P- ISSN: 0976-1675
E- ISSN: 2249-4538

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Volume- 15 - July-August 2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 901–907
Devamani Mahadevaswamy*1, Dhahira Beevi Nagoorgani2 and Manoj T. S3
1-3 Centre for Higher Studies in Botany and Sericulture (RSRS) (Periyar University), Vaikkalpattarai, Salem-17, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A research study conducted from 2021 to 2023 at the Regional Sericultural Research Station, Salem, Tamil Nadu, investigated the effects of ten nutrient levels on the growth, yield, and quality of tree mulberry in response to challenges such as water scarcity. T2 exhibited superior growth and yield parameters, with 33.99 branches per tree, 29.99 leaves per branch, a branch length of 145.35 cm, and leaf/stem yields of 31.21 and 19.89 mt/ha/year, respectively. T5 showed the best results in silkworm economic parameters, including larval weight (52.83 g), cocoon weight (2.18 g), shell weight (0.53 g), shell ratio (24.19%), and filament length (1328 m). Regarding nutrient content, T5 recorded the highest percentages of N, P, K, S, Ca and Mg (3.88, 0.29, 3.62, 0.29, 3.67, 1.0%). Additionally, sulfur content was similar in T5 and T2 (0.29%). Micronutrients such as Zn, Fe, Mn and B were also highest in T5 (61.24, 148.63, 140.61, and 82.64 ppm). Nutrient uptake analysis revealed that T2 followed by T5 had the highest uptake of macro nutrients N, P, K, S, Ca, and Mg (260.82, 18.97, 242.17, 20.05, 250.89, and 75.33 kg/ha/year for T2 and 237.35, 17.89, 220.65, 19.42, 218.69, and 68.31 kg/ha/year for T5). The study revealed that T2 and T5 exhibited superior performance in tree mulberry plants.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 908–917
Ritika Dadhich*1 and Anju Goyal2
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Science, B. N. University, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India 2 Department of Chemistry, B. N. University, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The research findings underscore the multifaceted medicinal potential of Hibiscus, Fenugreek, and Nigella sativa in promoting hair growth and improving overall hair health. Hibiscus, known for its aesthetic allure, is found to be abundant in phytochemicals and essential vitamins and minerals crucial for hair vitality. Fenugreek, with its diverse bioactive constituents, exhibits promising potential in stimulating hair growth through various mechanisms, despite limited direct research. Similarly, Nigella sativa emerges as a potent natural remedy, supported by clinical trials and observational studies, in enhancing hair density and scalp health. Overall, these findings highlight the significance of botanical remedies in hair care and underscore the need for further research to optimize their therapeutic applications. In conclusion, the collective evidence from experimental and clinical studies strongly supports the efficacy of Hibiscus flower extracts in promoting hair growth and improving overall hair health. The significant enhancements observed in hair growth parameters and scalp conditions underscore its profound medicinal potential in the realm of hair care. However, further research is needed to optimize formulations and dosages to maximize the benefits of Hibiscus-based products in hair care. Similarly, fenugreek and Nigella sativa offer promising therapeutic properties, suggesting their potential as safe and effective options for individuals seeking natural solutions for hair growth concerns. Consulting with a healthcare professional is advisable before incorporating these botanicals into one's hair care regimen, particularly for individuals with underlying health conditions or sensitivities.

Research Review | Published online : 01-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 918–921
Taniya Sahu1, Rachana Choudhary*2 and Pragya Kulkarni3
1 Department of Microbiology, Government V. Y. T. Post Graduate Autonomous College, Durg - 491 001, Chhattisgarh, India 2-3 Dr. Manrakhan Lal Sahu Government College, Shivpuri Jamul - 490 024, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
In the present study, cellulase-producing bacteria were isolated from press mud sample of Sugar Industry (Louh Purus Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Sahkari Sakker Karkhana Kabirdham, Chhattisgarh). The abundantly available press mud waste obtained during sugar processing was used as a sample for the isolation of cellulase-producing bacteria by using CMC agar. The isolates were further primary screened for cellulase production through the Congo-Red decolorization method. The secondary screening was done by the DNS method for the assessment of enzyme units. Although 24 strains were isolated on CMC agar media. They were further screened for the Congo-Red decolorization test, out of which 07 isolates showed cellulase production activity in terms of Congo-Red decolorization on agar media. Then these isolates were further secondary screened by biochemical activity, and after that, 05 isolates were quantitatively analyzed by their enzyme production by the DNS method. However, all five isolates effectively produced cellulase enzymes and showed good potential, which may be further scaled up by the optimization process.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 922–924
Arun R. Gulave*1
1 Department of Zoology, Hon. Balasaheb Jadhav Arts, Commerce and Science College, Ale, Tal- Junnar, District Pune, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers and other organic fertilizers on growth and yield of Tomato (Rajashree, by Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth Rahuri). Three types of biofertilizers viz. Azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) in different combinations with chemical and other inorganic fertilizers were tested in a randomized block design with two replications. The result revealed that, significantly taller plants, better yield parameters, better fruit quality, higher yield was recorded with the application of 50% N through vermicompost + 50% N through urea. Required quantity of P and K through SSP (Single super phosphate) and MOP (Muret of potash) + Biofertilizer (azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM).

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 925–929
Rupali Sharma1 and Sandeep Bhardwaj*2
1 Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India 2 Department of Basic Engineering, College of Agriculture Engineering and Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Fruits and vegetables, vital for daily nutrition, have seen a rise in demand due to their rich content of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and dietary fibers. However, these perishables face challenges from both abiotic and biotic factors, leading to spoilage and biochemical deterioration, which can compromise quality and safety. Postharvest losses are significant, especially in developing countries, often reaching 20-30%. Cold storage is essential but insufficient alone, necessitating additional postharvest technologies to maintain quality. Respiration rates, particularly in climacteric fruits, increase during ripening, marking senescence. Minimizing respiration and ethylene production is crucial for prolonging shelf life. Edible films and coatings have emerged as an effective solution, creating a barrier that reduces respiration, transpiration, and senescence while potentially incorporating nutrients and bio-preservatives. The quality of fruits and vegetables is multifaceted, encompassing appearance, texture, flavor, nutritional value, and safety, which can change during storage and commercialization due to environmental interactions. Edible coatings, made from natural, biodegradable polymers like proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, offer a promising alternative to synthetic materials. These coatings can prolong shelf life by modifying the gaseous environment, reducing respiration and ethylene biosynthesis, and filling surface cracks. Edible coatings have shown effectiveness in preserving quality attributes such as texture, flavor, and nutritional content across various fruits. Research highlights their role in maintaining antioxidants, phenolics, and pigments, as well as regulating physicochemical properties. Different application methods (dipping, brushing, spraying) and composite blends enhance the coatings' effectiveness. Studies demonstrate the potential of coatings to reduce decay, delay ripening, and improve appearance while incorporating functional benefits like antioxidants. The development of edible coatings continues to focus on enhancing mechanical, barrier, and sensory properties, making them a viable solution for extending the shelf life and quality of fresh produce.

Research Review | Published online : 02-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 930–933
Manoj T. S1, Dhahira Beevi N2 and Devamani M3
1-3 Centre for Higher Studies in Botany and Sericulture, Regional Sericultural Research Station, Affiliated to Periyar University, Vaikkalpattarai, Salem - 17, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The success of silkworm rearing is depended on mulberry leaf yield and quality defined by utilization of chemical fertilizers along with other manures with its management in cultivation of mulberry plantation. The key factor that affects soil fertility, plant growth and crop quality also defined by fertilizers. However, the continuous application of chemical fertilizers will also invite adverse soil conditions along with crop failures. The present study was undertaken to supplement the chemical fertilizers application in a mulberry garden with high yielding mulberry variety of “Genotype-4(G4)” to analyze the growth, yield, and biochemical contents in an instant available through different fertilizer combination practices. The field experiment conducted in a randomized block design, with five replications at Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. There were twelve treatments, absolute control with zero application of fertilizer (T0), control with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer with farm yard manure (T1), 5 MT Poultry manure with 100% RDF and Green manure (T2), 7.5 MT Poultry manure with 100% RDF and Green manure (T3), 10 MT Poultry manure with 100% RDF and Green manure (T4), 5 MT Poultry manure with 75% RDF, Green manure and bio fertilizer (T5 ), 7.5 MT Poultry manure with 75% RDF, Green manure and bio fertilizer (T6 ), 10 MT Poultry manure with 75% RDF, Green manure and bio fertilizer (T7 ), 5 MT Poultry manure with 50% RDF, Green manure and bio fertilizer (T8 ), 7.5 MT Poultry manure with 50% RDF, Green manure and bio fertilizer (T9 ), 10 MT Poultry manure with 50% RDF, Green manure and bio fertilizer, 100% RDF with farmyard manure and green manure. Few major parameters are tested and the results are the highest 10 leaf area (3698 cm2), leaf number per plant (321), total leaf weight per plant (1213.60 g), height of the plant (211.33), total biomass (1982.60), length of longest shoot (179.53 cm) and total leaf yield per hectare per year (35242.94 kg) were noticed in T7 treatment followed by T1, T10 and T11 treatments. The highest moisture (75.27%), total nitrogen, total phosphorus (12.10%), total potassium (1.65%), total sugar (16.65%), crude protein (18.98%), and soluble carbohydrate (13.66%) were also recorded in T7 treatment as compare to other treatments. The outcome of research experiment proves that among the ten fertilizer management practices of 10mt poultry manure with 75% NPK with green manure and biofertilizers generate similar impact of 100% NPK application in mulberry G4 variety.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 934–937
Neeta Kagada*1 and K. Shailaja2
1-2 Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 007, Telangana State, India
Abstract
Lakes throughout the globe have been gravely altered or degraded at a pace much more significant than their restoration. Water quality safety is crucial in maintaining lakes' ecosystem service functions. The current study focuses on determining physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, EC, hardness, chlorides, alkalinity, DO, BOD, COD, phosphate, and sulphate in water samples from Lakhanvaram Lake over one year to analyse variations. To better understand the water quality changes in Lakhanvaram Lake and to identify the driving factors of water quality changes over time, this study evaluated and presented the water quality of Lakhanvaram Lake using 10 parameters. The results showed that trophic level index (TLI), trophic state index (TSI), and eutrophication index (EI) have to be evaluated to quantify the risk of eutrophication. These indices showed that the lake water was hyper-eutrophic in summer, with TLI, TSI, and EI values of 60.1, 63.0, and 66.6, respectively. This study revealed that controlling agriculture drainage is crucial for lake water quality management. The study generated critical data for managing water quality plans to control the risk.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 938–941
V. Maivizhi1 and P. S. Sujatha*2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Coimbatore - 641 018, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Medicinal plants have bioactive compounds known as phytochemicals that play an important role in curing and healing of various diseases in human. Ellagitannins occur naturally in some fruits, nuts, and seeds. They form a diverse group of bioactive polyphenols with anti-Inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The medicinal plant Lagerstroemia speciosa that grows in Tamil Nadu’s Western Ghats was the subject of the current study. For assurance of quality, samples of acetone leaf extract (LALE) were used to identify the phytochemical components of the plants. The amounts of the major components are given by the GC-MS and HPLC. The present study involves the phytocompounds analysis, identification, isolation and biological activities of ellagitannin from acetone leaf extracts of L. speciosa. The phytochemical analysis shows the presents of phytocompounds in the acetone leaf extracts of experimental plant. The GC-MS analysis shows the major compounds of leaf of L. speciosa. The HPLC shows the quantitative and qualitative amount of ellagitannin in the leaf of L. speciosa. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the aqueous acetone extract of the leaves afforded three active ellagitannins, lagerstroemia, flosin B and reginin A.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 942–948
Mallepu S. Likhitha Reddy1, T. Gohain2 and Khrawbor Dkhar*3
1-3 School of Agricultural Sciences (SAS), Nagaland University, Campus Medziphema - 797 106, Nagaland, India
Abstract
Investigation entitled “Effect of different weed management methods on growth and yield of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) cultivars under the foot hill conditions of Nagaland” was undertaken at the Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, SASRD, Nagaland University during Kharif season, June to October 2019. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications including five finger millet varieties viz.,V1-GPU 66, V2 -GPU 67, V3-VL 352 ,V4-VL 376 and V5-VR 847 and four weed management practices viz., W1: Weedy check, W2: PE of pendimethalin @ 1 kg ha-1 fb one hoeing at 30 DAS, W3: PE of pendimethalin @ 1 kg ha-1 fb mulching at 10-15 DAS and W4: PE of pendimethalin @ 1 kg ha-1 fb 2,4-D @ 0.75 kg ha-1 at 25-30 DAS. Results revealed that growth parameters such as plant height (cm), CGR (g m-2 day-1), RGR (g g-1 day-1) etc., and yield attributes viz., grain yield (1789.8 kg ha-1), straw yield (4959.0 kg ha-1) and harvest index (27.0%) were higher with the variety V4-VL 376. Among different weed management practices treatment W4: PE of pendimethalin @ 1 kg ha-1fb 2,4-D @ 0.75 kg ha-1 at 25-30 DAS recorded higher growth attributes, yield attributes and yield at all stages of crop. Among weed observations Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis etc., were dominant lower weed density (2.5 no m-2 at 40 DAS) higher weed control efficiency (84.9% at 40 DAS) were recorded with the treatment W4 - pendimethalin @ 1 kg ha-1fb 2,4-D @ 0.75 kg ha-1 at 25-30 DAS. Lower weed index (16.1%) was recorded with the treatment W2: PE of pendimethalin @ 1 kg ha-1fb hoeing at 30 DAS.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 949–952
Bhudeo Rana Yashu1, Khusboo Gupta2, Uday Pratap Singh3 and Savita Jangde*4
1-4 Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Soil salinity and boron toxicity are significant abiotic stressors affecting agricultural performance. This study investigates the impact of these stresses on the germination and early seedling growth of the wheat variety HUW 234. Experiments were conducted during the rabi seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16 using varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) and boron (B). Results indicated that increasing NaCl concentrations significantly decreased germination percentages and amylase activity, demonstrating the detrimental effects of soil salinity on wheat. Conversely, boron exhibited a more complex relationship: while high concentrations (4.5 and 5.0 mg B/kg soil) negatively affected germination and enzyme activity, an optimal concentration of 2.0 mg B/kg soil enhanced these parameters. These findings highlight the limited tolerance of HUW 234 to high soil salinity and its narrow optimal range for boron. Developing strategies to enhance salt and boron tolerance in wheat, such as genetic improvements and stress management approaches, is crucial for improving productivity in saline and boron-rich soils. Further research into the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying these responses is essential for designing effective mitigation strategies.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 953–956
Gana Shruthy M. K.1, C. G. Yadava*2 and Santhosha K. M.3
1 Department of Economics, M.K.K.P Government First Grade College, Husoor, Bidar - 585 416, Karnataka, India 2 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkote - 587 104, Karnataka, India 3 School of Agribusiness Management, Karnataka State Rural Development and Panchayat Raj University, Gadag - 582 101, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Coffee is a highly labor-intensive crop. However severe shortage of labour is a prevalent problem in coffee production. Thereby the study intends to understand the workforce in the coffee production. The paper is based on the secondary data published by the Coffee Board of India. Descriptive statistical tools such as averages, percentages, CAGR were used for analysis. The workforce in the coffee sector has steadily increased over the years, the CAGR being 1.54 percent. The labour productivity was found to be only 0.14 percent. The study reveals that the higher number of workers was not essentially translated into higher productivity. This means that it is the lack of ‘skilled’ labour force existing in the coffee production. The study suggests mechanization of production operations and attracting youth into coffee sector could further boost the production.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 957–962
Ganesan G1 and P. S. Sujatha*2
1-2 PG and Research Department of Zoology, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Coimbatore - 641 018, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Obesity, is a global health issue affecting 300 million people, is caused by excessive fat accumulation in specialized fat cells. Lagerstroemia speciosa, a native of Southeast Asia's Western and Eastern Ghats, produces abundant flowers with horticultural and therapeutic value. The study investigates the therapeutic value of L. speciosa ethanolic green and red leaf extracts against caprylic acid and a high-fat diet in Albino rats. The phytochemical profile reveals abundant phytoconstituents, including corosolic acid, lagerstroemin, and anthocyanin at high levels. The experimental animals were divided into seven groups with n=6 animals and fed a high-fat diet for 21 days, except the control group. The groups IV, V, VI, and VII are the experimental groups, orally fed with LELE Low Dose and High Dose (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight), and the II and III are the standard groups treated with HFD and Caprylic acid. The control group receives a normal diet and is evaluated for the estimation of biochemical parameters. A histopathological evaluation was also performed. The results show that the treated groups showed a significant (***P<0.001, **P<0.01, *P<0.05) elevation compared to the control group. The blood test reveals an increase in the number of blood cells and the Hg level. The antiobesity activity of LELE in HCD has considerably changed body weight and biochemical aspects. Administration of LELE significantly reduced body weight, total lipid profile, and blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, the acute toxicity of LELE demonstrates that it is safe and non-toxic, while the treated group demonstrated dose dependence and decreased obesity. These effects could be due to the presence of phytoconstituents such as corosolic acid and lagerstroemin in the green leaf and the red pigment anthocyanin, present in the red leaf of L. speciosa an ethanolic leaf plant extract.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Jul-2024

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 15 - Issue : 4 ; 963–965
K. Umamaheshwaran1, Ajish Muraleedharan*2, J. L. Joshi3 and Praveen Sampath Kumar4
1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Horticulture, Agriculture College and Research Institute, TNAU, Killikulam, Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India 3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Rice Research Station, TNAU, Tirupatheeswaram, TNAU, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India 4 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Floriculture Research Station, TNAU, Thovalai, TNAU, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study “Effect of biostimulants on growth and yield of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) cv. Paper yellow” was carried out at farmers field, Rayakottai, Krishnagiri, Tamil Nadu during 2022-2023. The word “Chrysanthemum” comes from two Greek words, Chrysos means golden and anthos means flower which means golden flower. It is native to the Northern hemisphere and is widely distributed in Europe and Asia. However, the origin of chrysanthemum is China. The results revealed that all the treatments differed significantly with respect to growth parameters. Among the treatments, the treatment T9 (0.8% of fulvic acid + 5ml/L of Ascophyllum nodosum) was found to be superior for all the growth parameters viz., plant height (65.06 cm), number of branches plant-1 (16.90). Among the treatments, T9 (0.8% of fulvic acid + 5ml /L of Ascophyllum nodosum) recorded the maximum days taken for 50% bud initiation (84.16 days). All the treatments differed significantly with respect to yield parameters. Among them, T9 (0.8% of fulvic acid + 5ml /L of Ascophyllum nodosum) recorded best values regarding flower yield plant-1 (108.78 g), flower yield hectare-1 (36.26 t).

Research Article | Published online : 19-Jul-2024