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E- ISSN: 2249-4538

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Volume - 12 - January-February 2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 01–06
Abdalla Adda*1 and M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan2
1-2Department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Field experiments were carried out in season 2018 and 2019 to study the influence residual effect of incorporation lignite fly ash, organics and fertilizers alone or in combination on some yield characters viz. plant height, number of pod plant-1, number of cluster plant-1, number of pod plant-1, number of seed pod-1, test weight, yield and nutrient uptake of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) in clay loam soil-based cropping system. The experiments were laid out in randomized block dosing with two factors; factor A): 0 and 10 t lignite fly ash ha-1 and factor B): ten different nutrient management treatments, replicated trice. The results revealed that the residual effect of the integrated use of lignite fly ash, organics and fertilizers had significantly more effective than no fly ash. The Interaction effect between lignite fly ash with different organics and fertilizer on plant height, cluster plant-1, and seed pod-1 was not significant but was significant on pod plant-1, test seed weight, haulm and seed yield as well as NPK uptake in both years 2018 and 2019. The maximum haulm and seed yield were recorded with the residual effect of 100% NPK + 10 t LFA ha-1 + 10 t SPM ha-1 of 2751 and 2833 kg ha-1 of haulm yield and 422 and 430 kg ha-1 of seed yield, in 2018 and 2019 respectively. The greatest NPK uptake by haulm and the seed was noticed also with 100% NPK + 10 t LFA ha-1 + 10 t SPM ha-1 followed by the residual effect of integrated 100% NPK + 10 t LFA ha-1 + 10 t FYM ha-1. The lowest value of yield characters and yield was registered in the control treatment.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 07-10
G. B. Dave*1
1Shri Kokilaben Karsanbhai Patel Girls Science College, Nani Kadi, District Mahesana - 382 715, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The removal of nickel from plating waste water by weakly basic chelating anion exchange resins, such as Dowex 50×4, 50×2 and Dowex M-4195, is investigated. Effect of initial metal ion concentration, resin dose and pH on exchange capacities of ion exchange resins was studied in a batch method. The adsorption process, which is pH dependent, shows maximum removal of nickel in the pH range 4-6 for an initial nickel concentration of 05-30 mg L-1 and with resin dose 25-700 mg L-1. The experimental data have been analyzed by using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equation. The isotherm constants for all these isotherm models have been calculated. The uptake of Nickel by the ion exchange resins was reversible and thus has good potential for the removal/recovery of nickel from plating waste effluent contain nickel in the form of anion exchange. The investigated ion exchange resins can be used for the efficient removal of nickel from plating wastewater.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 11-16
K. H. Sodha*1, H. P. Gajera2, Vasantba J. Jadeja3 and B. A. Golakiya4
1-3Department of Microbiology, Shree M. & N. Virani Science College, Kalawad Road, Rajkot-360005, Gujarat, India 2-4Department of Biotechnology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362001, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Chili leaf curl virus causes yield loss of around 30% - 40% in chili crop. Present study looked at the alternative of pesticides to manage leaf curl disease with the help of nanotechnology and plant extract. Essential oil of Palmarosa leaves were extracted by hydro-distillation method using Clevenger apparatus yielded 1.2% of essential oil. GC-MS analysis of essential oil identified major bioactive compounds as Geraniol (47.82%), Linalool (12.09%), Caryophyllene (11.20%), Elemene (6.45%) and Geranyl acetate (4.60%) reported for antiviral, antimicrobial and pest repellent activities. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by tri-Sodium Citrate reductant and particle size of silver nanoparticles obtained 59.8 nm. The essential oil (Concentration 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%) utilized to develop nano emulsion with silver nanoparticles and size of nano emulsion obtained 102.3 nm, 113.8 nm, 134.7 nm and 150.1 nm respectively. Zeta potential indicated better stability and solubility of nano emulsion after essential oil interaction with AgNPs. FTIR spectra of silver nanoparticles showed stretch which confirms presence of silver nanoparticles on to bioactive compounds. Scanning electron micrograph showed spherical shape of silver nanoparticles after interaction with bioactive compounds.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 17-22
Murali S*1 and Sardar Singh2
1-2Central Silk Board, Regional Sericultural Research Station, Miran Sahib, Jammu - 181 101, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
In the present study, the selected breeds were screened for the desired qualitative and quantitative traits during spring and autumn seasons (2018 and 2019). After fixation of the desired traits, eighteen breeds (BHR 2, BHR 3, B.con 1, B.con 4, ATR16, ATR29, DUN6, DUN22, CSR2, CSR6, CSR50, CSR51, RSJ1, RSJ14, SH6 and NB4D2) were procured from different institutes for the study. The breed’s trial was conducted and assessed for two different seasons for their performance on important economical traits. The data obtained on the traits such as fecundity, hatching, yield per 10000 larvae by number and weight, single cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio and filament length was analyzed with statistical tools. Based on the two popular evaluation methods such as multiple traits Evaluation Index (EI) and Sub ordinate Function (SF) methods, the eight breeds (BHR 2, BHR 3, B.con 1, B.con 4, ATR 16, CSR50, RSJ 14 and NB4D2) shown above 50 EI values with SF values varied from 2.07 - 6.73 identified as superior compared to other breeds. The shortlisted breeds were utilized for further breeding programme for hybrid preparation.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 23–26
Pushpendra Singh*1, Surendra Singh1, M. K. Bhargava2, C. B. S. Jatav3 and P. S. Kushwah4
1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, BNV College, Rath - 210 431, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, District Shivpuri - 473 551, Madhya Pradesh, India 3Department of Agronomy, BNV College, Rath - 210 431, Uttar Pradesh, India 4Department of Education, District Shivpuri, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract
A ten parent line x tester analysis was carried out to study the extent of heterosis and inbreeding depression for yield and its component traits in green gram at Brahmanand Mahavidyalaya Rath (Hamirpur), Uttar Pradesh. Heterosis over mid parent and better parent was significant to highly significant for seed yield/plant along with other attributing traits. The crosses exhibiting high heterosis also expressed high inbreeding depression both in the positive and negative direction for days to 50% flowering, pods/plant, pods/cluster, harvest index and seed yield/ plant. Heterosis coupled with inbreeding depression revealed the predominance of both non-additive and additive gene action for most of the characters studied. Owing to its autogamous genetic architecture and biological constraints of the crop, the heterosis could be exploited only by isolating the desirable segregants for yield and its attributes adopting selection in early segregating generations followed by single plant selection in subsequent generations.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 27–31
Balagangadharaswamy Shobha1, Basavaraju Sumanth2, Chowdappa Srinivas*3
1-3Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Bangalore, University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore - 560 056, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present work is focused on isolation, identification and pathogenicity test of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) a causative organism of Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice. The diseased leaf samples were collected from different paddy fields of Karnataka A total of 72 bacterial isolates were isolated and identified as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) based on biochemical characterization. The growth of Xoo was checked on 6 different media such as Nutrient agar (NA), Yeast extract Dextrose Calcium Carbonate Agar media (YDCA), Modified D-5 agar media (M D-5), Yeast extract Nutrient Agar media (YENA), Peptone Sucrose Agar media (PSA) and Tryptone Soya Agar media (TSA). The pathogenic bacteria shown best growth on YDCA, NA, TSA, followed by PSA, YENA and poor growth was recorded on M D-5 media. The isolates were screened for pathogenicity tests by using clip inoculation method, cutting and dipping method for IR 64 rice variety. Among 72 isolates subjected for pathogenicity test, the isolates only one isolate was shown to be pathogenicity, the remaining isolates were moderately pathogenic.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 32–37
Lingayya Raghavendra1,2 and Melally Giddegowda Venkatesha*1
1Insect Science Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Bengaluru - 560 056, Karnataka, India 2Central Environmental Laboratory, Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, Nisaraga Bhavan, Shivanagar, Bengaluru - 560 079, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The study estimated the pesticide residues in 40 surface water samples from four locations of arabica coffee plantations in the Western Ghats. Residual analysis of water samples confirmed the contamination of both organochlorine (OC) and organophosphate (OP) pesticides in surface water. OC pesticide residues present in the range 0.01 - 1.10 µg/L, with the maximum presence of HCH, heptachlor, DDT, and DDT isomers. Chlorpyrifos present in the range of 0.02-.069 µg/L among the targeted OP pesticides. Acute toxicity estimated by using common carp fish for both p’, p’ DDT, and chlorpyrifos. LC50 value of p’, p’ DDT, and chlorpyrifos was 0.023 and 0.403 mg/L, respectively. This study confirmed the presence of excessive pesticide contamination in surface water and its toxic effect on common carp.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 38–41
Chandrabhan Singh Jatav1, B. K. Pandey2, Pushpendra Singh*3 and Prabhat K. Chaturvedi1
1Department of Agronomy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Department of Agronomy, BNV College, Rath - 210 431, Hamirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India 3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, District Shivpuri - 473 551, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present investigation entitled “Impact of tillage operations, nutrients and weed control on yield attributes and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivam L.)”. The experiment was conducted at Research farm of Brahmanand PG College Rath, Hamirpur (U.P.) during the year 2017-18 and 2018-19 under the agro-climatic conditions of Rath, Hamirpur. The topography of the field was uniform with proper drainage. The experiment was laid out in split plot. All 24 treatment combinations were replicated thrice. The observations were recorded on different yield and yield attributes viz. effective tillers m2, grain ear-1, grain weight ear-1, 1000 grain weight (g), harvest index, grain yield (q/ha), straw yield (q/ha) and biological yield (q/ha). The result of experiment indicated that the maximum effective tillers, grain ear-1, grain weight ear-1, 1000 grain weight (g), grain yield (q/ha), straw yield (q/ha) and biological yield (q/ha) were recorded in treatment T1 (Conventional tillage), W3 (Sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha + Metsulfuron 4 g/ha) herbicide spray and N4 (Recommended NPK + 30 kg S + 5 kg Zn ha) nutrients in first year, second year and in pooled. The minimum effective tillers, grain ear-1, grain weight ear-1, 1000 grain weight (g), grain yield (q/ha), straw yield (q/ha) and biological yield (q/ha) were found in treatment T2 (Zero tillage), weedy check plot (W1) herbicide spray and N1 (Recommended NPK (120kg N, 60kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O ha)) nutrients in first year and the similar trend was followed in second year and pooled. While the maximum harvest index was recorded in treatment T2 (Zero tillage), W3 (Sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha + Metsulfuron 4 g/ha) herbicide spray and N2 (Recommended NPK + 30 kg S ha) nutrients in first year, second year and in pooled. The minimum harvest index was found in treatment T1 (Conventional tillage), weedy check plot (W1) herbicide spray and N4 (Recommended NPK + 30 kg S + 5 kg Zn ha) nutrients in first year and the similar trend was followed in second year and pooled.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 42-50
Gurpiar Singh1, Dilip Singh Kachwaya2 and Gurbir Singh*3
1-2Department of Agriculture, Mata Gujri College, Fathegarh Sahib – 140 406, Punjab, India 3Department of Horticulture, Khalsa College, (Guru Nanak Dev University), Amritsar – 143 001, Punjab, India
Abstract
The present investigation entitled “Studies on the different concentration of IBA on hardwood cuttings of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. Wonderful” was carried out during 2016-2017 at Mata Gujri College Farm, Fathegarh Sahib. Pomegranate is most important deciduous fruit crop for both tropical and subtropical regions of our country. On the basis of result optimum present investigation, it can be concluded that IBA 3000 ppm concentration significantly increase numbers of roots, numbers of shoots, survival percentages, dry weight of roots and shoots has maximum recorded compared to concentrations of IBA in distilled and simple water. Therefore, the present study has demonstrated the IBA 1500 and 3000 quick dip were found to best in all the parameters studied.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 51-57
G. Jaya1, S. B. Ramya Lakshmi2 and K. C. Gummagolmath*3
1-3National Institute of Agricultural Extension (MANAGE), Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad -500030
Abstract
The present study was conducted in the state of Maharashtra with an objective to ascertain the human resource issues in Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs). For the study Board of Directors and employees of FPCs were selected as sample respondents. The results of the present study revealed that all the directors selected for the study agreed that board‘s meeting agenda clearly reflects the company‘s strategic plan or priorities and awareness of what is expected about them as a board of directors. About 95 per cent of the directors agreed that they have a strategic plan or a set of long-term goals and priorities, directions to the staff regarding how to achieve the set goals and participation of all the board members in board meetings. Except few directors, majority of them agreed that all the legal compliances are followed for the better performance of the company’s business. The performance of the companies as per the opinion of the directors on an average was ranging from excellent to good. It is very interesting to observe that all the respondents agreed to the factors considered for assessing the business of Producer Company. The study also revealed that employees’ level of satisfaction and their functioning is better and are committed to improve their performance. Self-evaluation of the employees of FPCs revealed that they are concerned about the basic stakeholders and so also the works related to FPCs. Deployment of staff pattern indicated that higher proportion of them were devoted for customer service by most of the FPOs in the study area. However, the proportion of employees deployed for other activities was relatively less. It was also observed that almost 75 per cent of the employees were satisfied with their current positions.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 58–62
Jitendra Singh*1 and Neelam Kumar Singh2
1Department of Agricultural Economics, BNPG College, Rath - 210 431, Hamirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Department of Agricultural Statistics, BNPG College, Rath - 210 431, Hamirpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The paper makes an attempt to analyze and evaluate the migration in remote tribal areas, Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. The objective of this paper is to analyze the observations relating to seasonal migration from two villages Pospur and Kirchali located in respectively, Pati and Sendhwa Tehsil of Barwani district of Madhya Pradesh. We have used both qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection. The quantitative data were generated for 84 sample households during the year 2014-15. Study reveals that the seasonal migration resulted in about 20 to 33 percent of family members remaining out of the village for 4 to 9 months. Females usually migrate along with the male in the area, the female migration was about 43 and 50 percent of total migration from Pospur and Kirchali villages, respectively. On an average, a migrant family earns as additional sum of ₹ 11160 per year from migration. After meeting the day to day expenditure at the destination and some purchases (clothes, shoes, transportation expenses etc.) the net saving accrued due to migration was about ₹ 5984 per family. However, in case of the resource poor (i.e. those with limited land as well as irrigation resources) migration is clearly a more effective option because of the limited “credit worthiness”. In fact, migration is a dynamic context might help in enhancing the credit worthiness especially by improving the repayment schedule among these households. This would imply that given the limited land base and the uncertainity associated with the stream of income flowing from the land-based activities.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 63–67
Pragya Dubey*1, Sunita Mishra2 and Ravi Shankar Verma3
1-2Department of Food and Nutrition, School for Home Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, A central University, Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India 3Department of Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, A central University, Lucknow - 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a fine cereal and a rugged crop, one of the crops that can remain uninfluenced in many terms and conditions. Compared to other cereals the finger millet has high protein, minerals, and iron. Eating finger millet regularly reduces the risk of diabetic mellitus. Amino acid methionine lecithin improves the cholesterol levels by removing excess liver fat, and threonine helps to prevent liver fat disposal. Finger millet incorporation will increase the nutritional value of any diet. Finger millet flour can be added to baked products to formulate calcium and iron enriched cookie cake. The objective of research is to find out nutritional composition of finger millet and to prepared nutritionally incorporated cookie cake by finger millet flour. Calcium deficiency is dominant over the bone and teeth related disorders, and iron prevalence is identified by introducing FM in our diet. In this objective there are three uncommon samples were assigned for recipe standardization. Three different ratios are made 25%, 50% and 75% respectively. It observed that the cookie cake prepared with 50% Finger millet was highly acceptable by sensory analysis. Finger millet flours fortified wheat flour significantly improved the chemical composition (fat, fiber and protein and carbohydrate). According to sensory and nutritional quality, fortification of cookies cake with 50% finger millet flour affect the quality and nutrition of cookie cake in positive way i.e., the carbohydrate content in the cookies cake is resulted 65.63%, protein content is 14.89%, fat content is 13.45% and ash content 1.9%, respectively. By all means the sample 2 with 50% finger millet flour incorporation was found suitable and sample 2 found best one.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 68–72
Tarangini Rawat*1 and Sanjay Gupta2
1Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, SBSPGI, Balawala - 248 161, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India 2Himalayan School of Biosciences, Swami Ram Himalayan University, Jolly Grant, Dehradun - 248 001, Uttarakhand
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of seed extract of Angelica glauca against four bacterial strains. Essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation from the seeds and analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antibacterial activities of seed extracts were tested using disc diffusion method against four bacterial strains. Twenty-six compounds were identified representing 93.20% of total oil, of which non-terpenoids (42.76%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (42.10%) were found in large amount, i.e., terpinene-4-ol (20.13%) and trans-ligustilide (29.93%), phthalide- butylidene (11.67%). The antibacterial results revealed that the seed extracts exhibited notable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhii, Bacillus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia except Escherichia coli. The extract of seed obtained through methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous exhibited good to moderate antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial strains. n-Butanol showed no antimicrobial activity. The above analysis suggests that B. aureus showed the best zone of inhibition for methanol extract.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 73–76
Rakesh Kumar*1, G. S. Chhina2 and N. D. Singh3
1-3Faculty of Agriculture, Khalsa College, Amritsar – 143 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
Data was collected during 2014-15 and 2015-16 from 100 small farmers of 10 villages from randomly selected Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts of Punjab, India, to evaluate the performance of various pulse based crop rotations viz. rice-wheat-summer moong (summer pulse crop rotation (SPCR1)), arhar-wheat (main pulse crop rotation (MPCR2)), rice-lentil (main pulse crop rotation (MPCR3)), arhar-lentil (pulse-pulse crop rotation (PPCR4) compared to the existing rice-wheat cropping system as non-pulse crop rotation (NPCR5). Rice equivalent yield, crop productivity, system productivity and land use efficiency was recorded significantly higher in SPCR1 (12.99 t/ha, 36.76 kg/ha/day, 35.59 kg/ha/day and 96.66%) compared to NPCR5 (9.94 t/ha, 33.65 kg/ha/day, 27.22 kg/ha/day and 80.81%), MPCR2 (8.77 t/ha, 29.86 kg/ha/day, 24.08 kg/ha/day and 80.52%), MPCR3 (8.74 t/ha, 30.99 kg/ha/day, 23.95 kg/ha/day and 77.40%) and MPCR4 (6.69 t/ha, 24.66 kg/ha/day, 18.84 kg/ha/day and 76.21%) respectively. The inclusion of main season pulse crops in crop rotations helped to reduce the quantity of irrigation and application of chemical nutrients significantly compared to existing rice-wheat crop rotation and recorded significantly lower in PPCR4 (17.52 ha-cm and 76 kg/ha) compared to all other pulse and non-pulse crop rotations. AWUP and ANUP were recorded significantly higher in PPCR4 (437.65 and 89.74 kg/ha) than all other crop rotations. Inclusion of summer pulse in existing rice -wheat cropping system helped to enhance crop productivity and system productivity (9.24% and 30.75%) over rice- wheat alone which was otherwise recorded better in crop productivity and system productivity than all other crop rotations selected for study under irrigated conditions of Punjab.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 77–81
Prasenjit Bhagawati*1, Rukhsar Sultana1, Manash P. Sarma2, Gunamoni Das1 and Rekha Bora3
1Department of Botany, Assam Down Town University, Guwhatai – 781026, Assam, India 2Department of Biotechnology, Assam Down Town University, Guwhatai – 781026, Assam, India 3Laboratory of Ethnobotany and Medicinal Plant Conservation, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Assam University, Silchar – 788 011, Assam, India
Abstract
Various species of Fabaceae family are well known for their food value in the form of popular vegetable and also as a source of traditional ethnomedicine. A total of 17 available edible species of Fabaceae family viz. Phaseolus vulgaris (common name: Bush bean), Vigna unguiculata spp. Sesquipedalis, Vigna unguiculata spp. Sesquipedalis, Vigna sinensis/Vigna unguiculata spp. Sesquipedalis, Dolichos bengalensis, Lablab purpureus, Lablab niger, Lablab vulgaris, Phaseolus limenis, Phaseolus lunatus, Phaseolus coccineus, Vigna umbelleta, Canavalia enformis, Dolichos pruriens, Dolichos biflorus, Dolichos aciphyllus and Dolichos lablab were explored in Dhubri district of Assam. These species show excellent market potential in the form of nutrient rich vegetable and also as a source of traditional medicine. Moreover, availability of such biodiversity of Fabaceae family in this region is studied for the first time.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 82–85
V. P. Soniya*, P. S. Bhindhu and P. Sureshkumar
1-3Radiotracer Laboratory, College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Crop nutrient response information is important for fertilizer use decisions aimed at higher profitability but such information is limited with respect to cowpea cultivation. A pot culture experiment was conducted to study the response of cowpea towards magnesium fertilization in lateritic soils of Kerala during January 2019. Graded doses of magnesium were applied @ 5 mg kg-1 to 80 mg kg-1 of soil along with recommended dose of fertilizers. The effect of magnesium on content and uptake of essential nutrients and biometric parameters of cowpea were determined during flowering and at harvest of the crop. Graded doses of magnesium created significant variation in the accumulation of potassium, calcium and magnesium in stem and leaf of cowpea at both stages of analysis. Magnesium content in stem and leaf was found to increase with the levels of magnesium added. No significant variation in the content of calcium and magnesium in pods was recorded. Crop uptake of calcium (261.65 mg g-1) and magnesium (66.62 mg g-1), yield per plant (79.33 g plant-1) and yield contributing characteristics were superior in the treatment where magnesium was applied @ 10 mg kg-1 of soil which suggests to be the optimum dose of magnesium to achieve maximum crop response of cowpea.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 86–89
P. Ashoka*1 and P. Priya2
1ICAR- Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Hanumanamatti - 581 115, Ranebennur (Tq), Haveri (Dist), Karnataka, India 2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Hanumanamatti, Ranebennur, Haveri - 581 115, Karnataka
Abstract
The study was conducted during kharif 2018 and kharif 2019 at ICAR- Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Haveri to evaluate the response of foxtail millet (Seteria italic L) to soil application of micronutrients and foliar application of NPK along with RDF. The experiment was laid out in RCBD comprising of nine treatments replicated thrice. Studies revealed that the growth parameters, yield attributes and grain yield of foxtail millet differed significantly due to foliar application of NPK along with RDF and soil application of micronutrients along with RDF. The results indicated that significantly higher grain yield (18.49 q ha-1) and straw yield (36.14 q ha-1) of foxtail millet were recorded in treatment applied with RDF + foliar spray of 19:19:19 @ 1% at flower initiation stage (pooled data of 2 years) followed by soil application of micronutrients along with RDF. The treatment RDF + foliar spray of 19:19:19 @ 1% at flower initiation stage recorded significantly higher plant height (92.50 cm), panicle length (22.27 cm) and grain weight per panicle (2.80 g). The biological yield and nutrient uptake (NPK, Zn and Fe) are also significantly higher with the same treatment. The gross returns, net returns and BC ratio were also higher with the same treatments (Rs.48284, Rs.32036 and 2.97, respectively) as compared to all other treatments and absolute control.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 90–95
Purna Jana*1, Sabyasachi Dasgupta2 and Nagendra Prasad Todaria3
1-3Department of Forestry and NR, HNB Garhwal Central University, Chauras campus, Srinagar, Garhwal - 246 174, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted considering the fact that natural-resource water has immense importance in life and its quality and quantity must be conserved. The aim was to evaluate the perception of people regarding their understanding on sacred grove conservation i.e., in other words conservation of the source of water and other livelihoods. A pre-tested questionnaire was formed and data were collected from 107 randomly selected households from 18 villages of Uttarakhand. The selected villages were categorized into 2 classes based on proximity to the forests. A contingent valuation method was used to calculate willingness-to-pay (WTP) and willingness-to-accept (WTA) for water as forest ecosystem-service. The study revealed that villagers are well aware of the importance of natural-resource water and its origin sacred-grove. Average WTP was Rs. 3802 / year / household. WTP was significantly differed based on age, gender, education level and number of household member. There was no significant effect of distance on WTP. However, WTA was significantly differed based on distance, age, gender, number of household member number and education-level. Villagers are well aware of the changing environmental condition of sacred grove and degradation of forest. Therefore, they are sincerely interested in conservation of the sacred forest for the sake of their own well-being. Villagers are sincerely willing to pay for the conservation of their sacred grove that is also the source of their livelihoods.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 96–99
Tanusree Datta*1, Ashis Kumar Panigrahi2 and Subasini Pattanaik3
1-2Ecotoxicology, Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kalyani University, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal, India 3Postgraduate Department of Zoology, Berhampur University, Bhanjabihar, Berhampur, Ganjam, Odisha, India
Abstract
The study was conducted in a freshwater closed wetland, known as beel in Nadia district of West Bengal. The investigation covers the hydro-chemical aspects of the beel (Khalsi beel), focusing on the scope of pisciculture therein with healthy ecological condition. During the study period values of different pysico-chemical parameters of this water sheet have been recorded round the year, recording the annual value of water temperature: 29.25° ± 2.6° C depth: 93.77 ± 45.7 cm, transparency: 61.05 ± 30.9 cm, as the physical parameters. Recorded values for the chemical aspect are pH: 7.8 ± 0.39, DO: 5.0 ± 0.92 ppm, free CO2: 8.0 ± 4.9 ppm, total alkalinity: 216.4 ± 80.22 ppm, NO3-N: 0.18 ± 0.12 ppm, PO4-P: 0.21 ± 0.04 ppm and silicate: 8.74 ± 4.7 ppm. Month wise study shows a variation in most of the parameters probably due to typical character of the beel, especially for the presence of different aquatic weeds, largely infested round the year and water abstraction. Monthly variation of values of different parameters has been discussed and presented graphically in the present communication along with physiography of the studied beel.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 100–104
R. Radha*1 and N. Komathy2
1-2Department of Food Service Management and Dietetics, Avinashilingam Institute of Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae and known as one of the bitterest fruits. This study was aimed to formulate the bittergourd recipes by reducing its bitter taste, to evaluate sensory characteristics of those formulated recipes and to estimate the phytochemicals present in bittergourd recipes. Three varieties of bitter gourd recipes were developed in the current study. The sensory evaluation was done with a five-point hedonic scale. The selected recipes were subjected to phytochemical analysis. The overall acceptability score was significantly higher at 0.01% for bittergourd thuvaiyal followed by bittergourd raita and bittergourd juice. Though recipes namely thuvaiyal and raita were found to have higher acceptability their nutraceuticals levels were less in comparison to the raw bittergourd. Hence, there is necessity to explore the applicability of these plant resources which are rich in phytochemicals may have been beneficial effects of health.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 105–108
Devendra Kumar*1 and Poonam Pathak2
1-2Department of Chemistry, Institute of Basic Sciences, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Khandari Campus, Agra - 282002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Eighteen organochlorine pesticides (OCP) viz. isomers of benzene (α-BHC, β-BHC, γ-BHC and δ-BHC), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, γ-chlordane, endosulfan-I+α-chlorodane, dieldrin,+p,p’DDE, endrin, endosulfan-II, p,p’-DDD, endrin aldehyde, endosulfan sulphate, p,p’-DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor have been monitored in fruit samples: guava (Psidium guajava), apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and plum (Prunus domestica) by gas liquid chromatography coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). During the study it has been found that most of the samples were contaminated with either two or more OCP, but residual concentrations were below the MRL values prescribe by (Codex Alimantarius, 2016) but their continuous consumption can produce severe health problems for human.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 109–112
K. P. Aswathi*1, K. Ajith2 and B. Ajithkumar3
1-3Department of Agricultural Meteorology, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala
Abstract
An experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Pattambi during the year 2019-2020 for understanding the effect of weather variables on the yield of rice variety Jyothi. Correlation studies were used to estimate the impacts of weather on rice yield from 50% flowering to physiological maturity. Increase in maximum and minimum temperature showed significant negative effects on rice yield. Yield attributes like number of spikelets per panicle, number of filled grains per panicle and thousand grain weight which contributes to yield also reduced significantly with increase in temperature. Study indicated that high temperature during critical growth stages affects the crop growth and yield negatively.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 113–115
Santosh S. Dharmadhikari*1 and Sanjay Chakane2
1Research Center in Environmental Science, Baburaoji Gholap College, Sangvi, Pune – 411 027, Maharashtra, India 2ASC College, Indapur, Tq. Indapur, Pune- 413 106, Maharashtra
Abstract
Solid Waste generation and its utilization have become the most important factor in any integrated steel plant. In the current scenario Energy-efficient and sustainability era. Solid wastes are utilization to make various internal by-products Like Sinter, Pig iron, granulated Cement. In integrated steel Plant Slag (Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace) generated approx.3500 Mt/day & 1080 MT/day. Integrated steel industry other waste generated from Sinter Plant- like Electrostatic precipitator dust Blast furnace plant generate granulated slag and dry pit slag, Steel Melting Shop Generate Gas cleaning plant dust Sponge Iron Plant generate clarified sludge and classifier fines Coke Oven Plant Generated coal and coke breeze waste Pellet Plant-Generated ESP dust and lime calcination Plant Generated lime calcination plant dust. The Presence of total Fe content in EAF slag is 9.3-18.2% and in In LF slag sulfur content is 0.05 to 0.62%. The main purpose of this paper is generation waste from the integrated steel plant has utilization Potential per physico-chemical and mineralogical characterizes.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 116–121
Pooja Jena1, Manoher Saryam*2 and A.S. Chauhan3
1-3Department of Agricultural Extension and Communication, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India 2Department of Extension Education, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present paper attempts to examine the socio-economic and communication status of the respondents in Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh in the year of 2019-20. The study was conducted in 12 villages located at Rewa and Naigarhi block of Rewa district. Data for the study was collected from a sample of 120 respondents. The findings of the study revealed that 80.84 percent respondents were medium in techno-economic empowerment followed by 10.00 percent high in techno-economic empowerment. They aware of different agricultural technology aspect of the current digital age and they use different digital; platform such as online shopping of agricultural inputs, interest and join the agripreneur websites, online banking, negotiation among traders through digital platform. Association between Techno-economic empowerment and selected characteristics result found that age, landholding, annual family income, material possession, house type, Information Utilization time, information management behavior, decision making and achievement motivation showed a positive trend, the degree of relationship was low and the computed value of 'r' was found to be less than the table value 'r' with at 0.05 level of probability. Hence, the relationship was found to non-significant. Level of education and family type, had the significant relation with the techno-economic aspect of respondent at 0.05 level of probability and family size, social participation, farm power and communication had the significant relation with the economic aspect of respondent at 0.01 level of probability that indicates father occupation and family income influence the techno economical aspect by the farmers.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 122–125
G. P. Sunandini*1, I. Shakuntala Devi2, Amala Kumari3 and A. Sharada Devi4
1Cost of Cultivation Scheme, Professor Jayashankar Agricultural University and Co PI of the NAIP Project, Telangana 2Cost of Cultivation Scheme, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palem, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Nagarkurnool, Telangana-509 215, India 3Department of Extension, College of Home Science, Professor Jayashankar Agricultural University and Co PI of the NAIP Project, Telangana 4ANGRAU and Co PI of the NAIP Project
Abstract
The present paper was taken from the project Value Chain in Natural Dyes, implemented under National Agricultural Innovation Project, Indian Council of Agricultural Research standardised the processing technology for eco holi colours, established value chains and increased consumer awareness regarding environmental and health hazards due to use of synthetic colours for holi. The established value chains in eco holi colours increased the employment and income of the producers and marketing agencies involved in the value chain. The technology was found sustainable with the increase in use of eco holi colours by the respondents in Hyderabad and Rangareddy districts from 8 per cent in 2008 to 33 per cent in 2018. The eco holi colours are analysed for heavy metals, channels of value chains are identified and producers share in consumer s rupee is calculated. The study concluded that to increase the production and use of eco holi colours for the environmental safety, large-scale public awareness programmes on environmental and health hazards due to synthetic colours, establishing enterprises for the manufacture of eco holi colours and market linkages for supply at affordable prices in larger quantities at local outlets are important. Research should be concentrated on development of brighter holi colours with required stickiness for satisfying more customers.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 126–130
B. Mondal*1
1School of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, The Neotia University, Diamond Harbour Road, Jhinger Pole, Sarisha - 743 368, West Bengal, India
Abstract
In West Bengal mandarin orange is grown in the Northern hilly region. Darjeeling Mandarin shows enormous commercial acceptance due to presence of high percentage of ascorbic acid with optimal ratio of sugar. The local orchards are affected by different biotic stresses. The sole morphological screening of seedling in nursery bed leads to the elimination of well performing genotypes. The occurrence of polyembryony and heterozygosity creates problem in breeding. The study shows recovery of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in 1:4 ratio. The management of these seed propagated outcrossed population requires application of advance marking system to detect the nature of off springs. In this paper the performance of three PCR based molecular markers RAPD, SSR, ISSR were evaluated showing efficiency in marking of pollen parents. The SSR primer CCSM13 with co-dominance and high PIC and MI gave best result. The maintenance of germplasm in perennial orchards require vast expenditure and skilled manpower. The inclusion of molecular marking in initial seedling stage in seedbed could aid in optimal management of orchard. In addition, the study revealed the scope of identification of elite genotypes to be included in Citrus hybridization programme and fixation of heterotic ability of the superior mandarin plant types.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 131–133
Ch. Srilatha Vani1 and P. Srilatha2
1Regional Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Anakapalle - 531 001, Andhra Pradesh 2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Ghantasala - 521 133, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
This study has been conducted to know the constraints for cultivation of sugarcane crop in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. The command area of sugar factories was selected purposively for the selection of villages. Six villages were selected out of three factory areas. The constraints faced by sugarcane farmers were classified in to four broad categories namely socio-economic constraint, technical constraints, administrative constraints and psychological constraints. The results revealed that major socioeconomic constraints faced by the sample growers were high labour cost (97.2%), unavailability of farm machinery (90.0%), labour shortage (67.2%) and low profits (61.7%). Important technological constraints faced by the sugarcane growers were un availability of high promising varieties (91.7%), high cost of seed and no subsidy on seed (85.5%). Moreover, existing varieties are highly prone to viral diseases (73.2%). While coming to the administrative constraints lack of intimate payments (88.8%), delayed cutting orders (85,0%), less input support from factories (77.7%). Less interest on sustainable use of resources in the study area whereas, (12.2%) low risk-taking ability, (11.1%) fear of Indebtedness (8.8%) is the major psychological constraint which drove them to shift to other crops. From the present study we can conclude that farmers are facing several problems in cultivation of sugarcane. It is recommended that there is a necessity of intensification of extension services to address their constraints and to increase their level of adoption of recommended practices. The study also suggested the need to enhance the efforts in transfer of technology and credit availability to the small and marginal farmers.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 134–138
Megala K.1, N. Subramanian2 and N. Ramadass*3
1-3P.G and Research Department of Zoology, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar - 604 407, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Glycine max is one of the most popular and nutritious foods with high antimicrobial effects. The present work was done to study the antibacterial activity of Methanolic and chloroform extracts of Glycine max against gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the gram-positive bacteria such as Basillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The concentrations of the seed used were 500 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml and 1000 µg/ml respectively. At these concentrations the extract inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella thphi, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and produced zone of inhibition ranging between 7 mm to 10 mm in Methanolic extract and 6 mm to 14 mm in chloroform extract. The antibacterial activity reported by the Soybean extract may be due to the presence of the phytochemical compounds present in the seeds. Highest zone of inhibition 10 mm was noted in Staphylococcus aureus at 1000 µg/ml and 750 µg/ml concentration and lowest zone of inhibition 7 mm was found in Escherchia coli at 750 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml, Bacillus sabtilis at 500 µg/ml, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 750 µg/ml and 500 µg/ml respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 139–142
M. Kannan*1, S. Arumugam2 and G. Balasubramanian3
1-3P.G. and Research Dept. of Zoology, Arignar Anna Govt. Arts College, Cheyyar - 604 407, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Calotropis procera plants have possessed so many bioactive compounds against agricultural insects. A large number of leaves were collected shade dried and powdered then prepared petroleum ether, methanol and aqueous solution at various concentrations. The antifeedant activity was assayed using a leaf cut choice and leaf dip assay method. C. medinalis is one of the agricultural pests. This pest is highly infected in the paddy field and causes severe damages to paddy leaves. To apply the solvent extraction of various concentrations of C. procera against C. medinalis. From the results, after applying the solvent extraction to the reduced feeding area of the leaves. The leaf extract solution to prohibit the feeding activity on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis larvae methanol, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts in 1000ppm concentration showed antifeedant activity as 85.42, 73.73 and 68.70% respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 143–148
Vandana G. Pai*1, Prameela P.2 and Syama S. Menon3
1-3Department of Agronomy, College of Horticulture (KAU), Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
A study on response of cowpea to conservation tillage practices was conducted in Kerala from 2017-2019 with three tillage practices i.e., zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), and conventional tillage (CT) with five combinations of potassium and magnesium sulphate; K2O 12 kg/ha + MgSO4 80 kg/ha (S1), K2O 20 kg/ha + MgSO4 60 kg/ha, K2O 20 kg/ha + MgSO4 80 kg/ha, K2O 40 kg/ha + MgSO4 60 kg/ha, K2O 40 kg/ha + MgSO4 80 kg/ha. Conservation tillage resulted in highest weed dry matter production while weed incidence was less under zero tillage. Weed dry matter production recorded highest in K: MgSO4 @ 40:80 kg/ha. Cowpea germination was poor under ZT and MT compared to normal tillage. Higher grain yield was recorded under minimum tillage along with application of K: MgSO4 @ 40:60 kg/ha.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 149–154
B. Jaswanth Naik*1, B. Mukunda Rao2, P. Rambabu3 and M. Sree Rekha4
1Department of Agricultural Extension, GBC Road, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India 2Professor (Polytechnics), ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India 3Director of Extension, ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur - 522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India 4Department of Agronomy, GBC Road, Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
In the current scenario agricultural communication sources are often applied for offering agricultural facts to the farmers for getting remunerative prices to their products. During this context, the study was conducted to understand the profile of the respondents and to get the relationship with the ICT tools usage by the farmers of Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh during the year 2017-2018. An Ex-post facto research design was used. Data for the study became generated from a sample of 120 respondents using structured interview schedule. Findings indicated that majority of the farmer respondents have medium age, possession of ICT tools, annual income, social participation, extension contact, innovativeness, economic orientation, risk orientation, scientific orientation and cosmopoliteness. Majority of the farmers have high school education, small land holding, 20-30 years of farming experience and 14-21 years of experience in usage of ICT tools. The r values of education, land holding, experience in usage of ICT tools, possession of ICT tools, annual income, training undergone, extension contact, innovativeness, economic orientation, scientific orientation and cosmopoliteness was positively and significantly correlated with the utilization of ICT tools. Whereas, computed ‘r’ value of aged was negatively significant, ‘r’ value of experience in farming and risk orientation was negatively non-significant and ‘r’ value of social participation was positively non-significant with the utilization of ICT tools.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 155–160
Jyoti Ashok Kedar1, Sharad Ratan Khandelwal*2, Avinash Dineshkumar Bholay3
1-2GES’s HPT Arts and RYK Science College, Nashik - 422 005, Maharashtra, India 3K.T.H.M. College, Gangapur Road, Nashik - 422 002 Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A green chemistry approach that incorporates nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology is the microbial synthesis of nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles biosynthesis using extracellular fungal filtrate of Cladosporium sphaerospermum endophytic fungi isolated from the selected tree bark was simple, eco-friendly and robust. The goal of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extracts from the strain ATCC 11289 of the filamentous fungus Cladosporium sphaerospermum as an alternative to a chemical degradation procedure for harmful dyes. Cladosporium sphaerospermum's morphological and molecular characteristics have been established. Sequencing of ITS 18s rRNA, phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis were carried out. The isolate is recognized and described by the sequencing and phenotypic characterization of ITS 18s rRNA, which demonstrated the strain NF from Ficus benghalesis temperate area tree bark as Cladosporium sphaerospermum strain ATCC 11289. In addition, UV Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, SEM and ESI MS tests have characterized the synthesized silver nanoparticles. Changes in parameters such as pH, temperature, silver nitrate solution concentration, optimum absorption parameters in the UV-Visible spectrophotometer have been used to optimize the output of silver nanoparticles Synthesized silver nanoparticles characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy with a peak of 400-420 nm. For dye degradation of Methylene blue by NaBH4, the obtained nanoparticles with good yield using microbial synthesis can be used. 83 percent of dye decolonization for methylene blue dye has been demonstrated by Cladosporium. Future studies on the use of these particles for in-vitro biological experiments would be cost-effective and convenient.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 161–165
Manne Sri Sandhya*1, P. K. Awasthi2 and Shruti Mishra3
1S. V. Agricultural College, ANGRAU, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India 2-3Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
An attempt was made to analyze the price behavior of cotton in Andhra Pradesh, India. The results revealed that in long run all the markets showed an increasing trend in the arrivals and slight decrease in price trend in different markets. The highest increase in market arrivals was of Guntur followed by Kurnool, Prakasam and Krishna markets. The highest increase in price was observed in Kurnool with Rs. 2491.3 per quintal while lowest observed in Guntur followed by Krishna. Peak period of arrivals was observed in January and October in Kurnool and Krishna markets respectively and low during August and February respectively but in Guntur and Prakasam markets it was found in January and the lowest arrivals in August and July respectively whereas cotton prices peaks in the off season. The peak prices were observed during July to September in Kurnool, Krishna and Guntur markets and April and May in Prakasam district. The lowest price was during November and December in maximum of the markets. The month-wise correlation co-efficient between arrivals and prices in cotton was observed positive in all the months in Kurnool market and Krishna market but in Guntur all the months show negative correlation. Prakasam market shows negative correlation in November and other months observed positive.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 166–170
U. Umadevi1 and C. Srinivas*2
1-2Biocontrol Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Microbiology and Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore - 560 056, Karnataka, India
Abstract
A total number of 118 bacterial isolates were isolated from the infected groundnut soil and plant samples. These isolates have undergone biochemical characterization and were identified as Ralstonia solanacearum. Among 118 isolates, ninety isolates belonged to Race 2 biovar III. The remaining 28 isolates belonged to biovars I and V. Twenty-five isolate belonging to the Race 2 biovar III were shown positive in pathogenicity studies; out of these three molecular methods identified highly virulent isolates. Between December 2017 and January 2018, 80 PGPRs were isolated from vegetable crops and groundnut rhizospheres in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka regions. The isolates were characterized by morphological and molecular methods and evaluated for antagonistic activity against Groundnut's bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). Out of 80 PGPR, PGB24 (MH285273), PGB28 (MH283866), PGP24 (MH290482) were showed significant activity against Ralstonia solanacearum. The rest of the other PGPR showed less activity against Ralstonia solanacearum when tested in in-vitro.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 171–175
Abdulwahhab Jasim Mahdi*1 and Brahmaji Rao P.2
1-2Department of Environmental Science, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur - 522 510, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Pesticides are the chemical compounds which are used in agricultural practice and plays an essential role in the exponential increase in crop yield through preventing diseases due to pest control. The excess use of fertilizer, nutrient content may increase toxicity through trace elements present in the environment. The aim of the present was to evaluate the pesticide by liquid chromatography – mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) in the soil and water samples collected from Mangalagiri, Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The water samples were collected in the dark bottle. The soil sample was collected from Agriculture land. The present study can be concluded as the Mangalagiri region of Guntur district showed pesticide tresses in the soil and water samples. Around 50 different types of pesticides were detected in the soil sample, whereas around 16 different pesticides were present in the water sample.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 176–178
Ajit Pawar*1 and D. Saraladevi2
1-2Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore -641 003, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An experiment was conducted at the Horticultural College and Research Institute for Women Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University and Coimbatore during 2017-2018 to study the effect of micronutrients and plant growth regulators on growth, flower yield, pigment content and keeping quality of marigold (Tagetes erecta L). The study revealed that application of micronutrients mixture + GA3100 ppm (T2) showed highest total chlorophyll content of 2.98 mg/g, highest sodium content of 1.95 per cent, highest catalase activity (9.64 ∆ OD/min/μg protein, highest peroxides activity (85.45ΔOD/min/μg protein) as well as biochemical parameter recorded highest in treatment T2- Micronutrients mixture + GA3100 ppm higher xanthophyll content of 1.91 mg/g, highest carotenoid content of 1.56 mg/g at 90 days after transplanting over the absolute control.

Short communication | Published online : 07-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 179–183
M. Prakash*1 and K. R. Saravanan2
1-2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Thirty black gram genotypes were screened for moisture stress tolerance by subjecting them to induced moisture stress condition at different growth stages viz. vegetative, reproductive and both at vegetative and reproductive stages under pot culture. The observations on biometric and yield characters viz. plant height, days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering, number of clusters per plant, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, 100 seed weight, seed yield plant-1 and four gas exchange parameters viz. leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Cs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were recorded. The results revealed that among the genotypes studied, NRIB002, VBN 7 and ADT 4 were found promising under induced moisture stress condition at both vegetative and reproductive stages. To conclude, moisture stress induced at both vegetative and reproductive stages, the genotypes NRIB002, VBN 7 and ADT 4 were found promising. Hence these genotypes can utilize in further breeding programme for Abiotic stress tolerance and /or also for selection.

Short communication | Published online : 07-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 184–186
Vijiyata Singh Rathour*1 and Vijay Kumar Yadav2
1-2Department of Zoology, Bipin Bihari (P.G.) College Jhansi - 284 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The demand of pearls in market is rising day by day but their supplies from nature have reduced due to over exploitation and pollution. Fresh water Pearl production research techniques was first carried out in India in 1987 by Central Institute of Fresh water Aquaculture Bhuwneshwar, Orissa. They started it with identification of suitable local pearl mussel species, defining appropriate surgical implantation procedures, developing pre and post care procedure and captive pond culture of mussels. In recent years Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh have also initiated commercial production of fresh water pearls. Bundelkhand region has vast resource of fresh water with abundant distribution of qualitatively rich pearl mussel fauna. Bundelkhand fish-farmers and small entrepreneurs who are involved in fish farming business can also utilize these techniques of pearl production for increasing the income of the rural communities and their socio-economic development. In view of this the present study was carried out for popularizing the pearl production in Lamellidens marginalis in Bundelkhand region and making fish farming a profitable business. Governments can provide additional support by providing technical assistance or subsidies to make it a lucrative business.

Short communication | Published online : 07-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 187–189
Sudam Patale*1
1Department of Botany, Swami Muktanand College of Science, Yeola – 423 401, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Currently, great attention has been given to the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for sustainable agriculture to modify plant performance, mineral feeding and water uptake. For two consecutive years, three species of mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasciculatum, G. mosseae and G. etunicatum) were examined under three irrigation intervals. Onion seedlings inoculated with mycorrhiza and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were transplanted to 4m2 plots. After the establishment, the plants were irrigated every 6, 9 and 12 days. Results showed that mycorrhizal colonization substantially increased seedling survival at all irrigation intervals and mycorrhizal colonization increased seedling establishment by more than 16.32 per cent. Onions that were colonized by G. fasciculatum had the highest leaf area at bulbing stage (634.9 cm²) at a 9-day irrigation interval and non-mycorrhizal plants had the lowest leaf area at a 12-day irrigation interval (307.8 cm²). Mycorrhizal colonization increased the yield of onion bulbs by about 3 folds relative to control plants. Onions that were colonized by G. fasciculatum and G. mosseae with irrigation cycles of 6 and 9 days, and G. etunicatum produced the highest marketable bulb at 6-day irrigation intervals (more than 35 t / ha), and non-mycorrhizal plants had the lowest marketable yield at 12-day irrigation intervals.

Short communication | Published online : 07-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 190–192
Meenashi Subramani*1 and Umamaheswari Sepperumal2
1P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Karur- 639 007, Tamil Nadu, India 2P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Periyar EVR College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu India
Abstract
The CFU and weight loss studies of Klebsiella sp., and Micrococcus sp., in MSM of polystyrene flakes and beads indicates that due to more surface area of the polystyrene flakes may provide a comfortable substratum for microbes to adhere and utilize polystyrene as a sole source of carbon and increase their population.

Short communication | Published online : 07-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 193–194
Poonam Tomar*1, Anuj Kumar2 and Sunil Kumar3
1-3Department of Economics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 2Department of Economics, Govt. P. G. College, Dholpur - 328 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
This study is undertaken to work out the costs and returns of wheat crop in Bharatpur region of Rajasthan for different categories of farms according to their irrigation facilities. Study is mainly based on primary data, which are collected through interview method from selected sample respondents having (80 Low, 80 Medium, 80 Highly irrigated farms) for the agricultural year 2016-17. The results indicate that production of wheat is profitable as reflected through its net returns. The perhectare return over total cost are Rs. 19,963.00, 25731.75 and 31716.75 on low irrigated, medium irrigated and highly irrigated farms respectively. It has been found that output input ratio of wheat is marginally higher (1.69) on highly irrigated farms compare to medium irrigated (1.61) and low irrigated farms (1.52) and all farms (1.63) due to proper irrigated facilities and improve the quality of harvest on account of highly irrigated farms. This study is helpful to understand cost and return structure of wheat crop in Bharatpur Rajasthan and other regions with similar condition.

Short communication | Published online : 08-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 195–199
Nidhin Raj*1, P. Anitha1, T. Pradeepkumar1, Dicto Jose1, V. I. Beena2 and C. Laly John3
1Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India 2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India 3Department of Agricultural Statistics, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
Twenty-five dolichos bean accessions (Lablab purpureus var. typicus) were evaluated for variability, heritability and genetic divergence under Kerala conditions. GCV and PCV were highest for number of pods per plant (66.65, 67.66) followed by green pod yield per plant (49.24, 49.97). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was noted for the characters pod girth (98.48, 55.12), pod length (97.47, 51.80), green pod yield per plant (97.09, 99.94), number of pods per plant (97.06, 135.27), number of seeds per pod (92.46, 45.63), pod weight (91.27, 61.27), days to first flowering (89.41, 23.49), days to first fruit set (86.35, 20.38), number of pods per cluster (65.72, 23.53), total phenols (96.05, 67.47), calcium (91.51, 39.74) and crude fibre (68.58, 27.20). Based on Mahalanobis D2 analysis the accessions were grouped into six clusters. The highest inter cluster distance was exhibited between the clusters IV and V (3929.71) which indicated that maximum variability existed between the accessions present in these clusters and hence they can be used as parents in a hybridization programme.

Short communication | Published online : 12-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 200–202
Asha Rani*1 and B. S. Bisht2
1-2Department of Zoology, SRT Campus Badshahithaul, Tehri - 249 199, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
The intent of this paper is to put emphasis on the population dynamics of adult moths and larvae of Hymenia recurvalis Fab. pest of the crop Amaranthus caudatus L. as several attacks of pest Hymenia recurvalis Fab. on the crop damage the plant and incurred huge economic loss to the farmers. Severe attack results in drying up of crop within very short period of time leading to the failure of photosynthetic machinery hence poor yield of grains. Biotic potential is regarded as the qualitative expression of the insect-pest that help to maintain in an environment. The knowledge of insect-pest in their population build-up is very helpful in deciding the extent of damage to the crop. Insect-pest show variable pattern of incidence based upon Agro-climatic conditions. Variable climatic factors play an important role in determining the incidence of the pest. Hence the investigation on Hymenia recurvalis Fab. in particular area provides an idea regarding the spreading of insect-pest and their peak activity period which help in developing the effective management strategies particularly in Uttarakhand state.

Short communication | Published online : 12-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 203–205
Amrita Anand*1 and G. Veerakumaran2
1-2Department of Co-operative Management, College of Co-operation, Banking and Management, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
The Indian plantation sector is overwhelmed by little possessions, which represent 88% of the total rubber production in the nation. The rubber marketing co-operatives promoted by the Rubber Board from early 1960s could not effectively reach the large number of farmers due to the political and beurocratic control. So, Rubber Board advanced the arrangement of grass root level associations at the village level called Rubber Producers' Societies, so as to convey proper innovation to boost the profitability and creation of small holdings to meet the increasing need for natural rubber. The present study examined the constraints faced in the functioning of Poothrikka Rubber Producers’ Society in district Ernakulam of Kerala. To examine the objective primary data were collected from the president and executive committee members of the society. The constraints were studied in the stages of production, procurement, processing and marketing of natural rubber and analyzed using index methodology. “Lack of nurseries for supplying good quality, high yielding planting materials to the needy growers”, “irregular supply of latex from members”, “difficulty in trading with Rubber Board’s trading companies” and “price fluctuations in the market” were identified as the major constraints faced by the society.

Short communication | Published online : 14-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 206–209
Anshu Rani Saxena*1
1Department of Botany, S. M. C. C. Government College Aburoad – 307 026, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
A research on Amaranthus paniculatus L. agris (fao) was undertaken to investigate the morphogenesis of the plant through tissue culture techniques. The genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) has attracted great interest in the past year as an agronomic crop in various parts of the world. In fact, Amaranthus is an underutilized crop and a cheap source of proteins, minerals, vitamin A and C and is a promising vegetable. Hence, it is an agriculturally valuable crop but tissue culture technique for this crop remains limited. A combination of plant growth regulators (PGRS) was used to induce callus formation from hypocotyls. The callus formation was faster with combination of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) + 0.5mg/l Kinetin + 1to 5 mg/l NAA or IAA and 2 and 5 mg/l 2,4-D. Rooting and shooting was best observed in MS medium followed by B5 and Nitsch medium when media were supplemented with 5mg/l 2,4-D, 1mg/l NAA and 0.05mg/I K. The callus underwent differentiation of inflorescence under B5 and MS media at different auxin and cytokinin concentration levels. Plants raised were excellently acclimatized in natural environment with 89 percent survival rate.

Short communication | Published online : 14-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 210–212
V. S. Meena*1, Devendra Kumar Meena2 and U. B. Singh3
1-3Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture (SKNAU), Bharatpur - 321 201, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The present study has been made to work out the cost of cultivation, workout the input use and yield maximizing levels of inputs and the net return and B:C ratio in major kharif crops. the study is based on Primary data collected from 60 cultivator farmers in Zone - III B, Alwar district has highest area under Bajra, mungbean cotton crop in the zone in 2019-20 therefore Alwar district the village Chandigarh, garhi (in ramgarh tehsil) parsa ka bas, kushal pura (in Alwar Tehsil) and waman tadi, Isharada (in Tezara Tehsil) were selected randomly. In those village 60 farmers irrespective of size of group were selected with Simple Random technique. The primary data were collected from these selected farmers pertinent data 2019 per cent to input output were recorded on the well-structured schedules. Alwar district through interview schedule. The cost of cultivation of cotton was found higher (Rs. 46761.00) comparison to mungbean (Rs. 17142.50) the variable cost the results of the study revealed that per hectare cost of cultivation of major kharif crops was highest in case of cotton (Rs. 467500.00) followed by guar (Rs. 31364.25), bajra (Rs. 22578.00), jawar (Rs. 21832.50) and mungbean (Rs. 17142.50). The split up total cost also indicates that crops are labour intensive which required large number of human labour for performing various operations for producing the crops that the highest gross income of (Rs. 167500) per hectare was realized from cotton crop followed by Gaur (Rs. 71600), mungbean (Rs. 57000) Bajra (Rs. 61250) and jawar (Rs. 56000) cotton crop ranked first from the point of view of net income (Rs. 167500) followed by gaur (Rs. 40235.75) mungbean (Rs. 39857.50), bajra (Rs. 38672) and jawar (Rs. 34167.50), the net return per rupee was highest in cotton (Rs. 167500) and net return per rupee was lowest in jawar (Rs. 34167.50). Looking to cost involved ant net income it is advised that farmers should grow cotton and gaur in the zone for achieving the highest net profit farm Zone III- B Rajasthan for achieving the highest net profit. B: C ratio ware found higher in guar (1.77) and Jawar (1.63) lowest in Cotton (1.38) and mungbean. Therefore, it was concluded from the present study that cotton and mungbean. crop is best for achieving the highest net profit in zone- III B Rajasthan the overall level major problems were reported by farmers for non-availability of higher human labour and bullock labour in time (36.67), high seed cost (40.00), high wage rates (36.67) and lack of technical knowledge. (41.67), whereas Quality seeds are not available in time (28.33) Pest and Disease infection (18.33) Non availability of crop loan in time (16.67), and Non availability of fertilizers in time (16.67), were Problem faced reported in cultivation of the Zone- III B Rajasthan.

Short communication | Published online : 15-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 213–214
Richa1, Shakti K. Prabhuji*1, Atul K. Srivastava2 and Shubhra Srivastava3
1Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Centre, M. G. Post Graduate College, Gorakhpur – 273 001, Uttar Pradesh, India 2Department of Chemistry, Magadh University, Bodh Gaya -824 234, Bihar, India 3Department of Chemistry, M. G. Post Graduate College, Gorakhpur – 273 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A new concept of the preparation of herbal biofertilizer has been visualized to have a combined effect of good quality biofertilizer together with an effective bio-pesticide. For this the biofertilizer prepared using the kitchen biodegradable wastes has been mixed thoroughly, in a ratio of 5:1 with the dried and finely powdered leaves of Lawsonia inermis, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cordia myxa, Flacourtia jungomas and Terminalia arjuna. The herbal biofertilizer is a good nutrient supplier to the plants rather better than the normal biofertilizer and friendly to the good bacteria present in the soil; with pathogen resistance against soil-borne plant pathogens eliminating the use of chemical pesticides. The combination of medicinal plants may vary to have variable results and furthermore, the use of Herbal Biofertilizer would be a boon to gradually replace the enormous use of chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides.

Short communication | Published online : 15-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 215–217
Girraj Singh Meena*1
1Department of Botany, Government College, Dholpur – 328 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Chromosomal variation is an important tool in genetic analysis. The objectives of the present study were to determine mutagenic efficiency of physical and chemical mutagens. The paper reports the results of application of 5kr, 10kr and 15kr of gamma rays and/ or 0.02% of Nitroso Methyl Urea (NMU) on Khesari (Lathyrus sativus). The seeds of Lathyrus were treated with 5kr, 10kr and 15kr doses of gamma rays and 0.02% of NMU independently and in combination. Different types of chromosomal changes were observed during meiotic division like stickiness, laggards, bridges and condensed bivalents etc. The higher doses of gamma rays showed deleterious effects when applied separately as well as combined with NMU. The combined treatment of physical and chemical mutagens was more effective than independent doses of both mutagens.

Short communication | Published online : 15-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 218–220
Dhangar Deenali K.*1 and Farida P. Minocheherhomji2
1-2B. P. Baria Science Institute, Shayaji Rd, Asha Nagar, Navsari - 396 445, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms found in the rhizosphere of wheat are responsible for providing phosphorus essential for the growth and development of the plants. In the present study phosphate solubilizing microorganisms were isolated, screened and characterized for their phosphate solubilization efficiency ultimately providing nutrition in wheat. 21 isolates showing different levels of phosphate solubilizing activity in both agar plate and broth assays using Pikovaskaya’s medium were obtained through screening. Among all, four isolates showed maximum phosphate solubilization and were hence employed for 16S rRNA sequencing. The PSB labelled as FA22, FA3, FC9 and FC10 were tentatively identified as Micrococcus species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Bacillus subtilis and Exiguobacterium indicum respectively through 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Our results suggest that these isolates can be efficiently used as bioinoculants for better production of wheat in terms of quantity as well as quality even in low fertility soils.

Short communication | Published online : 18-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 221–226
Meenashi Subramani*1 and Umamaheswari Sepperumal2
1P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Karur (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University) Tamil Nadu, India 2P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Periyar EVR College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University) Tamil Nadu – 620 023, India
Abstract
The existence of synthetic polymeric wastes in the environment could have adverse impact on the biota. Although polystyrene has wide applicability in the industries, their mode of disposal should be in an ecofriendly manner. With this view, the present study was designed to elucidate the potential of bacteria persisting in Polystyrene (PS) waste dumped site to degrade polystyrene. FTIR spectral studies reveal that Bacillus sp. has induced chemical changes in polystyrene. Further, UV treatment has also caused chemical changes in PS. The formation of CH, C=C and OH group in the FTIR spectra of PS inoculated with Bacillus sp. for a period of one week and disappearance of absorption peak at 1373 cm-1 (CH) on prolonged incubation of PS for four weeks was evident. Furthermore, incubation of UV treated PS with Bacillus sp. has resulted in the formation of C-O (1288 cm-1) and disappearance of CH group (1492 cm-1) when compared to the UV untreated PS. Moreover, prolonged incubation for four weeks in MSM caused the evolution of new absorption peak at 1369 cm-1 (CH) and disappearance of absorption band at 1288 cm-1 (C-O). These observations indicate that Bacillus sp. could degrade polystyrene.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 227–231
Priya S.*1 and Franklin Charles Jose2
1-2Department of Botany, Government Arts College, Udhagamandalam - 643 002, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Common bean is a species having high nutritional composition. Drought response in plants is complex phenomenon relating interactions between structure, functions and development of the plant. The Improvement of drought resistant for common bean has major objectives for many breeding programs. The growth of the plant, related to the parameter plays a vital role in the selection criteria for drought resistance. The increasing drought tolerance in commercial varieties is highly desirable. 20 varieties of common bean leaves were collected, it is subjected in vitro water stress with 10% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000). The parameters are determined as a relative water content (RWC), seedling root length, leaf area, stomatal index, wax and proline. The result points out that these varieties responded differently during the drought stress. Tolerant and Susceptible comes under the varieties that are categorized which are based on RWC. The tolerant varieties maintain a high-water content. Generally, the tolerant varieties are higher in seedling root length, leaf area, stomatal index, wax than the susceptible varieties. The proline accumulations are higher in susceptible varieties when compared to the tolerant varieties. A significant correlation was observed from the above parameters. The results are discussed with reference to the plant’s response during drought.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 232–234
Vikesh Kumar*1
1Department of Chemistry, Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa - 486 003, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Chlorogenic acid and myricetin are natural flavonoids found in many medicinal plants, is well known for its rich pharmacological activities. This paper describes the flavonoids composition of the plantation white sugar and the method of isolation thereof. A simple method for the simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acids and myricetin content in plantation white sugar has been reported. Two unknown sugar flavonoids were isolated from sugar by using resin-based column chromatography. After filtration, the colorant solution was adsorbed on to the gel column at a flow rate of 1ml/3min, and elution was done with water at the same rate. 10 ml fractions were collected which were then chromatographed on cellulose TLC plates. The pure fractions were completely evaporated and investigated for identification. Flavonoids structures were elucidated by Rf value, UV and NMR spectroscopic techniques, and chromatography. This is the first report of chlorogenic acid and myricetin as cane sugar pigments that can be used as natural antioxidants in food or non-food products.

Short communication | Published online : 20-Jan-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 1 ; 235–241
Baba Tabasum*1 and Rajesh Dixit2
1-2Department of Zoology, P. M. B. Gujarati Science College, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore - 452 017, Madhya Pradesh
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of monogenean helminth ecto-parasitic infections on catfishes (C. batrachus and C. gariepinus) in Indore, Madhya Pradesh. A total number of 453 fish samples of Clarias batrachus and Clarias gariepinus were collected consisting of 236 Clarias batrachus (143 males and 93 females) and 217 Clarias gariepinus (117 males and 100 females) a total of 217 specimens were examined for the period of two years. Results indicated presence of three species of parasites, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus sp. and Lernea. Overall prevalence of 47.88% and Mean Intensity of 1.65% was recorded. In Clarias gariepinus, overall prevalence of 41.93% and Mean Intensity of 1.26% was recorded while in Clarias gariepinus overall prevalence of 41.93% and Mean Intensity of 1.26% was recorded. Females were found more infested than males. However, in Clarias batrachus, the prevalence was found higher than Clarias gariepinus. The results indicated that fishes are suffering ecto-parasitic infections on account of high pollution levels in the water bodies. Thus, need of hour is to reduce aquatic pollution to reduce parasitic infestations.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Jan-2021