P- ISSN: 0976-1675
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© CARAS (Centre for Advanced Research in Agricultural Sciences)
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Volume - 11 - November-December 2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1209-1217
K Sathyanarayana and P A Sangannavar
Central Silk Board, CSB Complex, Government of India, BTM Layout, Bengaluru - 560 068, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine correlation and path analysis for biochemical and micronutrient content of mulberry. The study was taken up with untreated alkali soils, alkali soils reclaimed with inorganic and organic amendments in Karnataka, South India by growing five alkali tolerant mulberry genotypes along with two improved genotypes and one ruling local check. Mulberry genotypes were significantly varied (p<0.01-0.05) in biochemical and micronutrient content. In addition, biochemical parameters such as total protein content, total carbohydrate content, mineral content, reducing sugar content, iron, zinc and copper exhibited positive and significant correlation at both phenotypic as well as genotypic level with leaf yield under test condition. The determination of genotype x environment interaction of alkali tolerant mulberry genotypes were studied.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1218-1224
P V Sivakumar1, K Palanisamy2 and M Lenin*3
1Department of Botany, Thiru Kollanjiappar Government Arts College, Virudhachalam - 606 001, Tamil Nadu, India. 2P.G. and Research Department of Botany, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Namakkal - 637 002, Tamil Nadu 3P.G. and Research Department of Botany, Government Arts College, Dharmapuri - 636 705, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The environment is contaminated with Heavy Metals (HMs) with increasing HM pollution due to various human and natural processes. An Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) is the large amount pervasive soil vegetative symbiotic fungus in the terrene environment and mitigates the noxious property of discrete contaminants on both natural and agricultural crop plants. In addition to AMF also repress various antagonistic and assistance bacteria such as root pathogens, PGPR including free-living and symbiotic N2-fixers, and pinch-hitting as microbial fertilizers, and microbial degraders. The experiments were carried out of the black gram seeds were sown in pots, the pots containing 5 kg of soil with AMF inoculation and adding different proportion of Cr [(Potassium dichromate (VI), K2Cr2O7]. Three repeats were maintained for each level. Under these investigational conditions the morphological parameters like shoot and root length, number of leaves, total leaf area was inspected with 15, 30, 60 and 75th DAS and yield parameters like number of pods/plants, amount of seeds/plants and 250 seeds weight was recorded. The nutrient content such as N, P, K, Ca, Zn, Fe and Cr of black gram was recorded in 75th DAS of dry plants. The end of the results Cr contaminated soils were decreased the growth, nutrient contents and yield parameters when compared to AMF inoculated plants. Additionally, the profitable effects of the AMF observed in this study aroused an interest in considering the role of AMF in plant-based strategies of protection of highly Cr-polluted soils.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1225-1228
Elavena War, G Mandal and P Deb
Department of Crop Improvement, Horticulture and Agricultural Botany, Palli Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Sriniketan - 731 236, West Bengal, India
Abstract
A research study was done to find the effective method of banana ripening. The fruits were treated with four doses of Ethephon (200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm), three methods of application (placing cotton dipped Ethephon inside the poly bag, plugging cotton dipped Ethephon at the neck of a poly bag and dipping the fruits in an aqueous Ethephon solution) and one control. The experiment was laid out in a Factorial completely randomized design against other treatments (control). Analysis of data showed that there was significant effect in methods of application over the physiological loss in weight, shelf life, total sugar, reducing sugar, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Significant difference was also observed in interactions between doses and methods over the fruit firmness, fruit weight, palatability and all chemical characteristics. Fruits treated with 600 ppm gave better total sugar (10.81%), TSS (21.97°Brix) and titratable acidity (0.3%). Among the methods of application fruits that was ripen by released of Ethylene through cotton dipped Ethephon plugged at the neck region of the poly bag gave better shelf life and less weight loss than that of dipping method. The untreated fruits are poor in flavour and quality.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1229-1234
M Likhith Gowda1, A M Akanksh2, Nayanashree1, C Abhicharan1, Naleen1, Kunal Ankola1 and H B Manjunatha*
1Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, University of Mysore, Mysuru - 570 006, Karnataka, India 2Department of Computer Science, R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore - 560 098, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Among agriculture crops, Sericulture being one of the most assured income generating crops supporting the livelihood of many farmers in India. Of the several parameters determining the healthiness of mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae and success of cocoon crop, the germ-free rearing environment is crucial. Thus, it is in vogue to perform disinfection of rearing house and equipment’s before onset of rearing to grow disease free silkworms. Despite, scientific information’s are available in this regard, still heavy cocoon crop loss is reporting at field. To uncover the lacuna underlies, we have conducted a systematic assessment on disinfection strategies being followed by the farmers and the problems associated with it. Surprisingly, the present analysis revealed that all most all farmers did not adopt appropriate procedure for disinfection of the rearing house. However, the type of disinfectants, concentration and quantity as per the floor area used and the disinfection procedure followed were uncommon in both the villages. Interestingly, while cent percent of farmers in Koregala village using Decol, farmers in H. Kodihalli were using Chlorophate. In addition, although, all farmers have been practicing an advanced method of silkworm rearing-shoot rearing, correspondingly suitable disinfection procedure has not been followed. Thus, in order to overcome these constrains, based on the lacunae detected in the present investigation, we have developed a farmer-specific and user-friendly key termed as “Disinfection Card and a mobile application - SeriApp” to enable the farmers to disinfect their rearing houses with ease and accurate.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1235-1240
Simismita Borah*
Department of Economics, Cotton University, Guwahati - 781 001, Assam, India
Abstract
The agro-based food processing industries is one of the thrust areas for industrial development of Assam being a prominent agri-horti spot of India. But the tangible condition of these industries can be realized in terms of their performance. This work explores the financial viability of industries of Assam in terms of financial ratios from 1998 to 2017. A poor performance was encountered for these industries. Moreover, a long-term association is found between these ratio series. Finally, a forecasting is done to predict the future behavior of these ratios using VAR approach.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1241-1245
Manpreet Kaur* and K S Khera
Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
The experiment was designed to estimate egg parameters of the House Crow at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. A total of 8 eggs were collected for the estimation. Digital vernier caliper was used to measure egg length and breadth and digital weighing balance was used to determine egg weight. Weight of egg components (yolk, albumen and shell) were also measured using digital weighing balance. Average egg length, breadth, shape index, egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, shell weight, albumen percentage, yolk percentage, shell percentage, egg volume and specific gravity were 38.31 ± 1.043 mm, 27.86 ± 0.520 mm, 64.45 ± 1.613, 8.01 ± 0.207 g, 4.41 ± 0.081 g, 2.42 ± 0.130 g, 1.18 ± 0.104 g, 55.15 ± 0.966%, 30.19 ± 1.322 5%, 14.66 ± 1.046%, 15.16 ± 0.584 cm3 and 0.53 ± 0.013 g/cm3, respectively. This study provides important information that can help the avian taxonomists in species classification, as bird’s egg diverges widely in shape, volume, weight and percentage of albumen, yolk and shell. Therefore, we can use the egg parameters as additional information in bird systematic.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1246-1249
M Leelavathi, V Padma, K Radhika and G M V Prasada Rao
Department of Seed Science and Technology, Advanced Post Graduate Centre, Lam, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation was carried out at Department of Seed Science and Technology, Advanced Post Graduate Centre, Lam, Guntur during 2016-17. The aged revalidated seed of greengram cv. LGG-460 was taken from each treatment and was given invigoration treatments. After giving the invigoration treatments seed were stored in polythene bags and kept in laboratory under ambient conditions. The observations were recorded at monthly interval on germination (%), seedling length (cm), seedling dry weight (g) and seedling vigour index. The results indicate that all invigoration treatments exhibited significant increase over the aged seed. Among the treatments bleaching powder, red chilli powder and hydroprimed and dry dressed with thiram higher seed quality character and can be recommended for maintaining the seed germination and vigour of greengram seed.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1250-1254
M N Ramya* and T S Jagadeesh Kumar
Silkworm Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, University of Mysore, Mysore - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
In this present research study, the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase contents were determined in pupal developmental stage of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. The two bivoltine (CSR2 & NB4D2) and two multivoltine races (Pure Mysore & C.nichi) were selected for the study and rearing was conducted as per the standard rearing method and after the rearing good cocoons were selected for further assessment. The male and female sex were separated during 5th instar just after resuming from 4th moult before feeding to identify the male and female pupae on 3rd day after spinning. The fat body samples were extracted from male and female from 3rd day to till last of pupal duration. The extracted samples were kept at -20oC for preservation and utilization for the analysis of enzyme profiles viz. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as per the standard estimation procedures. The results showed stage-specific significantly higher trend levels of glutathione peroxide contents in the female and male pupae as compared to the superoxide dismutase level on (p<0.05). However, a significantly higher level of glutathione peroxidase activity was observed in female pupa on 3rd day of CSR2 breed (p<0.05). In the case of male pupae of four selected races, significantly lower level of superoxide dismutase activity was observed (p<0.05). Correlation analysis clearly revealed differences in the way the enzyme activity level is equilibrated for a particular stage and developmental pattern. Hence, in this research study, it is very clearly that, the results obtained could be the effect of intensive metabolic transformation that takes place in tissues of the non-diapause generation and causes increased production of reactive oxygen species, such as hydroperoxides. The results of this study suggesting that antioxidants plays a key and fundamental role in the total defense mechanisms and also protecting cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1255-1258
N B Mehetre*1, Ashwini V Jadhav1 and D B Mehetre2
1Department of Botany, 2Department of Agronomy, Samarth Agriculture College, Deulgaon Raja District Buldana - 443 204, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A field experiment to study the effect of different dates of sowing on Stigma receptivity in parental lines of sorghum hybrids was conducted during Kharif. Stigma receptivity was studied for four sterile ‘A’ lines viz. AKMS-14A, MS-27A, MS-70A and MS-296A of Sorghum hybrids at three different sowing dates. In all sowing dates Stigma of seed parent MS-27A remained receptive up to ‘6’ day with highest receptivity on ‘0’ day and lowest at 6th day of starvation period whereas it remained receptive up to ‘5’ days in other seed parent as judged by seed setting percentage. Seed parents was significantly better upto 2 to 4 days of starvation after complete flowering in Kharif season. On an average stigma receptivity was significantly highest at ‘0’day starvation and subsequently reduced due to delay in pollination. Pollen viability was studied for restorer (R) lines AKR-150, C-43, ICSR-89058 and AKR-73 of sorghum hybrids at three different sowing dates. In all sowing dates pollen viability of seed parent AKR-150 was viable upto 6 hours and highest at 8 AM in D1. Seed setting was highest at 8 AM for seed parent AKR-150, ICSR-89058 and AKR-73 except C-43, wherein, highest seed setting was observed at 9 AM.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1259-1265
Vinod Naik*1, K R Nethrayini2 and G S Mahadeviah2
1Department of Economics and Public Policy, School of Social Sciences, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharamshala - 176 215, Himachal Pradesh, India 2Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken in Vijayapura district of Northern Karnataka for the year 2018-19 with the objective of evaluating economically the value addition in grapes. The multistage sampling was adopted to select the district, talukas and villages. The study objectives were analyzed using budgeting technique and financial feasibility tools. The results of the study highlighted that, though the cultivation of grapes involved more investment but in turn it yields positive net returns to the cultivators. When farmers sold their produce by making fresh grapes in to raisins, they got additional returns of about ₹ 1,86,489.00. Based on the results of the study we can conclude that the investment on grape vineyards are financially feasible in the study area and project is strongly recommended to the farmers for continuation in future as well.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1266-1271
Kusum Kurdiya*, Jyoti Kumari Meena, Ruchi Khedia, K C Sharma and Manju Sharma
Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, JLN Marg, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The present study was carried out to analyze biochemical parameters of Sesamum indicum L. by treating the plants with fertilizers and manures at University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. The experiment consisted of five treatments named as T1- control (without any manure or fertilizer), T2- urea as nitrogen fertilizer, T3- urea + diammonium phosphate as N+P fertilizer, T4- vermicompost, and T5- a combination of vermicompost + biofertilizer. These were evaluated in a complete randomized design with four replications. Biochemical parameters taken for the study were- lipids, proteins, total soluble sugars, starch, phenols, and two antioxidant enzymes: peroxidase and catalase. Experimental results showed that chlorophyll-a, b, total chlorophyll, protein content, lipids, and peroxidase were observed maximum in vermicompost treated plants. Total phenols were observed increased in vermicompost + biofertilizer treatment. Therefore, they can be used to enhance the above parameters as an alternative of inorganic fertilizers under the arid conditions of Rajasthan. However, carotenoids, TSS, starch, and catalase were found higher in control plants. These parameters were not influenced significantly by fertilizer and manure treatments. It suggests that an optimized fertilizer rate is necessary to ensure agricultural sustainability in respect of synthesized food and antioxidants.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1272-1275
Sanjay Shinde
Department of Botany, Arts Commerce and Science College Lasalgaon, Nashik - 422 306, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on growth of garlic grown under well-watered and water stressed pot culture conditions. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves were planted in furrows. The data was collected at an interval of 15 days. Colonization of root with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi occurred in under water-stressed and well-watered conditions, but the extent of AM fungi root colonization was higher under well-watered than under water stressed conditions. Regarding length of leaves, root, weight of bulb and diameter of garlic after 45, 60, 75 and 90 days, data was collected. The AMF-inoculated plants had higher fresh bulb yield and mean bulb weight than uninoculated plants However, inoculation with AM fungi has improved garlic bulb yield. The result indicates from AM fungi inoculation benefited more than that of especially under water-stressed conditions.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1276-1280
Poonam Dehariya and Deepak Vyas
Lab of Mushroom Biology, Department of Botany, Dr. H. S. Gour Vishwavidyalaya, Sagar - 470 003, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Six substrates viz. soybean straw, wheat straw, paddy straw, domestic waste, fruit waste and used tea leaves was taken for the purpose. For the improvement of yield supplementation of Embelica officinalis was done. Among all test substrates soybean straw was give maximum yield 935.0 gm/kg, 956.7 gm/kg, 96.0 gm/kg at 1%, 2% and 3% supplementation respectively. It was observed from the data that different concentrations of Embelica offcinalis was proved good for the enhancement of yield but 3% concentration was given maximum yield and biological efficiency.

Research Article | Published on : 11-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1281-1285
D D Barsagade and A A Salwe*
P. G. Department of Zoology, MJF Educational Campus, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur - 440 033, Maharashtra, India *Department of Zoology, S. N. Mor College of Arts, Commerce and Smt. G. D. Saraf Science College, Tumsar - 441 912, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Pentatomid bug Andrallus spinidens (F) is a predator on a wide range of insect pests in rice fields of east Vidarbha. The life cycle of A. spinidens was studied during the year 2018-2019 revealed that a single female laid an average number of 250 eggs in 3 to 8 batches and each batch contained 32 to 65 eggs. Incubation period on an average was 6.6 ± 0.03 days and 95-100% eggs hatching rate at 24 to 30°C temperatures with high humidity. Pri-oviposition and oviposition period was 1- 4 days. First, second, third, fourth, and fifth stages of the nymphal period were 2.3 ± 0.03, 3.3 ± 0.03, 3.6 ± 0.03, 3.6 ± 0.03 and 6 ± 0.05 days respectively. Second to fifth stages nymphs and adults of A. spinidens were feeding different stages larvae and pupae of a number of harmful lepidopteran pests in the rice field. In vivo and field study suggested that the first instar nymph of A. spinidens was non-feeding while, second, third, fourth and fifth stages nymphs were voraciously fed on 3, 4, 7 and 12 number of larvae and pupae of Melanitis leda respectively. Similarly, adult bugs fed on average 30 rice pest larvae of Melanitis leda and confirmed their predatory role in the rice field of Vidarbha region in Maharashtra.

Research Article | Published on : 11-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1286-1290
Braj Mohan1, Om Kumari1 and Vikesh Kumar*
Department of Chemistry, K. K. P. G. College, Etawah - 206 001, Uttar Pradesh, India *Department of Chemistry, Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa - 486 003, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
In the present study the preferential salvation of salts in sugar- aqueous system has been considered. It is carried out by using conductometric observation of analytical grade sugar and plantation white sugar aqueous system with salts viz. CaCl2, MgCl2, KCl, NaCl. It shows that the conductivity is in linear relationship with the electrolytes and non-sugar present in both analytical grade sugar and plantation white sugar over a range of 5 to 25 W/V percent. The optimum range of concentration found to be for both the sugars is about 20%. Encouraging results could be obtained in the determination of sugars i.e. non electrolytes and electrolytes in aqueous sugar solution products. The present study shows valid technological interest to understand Maillard reaction due to adoption of MgCl2 salt in place of sulphite. These sugars–salts complexes are responsible for the formation of molasses which leads to substantial loss of sugar of around ten percent of the total sugar present in cane.

Research Article | Published on : 11-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1291-1294
Vanee Yadav and P G Shah
AINP, Pesticide Residue Lab, Anand Agricultural University, Anand - 388 110, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in brinjal to observe the reduction percentage of acepahte, profenophos, triazophos and ethion when they were sprayed double the recommended dose of the above mentioned OP,s at field. The decontamination of acepahte, profenophos, triazophos and ethion was observed in the range of 21.20-72.32, 35.02-85.81, 38.20-78.19 and 31.36-83.03 percent respectively. Treatment T3 (dipping in 2% brine solution) was found significantly better than rest of the treatments in decontamination of profenophos, triazophos and ethion which resulted in 85.81, 78.18 and 83.03 % loss respectively. Acephate was reduced in maximum amount (72.32%) by T8 treatment (microwave treatment), which was at par with T3 (dipping in 2% brine solution).

Research Article | Published on : 13-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1295-1299
Sankarsana Sahu*
Department of Botany, Maha Mangala Institute of Management and Technology, Koraput - 764 020, Odisha, India
Abstract
Polar Regions show a condition of extreme freeze with mean summer temperature below zero. Arctic and Antarctic areas are Polar habitats. Tundra's are the most common in the Low Arctic, while in the High Arctic, polar barrens dominate. The distinct phototrophic populations at the glaciers indicate the possibility of darkening on the ice surface for spatially varying processes. The term photoautotroph is an autotrophic combination, the term for an organism producing its own food, and the photo prefix, which means "light" in English. The study is done on the purpose of finding out the polar ecosystem and the materials and methods part of this study is basically related with the samples gathered from the polar regions, both the samples of soil and ecosystem is gathered. The results indicate that mineral loading differed among the glaciers on the Polar Regions. The distinct phototrophic populations at the glaciers indicate the possibility of darkening on the ice surface for spatially varying processes. The evolving structures can monitor the delivery of en- or sub glacial debris to the surface of the Ice, as well as modulate the hydrology.

Research Article | Published on : 13-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1300-1303
I Chandrakanth Reddy, C Prabakar* and Y Shelton Peter
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The study was carried out with an overall objective of analyzing the degree of crop diversification and shift in cropping pattern in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu. The specific objectives were to assess the existing degree of farm level crop diversification, to assess and analyze the shift in cropping pattern in the last two decades and to rank the reasons for the non-adoption of crop diversification in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu. With regard to selection of block, Marakkanam was purposively selected, since it is more prone to risks due to natural calamities (Cyclone, floods and tsunami etc.) and salinity. The analyses implied that; efforts need to be enhanced by the institutional authorities to popularize the concept of Crop diversification among farmers. Needed technical know-how on cultivation of alternative suitable crops may be provided to farmers vide trainings and workshops.

Research Article | Published on : 17-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1304-1307
Jagtap Ashwini*1 and Bodhankar Mukund2
1Department of Microbiology, Punyashlok Ahilyadevi Holkar Solapur University, Solapur - 413 255, Maharashtra, India 2Department of Microbiology, Yashwantrao Mohite College, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Indiscriminate use of synthetic fertilizers causes the contamination of the soil, water, and reduced soil fertility. Poultry farming carries a scope for rapid and large profit and become a remunerative business lead to continuously discharge an enlarged quantity of waste such as dead on arrival, feathers, and bones. Feathers are the rich source of keratin proteins and amino acids this factor makes feather applicable to produce of fertilizers and feather meal. The present study aim was to degradation of poultry chicken feathers and its conversion to Bio-fertilizer. Bacteria P3A and BS3B were isolated from feathers waste dumping area and identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus cereus respectively by the 16S rRNA analysis. It was found that crude enzyme had potential to breakdown the feathers. Bio-fertilizer produced from isolates P3A and BS3B shows 20 cm and 25 cm shoot length and 10 cm and 12.5 cm root length of wheat crop and 16 cm and 18 cm shoot length and 4 cm and 4 cm root length of chick pea crop respectively. Feather bio-fertilizer treated crops showed vigorous growth than the control crops. Keratinase enzyme was useful to convert poultry chicken feather waste into bio-fertilizer.

Research Article | Published on : 17-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1308-1313
C Prabakar*
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this study the export performance and extent of market integration in Indian fish trade was analyzed considering the following specific objectives viz. (i) to analyze the trends in the performance of Indian fish export and (ii) to examine the nature and extent of market integration between fish export markets in India. For estimating the degree of price transmission between different fish markets, five major export markets viz. Cochin, Chennai, Vizagapattinam, Kolkatta and Tuticorin were purposively selected, considering the higher degree of consistency in the export of shrimp through these ports. The daily export prices via the above mentioned ports were collected from the respective ports on daily basis. The study revealed that in all the years, value wise share of Shrimp was not less than 50 per cent of total fish trade of India. In a long run perspective reliance on this single item, shrimp does not reflect a healthy sustainable trend which needs to be addressed with. It is suggested that, the fishery export promotion agencies like MPEDA (Marine Products Export Development Authority) may take efforts to encourage and enhance the performance of all items of fish export as like Shrimp export. Co-integration analysis revealed that export markets of India are not integrated to the needed and required level. The data access to exporters on fish trade, to enhance market intelligence, should be made more liberal, faster and widespread to all export markets. Efforts need to be enhanced to coordinate relevant fishery and export agencies so as to ensure proper dissemination of market information on time to needed stakeholders.

Research Article | Published on : 17-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1314-1317
M Mallik*1, N Manivannan1 and Noor-E-Mujjassim2
1Department of Oilseeds, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka
Abstract
A study was conducted to determine the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for several quantitative traits in 115 genotypes of sunflower during Kharif, 2014. The field experiments were carried out at Department of Oilseeds, TNAU, Coimbatore during Kharif, 2014. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for all the characters indicating presence of sufficient variability among the genotypes for various traits. High estimate of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation were observed for Alternaria leaf spot, 100- seed weight, seed yield per plant and oil yield per plant. All the characters studied exhibited high heritability except head diameter and oil content which exhibited medium heritability. High genetic advance is observed for 100 seed weight and oil yield. The results indicated the possibility for successful selection and can be used for further breeding programme.

Research Article | Published on : 17-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1318-1321
Dhananjay N Gawande*
ICAR- National Research Centre for Grapes, Pune - 412307, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The knowledge of genetic variation existing in germplasm is an important aspect for initiating any crop breeding program. Metroglyph analysis is a simple technique used for preliminary grouping of germplasms and to study the pattern of morphological variation in crop specie). In the present investigation Metroglyph analysis of 31 coloured and seeded grape genotypes was carried out. Total nine groups were formed using two most variable characters i.e. yield/vine and bunch weight as X and Y co-ordinates respectively. All genotypes occupied their relative position in seven groups only. The study revealed that the grape genotypes from Group VI, VIII and IX had desirable traits and they can be used as potential parents in table grape breeding programme.

Research Article | Published on : 17-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1322-1326
J Naipunya*, I Bhavani Devi, D Vishnu Sankar Rao and S V Prasad
Department of Agricultural Economics, S. V. Agricultural College, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
This paper is an attempt to estimate growth and instability of futures trading in terms of quantity and value of selected agricultural commodities i.e. maize, chilli and Bengal gram which were traded in NCDEX. Results showed that growth and instability of maize was observed maximum positive compound growth rates in both quantity (38.91%) and value (43.67%) in 2006. Maximum positive compound growth rates of chilli in both quantity (18.45%) and value (20.78%) were observed in 2009. Maximum positive compound growth rates of Bengal gram were observed in both quantity (30.62%) and value (34.20%) in 2005.

Research Article | Published on : 17-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1327-1331
Pawan Kumar Sharma*1, Sudhakar Dwivedi2, Vipal Bhagat3 and Sudhir Jamwal4
1Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST- Jammu), Kathua, Jammu and Kashmir 2Division of Agricultural Economics and ABM, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 3ICSSR Project, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 4Krishi Vigyan Kendra (SKUAST- Jammu), Poonch, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
Pecan nut is one of the emerging nut crops of Jammu and Kashmir, drawing attention of government functionaries as well as the stakeholders involved in horticulture in UT of Jammu and Kashmir. The production from pecan nut trees started after 8 years with subsequent increase every year. The pay-back period of pecan nut orchard was 22.20, 24.11 and 26.18 years at 8, 10 and 12 percent of discount rate respectively. The net present value was ₹ 43,12,022, ₹ 19,85,900 and ₹ 6,72,510 at 8, 10 and 12 percent of discount rate respectively. At the same rate of 8, 10 and 12 percent of discount rate, the profitability index was 10.81, 5.61 and 2.60 respectively. The internal rate of return of pecan nut orchard was 14 per cent which shows that investing in pecan nut orchard will be a profitable venture until the market interest rate remains below 14 per cent. The value of gamma parameter was 0.00001 and was insignificant, reflecting the absence of technical efficiency in pecan nut production. The results highlighted the need for introduction of technical innovations without compromising the quality and uniqueness of the traits.

Research Article | Published on : 17-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1332-1342
R R Lohar*1, C P Hase2 and J D Kapurkar3
1Postgraduate Research Center in Environmental Science, Baburaoji Gholap College, Sangvi, Pune - 411 027, (RIT, Rajaramnagar, Sangli), Maharashtra, India 2Department of Botany, Baburaoji Gholap College, Sangvi, Pune - 411 027, Maharashtra 3Sushilanand Agro Polyclinic, Islampur, Kisannagar, Uran Islampur - 415 409, Maharashtra
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted on black cotton soil for two consecutive rabbi seasons (2018, 2019) to investigate the effects of organic and synthetic fertilizers on growth and yield as well as seed quality of soybean crop along with soil health parameters using cultivar JS-335. The results revealed that combined applications of organic manures and synthetic fertilizer improved the growth and seed yield as well as oil content, protein and carbohydrate contents as compared to control and other treatments. Similarly, the various soil health parameters were also greatly significantly improved. The sustainable use of both organic and inorganic fertilizers together enhanced economic yield, agronomic efficiency, physiological efficiency, partial factor productivity, apparent recovery efficiency, sustainable yield index etc. It is concluded from the above experiment that combined application of RDF (30:80:20:40) + FYM & RDF (30:80:20:40) + VCM emerged as promising method for sustainable cultivation of soybean in the region of Sangli district (Maharashtra).

Research Article | Published on : 20-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1343-1346
Vivek Singh*
Department of Botany, Udai Pratap College, Narayanpur, Varanasi - 221 003, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study deals with the physiological characterization are 24 different strains of blue green algae. It includes the pigment profiles which deals the estimation of chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobilins (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in different strains. The pigment analysis showed that the maximum chlorophyll-a was estimated in Microchaete uberrima. The ratio of pigment in all the strains indicates the occurrence of maximum amount of phycobilins and then carotenoids. All these pigments are not present always in same relative proportion.

Research Article | Published on : 20-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1347-1350
Gaurav K Srivastava1, Shakti K Prabhuji1*, Richa1 and Atul K Srivastava2
1Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Centre, M. G. Post Graduate College, Gorakhpur - 273 001, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Department of Chemistry, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya - 824 234, Bihar, India
Abstract
Watermoulds are known to attack eggs and fries of fishes and as a general rule the infection starts when the host gets injured either mechanically or as a result of infections other than fungal. The present investigations have shown infection on eggs and fries of Labeo rohita L. and fries of Macrobrachium lamarrei Milne Edw. (prawn) by Saprolegnia diclina Harvey, Achlya diffusa Nees von Esenbeck and Pythium oligandrum Dreschler. The pathogenicity of the fungal isolates has been tested using healthy and disease-free eggs and fries of Labeo rohita and fries of Macrobrachium lamarrei. In the in vitro test experiments, the pathogenic nature of all the fungal isolates has been confirmed.

Research Article | Published on : 20-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1351-1354
V S Tekale1, M K Khairnar2 and S D Sarnaik*1
1Department of Extension Education, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola - 444 104, Maharashtra, India 2Section of Extension Education, College of Agriculture, Nagpur - 440 001, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The article mainly examined the awareness among the farmers about the agricultural pollution caused due to pesticides, fertilizer, harvest waste, sewage water and irrigation water. Data were collected from 120 randomly selected respondents from Nagpur and Kampthee tahasil of the Nagpur district through personal interview method. The overall awareness index about agricultural pollution caused by different practices of crop production indicated low level of awareness among 51.67 per cent of the respondents. The findings of the study further revealed that 59.17 per cent of the farmers were aware about the harmful effects of pesticides on human health, as well as high application of pesticides can contaminate water sources was known to 51.67 per cent of the respondents. Awareness was also noticed among the (48.33%) respondents, due to excessive application of fertilizers it affects the soil properties. 55.83 per cent of the respondents were aware the fact that salt and silt could be deposited in soil due excessive irrigation and 52.00 per cent respondents were aware about waterlogged condition affects the plant growth. Improper disposal of harvest waste can create favorable condition for various diseases in succeeding crops were known to the 47.50 per cent of the respondents. The respondents were not aware about excessive use of pesticides causes leaching of poisonous chemicals into ground water and pesticides had residual effect on food grain, vegetable and fruits (62.50%), saline water affects physio-chemical properties of soil and it effects crop growth (78.33%) and burning of harvest waste emits carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane in the atmosphere (73.33%), respectively.

Research Article | Published on : 21-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1355-1357
A Abinaya, V Sakthivel* and K Kanagasabapathi
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Cashew is one of the important plantation crops with its significant contribution to the country's foreign exchange through export of cashew kernels. It was introduced in India from Brazil by the Portuguese in the 16th century. For cultivating cashew, farmers seek information from many sources. There are numerous sources, both interpersonal and mass media, localite and cosmopolite that are available to the farmers to feed information about latest technologies in cashew cultivation. A study was undertaken to know the information acquisition behaviour of cashew growers. The study was taken up at Cuddalore, one of the cashew predominant districts in Tamil Nadu State. A sample size of one hundred and twenty cashew growers were selected based on proportionate random sampling method. The ‘family members’, ‘friends and relatives’ were the foremost credible personal-localite sources of utilised by the cashew growers for receiving information. ‘Assistant Horticultural Officers’ and ‘Horticultural Officers’ were regularly used as their major channels by the cashew growers for information acquisition. ‘Farm telecasts’ and ‘farm broadcasts’ were the most utilised impersonal-cosmopolite sources by the cashew growers for acquisition of information.

Research Article | Published on : 21-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1358-1361
Vinod Kumar* and Vipin Kumar
School of Earth Sciences, Banasthali Vidyapith, Banasthali - 304 022, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Enhancing the agricultural productivity has become the top priority, worldwide because of the exponential demographic expansion. However, the present agricultural scenario of eco-system degradation warrants a sustainable approach to the agricultural production. The cropping system (cropping pattern and crop rotation) of an area has high bearing on both agricultural production as well as sustainability of the agro-ecosystem. Geospatial technology is gaining importance as useful tools in sustainable agricultural practices with time and cost-effective information. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the cropping system over a large area for the management and development of sustainable agro-ecosystem using geospatial technology is essential. The study has been conducted for Nathusari Chopta block of Sirsa district of Haryana state (India) based on multi-dated and multi-season Sentinal-2A/B; digital satellite data for the year 2018-2019. This paper is evaluating the role of cropping system analysis for agro-ecosystem sustainability. The unsupervised method of digital image classification is adopted with iterative self-organizing data analysis technique (ISODATA) approach. The NDVI approach is also used to improve the accuracy level of the digital classification for finding the non- agricultural classes like; forest, water bodies and built-up, etc. A total of 11 cropping patterns in the study area were identified and mapped. The net cropped area under kahrif, rabi and summer cropping pattern were occupied 71.81%, 86.50% and 30.50% respectively. These cropping patterns indicate that the area has the major crop rotations like: cotton-wheat/mustard, rice-wheat/mustard and gawar-mustard/gram were the dominant, occupied 26.31%, 23.55% and 8% of the total geographical area of the study area.

Research Article | Published on : 24-Oct-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1362-1366
Priya Pathak*, Chandan Singh, Neelam Chaudhary and Deepak Vyas
Lab of Microbial Technology and Plant Pathology, Department of Botany, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar - 470 003, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) is one of the most popular vegetables on the earth and produced in bulk quantities. Over the years non-judicious use of chemicals has reduced the soil fertility resulting decrease in the production of tomato and qualities. Here an attempted has been made to find alternatives for chemicals fertilizer, in this study we have use biochar, leaf compost, and SMC (Spent Mushroom Compost) the results indicates that out of these three, SMC yield better results in plant growth and productivity, followed by biochar than leaf compost and comparative lesser growth was observed in field soil, which was taken as control. Field soil was combined with different percentages of Biochar, Leaf compost, and SMC to obtain the following combinations T1 (control), T2, T3 and T4). The concentrations of Biochar, Leaf compost, and SMC promoted vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, and axillary branches) of the test plants (tomato plant). Tomato seedlings were grown in pots under different treatments, the experimental setup was visited regularly to record data viz. plant height, number of floral buds, and flowers. The study shows that SMC provides favorable soil conditioners for the cultivation of tomatoes as it improved growth and yield of tomato seedlings in the experiment.

Research Article | Published on : 04-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1367-1370
Kiran Abasaheb More*
Department of Botany and Research Institute, Yashvantrao Chavan Arts and Science Mahavidyalaya, Mangrulpir - 444 403, District Washim, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Dudhi is one of the significant crude medication utilized in Ayurveda. E. indica is utilized as the veritable source plant of medication Dudhi, it forces properties like, utilized for skin issue, sexual scatters, compelling medication for asthma., the runs, looseness of the bowels. The current investigation manages the near investigation of morphological, anatomical, histochemical characters of E. hirta and E. indica. Two plants show likenesses and contrasts between them at morphological, anatomical and histochemical levels. Morphologically these two plants show contrasts in numerous characters. Be that as it may, histological investigations of the two plants are practically comparable. The histochemical investigation of the two plants shows contrasts. This investigation assists with recognizing the authentic plants of the medication Dudhi for the planning of Ayurvedic medication.

Research Article | Published on : 04-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1371-1373
T Sambasiva Rao*
Department of Zoology, K.B.N. College, Kothapet, Vijayawada - 520 001, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
In the present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of solvent extracts of whole plant parts of Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) and isolation of anti-inflammatory compound from potent extracts was determined. Aqueous and methanolic solvent extracts of Leucas aspera were found to have significant anti-inflammatory activity at doses 50 and 100 mg/Kg during in vitro anti-inflammatory assay with standard Indomethacin 10 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute and formalin-induced chronic anti-inflammatory models in mice. The ethanolic extracts showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity in both models at a dosage 100 mg/kg. Thus, results showed that extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in dose-dependent manner. And also demonstrate that Leucas aspera has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in albino rats.

Research Article | Published on : 04-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1374-1377
K S Shubhashree*1, H R Raveendra1 and B G Shekhar2
1AICRP on Small Millets, 2AICRP on Forage Crops, Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya - 571 405, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A field investigation was conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya, to study the effect of herbicides for controlling weeds in transplanted finger millet with protective irrigation. The experiment was carried out consecutively for three years from 2015 to 2017 during Kharif in randomized block design with twelve treatments, replicated thrice. The treatments included pre-emergence application of herbicides alone at two doses each of pendimethalin 50 EC (0.5 kg a.i./ha and 0.75 kg a.i./ha), bensulfuron methyl (0.6G%) + pretilachlor (6. 0G%) (0.132 kg a.i/ha and 0.198 kg a.i./ha) and one dose of oxyflurofen 23.5 EC (0.1 kg a.i./ha) and combination of these herbicides with one inter cultivation at 40 days after sowing. Among herbicides, significant reduction in weed density was observed with application of oxyflurofen @ 0.1 kg a.i./ha (1.9 /0.25m2) and bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor @ 0.198 kg a.i./ha (5.0/0.25 m2) when compared to unweeded check (34.9 /0.25m2) at 30 DAP. Application of bensulfuron methyl + pretilachlor @ 0.198 kg a.i./ha resulted in significantly higher grain yield (4357 kg/ha), net returns per rupee invested (2.56) and higher weed control efficiency (84.9%) among the different herbicides tested.

Research Article | Published on : 04-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1378-1381
Ann Sneha Baby*, Jalaja S Menon and Ashwini S
Department of Plantation Crops and Spices, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Priming techniques improve seed vigour by enhancing rapid and uniform germination and growth and thus imparts invigoration to seedling. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of various priming treatments viz. hydropriming, priming with ethephon, Trichoderma sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens in enhancing the vigour and growth of protray raised ginger transplants. Results obtained from the study reveals that priming treatments has a significant effect in improving the initial vigour in ginger sprouts, which can render a stimulatory effect in growth of transplants. Emergence of sprouts were early in rhizomes primed with Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g L-1 for 0.5 hour (6.33 days) followed by hydropriming for one hour (6.83 days). Vigour parameters such as higher emergence index, lower time for 50 per cent emergence and lower mean emergence time were seen in primed rhizomes, when compared to unprimed control. Hydropriming and priming with ethephon 200 ppm for one hour resulted in significantly superior survival per cent of 85.16 and 84.16 respectively. Significantly higher seed vigour index was noticed in sprouts subjected to hydropriming and bioprimed with Pseudomonas fluorescens (3167.95 and 3011.99 respectively).

Research Article | Published on : 04-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1382-1387
Jitendra Malviya*
Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Centre, Barkatullah University, Bhopal - 462 026, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Food-borne toxin producing bacterium Bacillus cereus monitor the ability of the Food-borne opportunistic pathogen. Bacillus cereus to survive during minimal processing of food products conditions, allowed the cells to adapt to heat and acid stresses. Mild procession a cross-protection between acid and heat occurred in B. cereus, resulted survival in foods. The main objective of the study to determine the relationship between the response to cold and acidity, certain genes involved in the adaptation to cold may occur in the acid stress response in B. cereus ATCC14579. The effect of acidity and cold on the acid-sensitive and acid-resistant mutants screening in the first part and the mutants identified as sensitive to cold: 109H2 (∆CshA mutant CshA RNA helicase), 111D1 (RZC3747) 108C12 (∆porB mutant pyruvate synthase), 134G8 (∆mutS mutant / porB) and 110H1h (∆yqeC mutant, 6-phospho gluconate dehydrogenase) was studied. Finding of the study shown that growths at different pHe 7.0; 5.0; 4.8; 4.7; 4,6 and 4, 5.5 were conducted on the wild type and mutants sensitive to cold stress. The growth of mutants 111D1, 108C12, 134G8, 110H1 is altered at low pH compared to the wild-type strain and mutants 109H2 which develop more rapidly. The study suggested that the growth of the cold-sensitive mutant 109H2 (∆CshA mutant) is not affected by acidity compared to the other cold sensitive’s mutants (111D1, 108C12, 134G8, 110H1). Thus, the RZC3747, porB (pyruvate synthase), mutS / porB and yqeC (6-phospho gluconate dehydrogenase) identifed as cols sensitive mutsnts conclud that these genes can be involved also in the growth of B. cereus in acidic medium.

Research Article | Published on : 04-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1388-1394
Isha Sai*1 and R Basavarju2
1Department of Biosciences, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Anantapur Campus, Anantapur - 515 001, Andhra Pradesh, India 2Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam Campus - 515 134, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present work provides information on proximate composition, mineral element profile and antimicrobial activity of two wild edible mushrooms, namely, Podaxis pistillaris and Termitomyces heimii from Andhra Pradesh, India. Concentrations of four macro elements (Mg, K, P and Ca) and eight micro nutrient elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, Se, B and Mo) were assessed using ICP-MS. Termitomyces heimii was found to possess high amount of magnesium, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, zinc and cobalt. In Podaxis pistillaris as well good amount of copper, selenium and molybdenum were detected. Antimicrobial activities of mushroom samples when evaluated exhibited low to moderate activity against the normal and resistant strains of bacteria while the higher concentrations were not found to be effective.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1395-1398
Nazrina Nourin* and Neetu Singh
Department of Food and Nutrition, School for Home Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The fame of the gluten free eating regimen has been expanding fundamentally to improvise the health prosperity of the population. Potato and rice are gluten free sources which have an enormous scope creation around the world. This investigation centers around the helpful extraction of starch from potato and flour from rice, and further its usage in planning of gluten free cake. The improvement of cake generally comprised of six formulations with fluctuating measures of potato starch and rice flour. The general agreeableness of the formulations was assessed utilizing sensory evaluation by 20 semi-trained members with the assistance of 9-point hedonic scale led in the Department of Food and Nutrition. The tactile scores were broken down measurably bringing about perhaps the best definition made with 150g of potato starch and 100g of rice flour for readiness of gluten free cake.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1399-1406
Roli Tripathi* and Neetu Singh
Department of Food and Nutrition, School for Home Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedekar University, Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
This research was performed to throw the light on the nutritional value indices; proximate chemical composition, indispensable amino acids profile, fatty acids composition, minerals content and vitamins content and polyphenol fractions content of pomegranate fruits peel and seeds powders as by-products of their processing to investigate the ability of using these in food processing and preservation. The present results showed that tested pomegranate fruits by-products; peels and seeds, powder contained a much higher exceptionally content of lysine, isoleucine and amino acids – containing sulpher (Methionine and cysteine), which are usually deficient in the most food stuffs, than the reference protein pattern of FAO/WHO. The current results also illustrated that pomegranate seeds oil contained a high content of W3, W6- and W9- fatty acids. In addition, the tested pomegranate fruits by-products were characterized with their richness with the most determined minerals and vitamins. Furthermore, pomegranate fruits peel powder had a high content (1.403 g/100g dry matter) of total polyphenols and the predominant polyphenol fractions in pomegranate peels powder were catechins, phenol gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, p-coumaric acid and resocenol compounds. Therefore, the current results suggest that it should be directed to incorporate pomegranate fruits seed and peel powders into the food prossing and preservation technology to improve their nutritional quality and to prolong the shelf-life of these food products.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1407-1409
A S Archana, K Kanagasabapathi* and V Sakthivel
Department of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
‘Sustainable Farming’ involves cultural and management practices such as crop rotation, recycling of animal manures, and conservation tillage to control soil erosion and nutrient losses and to maintain or enhance soil productivity. Paddy (Oryza sativa L.), an important cereal crop serves as a staple food for more than one-third of the global population. Farmers are experiencing a lot of challenges in the adoption of sustainable farming practices. This study aimed to analyze the problems faced by the farmers in the adoption of the sustainable farming practices in paddy cultivation in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu state. Data related to the challenges experienced by the farmers in the adoption of sustainable farming practices in paddy cultivation were collected from 120 respondents by adopting a well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule and the collected data were analyzed with suitable statistical tools like mean and percentage analysis. From the study it was found out that paddy farmers are experiencing physical constraints, communication constraints, personal constraints, socio-economic constraints and technological constraints. Addressing these issues can enhance the adoption of sustainable farming practices in paddy cultivation.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1410-1412
Jitendra Singh* and Neelam Kumar Singh
Department of Agricultural Economics, BNPG College, Rath - 210 431, District Hamirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Sugarcane is one of the most important cash crops in the world economy, as it is the most prominent and ancient source of sugar used by mankind. Sugarcane is known to be thriving well in Brazil, India, Australia, Cuba, USA, Philippines, and Indonesia. The data obtained from secondary sources are analyzed for post WTO period to obtain estimates the compound growth rate of area, production and yield of sugarcane in western region of Uttar Pradesh. The data obtained for the period of 20 years beginning with 1995-96 to 2014-15. The data is divided into two sub periods i.e. 1995-96 to 2004-05, 2005-06 to 2014-15 beside overall period 1995-96 to 2014-15. The study revealed that the area, production and yield of sugarcane in western region have increased during the entire study period, while area under sugarcane declined during II sub period i.e. 2005-06 to 2014-15 and yield also decreased during, I sub period i.e. 1995-96 to 2004-05. The study suggested that the efforts should be made to improve the productivity of sugarcane in western region of Uttar Pradesh to increase its production at higher rate.

Research Article | Published on : 07-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1413-1415
M R Abdar*
Department of Zoology, Karantish Nana Patil College, Walwa District Sangli - 416 313, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Ants are a very significant group of animals on earth. They are ecologically important and sensitive to any changes in the environment. The present study aims to identify the species of ants across the rural and urban habitat in a different season of Sangli district, Maharashtra. 12 species of ants belonging to 09 genera were observed from the rural and urban areas from 2018 to 2019. This study shows that the dominancy by family Formicidae within the ant communities, due to their ability to adapt to different niches. From the present study it can be concluded that ant diversity, abundance is a different season in a different habitat. The study of ants helps us to an effective indicator of the surrounding environment. An ant is more disturbance indicators as compared to other groups of invertebrates. The number of species is considerably increased due to the availability of plenty of food and feeding ground in a different habitat.

Short communication | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1416-1419
D Dhanasekaran* and K Ramya
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An investigation was carried out to standardize the media and nutrients for Arrowhead plant (Syngonium podophyllum) under vertical green walls in the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu during the year 2018 to 2020. The experiment comprised of four media viz. Coco peat, Greenosil, Perlite and Vermiculite and their combinations and two nutrients viz. Foliar nutrition (Grosure NPK 19:19:19 and @ 1% twice (30 and 90 days after planting)) and fertilizer stick (Greenstix sticks were inserted to the modular containers @ one per container at 30 and 90 days after planting). The plant growth characters like plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, shoot weight, root weight, biomass, size index, and visual quality were observed at 150 days after planting. From the experiment, it could be concluded that Arrowhead plant (Syngonium podophyllum) performed better under the media vermiculite and applied with fertilizer stick (Greeenstix @ 1 per container at 60 days interval).

Short communication | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1420-1422
Dhruv Pandya*, Archana Mankad and Himanshu Pandya
Department of Botany, Bio-informatics, Climate Change Impacts Management, University School of Science, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad - 308 009, Gujarat, India
Abstract
In this research heavy metals accumulation capacity of Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harm. was assessed. Here, two different approaches In-vitro and In-vivo were used for the production of plantlets. In-vitro approach involved tissue culture approach and In-vivo direct through media (soil, cocopeat, mosses). Shoot apexes were used for the production of plantlets. After 30 days of plantlets development all the plantlets which were produced through in-vitro and in-vivo approaches and plants were transplanted in the pots and treated with two metals lead and cadmium in the form of Pb (NO3)2 and Cd (NO3)2. Different concentrations were selected for Lead 200mg, 400mg, 600mg, 800mg/kg and for cadmium 5mg, 10mg, 15mg, and 20mg/kg. Each pot was filled with 5kg of soil. The metals were given directly through root zone of plants in solution form. After incubation time of 75 days mature and treated plants were collected and root length, shoot length, number of branches were measured scientifically. On the basis of the results of AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic Analysis) we can conclude that the accumulation of lead and cadmium is higher in In-vitro produced plants as compared to In-vivo produced plants. Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harm. is high metal stress tolerant species which also shows good amount of metal remediation capacity (Lead and Cadmium). So, in future for Phytoremediation of heavy metals can be done through Tissue Cultured or In-vitro produced plants. In future, remediation capacity of different soil pollutants can be analyzed through this method.

Short communication | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1423-1425
Ananya Roy Chowdhury*
Department of Botany, Chakdaha College, Chakdaha, Nadia - 741 222, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Bacillus cereus is a major type of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can tremendously enhance plant growth and represent a symbiotic plant-microbe interaction. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterias (PGPRs) stimulate plant growth and yield by direct as well as indirect mechanisms which include fixation of nitrogen, siderophore production, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, HCN production, biocontrol of seed borne pathogen, increasing of nutrients in the soil etc. So, in this article it is focused on the functional aspect of Bacillus cereus as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on seed germination and overall growth of Amaranthus cruentus plant which may open a new gateway for organic agriculture. From the above study it can be concluded that if Bacillus cereus is applied on Amaranthus cruentus L. plants it can enhance seed germination, plants overall growth and development as well. Without any application of chemical fertilizers, the red amaranth plant growth can be increased by the application of Bacillus cereus-the PGPR strain. So, there is a scope of using Bacillus cereus as good biofertilizer in future.

Short communication | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1426-1429
Harshita Sharma and Dolly Kumar*
Division of Entomology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara - 390 002, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), commonly called fall armyworm (FAW) is one of the major insect pests of the world. Its boundary was limited to the American continent until the year 2016 where the first report outside America came. From affecting Africa in 2016 and became invasive in India in 2018, the pest is continuing to infest various crops, majorly maize fields of India. Some Indian states including Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Mizoram, etc. have reported the serious outbreaks of this pest. Fall armyworm although being polyphagous prefers maize the most along with sorghum, sugarcane, paddy, millets. Maize is an important cereal in the country after wheat and rice. Efforts are being made to control the pest in the country. Knowledge of the biology of the pest would help identify and understand the pest better. Such a knowledge is prerequisite for various control programs of the pest. A study of the biology of the pest fall armyworm on a maize-based artificial diet in India is new and has been discussed here. It is also compared with the natural diet in the form of maize leaves to check for its application.

Short communication | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1430-1432
Deepanjali Sinha1, Alok K Srivastava2, Shakti K Prabhuji*1 and Atul K Srivastava3
1Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Centre, M. G. Post Graduate College, Gorakhpur - 273 001, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Department of Chemistry, M. G. Post Graduate College, Gorakhpur - 273 001, Uttar Pradesh, India 3Department of Chemistry, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya - 824 234, Bihar, India
Abstract
The ripe fruits of “Paniala” or “Coffee Plum” or Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.) Raeus., which are highly rich with vitamins and minerals, are usually available only for a limited four months period in a year, i.e. from August to November. Therefore, it would be necessary to develop certain specific canning and preservative methods for ripe fruits of “Paniala” with all its nutritional qualities intact so that consumers may get these fruits throughout the year. The methods for the preparation of sweet fruit juice, fruits in sugar syrup and dried and salty nuggets; have been given in this communication. Earlier preparations and studies have indicated that the best use period will be 24 months from the date of its package.

Short communication | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1433-1435
P K Netam*1, Basanti Netam2 and Yuvaraj Singh Dhruw3
1Department of Agricultural Extension, CARS, Kanker, IGKV, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India 2Department of Senior Agriculture Development Officer, Dhamtari, Chhattisgarh, India 3Department of Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture, IGKV, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
This investigation was carried out in three district of Bastar plateau of Chhattisgarh State to assess the existing pattern of cultivation practices of maize. 270 farmers were considered as respondents for this study. Respondents were interviewed through personal interview. Collected data were analyzed with the help of suitable statistical methods. The analysis of the results showed that existing pattern of practice of maize revealed among the respondents, 51.50 percent cultivating the maize crop having an area of 0.5 to 1.86 ha. Between the improved varieties and hybrid maize, hybrid maize was taken up by the majority of the respondents. The average seed rate of more than 18 kg ha-1 was used by 63.70 percent respondents, all the respondents used the line showing method in place of broadcasting, manual weeding of weed control measure was common practice among the respondents. Frequency of irrigation 63.70 percent respondents apply irrigation to maize crop in 10-15 days interval, plant protection measures 52.22 percent respondents occasionally used the chemical. Among the different respondents 99.26 percent used to harvest and thresher machine for threshing. About 45.56 percent respondents did not have storage facilities. From the above research findings, it can be concluded that most of the respondents cultivated maize in Kharif and Rabi season in small land size and they mostly preferred hybrid variety. Regarding the sowing method respondents were practiced of line sowing. Generally, weed control measures were carried out by manually weeding operation doing by them and occasionally used plant protection measures. Majority of respondents harvested after maturity for grain purpose and threshing by maize thresher whereas they had stored cob and grain in house upper chamber and wood stand.

Short communication | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1436-1443
Chandan Singh*1, Priya Pathak1, Neelam Chaudhary1, Apeksha Rathi1, Deepak Vyas1 and Poonam Dehariya2
1Lab of Microbial Technology and Plant Pathology, Department of Botany, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar - 470 003, Madhya Pradesh, India 2Lab of Mushroom Biology, Department of Botany, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar - 470 003, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract
Mushrooms are the source of food and medicine. There are numbers of mushrooms used in the food and are easy to cultivate on the agric residue riched in carbon source. Mushroom cultivation not only provides a source of food but also helps in the management of agric residue. Moreover, mushroom compost or spent mushroom substrate are used as a biofertilizer and could be included in various components of Integrated farm management. Many research studies reported that mushroom and mushroom compost would be effective components in increasing farmers' income and reduce the input cost in farms. In this review, we have discussed and compiled the possible integration of mushrooms and mushroom composts in different components of the integrated farming system and farm management.

Research Review | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1444-1451
Kranti H Kakade1, Rajashree B Patwardhan*2 and Girish R Pathade2
1Agricultural Microbiology Section, Vasantdada Sugar Institute, Manjari Budruk, Pune - 412307, Maharashtra, India 2Department of Microbiology, Haribhai V. Desai College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Pune - 411 002, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The use of chemical fertilizers and chemical insecticides in agricultural field by the farmers to get increased yield, is a routine practice. Adverse effects of chemical pesticides on non-target organisms, food safety, and development of insect resistance is well known. It has been lead to researcher to focus on the development of alternative eco-friendly measures. Biological control is aimed to reduce population of ecologically and agriculturally harmful invasive species. The chief bioinsecticides available are Bacillus thuringiensis, insect parasitic nematodes, and entomopathogenic bacteria. The entomopathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis widely used for control of insect pest. One of the bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus luminescens are considered to be symbiotically associated with the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, respectively, and are not isolated outside this relationship and play important role for killing insect. Photorhabdus has received commercial attention as a new biocontrol agent because of high pathogenicity towards a wide variety of insects. Two of the four insecticidal toxins are known to possess oral toxicity to Lepidopteran insects. Photorhabdus explores characteristics to be used as novel biopesticide against insect pest.

Research Review | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1452-1458
M Rosemol Jacob, R Mahadevan, P Akshay, K K Anas, Suseela Mathew and R Anandan*
Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, ICAR- Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kochi - 682 059, Kerala, India
Abstract
The marine biopolymers, chitin and chitosan are prospective candidates possessing a widespread application in the field of clinical nutrition and biomedicine. The primary amine moieties present in the structural skeleton of chitin and chitosan pose pronounced physio-chemical and biological properties, which are profound to exert anticancer, antioxidant and antimicrobial functions, exploited in pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for the formulations of drugs and biomaterials. As these natural biopolymers exhibit diverse properties, they find potential attention in tissue engineering, wound healing process, microencapsulation and sustained drug delivery applications. The main emphasis of the present mini-review is to highlight the recent advancements on functional properties of chitin and chitosan with respect to nutritional and biomedical applications.

Research Review | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1459-1465
Poonam Poonia*1, Sangeeta Parihar2 and Om Prakash2
1Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, 2Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur - 342 011, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Dry land agricultural crops are characterized by very low and highly variable and uncertain yields. Crop failures are quite common at these areas because of inadequate and uneven distribution of rainfall, prolonged dry spells during the crop period, low moisture retention capacity and low fertility of soils. To overcome the constraints of dry land agriculture, mulching is gaining a considerable attention worldwide as agronomic measures for water and soil conservation. Mulching is the process of forming the protective layer, organic and inorganic material, around the plant. It is beneficial for plant health by creating a microclimate around the plant root zone. Mulching improves the soil quality by preventing the runoff of soil, reduces the weed growth and also limits the evaporation of water. Mulching improve water holding capacity of soil, conserve soil moisture, and improves physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Thus, enhances the soil fertility by generating nutrients to the soil and increases the growth and yield of crops. The paper has information of all the aspect of mulches with reference to their types, origin and beneficiary effects. The paper also discusses the advantages of these mulches in terms of soil environment, water conservation, weed control, crop growth and yield.

Case Study | Published on : 08-Nov-2020

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 11 - Issue : 6 ; 1466-1467
Chandra Sekhar Das and Raju Singha*
Panskura Banamali College (Autonomous), Panskura - 721 152, West Bengal, India
Abstract
About 69% of the Indian populations are living in rural area where the source of drinking water is ground water. Presently a major portion of the rural peoples are also using ground water for their domestic and agricultural uses either by own pumping system or by public water supplying systems. Though the megacity water management systems use river or lake water for domestic or industrial uses however, small towns and municipalities are mainly depending on ground water as they don’t have any water purification systems. As a result, the ground water level is decreasing very fast in most of the sates in India. Therefore, ground water recharge is necessary for sustainable ground water management with social development. Presently fish firming is a very fast-growing business at Purba Medinipur district in the state of West Bengal. Considering the economic benefits of fish firming in comparison to agricultural products, peoples are converting their lands to wetlands. These fisheries wetlands benefitted the sustainable ground water management systems by improving the ground water recharge process mainly for the four reasons: (i) high perimeter to volume ratio, (ii) long time water reserves though out the year (iii) ground soil permeability improvement in each year and (iv) water pressure (about 3 mitre height) on soil.

General Article | Published on : 08-Nov-2020