P- ISSN: 0976-1675
E- ISSN: 2249-4538

© CARAS (Centre for Advanced Research in Agricultural Sciences)
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Volume - 13 - May-June 2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 548–553
Parthvee Rupsinh Damor*1 and A. C. Polaiah2
1 Children's University, Gandhinagar - 382 021, Gujarat 2 ICAR-Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research, Boriavi - 387 310, Anand, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Gymnema sylvestre, (Asclepiadaceae) is commonly known as madhunashini. It is distributed in major tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. This medicinal plant is subjected to possess active constituent known as gymnemic acid which is responsible for the control of diabetes in humans. It is used for various other treatments also like asthma, eye complaints, inflammations, snake bites etc. Gymnema sylvestre is one of the most remarkable sugar balancing medicinal plants used mostly in curing diabetes in patients. It has various medicinal properties like antidiabetic, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, radical scavenging, antiobesity and antiarthritic. Gymnemic acid is used with various formulations for the solution of obesity and urinary complaints. Micropropagation technique is used to increase the yield of Gymnema because of its poor seed germination and high economic value. The use of molecular markers is also significant for various biotechnological analysis in this medicinal plant. The present review highlights the medicinal and traditional uses, biotechnological interventions and pharmacological activities of Gymnema. According to various references and reviews it is advisable to use Gymnema in different forms to cure certain diseases and mostly for diabetes. The chemical composition includes secondary phytoconstituents. The main active constituent of G. sylvestre is gymnemic acids. There are various biotechnological interventions carried out by scientists which include various practices like micropropagation through in vitro and in vivo activity in gymnema, transcriptome analysis, plant tissue culture methods, use of molecular markers for the identification of genetic diversity. This technologies and findings in Gymnema sylvestre in biotechnology field has contributed to recent advances to increase the quality and yield of this medicinal crop.

Research Review | Published online : 03-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 554–556
G. Dhivya Barathi1 and S. Ranjith Raja Ram*2
1-2 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to evaluate five lines crossed with four testers and twenty hybrids through line x tester mating system, to study the gca and sca effects and genetic analysis for various yield and yield contributing traits. The results of the present study indicated that existence of significant differences among the lines, testers and hybrids. Among the parents, Krishnagiri local, Karimangalam local, Arka Anamika and Arka Abhay were adjudged as good general combiners. Among the hybrids, the hybrid Krishnagiri local × Arka Abhay was the best hybrid based on sca effects, since it had desirable performance for all the characters and the hybrid Karimangalam local × Arka Anamika was also best hybrid since, it possessed desirsble sca effects for most of the yield contributing characters.

Research Article | Published online : 04-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 557–561
Abhinav Srivastava1, Juhi Srivastava2, Denzil John Godin3, Atul Kumar Srivastava4 and Ashutosh Kumar Srivastava5*
1 P. G. Department of Chemistry, Lucknow Christian Degree College, Lucknow - 226 018, Uttar Pradesh, India 2, 5 Envirochem Research and Test Labs Pvt. Ltd. Lucknow - 226 024, Uttar Pradesh, India 3 Department of Botany, Lucknow Christian Degree College, Lucknow - 226 018, Uttar Pradesh, India 4 Department of Chemistry, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya - 824 234, Bihar, India
Abstract
Sixteen types of common culinary spices available in local market were procured and analyzed to observe the level of contamination of pesticide residues with special reference to organochlorines (OCs) and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs). A total twenty-four pesticides, i.e., fourteen types of OCs and ten OPs were analyzed using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe: QuEChERS method. Method validation was performed satisfactorily prior to analysis. The percent (%) recovery, limit of detection (LOD) and retention time (RT) of 24 pesticides in 16 different spices sample matrix were also assessed. The level of pesticide residues in various spices were also compared with their maximum residues limit (MRL) as per food safety act/Codex guidelines. Maximum spice samples (90%) were found free from pesticide contamination. γ-HCH, endosulfan and dicofol were detectable amongst OCs in a limited number of samples of turmeric, coriander, red chilli, cumin and nutmeg. Isomers of cypermethrine as well as cyfluthrin were significant OPs observed in traces in a few samples of turmeric and aniseed. Contaminations of pesticide residues may occur during harvesting of post harvesting practices including prolong storage conditions. A periodic monitoring and assessment are needful for safe commercial and domestic uses of culinary spices.

Research Article | Published online : 05-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 562–568
Th. Motilal Singh*, S. Gunamani Singh and Kh. Rishikanta Singh
1-3 ICAR-KVK, Imphal West, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, Lamphelpat, Imphal - 795 004, India
Abstract
A case study of the Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs) in Imphal West district of Manipur, India showed that the FPOs which were registered during the year, 2020 as the Agro Farmer Producer Company Ltd. (AFPCs) are composed of different promoters i.e., SHGs, FCs and JLGs having more 500 member shareholders with the basic numbers of women BODs in every producer companies. The composition of AFPCs shareholders shows the presence of the maximum numbers of small & marginal; tenant/landless and SC/ST member farmers. It was also found that the newly formed producer companies did not have well infrastructures. However, all the 3 producer companies have proper governance, group dynamic features and implemented a well time-line company milestones. It was also found that the producers companies have good institutional outreached from the different public and private sector banks with an average credit amount of Rs. 1.9 crores facilitating to 965 beneficiaries from the 3 producer companies. Various problems and constraints like organizational, share mobilization, registration issues, company compliance, CEOs remuneration and less staffing status are rated as the promotional and handholding issues respectively. Presence of non-producer memberships, absence of primary/lead products and commodities, lack of infrastructure facilities, presence of few investors, marginality/ small holders/landless/tenant nature of the shareholders, viable business operation, capital intensive and market competition ; Parity among the implementing FPOs, lack of Govt. support and policies, award and recognition and limited credit facilities respectively are the sustainability and institutional issues found during the entire study period.

Research Article | Published online : 06-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 569–574
Rajmohan Meena*1, Vinod Kumari2, Raghu Raj Singodia3 and Rakesh Kumar Lata4
1 Department of Zoology, SRRM Government P.G. College, Jhunjhunu - 333 001, Rajasthan, India 2 Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur -302 004, Rajasthan, India 3 Department of Zoology, SNMT Government P.G. College, Jhunjhunu - 333 001, Rajasthan, India 4 Department of Zoology, LBS Government P.G. College, Kotputli - 303 108, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Jhunjhunu district is one of the semi-arid parts of the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan, India. The collections of coleopteran insects were made from selected study sites of Jhunjhunu from January to December 2021. A total of 214 species of 162 genera belonging to 28 different families of beetles viz. Scarabaeidae, Carabidae, Coccinellidae, Cerambycidae, Elateridae, Trogidae, Meloidae, Anthicidae, Tenebrionidae, Chrysomelidae, Staphylinidae, Cleridae, Melandryidae, Erotylidae, Bostrichidae, Histeridae, Phalacridae, Oedemeridae, Dermestidae, Aderidae, Colydiidae, Buprestidae, Cantharidae, Lycidae, Nitidulidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae and Curculionidae were collected from various habitats during the study and a checklist of all collected species was prepared.

Research Article | Published online : 07-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 575–580
K. Malathi*1, Gunisha Agarwal2, S. Kamalnesan3 and Tiny S. Palathara4
1,3-4 Department of Economics, University of Madras, Chennai - 600 005, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Lady Shriram College, Delhi University, New Delhi - 110 024, India
Abstract
Agriculture is the most important sector in India for the reason that majority of the population depends on this sector for their livelihood. The method of cultivation is still very traditional and hence the production is very less. The population in India is growing so fast but the production of food grains to feed the growing population is not equalizing with that. To increase the production of food grains the method of cultivation should be changed. From the traditional method it has to transformed to new and innovative methods, Hydroponics is the method that is being adopted by many countries and there has been significant improvement in the production. The unique feature of hydroponics is that it is a method where less water, no soil, no fertilizer and no chemicals are used in this method of farming. Only the required amount of nutrient that is essential for the crop production are followed in hydroponics method of farming. Hydroponics is water less, soil less and have other advantages which will be explained in this paper and it further throws light on the global perspective of hydroponics and gives some information on how some countries are benefitted by this hydroponics methods of farming. Another objective of this paper is to compare traditional type of farming with that of hydroponics and how this kind of farming can be adopted in India. Finally, there are few suggestions given as to how the hydroponics farming can be improved in India.

Research Article | Published online : 09-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 581–588
Zahid H. Najar*1, Aijaz A. Wani2 and Showkat A. Zargar3
1-3 Cytogenetics and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal - 190 006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
In the present study, 28 apple genotypes from North Kashmir were assessed for twelve prominent fruit quality traits during the growing seasons of 2017-2020. Among the studied germplasm, fruit weight ranged from 17.10g in Kichhama Trel to 226.10g in Chemura. Flesh firmness, the most important trait that determines the shelf life of apple fruit was observed to be the highest in Kichhama Trel (2.09 lbf) and lowest in Titoo (0.37 lbf). The total soluble solids (TSS) were found to be the highest in Kichhama Trel (16.32 °Brix) and the lowest in an unnamed genotype UNG 3 (9.20°Brix), pH ranged from the lowest in Gole Delicious (2.96) to the highest in Razakwari (5.16), whereas titratable acidity (TA%) ranged from the lowest in Wagil Turush (0.28%) to the highest in Mudur Ambur (0.72%). Significant positive and negative correlations were recorded between all the evaluated fruit quality traits. The cluster analysis based on all the evaluated traits grouped the 28 apple genotypes into two main clusters with several sub-clusters. Principal component analysis (PCA) segregated the 12 evaluated traits into 5 main principal components that revealed 81.27% total variance. Moreover, the PCA scatter plot segregated the genotypes into two clusters with the right cluster of 11 genotypes having the highest values regarding the most important fruit quality traits such as fruit weight, fruit height, fruit width, and fruit firmness that can be regarded as potentially superior genotypes. The current findings will serve as an authentic basis for effective genetic resource management, cultivar improvement, and sustainable utilization of apple germplasm in future breeding programs in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Research Article | Published online : 11-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 589–593
K. Anbarasu*1 and A. Samidurai2
1-2 Department of Chemistry, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Musiri - 621 211, Tiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The oxidation and mechanistic studies of cyclohexanone by (BIFC) benzimidazolium fluorochromate have been investigated in being of perchloric acid with binary compounds (acetic acid and water). Rate data interpret unit order dependence concerning both BIFC and H+ ions and fractional order concerning substrate. The rate of reactions increased with an increase in the portion of acetic acid. The hhydrogen ion concentration plays as a catalyst in the chemical reaction mixture. The gain of Mn2+ ions retard the reaction rate conforming bi-electron conveyance process in this reaction. The oxidation product 2-hydroxy cyclohexanone was identified. Based on kinetic studies and pproduct analysis; enthalpy, entropy, free energy and energy of activation have been calculated and the pprobable mechanism was discussed. Furthermore, some of the cyclic ketones were used to check the reactivity. Its reactivity of the cyclic ketones viz., cyclohexanone < cycloheptanone < cyclopentanone < cyclooctanone.

Research Article | Published online : 12-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 594–600
Saima Altaf*1, Saraswati Bisht2, Ruchi Jalal3 and Jasvinder Kaur4
1-4 Department of Botany, IPGGPG College of Commerce (Kumaun University, Nainital), Haldwani - 263 139, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Aquatic hyphomycetes, the main fungal decomposers of submerged dead organic matter are known to play an important role in unlocking the energy flow in aquatic ecosystems. These fungi are yet to be explored from different freshwater bodies for their multifarious benefits. The Nandhaur Wildlife Sanctuary, situated at the foothill of Kumaun Himalaya (Uttarakhand) is still untouched for its aquatic biota exploration especially hyphomycetes. Comparatively warm temperature and diverse substrate pool of the site may favour the occurrence and growth of varied forms of aquatic hyphomycetes and make it an interesting matter of investigation. Therefore, the present work was undertaken to reveal the diversity and seasonal variation of these fungi. The samples were collected monthly and taken to the laboratory for further processing and incubation for sporulation. Altogether 19 species belonging to 12 genera were isolated from leaf litter samples, among which only 4 species were recorded from water foam samples. Seasonal variation was noticed in the species composition with the maximum number of species in winter (18 species) followed by autumn (12 species), spring (7 species), rainy (7 species) and least in the summer season (1 species). The temperature range of 11-25°C was found to favour the maximum species diversity.

Research Article | Published online : 13-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 601–603
Meena Singh1 and Poonam Dehariya*2
1-2 Lab of Mushroom Biology, Department of Botany, Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar - 470 003, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of various supplements on the growth and yield of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus florida) in order to determine the best alternative supplements and their amounts that support oyster mushroom growth, produce the highest yield, and have the highest biological efficiency. Under the complete randomize design; two supplements viz. Maize powder and Soybean powder were taken at different concentrations. The minimum time taken for mycelium run (15 days) was in 4% soybean powder supplementation (WS+S4%) and maximum was observed (23 days) in 3% maize powder supplementation (WS+M3%). Maximum yield was obtained on WS+M4% and WS+S1% (1318 and 1307 g/kg) with highest biological efficiency (131.8% and 130.7%). Therefore, it can be concluded that the effect of supplementation as well as concentration of supplement proved to be best yield for Pleurotus florida.

Short communication | Published online : 14-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 604–611
Preeti Verma*1, S. K. Chatterjee2, Sanjay Ghosh3 and Deepak Sinha4
1,3-4 Department of Chemistry, Government Nagarjuna P. G. College of Science, Raipur - 492 010, Chhattisgarh, India 2 Department of Chemistry, Government M.V.P.G. College, Mahasamund - 493 554, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Proposed study based on the biosorptive removal of chromium (III) heavy metal in the soil using a domestic plant: Cicer arietinum. This plant was selected, based on economic value and adsorption efficiency. In the column mode adsorption method, the maximum chromium (III) adsorption capacity was found as 91.72 mg/g of dry biomass. For adsorption process optimum pH and time were pH 5.0 and 60 min respectively at 26 ± 2°C temperatures. SEM, EDX and FTIR were used to characterize the surface property of the bioadsorbent. This study was completed by optimizing various parameters like pH, initial ion concentration, biosorbent dose, contact time and temperature. NaOH is known as the best eluting agent. The research also recognized that the concentration of chromium (III) heavy metal is found very high around sponge iron comparatively rice mill.

Research Article | Published online : 16-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 612–619
Sumitra Pal Karmakar1, Anushree Baul Das2, Cyaria Gurung3 and Chandra Ghosh*4
1-2 Department of Environmental Science, Siliguri College, Siliguri - 734 001, West Bengal, India 3 Department of Botany, Siliguri College, Siliguri - 734 001, West Bengal, India 4 Department of Tea Science, University of North Bengal. P.O. N.B.U., Raja Rammohunpur, Siliguri - 734 013, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Ozone, a pale blue gas is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula O3. Tropospheric ozone is a secondary air pollutant and it is formed due to photochemical reaction of hydrocarbons mainly Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emitted from industrial units and transport services and causes a variety of health problems, damages vegetation and environment. The primary objective of this paper is to review different types of research works undertaken on the effects of tropospheric ozone on different plants, forest, agricultural crops including microflora. This review paper also focuses on the impacts on environmental due to ozone pollution. Vegetations are the important sink of tropospheric ozone which enters into the plant through stomata and oxidize plant tissues during respiration producing many oxidizing compounds and affecting various physiological and biochemical processes of plants. Several damages are noticed on plants including accurate signs of damage like necrotic lesions, chlorosis, stunted plant growth, reddening, bronzing, mottling etc. many of which have been analyzed in this review. Tropospheric ozone as a greenhouse gas is one of the factors of global warming, which leads to climate change and it is also a component of photochemical smog. The information and data regarding consequences of ozone emission at ground level on environment and vegetations are compiled as a review paper from various published articles of reputed journals, e-books and internet sources. The current situation of harmful impacts of ozone emission needs urgent remedial measures to protect the environment. At the end of the review paper, emphasis has been laid on the limited number of research data presently available in this field and necessity for carrying out more researches to meet the current need.

Research Review | Published online : 17-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 620–623
Anshu Kumar Singh*1, Akash Kumar2, Rahul3 and Umesh Kumar4
1-2 Department of Paramedical Sciences, Research and Innovation Centre, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut - 250 005, Uttar Pradesh, India 3 Department of Allied Health Sciences, IIMT University, Meerut - 250 001, Uttar Pradesh, India 4 Department of Paramedical Sciences, Research and Innovation Centre, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut - 250 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
This investigation of phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity is conducted on the Ethanolic extracts of Lemon grass against the pyogenic bacteria like Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogens and pseudomonas aeruginosa. The leaves of Lemon grass are evaluated and pounded for this study and extract is prepared by using ethanol as a solvent. Now the various concentrations of solvents were evaluated for the Phytochemical screening where various active present compounds and their presence is evaluated with the help of various tests and these concentrations are also used against the selected microbes for antimicrobial testing against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogens and pseudomonas aeruginosa. The effectiveness of this plant and their part against these pyogenic bacteria’s are evaluated and reported that help in the development of various antimicrobial drugs that are based on the natural products like plants. These drugs are very much effective against drug resistant bacteria’s as well as they have less adverse effects.

Research Article | Published online : 18-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 624–632
Sathiya Sheela D*1, P. Viswanathan2, K. Kalimuthu3, E. Shanthi Priya4 and A. Vanitha5
1-5 P. G. and Research Department of Botany, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Coimbatore - 641 018, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Many phytochemicals protect plants from various diseases; however, recent studies prove that many of these chemicals can also protect humans against infectious diseases. Aqueous extract of Pogostemon speciosus was used in the study to analyze the phytochemicals, FTIR, GCMS, and antioxidants. As per standard methods, phytochemical analysis was performed on aqueous extract. In order to measure the FTIR of the aqueous extract, Jasco FT/IR-6300 was used. Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical composition of P. speciosus aqueous extract. In vitro antioxidant activity studied through 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activities. Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of P. speciosus showed positive result for alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, triterpinoids, and saponins. In FTIR analysis functional groups like alcohols, aliphatic primary amines, amine salt, carbon dioxide, alkene, halo compound etc. were identified. The GCMS analysis of P. speciosus plant aqueous extract exhibited the presence of 49 compounds with 12 known bioactive uses. In antioxidant activity DPPH, ABTS+, FRAP, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging activities are dose dependent manner. When the concentration increases the percentage of inhibition also increased. The results revealed that the plant has rich in bioactive compounds, which serve as a novel therapeutic application for drug discovery.

Research Article | Published online : 19-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 633–636
Mohd Irfan Rais*1 and Mohd Altaf Khan2
1-2 Department of Commerce and Business Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi - 110 025
Abstract
The purpose of this study is twofold: First, to identify various risks pertinent in Indian dairy farming and second, to study the relationship between socio-economic characteristics of farmers and its relationship with risk impact. A detailed review of the literature was carried out to identify several risks. The identified risks were converted into a five-point Likert scale, and respondents were asked to rate the probability and severity of risks on a five-point scale. The respondents for the study were selected through systematic random sampling from western Uttar Pradesh. A total of 350 responses were received, and 33 responses were eliminated due to missing and ineligible entries; the final sample has 317 respondents. A regression analysis was also performed to test the linear relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and risk impact. The major risks which impact dairy farmers were health & mortality, price/market, and production risks. Linear Relationship Analysis shows that age, education, and years of experience negatively affect risk impact, whereas income and production have no relationship with risk impact. The present study provides valuable insight for the policymakers, researchers, and program implementing agencies in identifying the several risks and their impact on dairy farming so that appropriate measures can be taken for handling the risks.

Research Article | Published online : 20-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 637–641
Uttam Kumar Kanp*1
1 Department of Botany, Narajole Raj College, Narajole, Paschim Medinipur - 721 211, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Melaleuca leucadendron L. plant was analysed to evaluate the existence of allelopathic effect using fully viable seeds of horse gram (Dolichos biflorus L.) as the bioassay material. Different concentrations (1:2 and 1:4) of bark extracts and leachates of Melaleuca reduced the percentage of seed germination as well as increased the T50 hours for all the different seed pretreatment hours. TTC stainability was significantly reduced in bark extract and bark leachate pretreated seed sample. Amino acids level was rapidly increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with bark extracts and leachates of the Melaleuca plant. Insoluble carbohydrate levels as well as activities of dehydrogenase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly reduced in seed samples pretreated with bark extracts and leachates. Inhibitory action was more prominent in bark extracts than the bark leachates.

Research Article | Published online : 21-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 642–645
Amanat Husain*1 and Rais Ahmad2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine at farmer adoption of agricultural-related mobile apps by finding variables that signal a desire to use mobile apps for agrarian data. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology UTAUT2 model was utilized in this study. The sample frame includes the farmers using mobile application. The study's participants were selected by systematic random selection from western Uttar Pradesh. A total of 350 responses were collected, with 33 responses being deleted owing to missing or ineligible entries, for a total of 317 respondents in the final sample. A regression analysis was also performed to test the linear relationship between different constructs of UTAUT2 model. The results reveal that farmers’ behavioural intentions to use a mobile application for agricultural risk management were positively influenced by effort expectancy and performance expectancy while hedonic Motivation, social influence, facilitating conditions, and habit do not affect farmer's behavioural intention. The present study provides valuable insight for the policymakers, researchers, and program implementing agencies to address the problems related to mobile applications in rural areas. Because most farmers in rural regions are illiterate, the agricultural extension agency must encourage data collection by using mobile application.

Research Article | Published online : 23-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 646–652
Monika Choudhary*1, Inder Jeet Singh2 and Som Raj3
1-3 Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
The agricultural sector today is facing the biggest challenge of decreasing size of landholdings in India. This sector is under humongous stress as the inequality in the distribution of individually owned operational landholdings in the agricultural population determines their economic and social wellbeing. In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the level of inequality in the distribution of individually owned agricultural landholdings and along with this the growth rate in the number and area of individually owned landholdings has also been calculated taking into account the two time periods i.e., 2000-2001 and 2015-2016. This study has been conducted with respect to Jammu Province of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and is entirely based on the secondary data. Statistical techniques like Gini Coefficient, Growth Rate etc. have been used to examine the objectives of this study. High level of inequality in the distribution of the operational landholdings and increasing number of marginal landholdings has been observed. Reducing area under all the size classes of the holdings is one of the main highlights of this study.

Research Article | Published online : 23-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 653–658
R. Shanmugavalli1 and S. Umamaheswari*2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Periyar EVR College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirappalli - 620 023, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The persistence of tafgor pesticide and their residues in tomato crop fields could cause adverse impact on the non-target organisms. With this view, the present study was initiated to observe the impact of tafgor on the bacteria prevalent in tomato crop field soil. Bacteria are important component in the soil ecosystem as they play a vital role in nutrient cycling and promote the growth of plants. In this study, the effect of Tafgor pesticide on the growth of Bacillus licheniforms, Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus polymyca and their plant growth promoting traits like indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and siderophore production were assayed. The findings of this study reveal that tafgor significantly decreased the bacterial growth and consequently reduced the IAA and siderophore production. Thus, the usage of tafgor could alter the bacterial diversity and interfere with the nutrient cycle and plant growth, which may affect the crop yield and quality.

Research Article | Published online : 24-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 659–666
Riddhi V. Ramani*1 and Vimal M. Ramani2
1 R. K. University, Rajkot - 360 020, Gujarat, India 2 Dean, Dairy Science Faculty and Principal, College of Dairy Science, Kamdhenu University, Amreli - 365 601, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Probiotics are one of the most common functional foods derived from milk and milk-based products. It contains microorganisms which ensure better activity of gastrointestinal tract. Dahi, lassi, sour milk, and yogurt are common probiotic products derived by fermentation. Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium and Bacilli are among the most common microorganisms used for fermentation. Viability in the gastrointestinal tract is one of the major concerns about the development of probiotic products as the harsh conditions destroy potential microorganisms. Encapsulation of microorganisms with a suitable matrix can be a good approach to maintain viability. Starch, chitosan, alginate and vegetable oil are considered good matrices for encapsulation. In this study, encapsulated three Lactobacilli species were isolated from different sources. These species are L. paracasei MW561228, L. plantarum MW561227 and L. plantarum MW561230. Alginate, alginate/starch, alginate/chitosan and alginate/vegetable oil/tween 80 are used as encapsulated materials. 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% concentration of microorganisms are subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal conditions for up to 3 hours. Viability of cells is counted as CFU/ml to determine the effect on cell viability. Results of the study have shown that low concentrations of alginate/starch, alginate/chitosan and alginate/vegetable oil/tween 80 are very active even after exposure of 3 hours.

Research Article | Published online : 25-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 667–681
Anindya Bhattacharyya1 and Tanaya Das*2
1 Department of Biochemistry, Gurudas College, Kolkata -700 054, West Bengal, India 2 Department of Biochemistry, West Bengal State University, Kolkata - 700 126, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Climate change has a profound impact on global crop production. Abiotic stress, such as higher temperature, elevated CO2, alteration in precipitation, including increased or decreased rainfall, flooding, and drought, not only affect a plant's morphology or biochemistry but also affect its biotic interactions, such as interactions with beneficial mycorrhizae. Associated with most plant roots, mycorrhizae provide an enhanced surface area for nutrient and water uptake from the soil, promoting plant health. They can mitigate both abiotic and biotic stress by inhibiting anomalous pathways by producing a variety of compounds and defence mechanisms. Mycorrhiza can improve fruit quality, flowering, enhancing seed germination rate and pollination. Mycorrhiza-based agriculture is booming today due to it being natural, eco-friendly, and cost-effective. The present review focuses on natural systems such as mycorrhizae for sustainable agriculture. It aims to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms that mycorrhiza uses to counteract stress. It also delves into mycorrhiza's applications as a biofertilizer, bioinoculant or bioprotectant. The ultimate goal of the review is to emphasize the role of mycorrhiza as a naturally occurring tool that can aid plants to manage stress under the global change regime and enhance the yields.

Research Review | Published online : 26-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 682–687
R. Shanmugavalli1 and S. Umamaheswari*2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Periyar EVR College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirappalli - 620 023, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Profex is an organophosphorus pesticide used against insect pests. Its widely applied in vegetable and cotton crop fields. Extensive and repeated use of Profex pesticide in agriculture fields could adversely affect the non-target organisms. In this context, the present study was designed to evaluate the impact of Profex pesticide on the bacterial growth and its plant growth promoting traits. Bacteria prevalent in Profex applied crop fields were isolated and tested for their ability to degrade Profex. In this study, the growth of dominant bacteria, Bacillus licheniforms, Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus polymyca in minimal salt medium augmented with Profex was assessed and its impact on the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore were assayed. The results obtained reveal significant reduction in the growth of bacteria and consequent reduction in IAA and siderophore production. Thus, the soil biological processes could be altered, which could affect the soil quality and crop yield.

Research Article | Published online : 26-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 688–691
Kaviyarasan Govindaraj*1, Rajamanikandan K. C. P.2 and Arvind Prasanth D.3
1-3 Department of Microbiology, Periyar University, Salem - 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Seaweed associated organisms like bacteria and fungi colonize on the surface or inside of host. Endosymbiotic microorganisms are producing many bioactive compounds to protect the host and kill or inhibit the growth of pathogens. In this study, we have isolated totally 42 bacterial isolates from three Sargassum sp using Zobell marine agar. 10 isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25922) and E-coli (ATCC 25923). ST-2, ST-4, ST-4o and S2-4, SW-11 filtrates inhibit cephalosporin resistant isolates also. ST-2, ST-4, ST-4o only produced zone against Esbl producing isolates like Ceftazidime/Clavulanic acid. Molecular identification of endophytic Bacillus subtilis ST-2 of Sargassum sp through partial 16S rRNA sequence and submitted the sequence to Genbank. Natural bioactive compounds of symbiotic marine microorganisms are considerable source to treat the Multidrug resistant organisms.

Research Article | Published online : 27-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 692–696
Yadiki Mohammad Nizamuddin1, Venkata Satyanarayana Suggala2 and Hindustan Abdul Ahad3
1 Jawaharlal Technological University, Anantapur, Ananthapuramu - 515 001, Andhra Pradesh, India 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Jawaharlal Technological University, Anantapur, Ananthapuramu - 515 001, Andhra Pradesh, India 3 Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (RIPER)-Autonomous, Ananthapuramu - 515 721, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The main aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of temperature and exposure time on the extraction of Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia dillenii cladodes. Cladodes and other parts of plants were rarely extracted for their constituents from literature. Screening, however, was not conducted to determine the influence of dependent variables on independent responses. The impact of the dependent variable on the response was determined by the use of QbD software namely Design Expert. A plot of Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia dillenii are poised, authenticated, and drenched with water to determine the effect of dependent variables (temperature and exposure time) on the response (% yield). The equation coded from this study for the percent yield was generated as +54.30+0.4061A-0.6432B+0.1500AB+0.8375A2+0.3875B2. For extraction of the contents of cladodes, 65°C is the optimal temperature and exposure time is directly proportional.

Research Article | Published online : 28-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 697–700
Shanta Belani*1 and Charanjit Kaur2
1-2 Department of Chemistry, Career College, Bhopal - 462 023, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
In recent years phytochemical analysis of plant products took a distinct place in organic chemistry as well as plant biochemistry. One of the bigger challenges of phytochemistry is to carry out all the above operations on vanishingly small amounts of material. Frequently, say that the plant growth regulation, in the biochemistry of plant-animal interactions, or in understanding the origin of fossil plants depends on identifying a range of complex chemical structures which may only be available in a very small amount for study. The present study investigates the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phytochemicals from leaves of medicinally important plant B. prionitis. Three solvent extraction systems i.e., ethanol, methanol, and chloroform were used for this study. in this research work, Total Phenol Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) were determined in different extracts. And best results are shown by ethanolic extract of leaves of B. prionitis. These results were used in ethnomedicinal properties of plants.

Research Article | Published online : 30-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 701–703
R. Sangeetha1, Susan George2 and V. Mohan Raj*3
1-3 P. G. & Research Department of Zoology, Sir Theagaraya College, Chennai - 600 021, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The youth of today has the power to help a country develop and move towards progress. ‘Overweight and Obesity’ is a serious concern among the youth today. This increases the chances of dying from hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, respiratory problems, dyslipidaemia and endometrial, breast, prostate, and colon cancers. The body mass index (BMI) is currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for categorizing them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness, BMI is a person's weight in kilograms (kg) divided by his or her height in meters squared. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) now defines normal weight, overweight, and obesity according to BMI. A BMI of less than 18.5 kg/m² indicates -underweight. The WHO also regards a BMI of less than 18.5 as underweight and may indicate malnutrition, an eating disorder, or other health problems if the BMI is 19 to 24.9 kg/m², it is considered a healthy weight. A BMI of 25 to 29 kg/m² is defined as overweight. A BMI of over 30 kg/m² is defined as obese. The present work was carried out to study the BMI of college students and the influence of age, gender family income and feeding habits on BMI. The normal weight category had the highest percentage of students, followed by underweight, overweight and obese. The trend of BMI categorized with their percentages was similar in both male and female. Age wise analysis showed that the normal weight BMI in the age group 20 and the age group 19 showed maximum underweight BMI. Food habits involving consumption of milk and egg, and timely consumption of meals did not show any correlation with BMI besides family income and food habits did not show any correlation with BMI in the present study.

Research Article | Published online : 31-May-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 704–709
Priyanka Roy1, Pranjal Bhuyan2, Raja Ahmed3, Suraiya Akhtar*4 and Rafiul Amin Laskar5
1-2,4 University of Science and Technology Meghalaya, 793101, Baridua 9th Mile, Meghalaya, India 3 Gauhati University, Guwahati - 781 014, Assam, India 5 Department of Botany, Bahona College, Jorhat - 785 101, Assam, India
Abstract
To develop an efficient method for fast callus induction and micropropagation of Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Surface sterilization of the explants was performed using varied concentrations of HgCl2 and Tween20. Leaf and nodal explants of the species were used for callus and shoot induction respectively and the explants were reared on MS media augmented with various plant growth regulators (PGR) – auxin (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)) and cytokinin (6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP)). Sterilants (0.5% HgCl2 + 0.1% Tween20) for 8 and 2 minutes respectively gave optimum results with 100% asepsis and the highest survival rate. Good results of induction of callus from leaf explants were found in MS media fortified with IBA (1 mg/l) + BAP (2 mg/l) which gave a quick response of callus initiation and also the escalated growth of the callus (1.092±0.08 g) within 60 days was more compared to other concentrations. Following an investigation, it was established that nodal explants when cultured on MS media augmented with IBA (1 mg/l) + BAP (2 mg/l) gave optimal multiple-shoot induction (10.9±0.18) and shoot growth (6.94±12 cm). For rooting of the well-established shoots, optimum results (7.4±15) were obtained when reared on half-strength MS media augmented with 2mg/l IBA. The well-established plantlets were weaned successfully in earthen pots with a 95% survival rate and the plants were phenotypically alike to the parent plant. The results signified that this protocol might be utilized for fast callus induction and successful plant regeneration from leaf and nodal explants respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 710–716
Jitendra Malviya*1, Aditya Verma2 and Vandana Sharma3
1-3 Department of Life Sciences and Biological Sciences, IES University, Bhopal - 462 044, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Larger part of the sicknesses or issues are principally connected to oxidative pressure, because of development of free revolutionaries. Writing review has uncovered the numerous faceted works of gam Ficus (Moraceae) for different infirmities. Thus, the current review is coordinated towards tracking down normally happening cell reinforcements of plant beginning and to lay out a relationship between the cancer prevention agent potential and therapeutics of the underlying foundations of four types of class Ficus viz. Ficus religiosa Linn., Ficus bengalensis Linn., Ficus elastica Roxb. furthermore, Ficus glomerata Roxb. In this review, an endeavor has been made interestingly to normalize foundations of these four species. In concentrating on microscopical attributes, restricted, dim, periclerrn wide cortex, wide vessels covered by slim parenchymatous cells and long xylem strands with tightening closes were found in F. religiosa while in Ficus bengalensis periderm was fissured minutely into shallow flimsy cervices, cortex and vessel components were restricted and long slim strands with pointed closes were available. Sporadically fissured periderm with broken phellem cells, straightforward, thin vessel components were found in F. elastica and in F. glornerata meager periderm with plain cells, long, thin, tube-shaped vessel components and bountiful xylem and phloem strands were noticed. The preliminary phytochemical examination uncovered the presence of steroids, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenolic compounds, and so forth in the ethyl acetic acid derivation, drunkard and fluid concentrate of this multitude of species. The microscopical, physicochemical and UV, HPTLC fingerprints studies would act as a standard reference for recognizable proof and recognizing morphological, from its debasements. This is the primary such review on normalization on Ficus species.

Research Review | Published online : 02-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 717–722
Santosh Kumar D*1, S. Ramgopal Rao2 and Dwarkesh S. Parihar3
1,3 Biotechnology R&D Labs, Bioseed Research India, A Division of DCM Shriram Ltd, Agri Innovation Park, ICRISAT, Hyderabad-500 033 2 Department of Biotechnology, Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad - 500 029.
Abstract
The use of insect pathogens is an alternative for insect control because of their specificity and least impact on the environment. The identification of new and highly potent strains of Bacillus thuringiensis has become inevitable to combat insect resistance. To search for new Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with novel insecticidal properties against the most devastating Lepidopteran insect pests specifically Helicoverpa armigera, 400 samples were collected from different regions of the 8 states in India. Of 874 Bt like bacteria obtained using the acetate selection method 150 were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. Microscopic observation of the spore–crystal mixture of 150 isolates revealed 6 different types of crystal proteins. Spherical crystals were predominantly present in 72% of the total Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. In this study, unique oval insecticidal crystal proteins were observed in 4.66% of the Bt isolates. The SDS-PAGE analysis of the insecticidal crystal proteins with different shapes and sizes showed protein bands in the range of 45–130 kDa. This confirms the great diversity with respect to the presence of insecticidal crystal proteins. The isolates need to be screened for the presence of lepidopteran toxic insecticidal crystal proteins encoding cry1 and cry2 genes to explore their potential application in insect pest control.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 723–728
Surya Mishra1, Sultana Bano2 and Mohammad Sultan Ahmad*3
1-3 Department of Zoology, Shibli National P. G. College, Azamgarh - 276 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Oroxylum indicum is commonly known as Sonapatha, belongs to family Bignoniaceae and is widely distributed throughout India. It is an important medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic preparations because it possesses wide range of biological and pharmacological activities. Parts like seed, fruit, root bark and stem bark are used by tribal people of India in curing diseases like fever, respiratory disorder, stomach disorder, pneumonia and cancer. This plant is the reservoir of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, carotenoids and anthocyanin. In this study, we have used alcoholic extracts of barks of stem and root as anti-genotoxic agents in four increasing concentrations of 100, 150, 200 and 300 μg/ml. The methodology adopted is human lymphocytes culture and the biomarkers are Chromosomal aberrations (CA, Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) and Replication indices (RI). The studies were performed in the absence as well as presence of Liver S9 fractions. Culture was set up for 24-hour, 48 hour and 72 hours i.e., three durations. It was found that Oroxylum extracts reduces CA significantly in both conditions viz: in the absence as well as presence of metabolic activation system but the effects was more prominent in the presence of S9-mix. Similarly, it also reduces SCE from 960 due to Aflatoxin B1 to 695 per 100 cells in the presence of S9-mix. RI also enhanced significantly in both experiments i.e., from 1.23 to 1.43 and 1.27 to 1.70. The effects were seeming to be dose dependent.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 729–735
Swati Jain*1, Praveen Singh2 and A. P. Singh3
1-2 Department of Botany, Model Science College, Rewa - 486 003, Madhya Pradesh, India 3 Government Autonomous P. G. College, Sidhi - 486 661 Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study revealed that the hidden world known as Patalkot which were concealed yet now is from in Chhindwara district of Madhya Pradesh. A special ecological diversity, flora and fauna untouched with entire world. Climate were free from contamination and pollutants. Habitat, diet, natural product, medicinal property and bioactive elements which have potential things which help for mankind. This article presents ecological diversity and flourished nature.

Case Study | Published online : 06-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 736–739
P. Satheeshkumar*1, K. Vadivel2, Y. Anitha Vasline3 and P. Renuka Devi4
1,3-4 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2 JSA College of Agriculture and Technology, Avatti - 626 108, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out in blackgram involving seven lines and three testers to identify the best combining parents and nature of gene action in association with yield and its component traits in blackgram. The parents were mated in the LxT method. The resultant twenty-one hybrids were evaluated for ten characters. The analysis variance due to SCA was higher than the GCA variance for all the characters except plant height indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene action. Based on per se performance and gca effect, the lines MDU 1, VBN (Bg) 4 and the testers TU 94-2, VBN 6 were adjudged as the best combiners for most of the traits. Among the hybrids, MDU 1/TU 94-2 followed by VBN (Bg) 4/VBN 6 exhibited high per se and sca effect for most of the economic traits. The hybrid MDU 1/TU 94-2 was found to be the best and could be exploited for further crop improvement. This promising hybrid may be forwarded further through pedigree breeding and selection in early generation to obtain high yielding segregants.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 740–743
Govindarajan Umamaheswari1, Kuppusamy Selvam*2 and Palanisamy Prakash3
1-3 Department of Botany, Periyar University, Periyar Palkalai Nagar, Salem - 636 011, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The aim of this study was to screen solvent extracts of whole plant of V. negundo to display potent antioxidant activity in vitro antioxidant contents in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Our results SOD with the percentage of inhibition was 8.23% and 58.23.% for the leaf extract and vitamin C, Hydroxyl with the percentage of inhibition was 8.23% and 58.23.% for the leaf extract and vitamin C respectively at 150 µg/mL and total antioxidant assay maximum inhibition assay. The findings suggest that perhaps a significant number of ADME/toxicity compounds were considered to be a positive cancer drug molecule, and that the analysis chosen compounds fulfil the ADME and Toxicity parameters. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of these plants. It is expected that the important phytochemical properties recognized by our study in the indigenous of V. negundo plant will be very useful in the curing of various diseases.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 744–747
B. A. Wani*1, Azad Hussain Khan2, M. Shafi Parry3, Bahar A. Mir4, Nuzhat Jabeen5, M. Suliman Dar6, Mir Khusrau7 and Afreen J. Lolu8
1-2 Department of Seed Technology, Government Degree College, Anantnag - 192 101, Jammu and Kashmir, India 3-8 Department of Botany, Government Degree College, Anantnag - 192 101, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
Seed is the critical and basic input for attaining production and productivity of any crop. Without the use of good quality seed material, the investments incurred on fertilizers, pesticides, water and other inputs are in vain. There has been considerable coverage of area under seed spices but its share towards production is less, the main cause towards this low productivity is non-availability of quality seed and released varieties. Seed certification aims to legal system in quality control of production and multiplication of any seed crop, to check the crop from which the seed is produced and link this verification with agreed minimum standards which are also called Indian Minimum Seed Certification standards. The quality seed of seed spices have become the pre-requisite in successful raising, increasing the production and productivity of these crops, which is possible only through required information on seed certification standards particularly the field standards and seed standards. In field standards the isolation distance requirement in coriander, cumin, fennel, ajowain, celery and dill ranges from 100-400 m in certified class and 200-8000 m in foundation class as these crops are cross pollinated whereas fenugreek, and black cumin requires 25m and 50 m in foundation and certified class respectively because these are self-pollinated to often cross-pollinated crops. For seed standards of these seed spices the off type, objectionable weed seeds and diseased plants in foundation and certified class ranges from 0.10 -0.20%, 0.01- 0.02% and 0.10-0.50% respectively. The other certification standards like objectionable weeds, designated seed borne diseases and other diseases are different and crop specific.

Research Review | Published online : 07-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 748–750
Prasanth A.1 and S. Kandasamy*2
1-2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Poompuhar Village, Sirkazhi Taluk of Mayiladuthurai District during February to April 2020 to study the effect of foliar nutrition on yield attribute, yield and nutrient uptake of greengram (Vigna radiata L.) under irrigated condition. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with eight treatments and three replications. Among the different treatments, the foliar application of 2% vermiwash spray on 30 and 45 DAS (T8) recorded significantly the higher yield attributes such as number of pods plant-1 (17.07), number of seeds pod-1 (6.94), test weight (4.03), number of effective nodules plant-1 (29.47) and seed yield (931 kg ha-1), haulm yield (3008 kg ha-1) and harvest index (23.6%) of irrigated greengram. This was followed by foliar application of 3% panchakavya on 30 and 45 DAS (T5). The higher N (52.94 kg ha-1), P2O5 (10.72 kg ha-1) and K2O (65.18 kg ha-1) uptake by greengram was also registered with the foliar application of 2% vermiwash spray on 30 and 45 DAS (T8). The lower yield attributes and seed yield (508 kg ha-1), haulm yield (2133 kg ha-1), harvest index (19.2 %) and N, P2O5 and K2O uptake by greengram were obtained in control (T1).

Research Article | Published online : 07-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 751–753
Irshad Khan*1 and Rais Ahmad2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
This article aims to identify the factors that affect crop diversification in the Ajmer district of Rajasthan. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of socio-economic factors on-farm diversification in the wheat-pearl millet- Gram. The results showed that land area, qualification level of respondents, farming-related experience, and income other than farming positively impact farm diversification. In contrast, the age of the farmers negatively impacts diversification.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 754–758
Uttamrao L. Shevale*1 and Sandhya M. Pawar2
1 Department of Biotechnology, Yashvantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara - 415 002, Maharashtra, India 2 Department of Zoology, Lal Bahadur Shastri College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Satara - 415 002, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation is deals with the physico-chemical parameters of water of Kanher dam constructed on river Venna in Satara district. The water from the dam is utilized for agricultural irrigation, electricity generation, drinking purpose, and aquaculture practices. The river Venna is a tributary of river Krishna and it is originated in Mahabaleshwar. The present work is carried out for complete one year from July 2018 to June 2019. The Satara district has a rich network of rivers. The physico-chemical parameters of Kanher dam such as temperature, pH, CO2, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TS, TSS, phosphates, chlorides, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, total hardness etc. All these physicochemical parameters were analyzed by standard methods of APHA (1992). The results show significant alterations in the physiochemical parameters of water.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 759–765
Eswaralakshmi R*1, Mohammad Munavar M2, R. Nirmala3, Ananthanayagi N4 and Jegadeswari S5
1-5 Department of Biotechnology, Hindustan College of Arts and Science, Affiliated to University of Madras, Padur, Chennai - 603 103, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Present review focuses the pharmacological activities and bioactive compounds of Plectranthus amboinicus. P. amboinicus has been used in herbal therapy to treat a variety of ailments, including asthma, flu, eczema, and cardiovascular problems. The presence of various Phytoconstituents such as Phenol, tannins, squalene, glycosides, and flavonoids, the plant has medicinal properties such as Wound healing, Diuretic, skincare, Anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, anxiolytic, antiplatelet, antifungal, analgesic, antimicrobial, antibiofilm efficacy, antineoplastic, anti-diabetic, and respiratory disorder. Medicines have been made from various parts of the plant. This plant can be utilized to make medicines with no side effects because it contains a variety of vital ingredients.

Research Review | Published online : 09-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 766–773
Banalata Saikia*1, Chandra Saha Roy2 and Salim Shah3
1-3 Department of Economics, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Agartala - 799 022, Tripura, India
Abstract
Increasing inter-state disparity across regions is one of the major challenges in Indian agriculture. India being an agro-based economy more than forty per cent of the total population is still engaged in the agriculture sector. The present study tries to examine the growth performance of the agriculture sector in comparison to PCNSDP, industry, and service sectors. Also, examine the sector-wise regional divergence of the 26 Indian states during 1980-81 to 2019-20. The trend line shows a huge inter-state disparity in the sector-wise performance as well as in the growth rate of PCNSDP in the economy. The result of the Gini coefficient shows that the disparity level has increased in the agriculture sector and PCNSDP while it is stagnant in the industry and service sector. Moreover, K-means cluster analysis results show less evidence of convergence tendency among the states over time. Thus, the Central and state governments should implement such schemes for the development of all sectors towards their increase in the share of output and employment in the country’s GDP.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 774–778
Sanjay Bhowmick1 and Dipanwita Sarkar (Paria)*2
1 Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (ICAR), Barrackpore - 700 120, West Bengal, India 2 Chandernagore College, Chandannagar - 712 136, Hooghly, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Disease outbreaks in the fisheries sector are the paramount threats and strictures that affects the production at about 50% loss and marketability of fishes in the developing countries. Various parasites use the fishes as their hosts as they are the chief sources of proteins and especially poor management of the sewage fed fisheries sector creates physiological stresses within them which makes them more susceptible to parasitic infestations like myxozoan infection. Studies on the myxozoan parasites are not much available from sewage fed ponds of India. Keeping this in mind, fishes mainly the Indian Major Carps were randomly sampled and collected from the three sewage fed ponds in the East Kolkata wetlands. Myxozoan parasites were identified and parasitic prevalence was estimated along with the water quality parameters of the ponds. Among the IMCs the percentage of infection was highest in Catla catla (23.72%) and mainly two genera of Myxozoans had been found in the Catla fishes examined from the sewage fed ponds, where both the genus (Myxobolus & Thelohannelus) contributed almost equally (49.88 & 50.12%) in the spore formation within the gill lamella. Seasonal pattern of Myxozoan infection was studied and found to be highest during winter (42.73%) followed by monsoon (23.35%) and summer (5.08%). Water attributes like free CO2 showed highly significant positive correlation with myxozoan disease in Catla catla. Whereas pH, total alkalinity showed highly significant negative correlation with Myxozoan infestation. So, for developing proper myxozoan disease management strategies in the sewage fed ponds and to monitor the reclamation and restoration of these sewage fed wetlands, the study can be helpful.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 779–784
Kalaiselvan S1, Sathish D. K2 and Subramaniyan S*3
1-3 Postgraduate Department of Botany and Research Centre, University College, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 034, Kerala, India
Abstract
Onattukara region is a peculiar agro-ecological zone with specific soil and climatic conditions. This region is characterized by cropping pattern of double crop system in wetland. In developing countries, particularly within Asia, rice production areas are one of the most important agricultural features that can be used to achieve sustainable agriculture. One of the increasingly applied tools for monitoring progress towards sustainable development is the use and evaluation of sustainability indicators. This study was carried out for a period of one year i.e., April 2017 to March 2018. The development of local sustainability indicators has become an important tool for assessing and monitoring sustainability of paddy fields. The sustainability indicators identified for the study of sustainability of rice fields in Onattukara wetlands are water quality and water usage, land usage, rainfall, soil type and soil loss, biodiversity, habitat value and the overall climate change. Each metric represents an important component of maintaining the overall environmental sustainability of the wetland fields under investigation. This study was aimed to estimate current status of sustainability indicators in Onattukara wetland region.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 785–790
Nageswara Rao Apka*1 and Jyothi2
1 Environmental Biology Laboratory and Entomology Lab, Department of Zoology, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 007, India
Abstract
To determine and quantify the diversity and density of mound-building termites, we were observed Bhadrachalam forest region located at Bhadradri kothagudem district, Telangana, India. In the present study we observed that the termite fauna was enriched with 7 species, belonging to 2 genera of family Termitidae. We investigated chemical and physical properties of termite mound at forest region. Their effects on the development of native plant species. Carbon, Phosphorus, Potassium levels in the termite mounds were significantly elevated by 1.16 pap, 12.63 kg/acre and 15.63 kg/acre respectively. While termites mound significant differences more in Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Sulphur and pH concentration was observed. Average density of termite mounds of different study areas was studied.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 791–797
Gitanjali Majumdar*1, Hiranya Kumar Choudhury2, Devasish Chowdhury3, Dipshika Deka4, Alishmita Barman5, Tuhin Bhattacharjee6 and Gitali Baruah7
1,6 Department of Chemistry, Assam Engineering College, Jalukbari, Guwahati - 781 009 Assam, India 2,4-5 Department of Chemistry, Handique Girls College, GNB Rd, Dighalipukhuri, Guwahati - 781 001, Assam, India 3 Material Nanochemistry Laboratory, Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati - 781 035, Assan, India 7 Department of Chemistry, Pandu College, Guwahati - 781 012, Assam, India
Abstract
The present work reports a simple, economical, and green preparative strategy toward water soluble, fluorescent carbon nanodots (wsCNDs) by a one-step pyrolysis method using low-cost wastes of bottle gourd peel (Lagenaria siceraria) also known as calabash as a carbon source. The synthesized carbon dots were well characterized with X ray Diffraction (XRD), Zeta Potential Measurement, Fourier Transformer Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Fluorescence measurement. We further explore the use of such wsCNDs as fluorescent probes for a metal ion detection, which is based on metal induced fluorescence quenching of EDTA functionalized carbon nanoparticles. This sensing system exhibits good sensitivity towards metal ions, and in this sensor system, the minimum concentration that we determine is 2 µM. Thus, the fluorescent carbon nanodots can act as an optical probe for quantifying metal ions in aqueous solution.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 798–800
G. Sivakumar1 and R. Keerthana*2
1-2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Sorghum is the coarse cereal crop of semi-arid tropical regions which is genetically suited to hot and dry agro-ecologies which have the potential of adoption to adverse climatic conditions. To harness the yield potential of sorghum new sound management practices must be identified and tested and the complimentary role of organics as supplements to chemical fertilizers is important for keeping the soil health in order to tap the production potential of sorghum. Field experiment was conducted at Pudanchandai village, Puduchatram block, Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu to ascertain the sustainability of integrated nutrient management practices on sorghum during Rabi season of 2020-2021. The results of the experiment showed that among the integrated nutrient management practices application of 50% N through fertilizer + balance 50% N through vermicompost + 100% P and K as fertilizers (T4) proved its excellence by registering superior growth characters, yield components and a thumping grain yield of 3310 kg ha-1. Considering the above results of the above investigation, it can be concluded that integrated application of 50% N through fertilizer + balance 50% N through vermicompost + 100% P and K as fertilizers registered the highest values in growth parameters, yield attributes and yields of sorghum in tapping the production potential of sorghum.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 801–807
Padmini Wagh*1, Swateja Deshmukh2 and Sucheta Patil3
1 Department of Biotechnology, K. R. T. Arts, B. H. Commerce and A. M. Science College, Nashik - 422 002, Maharashtra, India 2-3 Department of Microbiology, K. R. T. Arts, B. H. Commerce and A. M. Science College, Nashik - 422 002, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are shown to have the natural capacity of environmental clean-up by replacing the use of chemicals in agriculture. The soil-born PGPR provides plant growth promotion through biostimulation and biocontrol activity. In the present study, rhizobacteria were isolated from various crop rhizosphere and screened for their biostimulation abilities like phosphate, potassium, and zinc solubilization and, ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production. Total 60 morphologically distinct rhizobacteria were isolated from various crop fields. Among 60 isolates, 49 isolates showed phosphate and potassium solubilization ability, while 31 isolates showed zinc solubilizing activity. HCN production was detected in 19 isolates which indicates the biocontrol ability of these isolates. IAA production was detected in 12 isolates. Finally, 4 isolates, Microbacterium indicum, Bacillus altitudinis, Staphylococcus sciuri, Pseudomonas fluorescens that were showing maximum traits positive were selected for seed germination assay and these isolates were used as plant probiotics for in vitro plant growth promotion activities for Glycine max (L.) crop. The effect of isolates on the growth of crop plants was assayed and found that treated plants were superior over the control plants concerning percent germination, shoot-root length, and vigour index. It indicates that these isolates may be used as biofertilizers and bio inoculants for various crops as they enhanced plant growth via diverse mechanisms and offered an attractive strategy to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 808–813
Grace Marin1, Subramanian Arivoli2 and Samuel Tennyson*3
1 Department of Zoology, Scott Christian College, Nagercoil - 629 003, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore - 632 115, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of Zoology, Madras Christian College, Chennai - 600 059, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Nutritive value of mulberry leaf is a key factor besides environment and technology for better production of silkworm cocoons. The present study deals with the effect of micronutrient treated mulberry leaves on the economic characters of PMxCSR2 hybrid variety of mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with twelve treatments including a control (T0 to T11), and the treatments were replicated thrice. Each treatment was supplemented with the desired quantity of the respective micronutrient in single or in combination. Twenty early Bombyx mori fourth and fifth instar larvae were used for each replicate of the respective treatment, and were fed with 5-6 fully grown mature mulberry leaves (T0 to T11) twice a day (morning and evening). The parameters pertaining to the cocoon characteristics, viz., cocoon length, width, its ratio, cocoon and pupal weight, shell weight and ratio, sericin and fibroin, filament length and weight, ERR and silk productivity, and denier and renditta were calculated. The highest cocoon length, width and its ratio was recorded in T10 (3.93±0.04cm), T10 (1.90±2.70cm) and T8 (2.12±0.05cm) with an increase of 20.55, 14.46 and 8.16% over control respectively. The maximum cocoon weight and pupal weight was recorded in T10 (16.43±1.02g) and T8 (13.21±0.5g) which increased 28.56 and 26.29% over control respectively. Maximum shell weight was registered in T9 (3.21±0.16g) with an increase of 42.66% over control. In the case of shell ratio, maximum value was noted in T9 (19.77±1.28g) with an increase of 12.32% over control. The highest sericin and fibroin content was recorded in T8 (27.29±4.80) and T3 (79.50±4.76) with an increase of 28.66 and 6.31% over control. The longest filament length was noted in T6 (765.1±14.62m) with an increase of 6.73% over control, while the maximum filament weight was observed in both T9 and T8 (0.25±0.04 and 0.25±0.02g) which increased by 25.0% over control. ERR was maximum in both T8 and T9 (97.32±18.34%) with an increase of 9.76% over control, and silk productivity was maximum in T10 (4.55±2cg/day) and its increase was by 46.77% over control. The maximum denier and renditta was recorded in T9 (2.68±0.26) and T9 (8.41±1.24) which increased by 11.66 and 12.28% respectively when compared with control. Overall results of the present study emphasized that supplementation of micronutrients were found to enhance the economic characteristics of Bombyx mori cocoons.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 814–817
Navneet Kaur1, V. K. Dhangrah*2 and Y. P. Singh3
1 Department of Horticulture, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara - 144 411, Punjab, India 2-3 School of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, IFTM University, Moradabad - 244 102, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Genetic diversity in plant genetic resources provides opportunity for plant breeders to develop new and improved cultivars with desirable characteristics. Therefore, an attempt was made to determine the degree of divergence among 24 diverse genotypes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). Of genotypes, PB-01, PB-89 and Wasundra were carried from PAU, Ludhiana; VRPE-14, VRPE-24, VRPE- 32 and VRPE- 58 (IIVR, Varanasi); rest of the genotypes were the collection from Private Seed Company. These genotypes were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications in winter season during 2015-16 at Agriculture Farm of Lovely Professional University, Phagwara in Punjab. The findings revealed a considerable genetic diversity among genotypes which dispersed in 5 diverse clusters. Of these, cluster III, IV and V were mono-genotypic while cluster I had maximum genotypes. Among characters studied, pod yield contributed maximum towards diversity by 31.16%. Cluster mean analysis showed that intra-cluster distances ranged (0 – 168.79) indicated that collection of germplasm was highly divergent. Maximum inter-cluster distance (1430.70) was recorded between cluster III (i.e., Anmol) and cluster V (i.e., Shilpa-10) from mono-genotypic clusters those offer promise for their direct use as varieties and potential parents in future breeding programme.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 818–822
C. Praveen Sampath Kumar*1, T. Tamil Mathi2, J. L. Joshi3, Darling B. Suji4 and Ajish Muraleedharan5
1-3 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 4 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 5 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out in bhendi involving six parents and fifteen hybrids. Six parents viz., Arka Anamika (P1), Thanvi 66 (P2), Villupuram Local (P3), Dhaanya (P4), Ankur 41 (P5) and Varsha Uphar (P6) were crossed in half-diallel fashion at the Plant Breeding Farm, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University. The observations were made on characters namely, days to first flowering, plant height at maturity, number of primary branches per plant, number of nodes per plant, number of fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit, fruit length, fruit girth, single fruit weight and fruit yield per plant on single plant basis. Considering the mean performance of all the parents P1, P6 and P4 were considered as the best parents for fruit yield per plant and its component traits. Among the hybrids, P1  P6 and P2  P4 were rated as best hybrids followed by P3  P4 and P2  P5 were better hybrids for exploitation of heterosis based on mean performance. Considering the gca effects of parents, P1 was adjudged as the best source as it had significant desirable gca effects for number of fruits per plant, fruit girth, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. The parent P6 exhibited significant desirable gca effects for days to first flowering, fruit length, fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. Based on the sca effects, the hybrid P1  P6 considered as the best followed by crosses P2  P4 and P3  P4 considered as the better hybrids. Based on the standard heterosis, the hybrid, P1  P6 was adjudged as the best hybrid for the exploitation of fruit yield per plant and its component traits, followed by P2 x P4 and P3 x P4 were considered as the best for the character fruit yield per plant along with days to first flowering, number of primary branches per plant, number of nodes per plant, number of fruits per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Based on per se of hybrids, sca effects and standard heterosis, the hybrid P1 x P6 may prove as a good source for commercial exploitation of heterosis for fruit yield per plant and other yield components in bhendi.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 823–828
Swateja Deshmukh*1, Padmini Wagh2 and Sucheta Patil3
1,3 Department of Microbiology, K.T.H.M College, Nashik - 422 002, Maharashtra, India 2 Department of Biotechnology, K.T.H.M College, Nashik - 422 002, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Research on green synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining lot of importance owing to their stability, applicability and cost-effectiveness. This research aims to evaluate the properties of biologically synthesized Zinc nanoparticles using Bacillus mycoides. These nanoparticles were found to have significant antimicrobial property and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against selected pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be 25µg/mL, 25µg/mL and 50µg/mL respectively. % Free radical scavenging activity of 100µg/ml of zinc nanoparticles assayed using DPPH was found to be 83.33%. Photocatalytic decolorization of 50ppm Methylene Blue (MB), Congo Red (CR) and Malachite Green (MG) was studied using free and immobilized nanoparticles by UV- visible spectroscopy. % Photocatalytic activity of free ZnO nanoparticles on decolorization of MB, CR and MG was obtained as 89.66%, 92.35% and 88.56% respectively. Percent decolorization of MB, CR and MG using sodium alginate encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles was found to be 84.37%, 86.93% and 79.45% respectively. Encapsulated ZnO nanoparticles could be reused for Photocatalytic decolorization of dyes as it gave significant decolorization of MB, CR and MG with 59.37%, 50.64% and 48.19% respectively till three cycles. Thus, nanoparticles can be utilized in medicinal field as well as textile effluent treatment plants.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 829–833
Debalika Dalal1 and Nandlal Mandal*2
1-2 Department of Botany (UGC- DRS & DST- FIST Sponsored), Visva- Bharati (A Central University), Santiniketan - 731 235, Birbhum, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Thirty fungi of the different taxonomic groups were isolated from the wheat rhizosphere in the present study. They were screened for their potential to inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic A. flavus (BAF-4) isolates. Only eight fungi viz., WRF-4, WRF-5, WRF-7, WRF-13, WRF-20, WRF-23, WRF-27 and WRF-30 showed promising radial growth (above 50%) inhibition of toxigenic A. flavus. The maximum (72.35%) inhibition of BAF-4 was recorded by WRF-20 followed by WRF-27 (67.80%), WRF-5 (60.47%), WRF-23 (59.90%), WRF-4 (58.80%), WRF-13 (57.64%), WRF-7 (55.33%) and minimum (52.48%) was recorded by WRF-30. The mode of antagonistic interaction behavior was determined based on radial growth inhibition of antagonist fungi and test fungi on dual culture Petri plates. In the present study, most fungi, i.e., WRF-4, 7, 13, 20, 23, and WRF-30, showed B-type interaction, whereas WRF-5 showed C-type interaction. The antagonist fungi, i.e., WRF-27, showed an E-type of interaction and is considered the most potent antagonist. In the E type of interaction, only antagonists produce some antimicrobial compounds responsible for growth inhibition of only test fungi; hence, inhibition at a distance was recorded.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 834–836
S. V. Theurkar*1, D. N. Birhade2 and D. P. Gawari3
1-2 Department of Zoology, Hutatma Rajguru Mahavidyalaya, Rajgurunagar - 410 505, Tal Khed, District Pune, Maharashtra, India 3 Department of Chemistry, Dr. Patangrao Kadam Mahavidyalaya, Ramnandnagar - 416 308, (Burli), Tal Palus, District Sangali, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The national pest white grub has been defined as larvae of Melolonthidae. Holotrichia serrata (Fab) is a species of a Scarabaeidae family. Last five years, they cause damage to the commercial crops such as sugarcane, maize, groundnut, potato, jowar etc. and economical or medically important trees. The present investigation, external morphology of Holotrichia serrata was carried out in field as well as in laboratory. The Holotrichia serrata (Fab) adults are reddish brown in colour, compact and medium in size. The ventral side is shining; labium and labrum are fully bristly. Antenna is a lamellate type. Tibial spurs are distinguished characteristics of male and female adults.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 837–842
G. P. Prashanth1 and Melally G. Venkatesha*2
1-2 Insect Science Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, JB Campus, Bengaluru - 560 056, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Considering limited studies on the competitive behaviours in ants in similar ecological niches, this study investigated such behaviours between three ant species. Ant species, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Technomyrmex albipes and Camponotus variegates were attracted to a honeydew food source of mealybug Planococcus citri infested pumpkins in field trials and competitive behaviour in terms of the presence of these ant species over a different time frame (every 2hrs for a total of 24hrs) was studied. Endpoints assessed were in terms of number and the ant species that were present during diurnal and nocturnal competitive foraging sprees. Significance was drawn in terms of overlap in terms of time and the population of ants. The results showed that between diurnal ant colonies i.e., T. albipes and T. melanocephalum, later was more dominant. During nocturnal foraging at the overlapping time (6 am and 6 pm) less number of C. variegates ants tended to the pumpkin. Similarly, between T. melanocephalum and C. variegates for nocturnal foraging from 6 pm to 6 am C. variegates was more during the night but around 6 am, T. melanocephalum population increased. Holistically, T. melanocephalum emerged as the most dominant species in the field.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 843–848
P. Viji1 and P. Prema*2
1-2 Department of Zoology, V.H.N. Senthikumara Nadar College, Virudhunagar - 626 001, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The significance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) against diverse plant pathogens is nowadays perfectly established in the field of agriculture. The present study focused to examine the antimicrobial efficiency of green synthesized gold nanoparticles against selected plant pathogens like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas syringae. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible, FTIR, XRD spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, DLS and zeta potential studies. The AuNPs exhibited a surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 528 nm. The FTIR spectrum revealed the contribution of bioactive compounds in the leaf extract for the reduction process as well as stabilization of AuNPs. The XRD spectrum of AuNPs explains the crystalline nature of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The SEM image showed the morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The elemental analysis of the synthesized AuNPs was found using energy dispersive spectrum. The size of the AuNPs was measured in DLS and it was 55.6 ± 19.4 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.212. The zeta potential value observed for gold nanoparticle was -42 mV which indicates the stability of the nanoparticle. The obtained inhibitory zone observed in the present study for selected plant pathogens revealed the resultant gold nanoparticles have good potentiality against infectious diseases in plants. The MIC was found to be significant with IC50 values of 14.19, 14.08 and 18.07 µg/ml respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 849–855
Anupama Natesh*1, Radhakrishnan2 and Thangamani R3
1-3 Department of Civil Engineering, NMAM Institute of Technology, Nitte, Karkala - 574 110, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In this paper, water quality parameters of traditional horizontal tunnel Suranga and open well water of Padre micro watershed, border of Dakshina Kannada district and Kasargod district were studied and compared with Indian standard limits to know the suitability of water for domestic purposes and irrigation purposes. Farmers mainly depend on suranga water which will be stored in Madoka or ponds and some are dependent on open wells. Agriculture water samples were collected from open wells and Surangas of the selected study area Padre Village and analysed for water quality parameters like pH, EC, alkalinity, acidity, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, total dissolved solids, Chemical oxygen demand, and nitrate. All physicochemical parameters were within the Indian standard limit. When compared with each other Suranga and open well Turbidity, EC and TDS were more in the open well than in the Surangas water sample. Nitrate and Chemical oxygen demand was nil in Suranga and traces were present in the open well which may be due to seepage of fertilizer used in agriculture into the open wells. Suranga water was safe from the seepage of chemicals into it. Calcium Magnesium and Fluoride were higher when compared to open well but within Indian standard limits (BIS) in Suranga water mainly because of the hardcore laterite soil property. Chances of contamination of Surangas water are less compared to open well. Surangas are an old traditional sustainable method of sourcing water that gives good quality water and has to be protected and maintained.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 856–860
Rajib Joarder*1
1 Department of Chemistry, Jangipur College, Jangipur -742 223, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The rice, specially Oryza sativa, is significantly known as a staple food in rural as well as urban areas of Bengal. The conventional cooking method is usually practiced to prepare cooked rice for meals and tiffins. The present study suggests that selection of both water and rice plays an important role in order to avoid Arsenic (As) exposure from food article specially rice. It is important to note that the presence of ground water with low or very low As concentration has been used for drinking purposes in several parts of rural Bengal. Additionally, several rice varieties have also been identified contaminated with As. This study also emphasizes that the uses of As free water and rice are remarkable protocol for cooking to minimize the exposure of As from both.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 861–864
A. N. Chaubey*1, Virendra Singh2, Satybhan Singh3, Y. P. Singh4 and Madan Gopal5
1-5 School of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, IFTM University, Moradabad - 244 102, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
An experiment was designed to test the efficacy of silicon and botanical extracts on the yellow mosaic virus of urdbean. Maximum reduction in disease incidence recorded were 41.38 percent in urdbean by 2.0 ml silicon + 2 foliar sprays of Tinospora cardiofolia @ 10%. Maximum plant height was recorded at 20, 40 DAS and harvesting stage (19.92, 42.86 and 44.88 cm, respectively), number of leaves plant-1 at 20 and 40 DAS (6.26 and 12.62, respectively), number of branches plant-1 at 40 DAS and harvesting stage (3.93 and 4.20), 50% flowering (40.7 DAS), number of pod plant-1 (19.92), number of grain pod-1 (5.41), length of pod (4.27 cm), 1000 seed weight (46.00 g), grain yield (14.81 q ha-1), stover yield (22.42 q ha-1), biological yield (54.33 q ha-1), harvest index (51.90%), cost of cultivation ha-1 (Rs. 25640), gross income ha-1 (Rs. 104650), net returns ha-1 (Rs. 79010) and B:C ratio (3.082) were found significantly superior over the rest treatments. Results indicated a gradual decrease in disease incidence in all treatment by different doses of Si and botanicals. Most effective treatment was found T4 followed by T8, which was also effective and reducing the disease incidence and maximum avoidable yield loss.

Research Article | Published online : 21-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 865–870
Bismi Antony1 and C. P. Anitha Devi*2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, N. S. S. Hindu College, Changanacherry - 686 102, District Kottayam, Kerala, India
Abstract
Pesticides are used to protect food crops, but can also threaten organisms unrelated to their intended targets. With population growth and pesticide use increasing, food is becoming more scarce and pesticides are used to combat them. Flubendiamide is an insecticide that is toxic to lepidopterans and other non-target organisms. The objective of our review is to identify how the insecticide affects non-target organisms. Several recent studies are systematically reviewed and analyzed. A review of a number of different studies undertaken on different organisms exposed to the chemical showed that the pesticide is capable of causing morphological, biochemical, hematological, enzymatic, histopathological, and behavioral changes.

Research Review | Published online : 21-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 871–875
Chandan Das1, Apurba Saikia*2 and Amir Barhoi3
1 Department of Botany, Duliajan College, Duliajan - 786 602, Assam, India 2 P. G. Department of Life Sciences, D. R. College, Golaghat - 786 602, Assam, India 3 Department of Mathematics, Duliajan College, Duliajan - 786 602, Assam, India
Abstract
The Nepali community of Assam, especially rural people has a long tradition of folk practices of utilization of medicinal plants for various health problems. In this study (which was carried out from March, 2020 to Dec, 2021) an attempt has been made to find out the traditional beliefs and management practices of such Ethno-Medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes by the Nepali community of the selected six villages of Tinsukia district of Assam. The methodology comprises thorough participant observations, interviews with semi-structured questionnaires (along with Key Informants), surveys and discussions with traditional healers (Amchis), elderly persons and medical officers. Documented data was evaluated using the quantitative ethno-botanical indices of Fidelity Level (FL) and Use Value (UV). Over all 28 plant species were recorded, belonging to 25 genera and 19 families which are used by the above-mentioned community to cure diabetes in the studied area. The plant species having the highest use value were Azadirachta indica followed by Catharanthus roseus, Centella asiatica, Terminalia chebula. The fidelity level was 100% for Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia chebula followed by Justicia adhatoda, Catharanthus roseus. Ample scope is there to investigate the phytochemistry and pharmacological effectiveness of the plant species that could be the basis for the isolation and development of some novel phyto-therapeutic active compounds in the future, as no or very less research has been done on it.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 876–880
Sita Yadav1, Ratnesh Kumar Singh*2, Madhu Tripathi3 and A. M. Saxena4
1-4 Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
In recent years, the development of histochemical approaches has been very fast. Helminth embryos have a distinct shell that is generally referred to as egg-shell. A total of 15 Rita rita (Hamilton 1822) were collected from the Unnao fish market, and total of 45 Opisthorchis pedicellata were recovered from gall bladder of the host. Different results of histochemical observation found in this study of egg shell formation of O. pedicellata. Aqueous bromophenol blue test shows the moderate orangish blue colour, while Ninhydrin Schiff test shows strong pinkish red colour, both these two tests indicate the presence of basic protein. For the presence of protein, we test the Xanthoproteic and Biuret Test which shows the strong orange and blue colour respectively. For the presence of phenols, Argentaffin, Chromaffin reaction, Sodium Iodate test and Ferric Chloride test were showed the dark brown, brown and dull green colour respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 881–887
T. Uma1 and Chowdappa Srinivas*2
1-2 Department of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Technology, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore - 560 056, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Beneficial microorganisms provide first line defense for roots against diseases and promote plant growth. Actinomycetes in vermicompost aid in the breakdown of organic materials and the production of secondary metabolites. In the present investigation, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost prepared using Arachis hypogeal. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were used to study the morphological changes in actinomycetes. The SEM images revealed various stages of mycelia growth of the Streptomyces sp. during the growth period. Identification of bioactive compounds produced by Streptomyces sp. were analyzed through Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) the result revealed the presence of twenty major bioactive compounds, among them, Cetane, E-15-Heptadecenal and n-Hexadecanoic acid which are important for plant growth and disease suppression. Hence, actinomycetes established in vermicompost can be used for plant growth promotion, suppression of pathogens and synergistic interaction with other beneficial soil microorganisms.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 888–892
Snehalata Jadhav*1 and J. V. Kurhekar2
1 Department of Microbiology, K. N. Bhise Arts, Commerce and Vinayakrao Patil Science College, Vidyanagar, Bhosare, Kurduwadi - 413 208, Maharashtra, India 2 Department of Microbiology, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Dr. Patangrao Kadam Mahavidyalaya, Sangli - 416 416, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Alginates are biocompatible, biodegradable, and safe biopolymers that are employed in a variety of pharmaceutical and medical applications as an anti-inflammatory, immobilization agents, radioactive suppression agents, and wound healing agents. In the present study, bacteria Azotobacter were isolated from rhizospheric soil, identification was carried out using selective media and biochemical methods. The screening for the production of alginate was carried out. The screened potential strain was checked for its ability to produce alginate using an alginate production assay. Characterization of the extracted compound was done by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Optimization of parameters like Carbon sources, Organic and Inorganic nitrogen sources, pH was carried out using Plackett Burman Design of Experiment, the production of alginate biopolymer from Azotobacter species was studied by statistical method and the optimization study concludes that Azotobacter (S1J) strain gives the highest production of alginate. In the present study the production of alginate biopolymer by optimizing medium from diazotrophic bacteria Azotobacter species successfully studied and found increased. The findings support commercial synthesis of alginate from bacterial sources, as it is of higher quality than algal alginate.

Research Article | Published online : 23-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 893–896
Amrutha C. S1, Ashitha N. B2, Ebin Thomas3, Thomas Antony4 and Shyam Kumar S*5
1-4 Department of Botany, Maharaja’s College, Ernakulam - 621 011, Kerala, India 5 Department of Botany, Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 014, Kerala, India
Abstract
“Trikatu” is an Ayurvedic proprietary medicine. It is the mixture of fruits of Piper nigrum, Piper longum and rhizome of Zingiber officinale. This combination is found to be active against a wide range of health problems. The present study is to evaluate the phytochemical characterization and antibacterial activities of “Trikatu”. The fruits of P. nigrum, P. longum and rhizome of Z. officinale were collected from local areas of Wayanad and Ernakulam districts of Kerala, India. Collected plant materials were washed and shade dried. The dried plant materials were then ground to fine powder and stored. Distilled water, methanol, ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether were used for extraction of the powdered samples. Analysis of phytochemicals were done using standard methods. The extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, quinine, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids, carbohydrates etc. The best results are obtained in methanol and ethanol extracts while diethyl ether extracts showed minimal presence of the compounds. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion method against four strains of bacteria. Methanol and diethyl ether extracts showed maximum inhibitory activity against all test organisms.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 897–901
Pelapudi Pitchaiah1, Ch. Sasikala2 and Ganti Swarnabala*3
1 Shivashakti Bio Planttec Ltd, S.R. Nagar, Hyderabad - 500 038, Telangana, India 2 Bacterial Discovery Laboratory, J. N. T. University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad - 500 085, Telangana, India 3 Swaram Biochem, Secunderabad - 500 011, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Abstract
In the recent years, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are gaining much importance due to the drastic effects of chemical fertilizers. Growing these PGPR as an axenic culture is time consuming and also increases the production cost. The present study aims in the development of cost effective medium for the mixed fermentation of 3 PGP isolates i.e., Paenibacillus durus, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Bacillus megaterium and further optimization of the fermentation parameters. Among the 4 media developed, MC2 showed high CFU counts i.e., 1.2x109/ml in Paenibacillus durus, 3.4x109/ml in Paenibacillus glucanolyticus, 2.1x109/ml in Bacillus megaterium. Sucrose optimization studies showed good results at 15 g/L and yeast extract optimization studies showed high microbial load at 2 g/L. Fermentation parameters were optimized viz. incubation temperature 30oC, pH 7.0 and inoculum percentage 8%. A batch trial was conducted by taking the optimized nutrient and fermentation parameters which showed good results in P. durus (final broth 6.2x109/ml, cell biomass 2.8x1011/g), P. glucanolyticus (final broth 7.6x109/ml, cell biomass 3.1x1011/g) and Bacillus megaterium (final broth 4.4x109/ml, cell biomass 2.3x1011/g). Based on the above results, it can be stated that the optimized MC2 medium can be effectively used in the mixed fermentation in the industries.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Jun-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 3 ; 902–905
T. Uma Maheswari*1, N. Suganth2 and R. Sendhilnathan3
1-3 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation on the “Studies on development, quality evaluation and storage stability of banana jam (Musa spp.)” was carried out at Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar during 2018-2020. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with four formulations and five replications. Banana was processed into jam and the effect of processing on the nutritional quality and sensory quality of jam was determined. The sensory evaluation was carried out at monthly intervals for three months during storage. Banana jam was prepared with four formulations viz., T1- Poovan, T2- Nendran, T3- Karpuravalli, T4- Peyan. Poovan banana jam (T1) was stored upto three months. The highest values for TSS (70.29%), total sugar (62.81%), protein content (0.45%) and lowest value for moisture (28.24%) were recorded in jam prepared from Poovan banana. The highest value for pH (5.35) was recorded in jam prepared from Karpuravalli banana (T3). The highest scores for organoleptic evaluation were obtained by Poovan jam. Banana jam had the shelf life of up to 3 months. The cost economics for production of banana jam was 1.71.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Jun-2022