P- ISSN: 0976-1675
E- ISSN: 2249-4538

© CARAS (Centre for Advanced Research in Agricultural Sciences)
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Volume - 13 - July-August 2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 925–930
Aswathy Valsan1, Athulya Bose2, Gopika K. N3, Amrutha C. S4, Anil Kumar A. K5, Jayamol K. V6 and Shyam Kumar S*7
1-4 Department of Botany, Maharaja’s College, Ernakulam - 682 011, Kerala, India 5, 7 Department of Botany, Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram - 695 014, Kerala, India 6 Department of Statistics, Maharajas College, Ernakulam - 682 011, Kerala, India
Abstract
The Ocimum species has been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic and diaphoretic actions. This study focuses on the preliminary phytochemical screening of three species belonging to the genus Ocimum namely, O. tenuiflorum, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum. Six solvents (distilled water, petroleum ether, acetone, chloroform, ethanol, methanol) were used for the solvent extraction. The extracts were screened for phytochemicals. Among the tested samples, aqueous extracts showed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, steroids and terpenoids. Among the tested samples a higher concentration of phytochemicals was found in O. tenuiflorum. Our study revealed the presence of various secondary metabolites in Ocimum species with pharmacological importance.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 931–935
Dip Jyoti Gogoi*1
1 Department of Economics, DKD College, Dergaon District, Golaghat - 785 614, Assam, India
Abstract
The study of market integration has almost exclusively referred to events resulting in price changes since prices are the main reflectors of marketing system. Market integration can be horizontal and vertical. Vertical integration is measured by the relationship of prices prevailing at different stages of marketing or at different points of time during a marketing season. The paper looks into the extent and determinants of vertical market integration of tomato in Assam. For analyzing the extent and determinants of vertical market integration, primary data has been collected from three districts of Assam. The prices received by the farmers have been compared to the wholesale prices and retail prices prevailing in the nearest market. Ratio of these prices has been taken to form an index called as Price Realization Index. This index gives an idea of the extent of vertical market integration. The factors significantly affecting vertical integration of markets have been analyzed by fitting a Logistic regression model with the help of primary data. In case of tomato, price realization has been found to be moderate and hence the extent of vertical integration is found to be moderate. The farmers have been found to achieve better price realization if they sell their outputs themselves in village huts and markets and also if they deliver their outputs to traders rather than collected by traders from them. Educated farmers and large farmers achieve better price realization.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 936–944
Shaheen Parveen1 and Ayesha Farooq*2
1-2 The Department of Business Administration, Management Studies and Research Faculty, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
This study empirically tests the comprehensive strategic management (S.M.) practices model. This paper incorporates the strategic intent S.I. approach of S.M. practices impact CSR and organizational performance CFP. This study comprises 30 Indian agro-food companies. The participants in this study include 150 managers at top, middle, and lower levels of the food processing industry, contacting managers by using personal visits, phone, and mail—using partial least square (PLS-SEM) testing the conceptual model. The results of this research show that S.I. positively impacts the implementing CSR activities. in addition, CSR practices increase environmental, social, and economic performance, leading to improved organizational performance. The findings of this study have consequences for managers, implying that implementing S.M. practices benefit the company's devotion to the development. This research adds to the field of current literature by establishing an association among practices of SI-CSR-CFP secondly, this research establishes a framework for implementing S.M. practices in the food industry.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 945–948
Aruna G. R.1 and R. S. Umakanth*2
1-2 P. G. Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, Manasa Gangothri, University of Mysore, Mysuru - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Sericulture is large scale rearing of silkworms to produce cocoons utilized for silk reeling. Silkworm is an important laboratory model to study the longevity or adult life span among insect system. In silkworm, the total life span from egg to adult (silk moth) commonly called as ontogeny varies based on the voltinism the silkworm belongs to; and it is a biological phenomenon controlled genetically. In the present study, lifespan of silk moths using popular bivoltine hybrids FC1 and FC2 of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. during three seasons of the year was calculated following the standard procedure in vogue. The importance of adult lifespan or longevity is an important parameter and fitness index of silkworm breeding which is the new field of study. Based on the results obtained, the heterogametic sex i.e., females (ZW) exhibited shorter duration of survival compared to homogametic sex i.e., males (ZZ). In all the crosses, virgin moths of both sexes recorded longer duration of survival than mated moths, among the three seasons of the year, the longevity was higher in post monsoon season followed by pre-monsoon and monsoon. FC1 X FC2 showed higher longevity hours over FC2 X FC1 among the hybrids for all treatments.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 949–952
R. S. Deshmukh*1 and R. S. Dubal2
1 P. G. Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Yashavantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara - 415 001, Maharashtra, India 2 Arts, Science and Commerce College, Mokhada - 401 604, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Carbendazim is a systemic fungicide that is extensively used to control fungal diseases in agriculture, forestry, and veterinary care. These fungicides infiltrate water bodies through runoff and soil erosion, harming non-target animals including fish. The current study investigated at the toxicological effects of carbendazim at a lethal concentration on Acid Phosphatase (ACP) activity in Rasbora daniconius of liver and muscle tissue. For seven days, the experimental fish were acclimatised in glass aquaria in laboratory settings. The treatment (LC0 and LC50 concentration) group had significantly reduced Acid Phosphatase activity in the liver and muscle than the control group. Carbendazim, a fungicide, suppresses enzymatic activity in the freshwater fish Rasbora daniconius, according to the findings. It has been discovered that a higher concentration of carbendazim affects the natural activities of aquatic species, particularly fish.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 953–958
Kartik Chandra Sahu*1 and Mahendra Kumar Satapathy2
1 Department of Botany, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar - 751 022, Odisha, India 2 Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Abstract
Population of cities suffers numerous problems out of them urban people meet to essential needs for natural foods. This study refers to urban agriculture promote rooftop farming for food security and economic balance. The proper utilization of rooftops for agricultural propose. Now a day’s urban peoples are acquainted for the food problem and going to perceived rooftop garden which is very useful for resident of cities. The rooftop agriculture reduces accelerate economic and food security. The economic benefits from rooftop agriculture to use of building, obtained organic foods, environmental aspects, cooling effect of building, carbon concentration, rain and dew water management, recycling of used water on the rooftop agriculture is the new technology of water management. The recycling and production of bio-fertilizer (compost) from household garbage. Bio-fertilizer is used on rooftop agriculture. Rooftop gardens yield verities of vegetables, flowers, medicinal plants and ornamental plants which is very specious. It promotes the economic sustainability and save the excess expensive money (Cost saving plan). rooftop agriculture is perfect production of natural organic food from rooftop of buildings. The other foods are contaminated from market containing excess and uncontrolled use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers harm for the health. Organic based vegetable obtains from rooftop so we called it food of kitchen. Organic food reduces the diseases and save the money. Research method is carried out by survey and questioner method, the primary data collected by direct contact with the rooftop practitioners and stakeholders of Bhubaneswar city. The secondary data are collected from internet, virtual mode. Traditional production of compost. Temperature record. Monthly expenses of the gardeners, Vegetable grow in rooftop are the objective of this study. This study rooftop agriculture the economic value-added system and food security of the urban people. Bhubaneswar is the one of the advance cities in order of tremendous growth of rooftop agriculture. Large number of people perceived rooftop gardening in Bhubaneswar and promote food security and economical sustainability.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 959–961
K. Muthumanickam1 and D. Dhanasekaran*2
1-2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An investigation was conducted to study the effect of soil solarization on growth and yield of Amaranthus dubius in the Department of Horticulture, Annamalai University at Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with seven treatments in three replications consisting of soil management treatments viz., fallow summer ploughing one time in 30 and 45 days, summer ploughing 2 times in 30 and 45 days, application of transparent polyethylene film of 0.05 mm thick for 45 days and biodegradable polyethylene film for 45 days and compared with a control. The growth and yield components viz., plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, stem weight per plant, leaf weight per plant, yield of greens per plant, yield of greens per plot and yield of greens per hectare were recorded at the time of harvest and were analyzed. The results revealed that application of transparent polyethylene sheet significantly increased the growth and yield parameters in Amaranthus dubius when compared to the control.

Short communication | Published online : 05-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 962–965
Seema Talwar*1, Nupur Mondal2, Gaurav Kumar3, Promila Mathur4 and Sujata Bhardwaj5
1-2 Department of Botany, Shivaji College, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110027 3 Department of Environmental Studies, PGDAV College, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110027 4 Department of Chemistry, Shivaji College, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110027 5 Department of Botany, Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110027
Abstract
Wheat is the most commonly cultivated cereal crop in the world. It is infested by an economically important wheat disease worldwide viz. Fusarium Head Blight (FHB). This disease causes a huge loss in both yield and grain quality. Though there are many chemical pesticides to control it, there is a dire need for a biological control method, to achieve a sustainable agriculture system. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare the antifungal activity of Clove oil (Syzygium aromaticumL. Merrill and Perry), Neem oil (Azadirachta indica), and Peppermint oil (Mentha piperita) against the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. The results of this study revealed that among all the herbal oils used, Clove oil is considered to be the most effective oil. The complete growth inhibition of F. graminearum was observed at the concentration of 1μLml-1.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 966–970
Packialakshmi N*1 and Vijayalakshmi K2
1-2 P.G & Research Department of Microbiology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Trichy - 620 020, (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli), Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Phosphate solubilizing bacteria had the ability to convert insoluble form of phosphate into soluble form by lowering the pH of the medium. Acidification was due to the solubilization of calcium and aluminum phosphates by the organic acids produced by the phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Production of organic acids was considered as one of the important mechanism of phosphate solubilization. Organic acids chelate the calcium cations that bound to phosphate by its hydroxyl and carboxyl groups which lead to the increased solubilization. In the present study among 86 strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Tephroshia purpurea. Out of these four efficient strains SS2, SS5, SS7 and SS11 were found to be very effective in phosphate solubilization. The efficient strains SS2, SS5, SS7 and SS11 were subjected to 16S RNA sequencing and identified as Stenotrophomonas rhizophila_SS2, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila_SS5, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila_SS7, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila_SS11 (GenBank Accession no OM131765, OM131766, OM131767, OM13178). The strains were further characterized for organic acid production by HPLC analysis. The peak values in retention time were observed for SS2 (2.463), SS5 (2.258), SS7 (2.251) and SS11 (2.724) respectively. The organic acids as involved in the reduction of pH of the medium and aids effective phosphate solubilization.

Research Article | Published online : 06-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 971–977
Riddhi V. Ramani*1 and Vimal M. Ramani2
1 R. K. University, Rajkot - 360 020, Gujarat, India 2 College of Dairy Science, Kamdhenu University, Amreli - 365 601, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Milk and milk products are the main sources of beneficial probiotic strains. Probiotics are enriched with good microorganisms for better activity of gastrointestinal tract. Yogurt, dahi, kefir, lassi, pickles, sourdough bread and some cheeses are example of some popular probiotic products obtained after fermentation. Not all the species have probiotic properties, certain species of, Bifidobacterium Lactobacilli, Enterobacter and Bacilli are known to have potentiality to be used as probiotics. Among the major challenges in preparation of probiotics, survival rate in the gastrointestinal tract during its consumption is one of the major concerns. Since the pH of gastric fluid is too acidic, many microorganisms cannot remain viable. There are many encapsulation methods, which are useful to maintain viability and characteristics of probiotic microorganisms when used with correct coating materials. Alginate, silica, starch, chitosan, and vegetable oil are good matrices for encapsulation. In this study, viability of five encapsulated microorganisms namely to encapsulate three Lactobacilli and two Enterobacter species isolated from varieties of sources. These species are Enterobacter faecium MW561229, Enterococcus faecium MW561231, Lactobacilli plantarum MW561232, Lactobacilli fermentum MW561233 and Lactobacilli plantarum MW561234. Alginate, alginate with starch, alginate with chitosan and alginate with vegetable oil and tween 80 were used as encapsulation matrices. Microorganisms with 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% density were subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal conditions up to 3 hours to determine the viability. Viability of cells was counted as CFU/ml. Based on the obtained results, it was found that after exposure of 3 hours, low concentrations of alginate/starch, alginate/chitosan and alginate/vegetable oil/tween 80 were having good viability.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 978–982
Sanam Kumari*1 and Pravin Prakash2
1-2 Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The application of PGPR can be implied as a cost-effective alternative to the use of high doses of fertilizers, required for making nitrogen and phosphorus available to the soil for optimum plant growth. A pot Experiment was carried out for two years during rabi season of 2019 and 2020 with wheat cv. HUW-234, thirteen treatments comprising of T1 (no fertilizer and no PGPR), T2 (100% NPK), T3 (N2 fixer), T4 (PSB), T5 (N2 fixer + PSB), T6 (50% NP), T7 (50% NP + N2 fixer), T8 (50% NP +PSB), T9 (50% NP + N2 fixer +PSB), T10 (75% NP), T11 (75% NP + N2 fixer), T12 (75% NP + PSB) and T13 (75% NP + N2 fixer + PSB) and three replications. The results showed significant increment in dry matter, leaf area, relative water content and NPK content of grain in T13 (75% NP + N2 fixer + PSB) followed by treatment T2 (100% NPK). The least of all the above parameters was recorded in T1 control (no fertilizer and no PGPR). The treatment with PGPR alone and 50% RDF alone also recorded significantly lower values for above parameters as compared to 75% RDF in combination with PGPR treatment. Plant height, leaf area, total dry weight, relative water content and NPK content in wheat were not affected by a 25% decrease in recommended dose of NPK after inoculation with the composite culture of PGPR (Azotobactor + Pseudomonas + B. Poymyxa). Hence, these bacterial isolates allow the use of lower than recommended dose of fertilizer and can be recommended for sustainable soil health.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 983–986
Mandeep Kaur1, Gurbax Singh2 and Rakesh Kumar*3
1-3 P.G. Department of Agriculture Khalsa College, Amritsar - 143 002, Punjab, India
Abstract
The field experiment was conducted to study the influence of irrigation methods and live mulching on productivity of spring maize (Zea mays L.) on sandy loam soil, low in organic carbon and available N and high in available P and K during the spring season of 2019. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with twelve treatment combinations having three irrigation methods viz; Conventional furrow irrigation (CFI), Alternate furrow irrigation (AFI) and Fixed furrow irrigation (FFI) in main plots and four live mulch treatments in sub plots including control, cowpea, moong and mash, and replicated four times. Growth attributes, yield components and grain yield were higher in CFI method than AFI and FFI methods. CFI and AFI methods gave higher maize grain yield (36.9 and 36.6 qha-1, respectively) and straw yield (89.0 and 88.5 qha-1, respectively) than the FFI method (33.3qha-1 grain yield and 85.3qha-1 straw yield). The various live mulches (intercropping) had also shown significant effects on growth and yield parameters. Cowpea mulching gave the maximum maize grain (38.6qha-1) and straw (89.9qha-1) yields followed by moong (37.9 and 89.4qha-1) and mash (35.4 and 87.2qha-1) live mulches.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 987–994
Subitha R*1 and P. Senthil Kumar2
1-2 Department of Biotechnology, Hindusthan College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore- 641 028, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Martynia annua, an herbaceous annual glandular hairy herb spread throughout the India has been used in traditional medicine and folklore for many diseases. Scientific investigation has revealed that this whole plant ethanomedically possess many pharmacological and therapeutic activities. This curative property makes it to the object of many researchers. The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the water leaf extract of Martynia annua by bioinspired route and examined its antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Martynia annua. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV Visible spectrophotometer at 454 nm. FTIR analysis of synthesized nanoparticles revealed that the presence of phytochemical compounds in the plant extract responsible for the formation, capping and stabilization of nanoparticles. Further characterization of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticle was performed using sscanning electron microscopy, particle size analyzer, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and zeta ppotential for the analysis of the size, shape, average size, electric charge, elemental composition and stability of synthesized nanoparticles. The shape and average size of the synthesized nanoparticles were showed at spherical in the size range 60.12 nm. The presence of elements, silver (3 KeV) was confirmed by EDX analysis. Zeta potential showed that synthesized nanoparticles were found to be in negative charge in the value of -18.9 mV. Synthesized silver nanoparticles registered effective antibacterial activity against wound pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sp, Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis. Synthesized nanoparticles also had shown a promising antioxidant activity.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 995–997
Sevak Das*1, Sweta A. Patel2 and D. M. Patel3
1-3 Department of Agricultural Meteorology, C. P. College of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar - 385 506, Banaskantha, Gujarat, India
Abstract
Weather and climate influence the production and productivity of various crops in a given region. If farmers are aware in an advance about real time incoming weather condition, it may effectively prevent the crop failure and achieve high yield. To study the impact assessment of weather based agro-advisory services in north Gujarat region, 100 farmers were randomly selected for feedback questionnaires during the year 2021-22. Results revealed that, dissemination of advisories through Mobile (Whats App, SMS, Phone call) largely adopted by the farmers. Further, about 28 per cent of total responded farmers, rated the information as very good followed by 23 and 22 per cent rated as good and excellent respectively. The study indicated that the farmers highly focused on spraying and irrigation operation while using the agro-advisory bulletins. Further, awareness is need to be created among farmers to maximum utilization of advisory for betterment the production.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 998–1002
P. Neelarathi1, K. Durgadevi2 and V. Ramamurthy*3
1-3 P. G. and Research Department of Biochemistry, Marudupandiyar College, Thanjavur - 613 403, Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Avicennia marina is the marine mangrove found abundantly along the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu. The ethanolic leaf extract of Avicennia marina was analyzed by HPLC and GC to determine various Phytochemicals. Free radicals scavenging activity of extract by using DPPH, NO and Super oxide radicals generated in vitro. The ethanolic extract of A. marina was found to contain alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols and flavonoids. The major flavonoid detected was quercetin and rutin. The A. marina was found to possess significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide anions the IC50 value of 50.75 µg/ml, 45.85µg/ml and 48.45µg/ml respectively and comparable to that of their corresponding IC50 value. The medicinal property of A. marina may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds with rich antioxidant potential. The therapeutic effect of this plant may be accounted for its counteracting action on free radicals in vivo.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1003–1006
Soumi Guhapolley*1 and Debina Dutta2
1-2 Department of Microbiology, Lady Brabourne College, P1/2 Suhrawardy Avenue, Kolkata - 700 017, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Antibiotic usage is considered as the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in both veterinary and human medicine. Antibiotics are regularly used in poultry production as antimicrobial growth promoters. The presence of antibiotics may result in development of antibiotic resistant microbes in the chicken meat. Moreover, even if the microbes are killed by cooking the antibiotic resistant gene pool is not destroyed. Thus, the individuals handling raw poultry meat or consuming this chicken are exposed to antibiotic resistant bacteria &/or gene pool both of which may result in development of new antibiotic resistance in the exposed individuals. Here we report about the antibiotic resistant bacterial population in raw broiler chicken samples collected from different areas of Kolkata, West Bengal. Ciprofloxacin resistant faecal coliforms isolated from broiler chicken were found to be resistant to Neomycin, Oxytetracycline, Enrofloxacin and Doxycycline. Multidrug resistant strains were also quite abundant. Plasmids were detected in six of the multidrug resistant isolates. The presence of MDR strains carrying plasmids in chicken samples is quite detrimental as antibiotic resistance is often harboured on plasmids, which could facilitate horizontal gene transfer.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1007–1011
K. Prabu*1 and S. Gopika2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Biochemistry, Sacred Heart College (Autonomous), Tirupattur - 635 601, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro wound healing effects of the ethanolic extracts of Ruellia tuberosa obtained by cytotoxicity, cell scratch assay, antioxidant activity, and selected phytochemical constituents. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and quantitative phytochemical analysis of Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured using spectrophotometry methods. The cytotoxic effects of the extracts on 3T3 cell line were evaluated by Mosmann, (1983) method. Furthermore, migration and spreading of the treated fibroblast cells were assessed by cell scratch assay as an in vitro wound healing model. The results of the cytotoxicity assay indicated that the ethanolic extract did not have any cytotoxic effect on fibroblast cells The cell was exposed to different concentrations of test compound for 48hrs and the cytotoxic effect of the extract was evaluated. The percentage viability 3T3 Cell line at the highest treated concentration of Ruellia tuberosa leaf extract was observed to be 77.97. Fibroblast migration was significantly increased by sample treatment compared to the control. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity and phytochemical compounds. The results showed that Ruellia tuberosa leaf extracts have wound healing potential and contain several important antioxidant phenolic compounds. This species deserves further investigation aiming to isolate and identify the active compounds.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1012–1017
A. Rengaraj*1 and R. Bharathidasan2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Microbiology, Marudupandiyar College of Arts and Science (Affiliated with Bharathidasan University), Thanjavur - 613 403, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Microscopic organisms are the significant giver of visual diseases around the world. Visual contaminations, whenever if not treated, can harm the designs with regard to the eye conceivable visual impairment as well as visual impedances. The seagrass Arthrocnemum indicum was gathered from intertidal locale of the Manora, Thanjavur District, Pattukottai Taluk and its phytochemical, antimicrobial and Antioxidant prevention agent potential not entirely settled. The ethanol separate showed the most elevated phytochemical than different concentrates. The antimicrobial action likewise shows the most noteworthy hindrance than different concentrates. The ethanol extricates showed the most noteworthy 2,2 diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) The near cancer prevention agent investigation of the resulting concentrate of Arthronemum indicum showed that the ethanol extricate has the most elevated free extremist rummaging property contrasted with different concentrates. This might be because of the presence of high phenolic compounds. The studies draw out the collection of Ocular pathogens from patient’s and molecular identification of Ocular pathogens from baby samples and restorative worth of Arthronemum indicum which can be utilized as a nutraceutical compound in different food and drug businesses.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1018–1023
Neha1, Gurvarinder Kaur2, Isha Madaan3, Anmol Sidhu4 and Geetika Sirhindi*5
1-5 Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala - 147 002, Punjab, India
Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) belongs to the new class of phytohormones holds promising potential in amplification of growth and development in plants under normal and stress conditions by mitigating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. The current study was performed to examine the role of exogenously applied 28-Homobrassinolide (HBL) with different concentrations (0, 1 µM, 1nM, 1pM) in Brassica juncea seedlings subjected to cold stress (5°C) under laboratory conditions. Low temperature stress reduced the growth parameters but HBL treatment significantly augmented these morphological parameters. Further under cold stress condition, increase in H2O2 and MDA content was found, but their toxic effect was alleviated with exogenous appliance of HBL. Afterwards, amelioration in the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as carotenoids and vitamins were observed with the application of HBL which confirmed to be favourable in mitigating the harmful effects of low temperature stress. Overall, the seed treatment with HBL increased plant’s potential to beat toxic effects imposed by low temperature stress by amplifying the ability of antioxidants to higher horizons thus paving the approach towards the use of eco-friendly perspectives in improving stress tolerance in plants.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1024–1031
P. Subramaniam1, A. Vanitha2, K. Kalimuthu*3, D. Sathiya Sheela4 and E. Shanthi Priya5
1-5 PG and Research Department of Botany, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Coimbatore - 641 018, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this study, we have fabricated copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) from the plant of aqueous extracts of wild (WCJ) plants of Ceropegia juncea an endangered medicinal plant as bioreducing agents. The aim of present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antiangiogenesis and anticancer activities of WCJ copper nanoparticles. Crystalline CuNPs of WCJ synthesis was confirmed by different physicochemical analytical techniques such as UV–Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis); Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR); X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD); Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); and Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDX). The nanoparticles size was found to be ranging from 177.9, 246.3, 263.5, and 346.1 nm in WCJCuNPs the SEM. Further, the synthesized nanoparticles were tested their antibacterial activity. The maximum zone of inhibition 9.0±0.25 and 8.0±0.25 mm, and 5.0±0.10 and 5.0±0.25 mm was observed in Salmonella paratypi and Escherichia coli in WCJCuNPs. In antiangiogenic activity the percentage of inhibition in WCJCuNPs at the concentration of 500 µg/ml. The best cytotoxicity activity of WCJCuNPs against HT-29 cell was found in 250 µg/ml concentration with 22.84 percent of cell viability. Finally, our study confirmed the CuNPs synthesis from WCJ extract, which is environmentally friendly with antimicrobial, antiangiogenesis and anticancer activities.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1032–1036
Subhashini Gunasekaran1, Chitra Devi Kalanjiyam2, Sundar Sundaram Kumaresan3 and Rajan Suyambu*4
1-4 P.G. and Research Department of Microbiology, M. R. Government Arts College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli), Mannargudi - 614 001, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Peptic Ulcer Disease is a major complication among 10% of the human population. Management of this disease is a global issue and can be achieved by multiple therapies. Though this disease is treated with antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, h2 blockers, antacids, and cytoprotective agents, which creates lots of side effects and microorganisms developed drug resistance. Andrographis echioides is an herb traditionally and still in villages used for the treatment of various ailments. Antiulcer activity of this plant’s whole part was done by making use of ethanol-induced experimental animals. SOD, GPx, GSH, CAT, and MDA were assessed using standard textual methods. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of whole parts of this plant revealed 69.1 – 83% ulcer protection and restored the levels of gastric volume, gastric acidity, and gastric pH. Levels of antioxidant enzymes were also restored in control animals and omeprazole-treated animal groups. Phytochemicals like flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic compounds are essential in controlling ulceration and the free radical scavenging power of the plant materials and are confirmed as antioxidant and antiulcer agents.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1037–1040
Arusi Gupta1 and Mahuya Mukhopadhyay*2
mahuya.mukhopadhyay@ladybrabourne.com
Abstract
Aquafeeds contain high amount of protein. Formulation of aquafeeds with novel protein sources like dried microbial biomass alternatively called Single cell protein can contribute to a more sustainable Aquafeed Industry. Microbial protein sources of Purple non sulfur bacteria are a well-known fact and that may be exploited as a supplement in aquafeed. For this purpose, enrichment of Purple Non-Sulphur Bacteria (PNSB) was done using water samples collected from Sundarban Delta, West Bengal and another sample collected from Local fresh water pond in Kolkata. They were enriched in specific medium in microaerophilic lighted condition (10000 lux). Enriched samples were screened on the basis of greater protein and carbohydrate content and sample SG2 and FP was selected for formulation of fish feed. Selected samples SG-2 and FP shows Protein content of 10.115 and 10.579 μg/ml and Carbohydrate content of 236.4 and 220.8 μg/ml. Fish feed was formulated with biomass of selected PNSB samples mixing with specific binder materials and was fed to batch of fishes (Xiphophorus helleri) in aquarium culture. 4 aquarium was maintained feeding with i) Commercial fish feed, ii) Experimental fish feed containing both SG2 and FP, iii) Experimental fish feed with SG 2 only and iv) Experimental fish feed with FP only. Better survivality and growth of the experimental fishes was reported in the set ii) that is fed with Experimental fish feed containing both SG-2 and FP. Fish feed produced with PNSB having potential as a substitute of commercially available fish feed in the market.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1041–1045
M. Chidambara Priya*1 and P. Vanitha Pappa2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Rani Anna Government College for Women (Affiliated under Manonmaniam Sundaranar University), Abisekapatti, Tirunelveli - 627 008, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
General agricultural use of pesticides carries with it potential hazards to man and directly by exposure to toxic residues in food and indirectly to the environment. This study was carried out to identify the bioaccumulation of organophosphate pesticide residues in two commonly consumed vegetables (Abelmoschus esculentus and Spinacia oleracea) collected from random local markets located in the Tirunelveli region, Tamil Nadu (India). The samples were randomly collected from different markets and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the detection of organophosphate pesticides (OP). Organophosphate pesticide is widely used among farmers for crop protection. The result of the study revealed that collected samples of Abelmoschus esculentus and Spinacia oleracea were contaminated with some organophosphate substances. There is an urgent need to develop pesticide monitoring and surveillance systems at the farmer’s level, educating farmers and promoting the use of greener pesticides to mitigate the health effects of pesticides.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1046–1050
Mudassara Hasan*1 and Fauzia Naushin2
1 Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 001, Uttar Pradesh, India 2 Botany Section, Women's College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field study was carried out to determine the interactive effects of two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [Funneliformis caledonius (Fc) and Glomus bagyarajii (Gb)], Rhizobium (R), and sewage sludge (SS) on the growth, physiology, microbial population and N, P, K content in chickpea grown in autoclaved garden soil (S) and soil mixed with 20% sewage sludge. The growth parameters of chickpea were recorded 60 days after sowing. The plant height, fresh and dry weight, biochemical content (total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein content and nitrate reductase activity), microbial population (Rhizobial nodule count and percent root colonization by AM fungi) as well as N, P, K content increased significantly on application of 20% sewage sludge in the soil. Microbial inoculation in the sewage sludge amended soil enhanced all plant growth and biochemical parameters. The highest plant growth response was obtained in the treatment SS + R + Gb. The proline content (an indicator of plant stress) was highest in chickpea raised in soil amended with sewage sludge.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1051–1054
Shamim Alam1, Sandipan Chatterjee2 and Anirban Paul*3
1-3 Department of Botany, Suri Vidyasagar College, Suri, Birbhum - 731 101, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Geographical indication (GI) is an important type of Intellectual Property Rights. In the last two decades it has emerged as a significant tool that provides the right to use the indication for the product to their manufacturers or producers from any particular region. The GI of any particular product provides them the legal right to ban the use of the name or sign which doesn’t have certain qualities and characteristics. There were 417 registered GI products in India including 390 Indian products and 27 foreign products till 31st March, 2022. Darjeeling Tea of West Bengal was the first product that was registered under GI in India in 2004-05. Among 390 Indian GI products 22 are from West Bengal. The present paper analyses the plant-based registered GI products of West Bengal starting from Darjeeling Tea to Dalle Khursani. The raw material of Darjeeling tea is the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis. Dalle Khursani is a round shaped chili which is one of the hottest chilies in the world belonging to the plant genus Capsicum has recently been given GI tag in 2021-22.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1055–1061
Ajay Kumar*1 and R. K. Verma2
1-2 Department of Botany, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284 128, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The present study deals with the phytosociological analysis and distribution pattern of woody species in selected forests of Jalaun district of Uttar Pradesh. A total of 68 and 71 woody plant species (tree/shrub/climber/woody grass) have been recorded in Ikona and Rampura forests respectively. Prosopis juliflora was the dominant tree species with highest range of IVI value (42.62 to 43.61) in all two study sites while the shrub species of Capparis decidua (12.16) in Ikona-forest community and Capparis sepiaria (13.25) were dominated in Rampura Forest. The range of density was 442 to 456 Plant/ha and its value for lower groups of plant was varied from 124 to 156 Plant /ha. The total basl of different tree species varied between 10.47 to 0.08 m2/ha (Ikona-fprest) and 14.04 to 0.14 m2/ha (Rampura-fporest). The distribution pattern of all the woody species was contiguous followed by random distribution pattern, regular distribution pattern was not shown in all the two-forest community.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1062–1066
Nagasinduja V*1 and Shahitha S2
1-2 Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram - 637 408, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The intelligence of revamping metals into their nanoparticles and their application in the biological field made nanotechnology evolve globally. It is one of the modern, contemporary, eco-friendly, non-toxic and economical method that fascinates the researchers around the world. Pathogens were isolated from discrete food samples. They were tested for multi drug resistance, biofilm and betalactamase production. Vitex negundo leaves were shade dried and extract was prepared using ethanol and acetone as solvents. Followed by the phytochemical studies the antibacterial activities of the plant extracts were studied. The best extract was selected for silver nanoparticle synthesis and it was characterized by by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis. The antibacterial activity was examined by agar well diffusion method. In this study we have identified that the silver nanoparticles of ethanol extract of Vitex negundu showed the potent anti-microbial activity against biofilm and betalactamse producing bacterial pathogens. The plant has to be further exploited for its strong antimicrobial activity and it can be used as the alternative for the antibiotics against such virulent pathogens.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1067–1072
Puja Sarmah*1 and Trishnakhi Swargiari2
1-2 Department of Life Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh - 786 004, Assam, India
Abstract
A survey of the bird’s diversity inside the campus of Dibrugarh University, Assam, India was conducted for one year from February 2021 to March 2022. A total of 135 species were recorded belonging to 16 orders and 56 families. From the order Passeriformes highest number of species was recorded. We have recorded 12 species that are endemic to Assam. Moreover, 16 vulnerable and 6 near-threatened species were also recorded. Though no endangered and critically threatened species were recorded from the university campus, as a whole, the university campus shows a diverse population of birds therefore, it can be concluded that the area provides a suitable habitat for avian fauna.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1073–1078
Mohanapriya B*1 and C. Kanagaraj2
1-2 Department of Biotechnology, Rathinam College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore - 641 021, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Industrial effluents containing unreacted azo dyes contaminates the water heavily and is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. Hence bioremediation by removal of dye effluents from water is essential. The aim of this research is to isolate bacterial strains that can efficiently degrade azo dyes and identify the strains using. Wastewater samples were collected from five different zones rich with dye Effluents across Tirupur. 9 bacterial strains were isolated out of which three strains were positive for dye decolorization activity. Biochemical Tests were done for identifying the characteristics of the positive strains. Quantitative analysis was also done for those strains using magenta dye to find out the rate of dye decolorization of each strain. Isolates Culture-5 (D-5) and Culture-6(C-6), were among the best dye degraders. D-8 was efficient enough to degrade magenta dye up to 80% in a week.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1079–1086
Shadad Md Khayer*1 and Thaneswer Patel2
1 Department of Agricultural Engineering, SCS College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Rangamati, Dhubri - 783 376, Assam, India 2 Department of Agricultural Engineering, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology (NERIST), Nirjuli - 791 109, Arunachal Pradesh, India
Abstract
Weeding is a time consuming as well as labor intensive operations creating low yield of crop. Manually operated push pull weeder mostly fabricated by local firms where dimensions, blade geometry and human safety and comfort were not considered precisely resulting lower weeding efficiency (WE). Present study was carried out for design optimization of blade geometry of push-pull weeder using response surface methodology (RSM). The selected independent parameters are angle of attack, approach angle and width of blade, where the responses are weeding efficiency, draft and plant damage. The design optimization was carried out for angle of attack 15º-50º, approach angle 30º-50º and width of blade 15-20 cm in five labels. Trials were carried out for a 0.25 ha plot of maize crop and 10 square plots of (1×1) m2 were selected randomly for finding the average crop density, weed density, weeding efficiency and plant damage percentage for the same land. As per RSM analysis, five optimal solutions were found, where the optimum desirable conditions for maximum weeding efficiency (76.3%), minimum draft generated (34.9 kg) and minimum plant damage (0.102%) for the input variables viz. angle of attack as 15º, approach angle as 50º and effective width as 16.8 cm with the desirability of 0.872. In this optimal condition, farmers are comfortable with the weeder where minimum draft generated and can work for a longer duration with minimum stress along with better weeding efficiency.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1087–1091
Hina Shaher*1 and Fauzia Naushin2
1 Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 001, Uttar Pradesh, India 2 Botany Section, Women’s College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
The effects of microbial symbiosis (Rhizobium and AM fungi, namely Funneliformis caledonius and Glomus bagyarajii) on growth and contents of NPK and proline (Lens culinaris Medik.) in leaf tissues of lentil grown in autoclaved compost mixed garden soil (S) and 25% fly ash mixed composted garden soil were investigated. With or without inoculation of Rhizobium and AM Fungi (Funneliformis caledonius and Glomus bagyarajii). Application of 25% fly ash (FA) with garden soil (S) and inoculation with Rhizobium (R) and AMF Funneliformis caledonius (F) enhanced yield and NPK content in lentil leaves to a significantly high level than any other treatments. Overall yield response of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) to various microbial inoculation and fly ash amendment may be arranged in the following increasing order as S < S+R < S+F < S+R+G < S+R+F < S+A < S+A+R S+A+G < S+A+F < S+A+R+G < S+A+R+F. The trend was recorded in the relative accumulation of phosphorus and potash content in the leaf. The nitrogen content in leaves was least in the plants grown in fly ash amended soil (S+A) without any microbial organism. The stress indicating proline content was highest in this treatment (S+A). application of Funneliformis caledonius (F) in this combination (S+A+F) reduced the plant stress as evident from relatively lesser proline accumulation.

Research Article | Published online : 19-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1092–1095
N. B. Prajapati*1 and A. A. Raval2
1-2 Department of Microbiology, Arts, Science and Commerce College, Kamrej Cross Roads, Surat - 396 445, Gujarat, India
Abstract
The development of a reliable green chemistry process for the microbial fabrication of nanoparticles is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. More interest has been generated in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In the present study, extracellular syntheses of silver nanoparticles by bacterial strains isolated from the agricultural soils were reported. When silver ions are exposed to the cell free supernatant of the isolated bacterial strains, reduction of silver ions occurs which leads to the formation of AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy which also exhibited maximum absorbance at 420 nm. They were spherical in shape and size ranging between 75-98 nm. The antimicrobial activity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated against plant pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris, Agrobacterium tumifaciens, Arthrobacter sp., and Erwinia chrysanthemi burkholder.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1096–1100
Priyadharshini M*1, D. Leelavathi2, V. Mathivanan3 and Balaji Munivelan4
1-2 P. G and Research Department of Zoology, Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai - 600 008, Tamil Nadu, India 3 PG and Research Department of Zoology, Dr. Ambedkar Government Arts College (Autonomous), Chennai - 600 039, Tamil Nadu, India 4 CEO & Senior Bio-informatician, ABS Geno-informatics, Chennai - 600 014, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
This research attempted to establish biomarker genes and pathways involved in impairing the spermatogenesis process of patients with hyperprolactinemia. The gene expression dataset of GSE36314 was acquired using the GPL8300 platform from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, NCBI. BRB-Array Tools were used to analyze the microarray data for the identification of Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) between patients with hyperprolactinemia and controls. There were 138 upregulated genes and 14 downregulated genes detected in total. Analysis of Gene Ontology demonstrated enrichment in terms of modifications to the molecular functioning of hormonal activities, biological functioning of cell-cell signaling, and peptide hormone processing in the hyperprolactinemia group. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in 17 pathways. Three important pathways namely, Hippo Signaling pathway, the Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, and the GnRH signaling pathway were identified to be directly involved in the hyperprolactinemia group which results in the alteration of the spermatogenesis process. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Interleukin-6 (IL6) genes were ascertained as the hub genes by statistical analysis which were found to be significantly modified and associated with spermatogenesis dysregulation in the hyperprolactinemia group. Conjointly, these data facilitate the identification of biomarkers for determining drug targets and also provide insights into the etiology underlying hyperprolactinemia-induced male infertility.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1101–1104
Abhijeet Kr Shrivastava*1 and Snigdha Lal2
1 Department of Chemistry, S. D. College Kaler, Arawal - 824 127, Bihar, India 2 Department of Chemistry, R. L. S. Y College, Bettiah - 845 438, West Champaran, Bihar, India
Abstract
This paper is based on the chitosan compounds which were basically pseudo-natural cationic polymer, due to high application in many fields many researches has been done on this compound. we had prepared different concentration of stock solutions of Chitosan, Potato Starch and their different blend compositions and studied with Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) analysis were recorded using a JOEL (JSM 6380LA) analyzer. FTIR spectra were also measured using NICOLET AVATAR 530 spectrophotometer and the anticipated results were concluded that blends of chitosan/starch are compatible. The miscibility in chitosan/starch blend system is due to the formation of strong hydrogen bonding between chitosan and starch.

Research Article | Published online : 20-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1105–1108
Murugesan Mathumathy1, Vijayaragavan Rashmi2, Lakshmanan Uma3 and Dharmar Prabaharan*4
1-4 National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria (Sponsored by DBT, Govt of India), Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
To overcome the variation of lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris, the objective of the present research was to investigate the effect of various growth medium compositions on C. vulgaris BDUG91771 in an attempt to enhance its growth and lipid production using batch culture conditions. Two defined media (ASN III and F/2) were evaluated for the growth of C. vulgaris BDUG91771 and F/2 medium ranks the best in terms of cell density. Various physical parameters (Light intensity, Temperature and pH) were optimized in varying ranges in the selected F/2 medium. The overall lipid productivity for the chosen strain C. vulgaris BDUG91771 was about 25% at 30µmol m-2s-1 light intensity, 25±2°C temperature and pH 7. The study holistically identifies the suitable growth medium and optimal culturing physical parameters for the lipid production in C. vulgaris BDUG91771.

Research Article | Published online : 21-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1109–1112
C. Narayanaswamy*1 and N. Narasimha2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The present study was conducted to know the kknowledge level of IPM practices in tomato cultivation by farmers and to find out the relationship between the personal, socio-economic, psychological and communication characteristics of farmers with their perception, knowledge and adoption levels in Kolar and Chickaballapura Districts of Karnataka State. The data on overall knowledge level of farmers on IPM practices indicated that as high as 49.45 per cent of the farmers had medium level of knowledge followed by high (31.11 %) and low (19.44 %) level of knowledge. Variables such as tomato cultivation experience, cosmopoliteness, management orientation, economic orientation, achievement motivation, innovativeness, scientific orientation, aspiration and risk orientation were significantly related at five per cent level of significance with knowledge on IPM practices of tomato growing farmers. The remaining seven variables viz. education, attitude towards IPM practices, training programmes undergone, extension participation, farm scientist contact, extension agency contact and mass media participation were found to have significant relationship at one per cent level of significance with knowledge on IPM practices of tomato growing farmers.

Research Article | Published online : 21-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1113–1116
Prashanth J1. and Manjunatha H. B*2
1-2 Proteomics and Genomics Laboratory, Department of Studies in Sericulture Science, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore - 570 006, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The yield and quality of the silk cocoons produced by the silkworm have been attributed to several biological, biochemical and environmental parameters. Among biomolecules, protein and trehalose aid in the growth and development of the silkworm and are drastically influenced by the environmental temperature. Considering the significance, we have explored the consecutive impact of multigenerational thermal stress (TS) at 45°C on the protein and trehalose contents of the six new bivoltine lines (NBL) in comparison with their parental breeds. Among six NBL lines, NBL-10B exhibits the highest of 43.07% elevation in the protein content, while it was 23.74% in NBL-2 being lowest on day-4 of the fifth instar larvae. Subsequently, on day-6, it has been increased to 76.30% in NBL-10B being the highest and 21.97% as low in the haemolymph of NBL-4 as a response to TS over their respective control batches. Concomitantly, among NBLs, NBL-5 exhibits an improvement of 24.34% trehalose content and the lowest of 1.99% in TS induced larvae of NBL-10A over their respective control group on day-4. Whereas on day-6, the highest of 37.38% was recorded in NBL-2 and the least of 0.81% was noticed in NBL-4 TS in comparison with their respective control groups. Comparatively, protein and trehalose contents were high and low in NBL-5 and NBL-10B, which have TS induced batches respectively. These salient findings clearly indicate that the NBL possesses high tolerance to withstand the thermal stress without affecting their growth and development compared to their parental breeds.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1117–1120
Nithya Sethumadhavan*1 and N. Santhi2
1-2 School of Biosciences, Department of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Avinashilingam Institute of Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore - 641 043, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Rosa indica is a perennial flower shrub which belongs to the family Rosaceae and genus rosa. From ancient times various rose preparations are used to treat sore throat, enlarged tonsils, as an antibacterial agent and there are few studies on its fertility enhancing properties too. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Rosa indica petals on the serum levels of testosterone (ng/ml) and thus the semen parameters including Concentration (M/ML), motility (%) and morphology (%) on heat stress induced male wistar rats. In this experimental study, 30 adult male Wistar rats were used. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. First group was control (only with compressed food and adequate water), second group was Negative control (heat stressed), third group was positive control (heat stressed + treated with Quercetin), fourth and fifth group was heat stressed with 200 mg/kg of ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. After 21 days of treatment, blood samples were drawn after euthanasia by heart puncture from all the animals to measure the serum testosterone levels and Epididymal sperm was extracted to analyse various parameters. The collected data were analysed using ANOVA and found to be statistically significant and as follows. The group receiving heat treatment with ethanolic extract exhibited higher testosterone levels followed by increased semen concentration, motility and morphology. From this study it is apparent that the ethanolic extract of Rosa indica petals alleviate heat stress induced male infertility.

Research Article | Published online : 22-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1121–1123
A. S. Narhe1 and N. S. Suryawanshi*2
1-2 Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, DSPM’S K. V. Pendharkar College of Arts, Science and Commerce (Autonomous) Dombivli East - 421 203, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Different media, carbon, nitrogen, temperature and pH were used on the mycelial growth and biomass production of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc (in vitro) causing stem rot of groundnut. Total ten culture media used in the culturing the Sclerotium. Out of ten media PDA (90mm; 763.3mg) showed maximum growth of S. rolfsii followed by Nutrient Agar 71.3mm; 233.3mg). In carbon sources significant growth was observed in sucrose (90mm; 730mg) and followed by starch, dextrose and Maltose, while in lactose significantly reduced the growth on both solid and broth. Potassium nitrate was the best among the ten nitrogen sources. Maximum growth and biomass showed at temperature 30°C which was reduced significantly below 20°C and above 35°C. Mycelial growth was observed at all pH tested, maximum growth was recorded at pH 6 (87.3 mm) and dry weight 270mg.

Research Article | Published online : 25-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1124–1126
A. Chowdhury*1
1 Department of Zoology, East Calcutta Girls’ College, Lake Town, Kolkata - 700 089, West Bengal, India
Abstract
The physiochemical properties of cast of four different species of earthworm viz. Eutyphoeus orientalis (Beddard), Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Metaphire posthuma (Vaillant) and Perionyx excavatus Perrier evaluated in comparison to surrounding clay-loam alluvial soil of an orchard. Seasonal variation of different parameters recorded in the cast as well as in surrounding soil. Casts usually have a higher or nearly same pH, more total kjeldahl and available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, organic carbon and C:N ratio than surrounding soil. Inter specific variation of nutrients in the casts signifies selective feeding habit of earthworm species. Earthworm activities in the soil cause change in the physiochemical properties of the soil and increase soil fertility. From present study, it concluded that earthworm activities in the soil cause change in the physiochemical properties of the soil and increase soil fertility. The nature of change depends on the type of the soil, presence or absence of litter and the species of earthworm involved in the process. Nevertheless, the question arises whether the form and the concentrations of this nutrient is able to produce favourable environment for plant growth. For which further studies is going on.

Short communication | Published online : 25-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1127–1131
Sanjoy Saha*1 and Niranjan Roy2
1 Department of Economics, Debraj Roy College, Golaghat - 785 621, Assam, India 2 Department of Economics, Assam University, Silchar - 788 011, Assam, India
Abstract
Rural farm wages are one of the most important tools for measuring the condition of rural people more accurately. Using secondary data, the present study makes an attempt to study both money and real trends for different agricultural operations for male and female agricultural labourers of Assam. It has been observed that there both money and real wages have been rising continuously for different agricultural operation. However, the rise in wages has gained significant momentum mainly after the implementation of MGNREGA in the recent past. The study further reveals that there has been a significant gender wage gap among unskilled rural labourers. On average female agricultural labourers are paid around 40 percent less than their male counterpart for almost all agricultural operations. The impact of MGNREGA in reducing the gender wage gap is mixed. Wage gap has increased for field labourers, sowing and weeding after MGNREGA while for reaper and harvester and other agricultural labourers it has decreased. Therefore, the study suggests that necessary steps should be taken by the policymakers in order to arrest the problem of wage inequality immediately.

Research Article | Published online : 27-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1132–1135
Shobha M1, Srinivas B. Neglur2 and R. D. Sanakal*3
1-3 Department of Zoology, Karnatak Science College, Dharwad - 580 001, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Soil analysis provides an important information about physical nutrient conditions and chemical properties that influence the soil health. In the present investigation the physico-chemical studies of soils are carried out for the various soil samples viz of has shown in graph S1, S2, S3, S4 collected from North and South regions of Karnataka at the vicinity sugar and fertilizer industries. The results have indicated that soil sample S1 has Shown Heavy clay soil texture, lowest electrical conductivity, available Nitrogen, Potassium, Sulphur and Iron content and also showed maximum level of exchangeable calcium and magnesium content. Soil sample S2 has maximum water holding capacity, Highest range of EC, slightly alkaline pH, more organic carbon and organic matter, available Nitrogen, lower phosphorous and Iron content. Soil sample S3 has acidic pH, Maximum range of Phosphorous, Copper, Iron and Zinc Content. Soil sample S4 and indicates the lowest water holding capacity, Lower content of moisture, organic carbon and organic matter, lower level of exchangeable calcium and magnesium content, lowest copper content and showed maximum potassium and Sulphur content. These variations in soil physico-chemical parameter certainly influenced the distribution of soil micro-fauna and soil health.

Research Article | Published online : 27-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1136–1139
Priya P. Menon*1, K. T. Chandramohanan2 and V. V. Radhakrishnan3
1 Department of Statistics, Maharaja’s College, Ernakulam, Kochi - 682 011, Kerala, India 2 Department of Botany, Government Brennen College, Thalasserry - 670 106, Kerala, India 3 Genetics and Plant Breeding Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala - 673 635, India
Abstract
Peacock ginger (Kaempferia rotunda L.) is a highly valued medicinal plant cultivated for its rhizomes. Sixty-eight accessions of peacock ginger collected from different locations across Kerala State of India were subjected to comparative performance analysis based on fifteen growth and yield characters with the help of cumulative performance index. It was used to find out the most promising genotypes with desirable characters for further improvement of the species. Being a marginalized crop, the improvement of yield potential in Kaempferia rotunda is very important for popularization of the crop as food component and also for product diversification.

Research Article | Published online : 27-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1140–1144
Vaibhav Pratap Singh*1 and R. U. Khan2
1-2 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
An extensive field survey was conducted to assess the incidence and severity of Alternaria blight of rapeseed-mustard during rabi seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 at different farmer’s fields in different districts of Uttar Pradesh. The pooled data of two years (2016-17 and 2017-18) indicated a considerable variation in the incidence and severity of Alternaria blight in different surveyed districts. The disease incidence and severity in these surveyed districts ranged from 35.67 to 69.20% and 27.61 to 55.29%, with an overall average of 51.56 and 42.03%, respectively. The disease was found to be in each village of twenty districts, but significantly maximum disease incidence and severity (69.20% and 55.29%) was recorded in district Moradabad followed by district Hathras (65.02% and 51.84%), thereby exhibiting significant differences from each other. However, minimum per cent disease incidence and severity was observed in district Agra (35.67% and 27.61%) followed by Gautam Buddh Nagar (38.53% and 33.96%) and Ayodhya (40.68% and 35.27%).

Research Article | Published online : 27-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1145–1148
Vanitha S1 and Selvi M*2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Botany, Sri Parasakthi College for Women (Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University), Courtallam - 627 802, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
People on the globe are tremendous threat due to undesired changes in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil. Water is the most precious resource on earth. It plays a predominant role in distribution of organisms. Freshwater contains various micro-organisms. This study was designed to assess the quality of falls water in Courtallam falls, Tenkasi district, Tamil Nadu, with respect to the physico-chemical parameters including temperature, pH, Salinity, Turbidity, Ca, Mg, Cl, TH, TA, DO, COD, BOD, Na, K and heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, Ar, Hg, Cd. Hundreds of thousands of tourists visit these falls every year and take baths in these water falls to enjoy the beautiful scenes of nature and to receive medicinal values through their baths. The quality of water through parameters (Physico-chemical) affects the species composition and their abundance. Water samples were collected from the falls and analyzed using standard laboratory methods and procedures.

Research Article | Published online : 28-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1149–1152
K. B. Ashwini1, P. Ravikumar2 and K. L. Prakash*3
1-3 Department of Environmental Sciences, Bangalore University, Bangalore - 560 056, Karnataka, India
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the current status of surface water quality in the areas viz., Lakshmisagara, Narsapura, Doddavallabhi, and Singehalli in Kolar taluk which are filled by treated waste water from KC valley project. The surface water quality has been assessed by collecting 26 surface water samples during March 2019, followed by analysis of physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, EC, TDS, TA, TH, major cations and anions like Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, F, SO4-, PO4-, NO3 as per Standard Methods and, irrigational water quality parameters of SAR, and %Na and Water quality index (WQI). Based on the results, conclusion was drawn on suitability of surface water for domestic and irrigation purpose. On the whole, WQI values revealed that 100% of the samples were categorized as good water, the surface water fall under good water is fit for irrigation purpose. Results of hardness, total alkalinity, TDS and nitrates exceeded the BIS desirable standard limits, may be due to the leaching of calcium, magnesium salts. Though all the samples were within desirable standard limit recommended for irrigation, lakes of these water bodies are to be monitored on regular basis to check the spatial and temporal impact on aquatic biodiversity as well on human health.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1153–1158
Rajib Joarder*1
1 Department of Chemistry, Jangipur College, Jangipur -742 213, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Miceller Extraction of metalion from aqueous to Trition X-100 is carried out as a sample preconcentration and prior to determination in different matrices coupled with atomic absosopion spectroscopy (AAS). The metalion-Schiff base complex formation and it was subsequently transferred from the aqueous phase to the surfactant phase. The pH, concentration of the surfactant as well as the ligand, incubation time and temperature etc. play a vital role in this extraction. The cloud point temperature (CPT) was established in presence of different salts with varying their concentrations and its role like salting-in and salting-out effect were tested and optimized. The efficiency of extraction was more than 86%. The change of -∆G indicates that the process was spontaneous and favorable. Application of this process was applied for extraction and recovery of Cr (III) from water and sediment sample.

Research Article | Published online : 30-Jul-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1159–1164
Bharathi Dharmar1 and Ramanibai R.2
1 Department of Zoology, Sri Akilandeswari Women’s College, Tindivanam Road, Wandiwash - 604 408, Thiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
This study evaluates the water quality of lake and ponds of Chennai city, located in the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal India, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA).The surface water samples were subjected to comprehensive physico-chemical analyses involving important physical parameters like pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Alkalinity, Hardness, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to assess the factors which influence the quality of water. The results revealed that water quality variations were mostly affected by dissolved mineral salts along with anthropogenic activities in the areas contiguous to the water bodies. The present study reveals that pH and DO play a central role in affecting the water quality of these systems. Further, an alarming fact that resulted from this study was that none of the systems assessed fell under good category. The water is not potable and is also becoming toxic for the aquatic organisms. The analyses of hydro chemical variables like pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Alkalinity, Hardness, Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate of the systems show that most of the water samples component represent the carbonate system and may play an important process in controlling the ionic richness of the water. These findings of this study will be useful for making decisions regarding water quality management and can also be applied in water modelling for better environmental management and planning perspectives.

Research Article | Published online : 01-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1165–1175
Prajakta Y. Pachorkar*1 and Vaishnavi Pawar2
1-2 Department of Microbiology, K. R. T. Arts, B. H. Commerce and A. M. Science College, Gangapur Road, Nashik - 422 002, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In developing countries malnutrition is the major issue. Main cause of malnutrition is low grade production of crops and minimum nutrients contents in foods which leads to diet related chronic diseases and nutrient deficient food. It leads to retardation of physical and mental growth and increase in morbidity rate. So, to overcome these effects farmers use large amount of mineral nutrient and chemical fertilizers that leads to certain harmful effects on soil fertility and crop productivity. The innovative way to suppress the harmful effects cause due to chemical fertilizers is by using biofortification which mainly involves Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). They are very well known to fortify Micro- and Macro- nutrients by various direct and Indirect mechanisms. Direct mechanism promotes plant growth by directly facilitating acquisition of resources and modulating plant hormone level which includes solubilization of a Zine and Manganese like micronutrients and NPK solubilization, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulphur like macronutrients, Biological Nitrogen Fixation and production of phytohormone. Indirect mechanism promotes plant growth by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development which includes Siderophore production, Induced systemic resistance and Nano biofertilizers. This mechanism of bacteria is boon for agricultural sectors which accelerates the solubilization rate and nutrient uptake by crops which enhances crop productivity therefore Biofortification using PGPR is novel and innovative way for enhancing plant growth promotion and developments.

Research Review | Published online : 01-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1176–1184
Eswaran Rangasamy1, Palanisamy Sundarabalan2 and Muniasamy Muniyandi*3
1-3 Marine Ecology and Conservation Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The essence of pesticides application is for the control of varieties of weeds, disease-causing organisms, and pests that are capable of causing damage to plants. But unregulated pesticides usage in frequently it’s highly harm for surrounding environment and agriculture products. Pesticides are used to increase crop productivity especially in tea garden because the tea plant is harvested numerous times each year, the time between pesticides application and tea plucking is shorter than for compared to other crops. As a result, residues of organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroids pesticides residues will be accumulated in plant parts, water, soil, air, and biota. It stays in the soil, water and plant eventually enters the food chain threatening humans, and create loss of soil biodiversity, degradation of aquatic community. It’s also decreased the tea consignment exporting the key objective of this review paper is to examine different types of research works about the effect of pesticides on tea garden soil, water and tea plant. This study as well focused in addition which pesticides compounds frequently detected in tea gardens. The need maintainable approaches, new innovative ideas such information should be provided the tea farmers. Strictly follow pesticides stringent rules & regulations (maximum residues level). It is more help full for decrease the pesticides residues. Hence further study will be essential in this field to regulate the use of pesticides and to overcome the problems relating to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the tea gardens.

Research Review | Published online : 02-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1185–1190
Idemakanti Chandrakanth Reddy1 and C. Prabakar*2
1 MSSSoA, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi - 761 200, Odisha, India 2 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Historically, Tamil Nadu is one of the most vulnerable states to the tropical cyclones. Also, evidences show that farm belts dominated with perennials as monocrop are worst hit during larger cyclonic havocs. Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu is one among such perennial dominated districts which often faces similar havocs. Hence, this study was conceived with the objective to assess the existing degree of farm level crop diversification in the cyclone prone district of Cuddalore and to evolve at a risk tolerant, havoc resilient, alternative cropping system, embedded with the annual – perennial crop mix capable of enhancing the livelihood security of farmers. In the study, certain econometric analyses were undertaken using primary data. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted for collection of primary data from farmers. The estimated diversification indices vividly revealed that, in general, the concept of crop diversification was much less pronounced in the study area. Hence efforts need to be enhanced by Institutional authorities to promote awareness, among the farmers of coastal blocks, on the merits of crop diversification and make them realize that, crop diversification is an effective tool for mitigating production risks arising out of cyclones, storms and floods. The study had evolved farm size specific, risk optimized, crop plans, vide MOTAD analyses, which needs to be popularized among farmers in the study area.

Research Article | Published online : 02-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1191–1195
Bhavani R1 and Priyanka V*2
1-2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore - 641 013, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Economy of most of the nations in the world depends on agriculture. One of the serious causes of less productivity in agriculture is leaf diseases in plants. Apple leaves suffer from three common diseases namely Apple scab, Black rot and Cedar rust. This paper aims to develop a deep learning model using transfer learning approach to classify the apple leaf disease. Four pretrained models namely Inceptionv2, EfficientNetV2, ResNetV2 and MobileNet were analysed for this purpose. The top layers of the pretrained models were frozen and a dense layer was introduced for classifying the three-leaf disease category. The experimented results show that MobileNet is well suited for apple leaf disease classification with less time and an accuracy of 99.21%.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1196–1200
Priyadharshini M.*1 and D. Leelavathi2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai - 600 008, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be the third leading cause of mortality due to cancer globally. Mutations in CTNNB1 (Catenin Beta-1) genes are considered to be responsible for the development of HCC with inconstant frequencies based on the etiology. The main objective of this in silico research work is to predict the 3D structure of the mutated protein sequence of the CTNNB1 (target) and to explore the positive electrostatic surfaces of the modelled protein structure. In this study, we use proteomics servers for sequence retrieval. We then explore the 3D structure of CTNNB1 using an automated homology modelling server which is then validated. Further, we identify the potential electrostatic regions of CTNNB1 and analyze them using advanced in silico tools. All the information will be predicted in 3D form using molecular visualization tools. Our results clearly elucidate the presence of positive electrostatic surfaces on the predicted 3D structure of the hepatocellular carcinoma gene-coded mutated protein, CTNNB1. The identified results play an indispensable role in the molecular interaction of drugs and proteins. Based on the results, we can validate the efficiency of the drugs and predict drugs using structure-based drug designing technique.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1201–1205
Alka Rani1 and Pramila Tripathi*2
1-2 Department of Botany, DAV College, Kanpur - 208 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were tested against the test pathogen Botrytis cinerea the causal organism of grey mold of chilli. The pathogenicity of the test fungus was confirmed by inoculating the pathogen in the chilli fruits. The MIC of essential oils of M. alternifolia, P. guazava and Z.officinale were found to be 200µl/l, 300µl/l and 500µl/l respectively. The essential oils of M. alternifolia and Z. officinale were found to be 100 percent inhibitory to spore germination at 0.02% and 0.05% respective concentrations of the oils, while the essential oil of P. guajava was found to be 90.5 percent active at the 0.03% concentration of oil. The essential oils of M. alternifolia, P. guajava and Z. officinale, were found to enhance the shelf life of chilli fruits when applied as fumigant and enhanced the shelf life for 5 days, 4 days and 6 days respectively. The fruits were given dip treatments with the essential oils of M. alternifolia, P. guajava and Z. officinale and it was found that the oils by dip treatment enhanced the shelf life for 7 days, 4 days and 8 days respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1206–1209
Deepa Kumari A*1 and Chitra M2
1-2 P. G. and Research Department of Botany, Government Arts College, (Autonomous), Coimbatore - 64 1 018, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance has become a serious public health risk with the increased use of antibiotics. Modern plant medicinal products can be a solution to this issue, since they are relatively safe and have additional beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of Costus pictus D. Don solvent leaf extract. Antimicrobial effect of ethanol and chloroform extracts was tested by modified agar well diffusion method. Four types of bacterial isolates and 2 of fungal isolates were studied. After 24 hours inhibition period, zone of inhibition was measured. Furthermore, antibiofilm activity also carried out with plant extract by using titter plant well method. Among the 2 solvent extracts, ethanol showed good inhibitory activity against all isolates especially while using 7.5mg of extract. The antibiofilm report was confirmed that significant amount of biofilm production inhibited by plant extract. The major components found in the fractions were Cyclohexanone, N-Acetylmannosamine, Ethanamine, and 2-Furanone as analyzed by GC–MS/MS technique. It can be concluded that a high polar active compound present in the Costus pictus extract may be responsible for the significant antimicrobial activity.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1210–1214
A. Yesu Rani*1 and P. Vanitha Pappa2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Rani Anna Government College for Women (Affiliated to Manonmanium Sundaranar University), Tirunelveli - 627 008, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
To investigate the prevalence of Mosquito species in breeding habitats 5 villages were selected by random sampling method in Tirunelveli District. A survey was carried out between Sep 2019 to Feb 2020 in houses and peridomestic areas. The larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. The larvicidal activity of different plant aqueous extracts made on evaluating mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. These problems necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, biodegradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this 8 plant species were collected from local areas of Tirunelveli. Aqueous extracts obtained from Momordica cymbalaria, enicostema axillare, senna alexandrina, Aerva lanata, Alternanthera sessilis, Ammania buccifera, Aristolochea bracteata and Cassia nigricans were used for evaluating larvicidal activity. The mortality rate of mosquito larvae were calculated. The selected plants of them two extracts of plants producing strong larvicidal activity. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the prime component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency.

Research Article | Published online : 05-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1215–1218
Shaveta Kamboj*1, Kamaljit Grewal2, Manjeet Kaur3 and Geeta Bassi4
1, 3 Department of Botany, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India 2 Department of Botany, Khalsa College for Women, Civil Lines, Ludhiana - 141 009, Punjab, India 4 Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] is a rich source of nutrients and contains carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Temperature and moisture content of seed during storage are most significant factors affecting the quality of seed. Present research was formulated to store two different seed lots (fresh and revalidated) using four different packaging containers (cloth bag, cloth bag containing drying beads, desiccator and desiccator containing drying beads) under two different temperature regimes i.e., ambient (~27.3°C) and cold room temperature (~15.5°C) to observe changes in seed quality. The effect was registered bimonthly in terms of total soluble sugars (TSS), total soluble proteins (TSP) and electrical conductance (EC). Fresh seed lot showed maximum TSS (46.77 mg/g), TSP (218.83 mg/g) and EC (0.63 µmhos cm-1 seed-1) at moisture content ~8.42% when stored in desiccator containing drying beads under cold room conditions (~15.5°C temperature and ~55.5% relative humidity) after 12 months of storage. In revalidated seed lot, up to 10 months it showed TSS (43.44 mg/g), TSP (204.65 mg/g) and EC (0.72 µmhos cm-1 seed-1) when stored in desiccator containing drying beads stored under cold room conditions while under ambient conditions (~27.3°C temperature and ~32.67% relative humidity), cloth bag showed maximum inactivation of TSS, more denaturation of proteins and high solute leakage.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1219–1221
Nowsheen Hassan*1 and Shafiq-ur-Rehman2
1-2 Division of Environmental Sciences, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar - 190 025, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Abstract
Tomatoes are grown for its edible fruits, which can be consumed either fresh as a salad or after cooking as snacks. Tomatoes are a store house of antioxidants such as lycopene, ascorbic acid. A major problem with the storage and marketing of fresh tomatoes is their relatively fast deterioration in quality and short shelf life. Hence, different post-harvest methods are employed in reducing the losses and extending the shelf life. In this experimental set up tomato fruits were randomly selected. The vitamin C and lycopene content of healthy tomatoes was observed. The infected tomatoes were pin pricked and dipped in aqueous and ethanol Allium sativum extracts for one hour. The same treated tomatoes were analyzed for vitamin C and lycopene content. Vitamin C and lycopene content of infected untreated (control) tomatoes was also observed. Results indicated that there was an increase in vitamin C and lycopene content of infected aqueous and ethanol (1 hour) A. sativum treated tomatoes as compared to untreated infected (control) tomatoes, though not to the level of vitamin C and lycopene contents, as obtained in healthy (control) tomatoes. Thus A. sativum extracts were beneficial in retarding loss of vitamin C and lycopene content in infected treated tomatoes.

Short communication | Published online : 08-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1222–1228
Harishchandra Singh Rathod1, Nitish Kumar Singh*2 and M. V. Alagawadi3
1-2 Shri Jairambhai Patel Institute of Business Management and Computer Applications (NICM Campus), Gandhinagar - 382 007, Gujarat, India 3 Department of Business Studies, School of Business Studies (SBS), Central University Karnataka, (CUK), Kalaburagi - 585 367, Karnataka, India
Abstract
This study aims to explore the perception of brand introduction i.e., AMUL, in consumers purchase decision of flavoured camel milk and to determine whether the pre-and post-purchase intention occurs in Gujarat state of India. The present research used an exploratory research approach and a quantitative study. For the study, 500 respondents were selected through a judgmental sampling technique but 388 qualified for final analysis using structured questionnaire. The study includes 329 males and 59 females between the age group of 21 to 65 years (Mean=30 and SD= 1.85) with average graduate-level education. The data of the study were analyzed using R software. This study has found a significant correlation between awareness, health benefits, and therapeutic uses to purchase camel milk. AMUL brand has significantly affected the purchase intention and to flourish the flavoured camel milk market, AMUL would have to create awareness and market it well. The market for flavoured camel milk in India is entirely untouched and untapped. The consumption of AMUL camel milk depends upon the consumer demands and it will be stimulated through awareness campaigns and advertisements. The study has the unique contribution that purchase decision towards AMUL products is found favourable, and therefore, it could be assumed that with more available flavoured choices people would be more attracted towards AMUL’s flavoured camel milk.

Research Article | Published online : 09-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1229–1234
Yenda Padmini1 and Gara Raja Rao*2
1 Department of Geosciences, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Srikakulam - 532 410, Andhra Pradesh, India 2 Department of Geology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Vegetation loss has been an ongoing practice since the dawn of human space exploration. The loss of natural forest as a result of human activity is becoming a major concern for the environment. Damming a river by restricting its natural flow results in a loss of greenery. For both upper and lower catchment, it has an impact. Vegetation Index (VI) and Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques may be used to investigate this disruption. In terms of determining vegetation cover, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is a useful tool. Visual and near infrared electromagnetic spectrum is used to generate a numerical indication. Plant cover changes may be tracked using the index of NDVI, which is linked to the amount of photosynthesis-inducing radiation (PAR). NDVI differencing was used to detect changes in the environment. In various NDVI threshold values, such as 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, the NDVI technique is used based on its characteristic like vegetation. For policy makers, the simulation results show that the NDVI is very accurate in estimating surface properties of the viewable region. Vegetation analysis may be used to predict natural disasters, provide humanitarian aid, evaluate damage, and develop new defence methods. Waterbodies and Barren land cover categories have decreased by roughly 2.37% and 17.13%, respectively, from 2017 to 2020; Shrubs/sparse vegetation has decreased by 7.86%, built-up by 3.71%, and vegetation areas have increased by 13.65%. There is also an examination of the regions of curvature, plan curvature, profile curvature and the Wetness Index (WI). The primary goal of this article is to use the NDVI approach to spot changes in plant patterns and the disappearance of green cover.

Research Article | Published online : 10-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1235–1243
Smitha S*1 and Vageeshbabu S. Hanur2
1 Department of Plant Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences (GKVK), Bengaluru - 560 065, Karnataka, India 2 Division of Basic Science, ICAR-IIHR, Hesaraghatta, Bengaluru - 560 089, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The papaya (Carica papaya L.) cv. Arka Prabhath is an advanced generation gynodioecious cultivar developed at ICAR-IIHR-Bengaluru. The seeds of Arka Prabhath hybrid were treated with various doses (T3-50Gy, T4-100Gy, T5-150Gy, T6- 250Gy and T7-500Gy) of Gamma radiation to study its influence on morphological parameters of papaya along with T1-control (non-mutagenized Arka Prabhath) and T2-Red Lady among the M1 population. Mutation was induced to create variability for morphological, and other desirable traits. Height to first flowering was recorded lowest in T5 (26cm). Canopy spread (East –West direction) and canopy spread (North –South direction) were higher in treatments T3 and T6 (231cm). The maximum intermodal length was recorded in both T5-150Gy and T6-250Gy (8.9 cm). Significantly more number of leaves at first flowering was recorded in both T4-100Gy and T5-150Gy (28 leaves). Variations were observed in leaf type with coloration and leaf shape in mutant population. Extent of branching was observed among mutant populations which ranged from 2-5 branches per plant. The data on PRSV scoring showed that the most mutant progenies during M1 generation have not shown any tolerance or resistance towards PRSV. Even though there were no symptoms after 6 months of planting. For most of the mutant progenies disease score was ranged from 3-5 indicating susceptibility for PRSV. There is a chance of getting resistant or tolerant mutants to PRSV. Studies revealed that significant variation was observed for morphological and yield parameters studied among the mutant progenies. Plants with desirable traits were selfed, sib-mated and were forwarded to next generation for breeding purpose.

Research Article | Published online : 11-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1244–1247
Hezinglila Grace*1, V. Mathivanan2, Kevizano Jacinta Zashumo3 and D. Leelavathi4
1,3-4 P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, Ethiraj College for women, Chennai - 600 008, Tamil Nadu, India 2 P. G. and Research Department of Zoology, Dr. Ambedkar Government Arts College, Vysarpadi, Chennai - 600 039, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The objective of the present study will focus on increasing the efficiency of the existing antibiotic drugs with no toxic effect in the human biological system. 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-piperazin-1-ylquinoline-3-carboxylic acid and 2-Acetoxybenzoic acid antibiotics were focused for this study. Canonical SMILES (Simplified Molecular-Input Line-Entry System) of the selected antibiotic were retrieved from NCBI PubChem and converted to 3D structure using online SMILES translator tool. The designed 3D structure was visualized using advanced molecular visualization tool - Discovery Studio. Drug Designing and Validation studies were done using automated Cheminformatics drug designing software - Molinspiration. The predicted chemical compound was validated using an advanced In silico toxicity prediction server- SwissADME to analyze the Physicochemical Properties, Lipophilicity, Water Solubility, Pharmacokinetics, Druglikeness and Medicinal Chemistry. The results obtained from Pharmacokinetic tests showed that the designed compound is devoid of lethal effects. Furthermore, the de novo compound has the potential to be employed as an antibacterial agent.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1248–1250
C. Zohmingsangi*1 and Lalnuntluanga2
1-2 Department of Environmental Science, School of Earth Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Mizoram University - 796 004, Aizawl, India
Abstract
Total carbon (TC), Total nitrogen (TN) and soil C/N ratio are important components of agricultural productivity and one of the most important metrics to evaluate in order to understand the condition of the soil. Soil samples were taken at a depth of 0-5cm, 5-15 cm for three slope position, Upper (U), Middle (M) and Lower (L). Total C & N was calculated using standard protocol. Oil palm soil reported a C/N ratio of < 10, ranging between 4.44 – 5.92 while, forest soil revealed a ratio of 7.47- 14.5. This study found a fairly reduction in soil C and N in oil palm soil as compared to forest soil, indicating that effective nutrient management is required to maintain long-term sustainability along the slope gradient.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1251–1254
Sakale S. S.1* and Chitanand M. P.2
1-2 Department of Microbiology, Netaji Subhashchandra Bose College, Nanded - 431 604, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
Copper is one of the heavy metals released into the environment by human beings in excessive amounts in the vicinity of copper mining and also in industrial wastewater discharge such as plating, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. According to US-EPA, in drinking water copper levels should not exceed 1300 µg/l. Such toxic metals should be cleaned up by removed from the environment. Bioremoval of copper is an environmentally friendly method. There were twenty isolates were screened as copper resistant, from the copper contaminating site. These isolates showed MIC for copper ranging from 600 - 1800 µg/ml. Three isolates TICu02, TICu05, and TICu08 showed maximum tolerance of 1800 µg/ml concentration of Cu. The effect of different parameters on the removal efficiency of three isolates was studied. Isolate TICu02 was able to remove 100µg/ml Cu (II) completely at 40°C at pH-7 in 48 hours. These isolates can be employed efficiently for the removal of copper at copper-contaminated sites.

Research Article | Published online : 13-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1255–1259
Vishal Sharma1, Kailash Agrawal*1,3, Nanda Ram1, 4 and Mukta Agrawal2
1 Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 2 Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India 3 Department of Life Science, Vivekananda Global University, Jaipur - 303 012, Rajasthan, India 4 Department of Botany, Shri Kalyan Rajkiya Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Sikar - 332 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Among pulses, moth bean seed contains a good amount of proteins, minerals (P, Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn), and vitamins (retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxal phosphate, ascorbic acid, and folate). The present study was carried out on changes in biochemical constituents and enzymatic activity in moth bean seeds due to natural infection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (XAP). The infected seed samples have significantly low moisture, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, and total ash content while increased carbohydrate content as compared to healthy seed samples. Enzymatic activity (Cellulase, Peroxidase, and Polyphenol oxidase) was also significantly higher in infected seeds as compared to healthy seeds. Thus, the infection of XAP causes a loss in the nutritional quality of moth bean seeds.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1260–1266
K. Swetha*1 and G. Jayachandra Reddy2
1-2 Department of Geography, College of Sciences, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati - 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
Understanding the hydrological structure of any terrain requires a quantitative investigation of the watershed. The current work uses Landsat 8 satellite data and Cartosat DEM 30m resolution data to quantify the Puliyeru River basin in Andhra Pradesh, India. Computations of linear and areal aspect, using conventional GIS methods, were used to evaluate watershed morphometric parameters. The Cartosat digital elevation model was used in an ArcGIS context for morphometric component analysis and river basin delineation (DEM). It was decided to focus on the Puliyeru River basin, which is comprised of branches of the Penna River. Approximately 834.18 km2 of the basin's drainage area is characterized by a sub dendritic to dendritic pattern of drainage. The drainage density in the research region is 8.2 km/km2 (the sixth order basin). Stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density and frequency, texture, form factor and elongation ratio were calculated within this basin and their hydrological consequences were addressed in detail. Using the database of morphometric characteristics, it is possible to pick the location of water-harvesting structures and flood-control measures in the basin based on scientific evidence. The information gleaned from this study might be used to future watershed categorization efforts.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1267–1276
Anushi A. Jahan*1 and Mohammad Anis2
1-2 Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L., an ethnomedicinal plant of extraordinary rank is reaching more acknowledgement in today’s world for its immense, unmeasurable ornamental and medicinal abilities. As an ornamental plant, Nyctanthes has been planted in gardens for its orange white flowers which blooms in night giving an aromatic surrounding. Medicinally, it has been employed since decades in herbal system of medicine by various practitioner for its therapeutic properties. In today’s world, Nyctanthes, has been recognized by several pharma companies as a highly efficient drug yielding plant A number of active medicinal compounds are found in it which are utilized for the preparation of medicines. Due to unavoidable overexploitation of this medicinal species, a serious threat to its existence in nature is noticed. Therefore, efforts for its replenishment in nature are being done since long for its conservation and mass propagation especially by employing biotechnological tools. This review provides an inclusive description on the various plant tissue culture practices used for micropropagation of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis and also throws light on its pharmacological importance. It also discusses the unmapped areas that remained untouched which can be done in a scientific way so that sustainable utilization of the medicinal properties of plant could be made.

Research Review | Published online : 16-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1277–1283
Krishnan Rajkumar1, Samuel Tennyson*2 and Subramanian Arivoli3
1 Department of Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology, Loyola College, Chennai - 600 034, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Zoology, Madras Christian College, Chennai - 600 059, Tamil Nadu, India 3 Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore - 632 115, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Ant membracid interaction on three membracids, viz., Leptocentrus taurus, Otinotus oneratus and Oxyrhachis taranda of their respective host plants, viz., Zizyphus jujuba, Tamarindus indica and Prosopis spicegera were studied by field observations. The nymphs showed a strong myrmecophilous mutualism when they were regularly attended by the ants. A mean number of 78 Leptocentrus taurus nymphs were attended by the ant species Formicaria brynnea and its ant attendance was 92.8%. In Otinotus oneratus, a mean number of 84 nymphs were attended by Componatus compressus ants, with an ant attendance of was 87.5%. Whereas, Oxyrhachis taranda, 68 mean number of nymphs when attended by Componatus compressus ants, recorded ant attendance of 54.8%. The survival value of membracids nymphs was enhanced by the ant attendance. The results revealed that practically no nymphal mortality occurred in all the three membracids which had access to ants, and all the nymphs survived and became adults. The presence of ants, increased the survival rate of the membracid nymphs and decreased its mortality rate, and their survival rate by the presence and absence of ants was 67.14% and 38.88% for Leptocentrus taurus, 63.01% and 39.44% in Otinotus oneratus, and 76.78% and 35.48% in Oxyrhachis taranda respectively. The behaviour of the ants to the three membracid nymphs showed that the demand for the honey dew on the nymphs was not persistent but intermittent, and allowed sufficient interval for the fluid secretion. The ants actively moved back and forth among the nymphs, tickled the nymphs and made them eject the drop of anal fluid, pressed its mouth onto the drop, gripped it and moved away.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1284–1288
D. Delilah1, Namita Mary Mathew2, Anto Joseph3, Susan Jose4 and Shyam Kumar*5
1-4 Post Graduate and Department of Botany, Maharaja’s College Government (Autonomous), Ernakulam - 682 011, Kerala, India 5 Post Graduate and Research Department of Botany, Govt. College for Women, Trivandrum - 695 014, Kerala, India
Abstract
Plant micronutrients play an important role in the growth and development of plants. Their deficiency causes reduction of yield and growth. Most of the plants derive their nutrition from the soil which is the major natural source of all nutrients. Inorganic nutrients get fixed in the soil as insoluble forms thus not being available in essential quantities to the roots. Micronutrient nanoparticles can substitute chemical fertilizers which can be used to increase agronomic yield, foliar sprays have proven to be easily absorbed and show high use of efficiency. Nanoparticles exhibit unique properties due to their small dimension between 1-100nm.They show significantly improved physical, chemical and biological properties. Biological synthesis is an ecofriendly process in contrast to other physical and chemical methods which makes use of toxic substances and leave residues which harm natural microflora of the soil. Microalgae based biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an emerging field known as “phyco-nanotechnology”, which has a wide range of potential applications that are being explored. Algae contain bioactive molecules that act as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents for manufacturing nanoparticles. Biosynthesis of micronutrient nanoparticles is a boon as depletion of soil nutrients due to climatic changes causes nonavailability of nutrients to the crop plants.

Research Review | Published online : 17-Aug-2022

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 13 - Issue : 4 ; 1289–1292
Rajesh Chintey*1, Pravin Prakash2 and Krishna Kumar3
1 Department of Crop Physiology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 785 013, Assam, India 2-3 Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Arsenic is a heavy metal that causes severe damage to the crop plants. It has effects on different growth parameters including germination attribute of seedlings. Mung bean is one of the most important crops in the country. Due to heavy metal toxicity in field, the crop reduces its production potential to great extent. An experiment was conducted in the laboratory of Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University using petri plates and germination papers with two green gram genotypes HUM1 and HUM16 during February 2020. The Mung bean varieties were subjected to six different arsenic treatments (0µM, 0.5µM, 1µM, 5µM, 10µM and 20µM). Germination attributes were observed at 3rd and 7th day after germination. There was significant difference in germination attributes like percent germination, radical and plumule length, seedling vigour index, metal tolerance index, phytotoxicity index observed in relation to the different treatments. Gradual changes in germination attributes in relation to arsenic stress were observed for both HUM-1 and HUM-16. However, there was no significant difference observed between the two genotypes in relation to the arsenic treatments in some parameters.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Aug-2022