livelihood. Further, significant impact of land availability, days of employment in related activities and contribution of Sal leaf and Sabai grass income on total income of respondents is revealed. Thus, Special attention is required to be given at agriculture, credit availability and other subsidiary employment. Technical assistance is required to be adhere either with government collaboration or private partnership to both sal as well as sabai grass activities at large scale with procurement hub at each block.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2092–2094
R. Anushya1, J. L. Joshi*2, Y. Anbuselvam3, Ajish Muraleedharan4 and C. Praveen Sampath Kumar5
1-3,5 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 4 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Correlation and path analysis was carried out for different yield and lodging related traits for 24 landraces and 6 improved varieties of rice. Grain yield per plant showed significant positive correlation with number of productive tillers, thousand grain weight and total spikelets per panicle had negative correlation with lodging index. Path analysis revealed that high positive and direct effect was recorded by grain L/B ratio followed by grain breadth, number of productive tillers and thousand grain weight. Whereas, direct negative effects were shown by grain length, plant height and culm length.

Short communication | Published online : 26-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2095–2099
B. Suresh1 and P. Kamaraj*2
1-2 Department of Chemistry, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research (BIHER), Chennai - 600 073, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Photocatalysis based ZnO nanoparticles with one of a kind morphologies had been synthesized via way of means of microwave combustion (MCM) using Aloe vera extract as a fuel. The acquired ZnO nanoparticles had been characterized via way of means of XRD, HR-SEM, HR-TEM, EDX, DRS and PL spectroscopy. The XRD consequences showed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite ZnO. The crystallite length of the ZnO nanostructures become calculated the use of Sherrer’s formula. The formation of nanoparticles becomes showed via way of means of HR-SEM and HR-TEM. The optical absorption and PL emissions had been decided via way of means of DRS and PL spectra respectively. ZnO nanoparticles with band hole energies of 3.37 eV had been acquired. The photocatalysis based ZnO nanoparticles arrays showcase an awful lot more potent optical absorption, suggesting that the bigger floor vicinity improves mild harvesting. As-organized ZnO nanoparticles have ability programs in fabricating subsequent technology nanodevices.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2100–2103
Richa Dubey*1, Janvi Sharma2 and Jas Trivedi3
1-2 Department of Microbiology, President Science College, Shayona Study Campus, Ghatlodiya, Ahmedabad - 380 061, Gujarat, India 3 Department of Forensic Science, School of Science, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad - 380 009, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The world is facing a new public health catastrophe with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel corona virus which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome COVID-19. COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) is a transmissible disease initiated and spread through a new virus strain SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) since 31st December 2019 in Wuhan city of China. Infection of this virus spread globally to millions of people. The current consequences of novel corona virus have created a global crisis due to lacking of any vaccine or drug that can effectively work against this deadly virus. A wide variety of drugs (including natural herbal medicines with well-known therapeutic importance) have been explored by the scientists. As the structural components (spike proteins) and gene sequence of Corona virus have already been characterized therefore the systematic trial of drugs and especially herbal medicines and phytochemical agents has become possible. The main key CoV protease enzyme of COVID-19 virus is Mpro or 3CLpro. It is an excellent drug target as it plays a major role in mediating viral replication and transcription. Molecular docking is a significant tool to control this virus as most of the studies showed the beneficial roles of phytochemical agents present in the herbs in India. Ayurcedic herbs such as Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy), Curcuma zadoaria (Haldi), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Syzygium aromaticum (Clove), Elettaria cardamomum (Cardamom), Citrus x limon (lemon) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) Piper nigrum (Black pepper) etc. are broadly used for the preparation of Ayurvedic medicine. Recent studies suggested that active phytochemicals from these medicinal plants could potentially inhibit Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. These herbs are really advantageous to effectively cure the respiratory problems such as cough, cold and flu in Covid-19. Molecular docking also specifies that the phytochemicals present in these herbs possess anti-inflammatory properties and preparations made from these herbs can also boost individual’s immunity. This article aims to review the vast progress in this emerging field with special emphases on the use of medicinal herbs to fight against Corona virus.

Case Study | Published online : 27-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2104–2109
Muthukumararaja T*1 and M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan2
1-2 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Two hundred surface soil samples were collected from Chidambaram taluk of Veeranam ayacut area belonging to three soil orders (Vertisol, Alfisol and Entisol) to assess the zinc status and fix critical limit of Zn in soil and rice crop. The soil had pH (6.0- 8.9), EC (0.2-1.7 dSm-1), organic carbon (2.7-11.4 g kg-1), CaCO3 (0.33-7.54%), KMnO4-N (214-391 kg ha-1), Olsen-P (19-54 kg ha-1), NH4OAc-K (147-366 kg ha-1) and DTPA-Zn (0.23 – 1.98 mg kg-1). The zinc fractions viz., WS-Zn (0.09- 0.53 mg kg-1), Ex-Zn (0.18 – 0.96 mg kg-1), Com-Zn (2.02-5.50 mg kg-1), Org-Zn (2.10 -4.78 mg kg-1), Occul-Zn (2.43-4.97 mg kg-1), Res-Zn (70.19-120.63 mg kg-1) and Total Zn (80.15-131.8 mg kg-1). Different extractants were used to assess the plant available zinc. Based on the regression values, DTPA extractable zinc was found to be the best extractant. Pot experiments were conducted to study the response of rice to graded dose of zinc (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 ppm). Rice grain and straw yields increased up to 5 ppm Zn (37.04,48.64 g pot-1 in Vertisol and 43.02,37.45g pot-1 in Entisol) and decreased with further addition of zinc.

Research Article | Published online : 27-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2110–2112
Pankaj Lavania1 and Kailash Chand Bairwa*2
1 College of Agriculture, Jodhpur (Agriculture University, Jodhpur) - 342 304, Rajasthan, India 2 College of Agriculture, Baytu-Barmer (Agriculture University, Jodhpur) - 344 034, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Backyard poultry is an important source of supplementary income and nutritional security for poor households across the country. An improved variety for back yard poultry namely Pratapdhan birds were distributed to rural families of Scheduled Caste (SC) community to improve their livelihood and entrepreneurship in the year 2019-2020, in Jodhpur district of western Rajasthan. A total of 1200 chicks were distributed to 60 identified SC families free of cost. Each unit comprised of sixteen females and four male birds. The results revealed that the improved poultry strain Pratapdhan has an immense production potential in arid region under back yard system. The average expenditure on rearing of birds was calculated ₹ 31,635. The benefit cost ratio was recorded at 2.53:1 which appears to be very much economical and viable for rearing of birds under backyard system. It is a profitable and economic venture for resource poor families in terms of livelihood and entrepreneurship.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2113–2119
A. K. Rao Keluskar*1 and P. Jeyaseelan2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, to assess the adoption on indigenous technical knowledge practices in wetland rice cultivation among the scheduled farmers. Cuddalore district has been administratively divided into ten taluks and thirteen blocks. The selection of the respondents is based on the probability proportionate sampling method which is followed to select a sample size of three hundred respondents. The data were collected from each respondent through personal interview methods with help of interview schedule. The results revealed that, nearly half of the respondents (50.00%) had high level of adoption followed by medium level (26.66%) and low (23.34%) level of adoption in indigenous rice cultivation practices.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2120–2123
Vinodhini G1, Ajish Muraleedharan*2, P. K. Karthikeyan3, J. L. Joshi4 and C. Praveen Sampath Kumar5
1-2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 4-5 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Goldenrod belongs to Asteraceae family, is a genus of about 100 to 120 species of flowering plants. Most of them are herbaceous perennial growing from woody caudices or rhizomes. In floriculture industries, post-harvest losses of flowers are the major problem due to its highly perishable nature and it ultimately affects the quality and vase life of flowers. To overcome these issues proper post-harvest practices are essential. Sugars play a vital role in keeping the quality of cut flowers, by adding sugars such as sucrose to the vase water is effective in improving the post-harvest life of cut flowers. The present experiment on the “Effect of pulsing with sucrose in prolonging the vase life of goldenrod Cv. Tara gold” was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar during 2018-2020. The experiment was repeated three times with five replicates in completely randomized design. Cut flower spikes treated with sucrose at concentrations of 2, 4, 6 and 8% along with control (distilled water) were used for the study. The results showed that all treatments had improved the keeping quality and vase life of cut flowers when compared to control. Among all these treatments, sucrose @ 4% (T3) recorded maximum water uptake, transpirational loss of water, water balance, loss of water and water uptake ratio, fresh weight, cumulative physiological loss in weight and vase life which was extended.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2124–2128
G. Prema1 and P. Kamaraj*2
1-2 Department of Chemistry, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research (BIHER), Chennai - 600 073, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In the prevailing study, ZnO nanoparticles had been organized via way of microwave combustion technique, using the sesamum indicum plant extract as fuel and reducing agent. The structural section and morphology had been investigated with the use of XRD, HR-SEM and HR-TEM. The crystallite length changed into calculated the use of Scherrer formula, and it lies with inside the variety of 20-22 nm. The elemental evaluation changed into investigated via way of means of EDX analysis. Also, absorbance and emission spectra had been measured via way of means of the use of diffuse reflectance (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The band hole changed into measured the use of Kubelka-Munk version and it indicates 3.21 eV for ZnO nanoparticles. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye (MB) was carried out and obtained greater degradation efficiency.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2129–2132
Sayar*1 and Archana Sharma2
1 Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 2 Department of Botany, SRL Saharia Govt. PG College Kaladera, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Desmostachya bipinnata is perennial herbaceous plant having multiple medicinal health benefits. Desmostachya bipinnata is useful therapeutic medicinal plant, commonly known as Dabh and belong to Poaceae family‎. Experimental plant has a good medicinal property and used as: Urinary infections, fever, dysentery and menorrhagia, and as a diuretic and a blood purifier. The primary metabolites use as nutrition and the free radicals are generated in the body as metabolic products of several reactions. These free radicals cause multiple harms to the cell, on their cell wall, to the DNA and cause number of diseases. In the present study, the plants were selected and collected from Rajasthan and were shade-dried. The powder was formed of leaves and root. The methanolic extract was prepared for further studies of primary estimation and antioxidant potential activity (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) of evaluated through their standard protocols. Antioxidants fight as anti-cancer agents in human beings.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2133–2135
Vaishali Khedkar*1 and Sangita Ingole2
1-2 Department of Environmental Science, Shri Shivaji Science College, Shivaji Nagar, Nagpur Road, Amravati - 444 603, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Soil analysis plays an important role in crop production and nutrient management. In the present research work, studies on soils with physical properties, chemical properties and micronutrients of soils are done. Soil samples were collected from ten different talukas locations, in Amravati district (Maharashtra) India. The soil parameters like soil moisture, pH, EC, carbon, calcium carbonate, magnesium, calcium, nitrogen, copper, potassium and phosphorous content, were analyzed in 2016. The values of pH indicated that each one samples of the soils are alkaline, all samples were containing moderate amount of obtainable micronutrients. The physicochemical parameters of soil determine their adaptability to cultivation and therefore the level of biological activity which will be supported by the soil. The variation of values was observed in the different parameters due to the soil quality in different places. Study of physicochemical parameters is important to agricultural chemists for plants growth and soil management. It is concluded from the data; pH of all soil samples is found to be slightly alkaline. Organic carbon is good for plant growth, potassium content in all soil samples is in higher amount, so fertilizers containing nitrogen is also low are added for proper growth and development of the crops.

Short communication | Published online : 30-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2136–2139
P. C. Nunfela Darlong*1 and Jahar Debbarma2
1-2 Department of Economics, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar - 799 022, Tripura, India
Abstract
A major share of fruit production in Tripura has been contributed mainly by jackfruit, mango, pineapple and orange. Fruit production constitute 39% of total horticulture production. The study primarily focuses on growth rate and variability of fruit production overtime i.e., from 1988-99 to 2017-18. Data analysis have been done by employing log-liner model for Compound Annual Growth Rate and Cuddy and Della Valle Index for vairiabelity / Instability. The findings of the study are positive growth rate for Area (5.3%) and Production (3.4%) but negative in case of productivity (-1.8%) and instability index shows relatively high variability in case of Area (0.17) to Production (0.14) and Productivity (0.13). These phenomena of negative growth rate of Productivity and overall instability are attributed to fall in production than area and overall rise and sudden fall in area and production in the later time period considered.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Nov-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2140–2144
Sushree Sangita Senapati1, Devabrata Saikia*2 and Prasenjit Bhagawati3
1-3 Program of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Assam Down Town University, Sankar Madhab Path Gandhi Nagar, Panikhaiti, Guwahati - 781 026, Assam, India
Abstract
Fruits are natural sources of sugars harbored by different yeast strains. The local fruits were used as sources for the presence of diverse yeast strains with different morphology and biochemical characteristics. Out of the 122 isolates, 9 did not show any production of S02 in the media. These 9 strains were evaluated for stress tolerance assays and found that the strains L1 and J7 could tolerate ethanol, pH and temperature stress better than the other strains. These strains were also found to be amylolytic and potential ethanol producers. L1 and J7 were identified to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate L1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate J7 and received Genbank accession numbers OK326788 and OK326764 respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2145–2147
Poonam Tomar*1, Anuj Kumar2 and Sunil3
1 Department of Economics, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra - 282 005, Uttar Pradesh, India 2 Department of Economics, Government. P. G. College, Dholpur - 328 001, Rajasthan, India 3 Department of Economics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur -302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted to analysis the farm productivity and fertilizer consumption of major crops in Bharatpur region of Rajasthan under three level of irrigation. Study was mainly based on primary data, which were collected through Interview method from selected sample respondents having (80 low irrigated, 80 medium irrigated and 80 highly irrigated farms) for the agriculture year 2016-2017. The overall result revealed that the per hectare yield of major crops like wheat, mustard in Rabi season was highest (3975 kg and 1750 kg) respectively on highly irrigated farms. As well as per hectare yield of major kharif crop i.e., Bajra and Jowar fodder was also highest (2260 kg and 39030 kg) respectively on highly integrated farms. Further the role of fertilizer is very important in the application of modern techniques of agriculture, enhancing soil fertility, cropping intensity productivity and commercial cropping patterns and Systems. Further the study indicated that the maximum quantity (same as recommended dose) of NPK was applied to highly irrigated farms in comparison to other categories of farms. Hence positive relation have seen between agricultural productivity, farm modernization and fertilizer consumption with the proper and adequate irrigation system.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2148–2151
S. Ponmani*1 and T. Selvankumar2
1 Department of Biotechnology, Mahendra Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Namakkal - 637 501, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Biotechnology, Padmavani Arts and Science College, Salem - 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Molecular docking plays a major role in drug discovery. Right from the past, docking studies among the particular compound against particular disease served as a pool proof in the medical field to struggle against the many dread full diseases. The compounds identified from many natural resources played a predominant role in treating the human disorders at the earliest. In such a way, Ziziphus jujuba – an Indian medicinal plant was analyzed briefly at the molecular level to find out the active biological compound against the most predominant cause of cancer. Thus, the compounds identified from different solvent extracts were exposed in this present study. Twenty-seven compounds identified from different solvent extracts were docked against Human Cyclin Dependent Kinase II. This study concluded that, among all those different compounds, only three compounds like Stigmast-5-en-3-ol, Campesterol and Eicosanoic acid showed better binding activity against human cyclin dependent kinase II when compared to all other compounds. Thus, the present investigation revealed an understandable knowledge about the compounds present in Ziziphus jujuba for the future research work.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2152–2156
Kiruthika G1., R. Manivannan*2, M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan3 and P. Senthilvalavan4
1-2 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University, Faculty of Agriculture, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Field experiment was conducted in farmers field at B. Mutlur in clay loam- Typic Haplusterts soil to study the effect of different nitrogen sources and zinc on phenological traits and yield in rice. The experiment was conducted in factorial randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of Factor-A- Nitrogen sources, no nitrogen (N0), 75% mineral nitrogen + 25% organic manure (vermicompost) (N1), 50% mineral nitrogen + 50% organic manure (vermicompost) (N2), 25% mineral nitrogen + 75% organic manure (Vermicompost) (N3), Factor B – Zinc application, no application (Zn0), soil application (Zn1), foliar application (Zn2), soil + foliar application (Zn3). There were totally sixteen treatments combinations. Application of nitrogen and zinc significantly increased the phenological traits and yield in rice over control. The results revealed that N3Zn3 recorded highest phenological traits viz., plant height (112.6cm), tiller count (18.6), LAI (4.9) chlorophyll content (46.5 SPAD value), CGR (12.8 g m-2d-1), RGR (35.7 mg g-1d-1) and NAR (1.39 g dm-1d-1) in clay loam soil. The highest grain yield (5992.4 kg ha-1) and straw yield (7624.2 kg ha-1) was recorded in N3Zn3 and lowest grain and straw yield was recorded in N0Zn0 (3436.7 kg ha-1 and 5162.5 kg ha-1) than individual application of nitrogen or zinc in rice.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2157–2160
S. Ravichandran*1 and R. Venkatraman2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Economics, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
21st century increasing the level of the population essentially needed for a huge amount of foods so countries are pushed into mass production for foods in a direct and indirect way. Technologies are rapid changes in-country domestic level to compete with other countries. In agriculture, technologies are changing different ways to increasing income and avoid losses for farmers. In this study comparative analysis of PCT and open field condition in Tamil Nadu cultivation of cucumber crop. Both primary data and secondary data were collected both 60 samples size for two different methods. Cost of cultivation high in PCT because initial establishment charges high in under PCT method value for 1000 m2 for cucumber Rs. 207478.26 and open field Rs. 10541.92. Compare to the two methods net returns are high in PCT Rs. 127902.60 and 5958.08 in open field.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2161–2165
A. K. Rao Keluskar*1 and P. Jeyaseelan2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
For centuries, farmers have planned agricultural production and conserved natural resources by adopting indigenous knowledge. The development of indigenous knowledge systems, including management of natural environment, has been a matter of survival to the people who generated these systems. A study was conducted in Cuddalore district to investigate indigenous agricultural practices using local knowledge by researchers. The challenges from the study contain socio personal characteristics of the Scheduled Caste farmers include sixteen independent variables. It showed inefficiency of some indigenous knowledge methods. The study concludes by recommending that indigenous knowledge and practices are useful, must be integrated with contemporary research agenda to enable farmers compete and respond to global opportunities and challenges respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2166–2170
U. Prakash1*, R. Elango2 and R. Parthasarathi3
1-3 Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Coir pith is a byproduct of coir industry generated during extraction of coir fiber from coconut husk. Approximately two tons of coir pith is released during the processing of a ton of coir. In the present study, Coir pith collected from Sri Kamachi Amman coir industries, Cumbum, Theni disttrict, Tamil Nadu is utilized. A Coir pith composting is an aerobic process. Single, dual, and consortium of microbial inoculants were added @ two litres of broth culture ton-1 of coir pith heap. For the nitrogen source the Urea was added @ 0.5 per cent level. The coir pith was heaped above the soil and spread to the length of 4 feet × 3 feet breadth. The experimental design adopted for coir pith waste composting is as follows: The treatment T1, T2 and T3 respectively used as single inoculant culture of Cellulomonas fimi, Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium respectively. Treatment T4, T5 and T6 used the dual inoculation of Cellulomonas fimi + Phanerochaete chrysosporium (T4), Cellulomonas fimi + Pleurotus sajor caju (T5) and Pleurotus sajor caju + P. chrysosporium (T6) respectively. The treatment T7 included all the three inoculants (consortium) Cellulomonas fimi + Phanerochaete chrysosporium + Pleurotus sajor caju respectively. All the treatments were sampled from 0th day until 90th day at 15 days interval for determining xylanase, dehydrogenase, laccase and Mn peroxidase activities. The triple inoculants treatment found to be the best microbial consortium combination for consistent production of hydrolytic enzymes during the period of coir pith composting.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2171–2174
Mahroofa Jan*1, Seema Singh2, Farhana Maqbool3 and Irshad A. Nawchoo4
1-3 Plant Tissue Culture Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar - 190 006, Jammu and Kashmir 4 Plant Reproductive Biology, Genetic Diversity and Phytochemistry Research Laboratory Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar - 190 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Heracleum candicans is a rare Himalayan medicinal herb valued for its production of optimum quantity of Xanthotoxin. Xanthotoxin isolated from roots is widely used to treat leucoderma and to prepare suntan lotions. The overall goal of the present research was to establish the most suitable phtyohormone for in vitro regeneration of Heracleum candicans. During the present study, cotyledon explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with various plant growth regulators including auxins (2, 4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, Indole 3-Acetic Acid, Indole 3-Butyric Acid and α-Naphthalene Acetic Acid) and cytokinins (6-Benzyl Amino Purine and Kinetin) to find the effect of these growth regulators in inducing differentiation and re-differentiation in these explants. Among different concentrations and combinations of phytohormones, 2, 4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at a concentration of 3 mg/l was effective in producing light green and fragile callus in 100% cultures. For shoot regeneration, 6-Benzyl Amino Purine 3 mg/l and Indole 3-Acetic Acid 1 mg/l proved most effective in 100% cultures. For root induction, full strength MS basal proved to be the best medium producing 6.9±0.3 average number of roots per shoot within a period of 15 days in 90% of cultures.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2175–2179
P. Jayaraju*1 and M. N. Anil Kumar2
1-2 Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysuru - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The dietary nutrition derived from the mulberry foliage is an essential as it regulates the growth and development of the silkworm and hence influences the quality of cocoon produced by them. By and large the nutritional value of mulberry leaves varies in response to both biotic and abiotic factors. Among several dietary supplementations, amino acids play a vital role which regulate metabolism in the silkworm which is essential in their development. In the current investigation, we have analyzed the consequences of dietary supplementation of essential amino acids namely methionine, phenylalanine and valine at different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against the alanine and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes activity levels in three different silkworm hybrids viz. FC1, FC2 and FC1 X FC2. The results obtained revealed that increase in the activity levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases has been observed in all the hybrids of the silkworm administered with three amino acids. However, administration of 1.5% of phenylalanine has been proven to be ideal in the enhancement of aminotransferases activity in the fat body tissue and haemolymph of the silkworm hybrids FC1 × FC2 followed by FC2 and FC1 as compared to control batches. In contrast the lowest aminotransferase activity was expressed by the silkworm hybrids in valine supplemented batches at 0.5% concentration.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2180–2184
S. Shyamalagowri*1, S. Devi2, N. Shanthi3 and S. Murugesan4
1-4 P.G. and Research Department of Botany, Pachaiyappa's College, Chennai - 600 030, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
To assess the antibacterial activity of Syringodium isoetifolium against human bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial activities of the extracts on the different test organisms using agar well diffusion method. The current investigation the antibacterial activity of different organic solvent extracts of S. isoetifolium showed that, methanol extract had wide spectral growth inhibitory activity than chloroform and acetone extracts. The antibiotic tetracycline exhibited markedly pronounced inhibitory zones than the crude extracts. The useful groups in seagrass extracts which expected to act antimicrobial activities were phenol and anthraglycoside. The antimicrobial activities of seagrass extracts showed the likelihood to use seagrass for biomedicine purpose.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2185–2192
Srinivas Bharamappa Neglur1, Muniswamy David2 and Rajeshwari D. Sanakal3
1-3 P. G. Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad - 580 003, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The occurrence of pollutants in the aquatic environment can produce severe toxic effects on non-target organisms, including fish. These sources of contamination are numerous and include herbicides, which represent a large group of toxic chemicals. The present study was undertaken to investigate the oxidative stress of the herbicide Fenaxoprop-P-Ethyl in a common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. These fish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of Fenaxoprop-P-Ethyl (37.5µg/L 1/8th of LC50 300µg/) for 15, 30 and 45 days. Antioxidant parameters MDA Levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in the gill, liver and muscle, together with levels of oxidative damage that occurred. After day’s exposure, significant increases in activity content were observed in all three tissues at the highest concentration of exposure (37.5µg/L). The highest concentration of Fenaxoprop-P-Ethyl induced oxidative stress to different tissues in the common carp, especially the gills, liver and muscles after chronic exposure occurred. These results provide evidence that the oxidant-antioxidant could be integrated into monitoring programs determining the toxicity of water pollutants.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2193–2198
J. Jayachitra*1, E. Babu2 and K. Manikandan3
1 Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Annamalai University. (Deputed to Department of Polymer Technology, Tamil Nadu Government Polytechnic College, Madurai - 625 011, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty of Engineering and technology, Annamalai University., Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Industrial effluents containing heavy metals may consider a major source of contamination causes serious environmental problems. Decontamination of heavy metals from wastewater has been a challenged for a long time. A number of methods have been developed for removal of toxic metal ions from wastewaters such as precipitation, evaporation, electroplating, ion exchange, membrane processes, etc. However, these conventional technologies are providing expensive due to non- regenerable materials used, high cost and generation of toxic sludge. Biosorption is a process which represents a biotechnological innovation as well as a cost-effective excellent tool for removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions. It represents a typical technique for using economical alternate biological materials for the purpose. Today, biosorption is one of the main components of environmental and bioresource technology. Application of microorganisms (specifically bacteria, algae, yeasts and fungi) as biosorbents for heavy metal removal have received growing interest due to high surface to volume ratio; large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. In this work, Dried biomass of Trichoderma harizianum powder was taken as a low cost biosorbent for the sorption of Chromium (VI). The various parameters like Initial metal ion concentration, Initial pH, Temperature and Biosorbent dosage were studied in a batch reactor. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h of contact time. The optimum values of initial Chromium concentration, initial pH, temperature and biomass loading are found to be 50mg/l, 2,30°C and 5g/l. Under this optimized condition a maximum percentage removal of 95% and specific uptake of 11mg/g was obtained for Cr (VI) sorption.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2199–2204
M. G. Sanal Kumar*1, Akhil Kumar S2 and S. Nandakumar3
1 P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, N. S. S. College, Pandalam - 689 501, Kerala, India 2 Department of Animal Science, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti - 627 012, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The soil is a natural body of mineral and organic constituents differentiated into horizons of variable depth, which differs from the material below in morphology, physical makeup, chemical properties and composition and biological characteristics. In general soil may be considered as the net result of the action of climate and organisms especially vegetation on the parent material of the earth’s surface. The texture and porosity of the soil are highly important characteristics and largely determine the availability of nutrients to plants and soil animals. Ecological study was conducted in a field with mixed vegetation and litter. Samples were collected twice in a month, for 12 months from June 2019 to May 2020. Each sample consists of 4 sample units and microarthropods were extracted by Berlese Tullgren funnel. Collected microarthropods were identified and counted with a Stereo Bionocular Microscope. Temperature, pH, Moisture content and Organic carbon of soil samples were also noted. The microarthropod population varies according to season. In pre-monsoon (Februay March, April, & May) the population of microarthropods was observed to be decreased. During the monsoon period (June, to mid. Sept.) the population of microarthropods were observed to be increased. In the post-monsoon period (mid-September to mid-January) a maximum density of population occurred. The population fluctuation in the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon months are discussed in association with soil characteristics.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2205–2211
Ankit Nagar*1, Dinesh Kumar Nauriyal2, Sukhpal Singh3 and Akshi Bajaj4
1-4 Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee - 247 667, Uttarakhand
Abstract
This paper examines the current scenario of ICT based services among the farming community in western Uttar Pradesh. It also attempts to identify what factors hinder the access to and use of ICT services for agricultural extension and advisory services (EAS). A descriptive statistical analysis approach was used to analyses the data of the 360 sample households based on a primary survey conducted in western Uttar Pradesh, India. The data was collected through semi-structured interview scheduled during January-March 2020. The results show that around 87% farmers have access to the any of the ICT tools but only around 44% are using them as a source of agricultural extension. Around 39% farmers responded that lack of awareness is the main reason for poor use of ICT tools followed by lack of trust (38.05%) and lack of training (18.33%). It is found that present scenario related to ICT in rural areas is not capable enough to tackle the situation like Covid pandemic. Study recommends rigorous awareness campaigns about the uses of ICT tools for accessing the agricultural related information and regular follow ups by the extension department for building the trust among the farming community. Financial resources need to be targeted for technically equipping and training the agriculture extension agents so that they can provide up-to-date information through different ICT mediums to the stakeholders.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2212–2217
Subhasree Sen Gupta*1
1 Department of Zoology, Taki Government College, Taki, North 24 Parganas - 743 429, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Birds are considered to be very good bioindicator species as they react very promptly to minor changes in environment and hence assessment of bird diversity could be considered as an impressive indicator of ecological health of a region. This study was made in and around the crop fields of Taki, Hasnabad region of North 24 Parganas district in West Bengal, India keeping in mind the mutualistic relationship between the flora and faunal species. The point diversity estimation method was followed for a year, thrice a month in morning and evening sessions. The study revealed 40 bird species belonging to 23 families with a high value of diversity indices in the region. The birds were also classified into fairly common, common and scarce on the basis of their relative abundance in the region. Out of 40 species encountered, only 3 species were found to be resident migrants and rest as residents indicating availability of ample food and shelter in this region. The high diversity is an indicator of sound ecological health and resilience of the system. However, the increasing use of harmful agricultural chemicals, anthropogenic stress and pollution could negatively affect this precious bird population in future.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2218–2224
Hari Raghu Kumar*1 and Irshad Mahmood2
1-2 Lab No. 52, Plant Pathology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
In the field of agribusiness, the effect of nematodes is exceptionally critical due to its activity upon the yields. A harvest yield misfortune due the small minute nuisances Meloidogyne incognita in the different nations is gigantic. They caused yield loss of 157 billion dollars around the world, out of which 40.30 million dollars is accounted for in India. In India, pulse loss is 20-35 percent (8.06-14.12 million dollars) of total loss yearly. The main objectives of this study were to assess the nematicidal potential of different plant extracts and their manure in vitro and greenhouse conditions respectively. In this study, the nematicidal efficacy of aqueous extracts and dry manure of five plants, Azadiracthta indica, Jatropha curcas, Lawsonia inermis, Polyalthia longifolia, and Vachellia nilotica, on J2s of M. incognita in vitro and on growth and yield parameters of Vigna radiata in greenhouse condition respectively, were assessed. In vitro nematicidal efficacy at five doses (0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03%, 0.04% and 0.05%) for mortality at different exposures of times period 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours and for hatching inhibition at two different intervals 168 and 240 hours. Dry manure from leaves of botanicals was prepared for greenhouse experiment and assessed. The in vitro results showed, out of all five plant’s extracts and control (distilled water), A. indica extract (0.05%) was significantly more effective with 81.80% mortality than the other ones, for all five different exposures viz. 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Similarly, the rate of egg hatching inhibition (HI) increases gradually in both intervals 168 and 240 hours. Maximum HI found in 0.05% concentration of A. indica with 83.92% and 90.35% on 168 and 240 hours respectively. In the greenhouse experiment, treatment with the 100 gm of dry manure of A. indica gave positive implications on growth and yield and physiological parameters of V. radiata while negative on pathological parameters of M. incognita, which was followed by the V. nilotica, L. inermis, J. curcas and P. longifolia. All the plant extracts as well as dry manure were found to be effective against root-knot nematodes in this investigation. In light of their likely job upon the M. incognita can be a future substitution of inorganic pesticides.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2225–2229
S. Senthil Kumar*1 and S. Ganesh2
1-2 School of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram - 624 302, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment on Tuberose was conducted to find out the influence of fertigation, microbial consortium and foliar application of organic nutrients on leaf NPK contents in Tuberose cv. Prajwal and post-harvest soil at T. Pudhupatti village, Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) with nineteen treatments including three levels each of water-soluble fertilizers viz., 125, 100 and 75 per cent of the recommended doses of fertilizers along with microbial consortium, foliar spray of panchagavya and humic acid and the treatments were replicated twice. The results revealed that application of 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer through fertigation along with microbial consortium @ 12.5 kg ha-1, panchagavya @ 3.0 per cent and humic acid @ 0.4 per cent (T9) significantly increased the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in leaf of Tuberose, while application of 125 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer through fertigation along with microbial consortium @ 12.5 kg ha-1, panchagavya @ 3.0 per cent and humic acid @ 0.4 per cent (T3) recorded the highest available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in soil compared to fertigation alone. The increase of nitrogen content in leaves (second year of the experiment) by the T9 over soil application of recommended dose of fertilizer was 35 per cent.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2230–2235
A. H. Patil1, S. P. Jagdale2 and A. U. Sutar*3
1-2 Department of Zoology, Dapoli Urban Bank Senior Science College, Dapoli, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India 3 P. G. Department of Zoology, S. G. M. College, Karad, Satara - 415 124, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted to study the abundance and diversity of various butterfly species found in Patan tehsil by random observation during August 2018 to July 2019. The study area has peculiar vegetation being part of Western Ghats as well as development of agro-ecosystem. It is mixed type with herbs, shrubs and trees. There is species richness and diversity of butterfly fauna. A total of 50 species of butterflies belonging to Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Hesperiidae and Lycanidae families have been recorded. Among the 50 species, number of species of family with its abundance as family Nymphalidae are 18 (40%), family Pieridae 11 species (39%), family Lycanidae 11 species (13%), family Papilionidae 8 species (6%) and family Herspiridae 2 species (2%).

Research Article | Published online : 14-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2236–2243
R. Nagalakshmi*1 and S. P. Anand2
1-2 P. G. and Research, Department of Botany, National College, Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 021, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this study, Characterization of phytochemicals of the Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. obtained from natural and polluted sources were revealed by using FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The presence of diverse functional groups such as hydroxyl group, alcohol, amides, amines, carboxylic acids, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, nitriles, alkyl & aryl halides is confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy of S. auriculata leaves and flowers from both sources. GC-MS analysis identified and characterized 38 and 27 components, respectively, from the leaves and flowers of S. auriculata collected from natural and polluted sources. The leaves and flowers of S. auriculata have a different bio-constituent; only a few compounds 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose, Neophytadiene, Dotriacontane, Phytol, and Squalene appeared in both the plant parts. 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose was the most abundant of these metabolites. According to the findings, the ethanol extract of S. auriculata flowers contains more phytocompounds than the leaves. The leaves and flowers of S. auriculata from natural sources, on the other hand, contained more components than those from polluted sources. This could be the result of environmental pollution affecting the phytochemical properties of plants in polluted areas. It implies that medicinal plants used for human consumption or the manufacturing of herbal preparations and standardized extracts should be collected from an unpolluted natural habitat.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2244–2247
Syed Shakeel Ahmad*1, Zafar A. Reshi2, Manzoor A. Shah3 and Irfan Rashid4
1-4 Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Nazratbal - 190 006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
Heavy metals are important class of contaminants having hazardous impact on plants animals and humans. Wetland macrophytes offer important, cheap and natural alternatives for the removal of heavy metals from the contaminated environment; however, macrophytes vary in their potential to sequester these heavy metals. In this context the present study was carried out to investigate the metal removal capability of Lemna minor growing densely in the Hokersar wetland of the Kashmir, an important Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya. The highest Bioconcentration factor BCF of Lemna minor also corresponded to Fe which also supports the good phytoremediation capability of this species. Our results suggest that Lemna minor is a potent wetland macrophyte that can be used for removal of Fe from the contaminated soils.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2248–2251
Preethi N.*1 and Arulsamy Jebanesan2
1 Department of Zoology, NSS College Ottapalam - 670 103, Kerala, India 2 Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Nine species of Encyrtidae viz. Acerophagus papayae Noyes & Schauff, Adektitopus gordhi Noyes and Hayat, Aenasius arizonensis (Girault), Anagyrus kamali Mousi, Cheiloneurus longicornis Hayat, Alam and Agarwal, Encyrtus infelix (Embleton), Gentakola trifasciata (Saraswat), Leptomastidea minyas Noyes and Hayat, Protyndarichoides aligarhensis Fatma and Shafee are newly recorded from the state of Kerala. Among these, two genera viz. Gentakola and Protyndarichoides are new records from Kerala.

Short communication | Published online : 18-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2252–2255
Nowsheen Hassan*1 and S. A. Shameem2
1 P. G. Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kashmir, Hazaratbal - 190 006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India 2 Division of Environmental Sciences, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
The investigation was conducted to investigate the phytosociological attributes of herbaceous vegetation during summer (June-August) and autumn (September- November) seasons at three different sites in S. P. College (protected), Theed Dhara (moderately protected) and Dachigam out skirt (degraded). Phytosociological attributes of plant species were studied by randomly laying 25 quadrats of 1 × 1 m² size at three selected sites. Diversity index and Richness index showed higher trend (1.798-2.22), (1.957-2.660) at Site I (protected) during both seasons. Dominance index was observed highest (1.305-0.984) at Site III (degraded). Evenness index showed a maximum variation of (0.941-0.709) during summer and autumn seasons at Site III (degraded). The highest dominant species based on Importance Value Index (IVI) recorded at different Sites was Cynodon dactylon. The ratio Abundance to Frequency (A/F) was carried to interpret the distribution pattern of the species in terms of regular (< 0.025), random (0.025-0.05) and contagious (> 0.05) distribution. The results indicated contagious pattern of distribution followed by random. However regular distribution pattern was almost negligible.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2256–2260
Swati Shakya*1, Neelam Tripathi2 and Seema Bhadauria3
1-2 Department of Biotechnology, Sri Satya Sai University of Technology and Medical Science, Sehore - 466 001, Madhya Pradesh, India 3 Department of Botany, R. B. S. College, Agra - 282 022, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Sandstone monument may support biocommunities that are active in process of deterioration. The bio-film made on sandstone consists of a complex of bryophytes and fungi consortia. Hyphae, filaments and spores form fungal components while bryophytes form the photosynthetic part of the bio-film. These structures interconnect on the surface of sandstone monuments to form a narrow layer. In the present investigation 11 samples were collected from different sites which are made up of sandstone. 6 biocommunities, which is dominated by the sandstone structures of the monuments. During the time of the investigation, it was clear that Aspergillus sp. was most dominant followed by Rhizopus sp. The recognized biocommunities cause mechanical exfoliation of building as well as stone material discoloration that was evaluate through production of dark pigments and mechanical hyphae penetration and organic acids.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2261–2266
Bristy Borgohain*1, Bijoy Neog2 and Pranit Saikia3
1-2 Department of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh - 786 004, Assam, India 3 Centre for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh - 786 004, Assam, India
Abstract
Elaeagnus latifolia Linn, a large woody scandent shrub belongs to family Elaeagnaceae and is found in wild as well as semi wild habitat of South East Asia, extending up to Middle East and Europe. Its fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and other bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids. They have been used in many traditional medicines by the various ethnic communities of the region as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agents. Due to the presence of high antioxidant lycopene in the fruit pulp, this fruit is believed to have anticancer property and also shows tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The extracts of leaves and fruits have antibacterial property against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Though these fruits have many nutritional benefits, it is considered as an underutilized fruit of North East India, due to lack of knowledge of locals and not grown commercially. Due to over exploitation and loss of natural habitat, the plant is facing a threat to exist in the wild. Hence, proper scientific intervention is required for the conservation and sustainable utilization of the plant for future improvement programs.

Research Review | Published online : 22-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2267–2275
Myriam Baibout1-2, Kumar Sambhav Verma3, Vinod Singh Gour4 and Shanker Lal Kothari*5
1,3-5 Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India 2 University Bordeaux, BIOGECO, INRA, 33615, Pessac, France
Abstract
Prosopis cineraria is a nurse tree with foundational properties native to dryland systems of Southern and Western Asia. State tree of the Indian state of Rajasthan, it is essential to arid systems sustainability of the region and Hindu spirituality. Nevertheless, the species is threatened by modern human impact. Because very little was known on P. cineraria’s genetic diversity and the distribution of this diversity, this research aims to investigate for the first-time population genetics of this species in a perspective of conservation and restoration, through the conduction of a large sampling campaign. We propose a potential local adaption on a finer scale than that of Rajasthan. High polymorphic ISSR and DAMD markers were used to optimize the cost-effectiveness of molecular analyses. Structural analyses of our data set revealed that genetic diversity of P. cineraria in Rajasthan seems to be distributed into 5 clusters. The geographic distribution could reflect a partial human intervention, while genetic distribution appears to be divided by a strong biogeographic barrier, following the circulating corridors of warm pre-monsoon winds as well as a rainfall gradient. Cluster 5 has been found to be the most diverse population located at Ganganagar.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2276–2280
Kripa Shankar*1, Senjam Romen Singh2 and Tasso Annu3
1-2 Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat - 791 102, Arunachal Pradesh, India 3 Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat - 791 102, Arunachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
North Eastern Himalayan region of India is considered as one of the rich sources of Passiflora species viz. purple type, yellow type and giant granadilla. Survey conducted during 2018-2020 for collection and characterization of Passiflora species found in North Eastern Himalayan region of India, existence of Passiflora ligularis Juss from Lunghar village of Ukhrul, Manipur and Sakhabama village of Kohima, Nagaland with altitude of 1633 m a.s.l. and 1077 a.s.l. m respectively was recorded. Quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed average fruit weight 52.73 g/fruit, juice content 16.78 mL/fruit, vitamin C content 13.12 mg/100 g, total soluble solids 15.15⁰ Brix, vitamin A content 0.06 mg/100 g, total flavonoids 11.50 mg/100 g, antioxidant activity 7.35%, titratable acidity 0.64%, total carbohydrates 8.61% of fruit juice whereas, phenol content 311.09 mg/100 g vitamin C content 89.44 mg/100, anthocyanin content 1.20 mg/100 g, chlorophyll content 1.17 mg/g of leaves were recorded. SDS–PAGE seed protein profiling of Passiflora ligularis Juss shows molecular weights from 14.10 KD to 129.33 KD. However, monomorphic banding pattern recorded in both the genotypes which revealed that both the genotypes are belongs to same species. With these findings it can be concluded the existence of Passiflora ligularis Juss in NEH region of India.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2281–2284
Rohan L. D’Souza1 and Geetha Unnikrishnan*2
1-2 B. K. Birla College of Arts, Science and Commerce (Autonomous), Kalyan - 421 304, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A promising answer to lessen the utilization of the traditional plastics of petrochemical origin and, consequently, plastic waste disposal, is their replacement with biodegradable materials (generally called “bioplastics”). In modern times, bioplastics have attracted significant attention because of their environmental advantages. This research work focuses on synthesis and study of mechanical and biodegradable properties of rice flour starch-based plastics. Rice flour is made up of micronized rice grains, which retain their vital carbohydrates and proteins; unlike pure rice starch, rice flour comprises roughly 78% starch and 7% protein. Rice flour is a starchy substance with low-cost, because it can be produced from rice that is broken during processing. Films from rice starch and rice flour were prepared by casting, with PVA (cross linker) and glycerol as plasticizer. PVA was varied in mass ratios of 05, 10, 15 and 20% in the starch /PVA blend. Mechanical properties (such as tensile strength, percentage elongation, and thickness) of the blends were studied. The results showed that 20% PVA plastic had the highest tensile strength, elongation and thickness of 10.02 MPa, 484.69%, and 0.44 mm respectively. Biodegradability test was done via soil-burial method and the PVA/rice flour blend was noted to be biodegradable.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2285–2288
Maya Konwar1,3, Priyanka Das2, Manash Pratim Sarma2 and Prasenjit Bhagawati*3
1 Department of Botany, Moridhal College, Dhemaji - 787 057, Assam, India 2 Department of Biotechnology, Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati - 781 026, Assam, India 3 Department of Botany, Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Guwahati - 781 026, Assam, India
Abstract
Ethno- medicine in developing countries uses a wide variety of natural products in the treatment of some common infections. Vitex negundo L is a common plant in Indian Medicine belongs to family verbenaceae, is a woody, aromatic and medicinal Shrub. In the present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activity of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Vitex negundo Preliminary phytochemical analysis was done classical method and presence of most of the phytochemicals except steroids and terpenoids. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by using well diffusion method, and clear antimicrobial activity was observed against Salmonella typhi. GC-MS determination of methanol extract of the Vitex negundo leaves to find seven phytochemical constitutes have been identified by comparing the chromatogram , peak value of unknown compound with entries in NIST database, seven phytochemical compounds like [Acrylic acid (5- cyclo propylidenepentyl) ester], [ Caryophyllene], [ 3-methyl -2(2-Oxopropyl) Furan ], [ 5-Clorovaleric acid, 2-Formyl- 4,6-Dichlorophenyl ester], [Cyclododecanone, 2-(6-Chloro -1-Oxohexyl)], [Z,Z-6,28-Heptatriactontadien-2-one] and [5-(7A-Isopropenyl -4, 5-Dimethyl – Octahydroinden -4 YL) -3 –methyl pent -2-E]. The presence of various bioactive compounds confirms the application of Vitex negundo for various treatment.

Research Article | Published online : 28-Dec-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 6 ; 2289–2291
C. Pon Alagammai1 and V. Sakthivel*2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
India is the largest mango producing country, accounting for 45% of world production. India’s share in the world mango market is about 15%. Mango accounts for 40% of the total fruit exports from the country. There is good scope for increasing the area and the productivity of mango in the country. Fresh mangoes and mango pulp are the important items of Agri-exports from India. The major mango producing districts in Tamil Nadu are Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Vellore and Tiruvallur. Mango offers good scope for commercial marketing. Hence this research study was undertaken to know the marketing behaviour of the mango growers in Dindigul district of Tamil Nadu State with a sample size of one hundred and twenty respondents. The respondents were selected based on proportionate random sampling method. The study revealed that majority of the mango growers had medium level of marketing behaviour. Further the study revealed that majority of the mango growers used grade for packing, utilized lorry as their transport facility and they sold nearby towns through local merchants and sold their produce soon after harvest.

Research Article | Published online : 31-Dec-2021