P- ISSN: 0976-1675
E- ISSN: 2249-4538

© CARAS (Centre for Advanced Research in Agricultural Sciences)
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Volume - 12 - May-June 2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 727–732
Murali S.*1 and Sardar Singh2
Central Silk Board, Regional Sericultural Research Station, Miran Sahib, Jammu - 181 101, J & K
Abstract
The study was conducted for silkworm germplasm breeds under continuous maintenance programme at RSRS, Miran Sahib, Jammu and data from three years of spring season (2018, 2019 & 2020) was taken for short-listing of breeds and breeding lines. The breeds (39 No.) and breeding lines (7 No.) was reared for three years and assessed their performance on economically important traits such as fecundity, hatching, yield per 10000 larvae by number and weight, single cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio and filament length was analyzed with statistical tools. Based on overall average of the three years data multiple traits Evaluation Index (EI) revealed that, the EI values shown above 50 were better compared to other breeds and breeding lines. EI values which ranges from 35.93 - 60.63 for breeds & 42.72-57.02 for breeding lines and totally almost 23 breeds and 4 breeding lines observed EI values above 50 were identified as superior compared to other breeds and breeding lines respectively. The shortlisted breeds/breeding lines were utilized for further breeding programmes in future.

Research Article | Published online : 06-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 733–738
Sadaf Ansari*1 and Babita Patni2
High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, HNB Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal - 246 174, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Valeriana jatamansi is a perennial medicinal herb of the western to eastern Himalaya also known as tagar or somaya growing at an altitude of 1200-2000m asl. Although vulnerable, it is extremely useful for different treatments like headache, eye trouble, epilepsy, hysteria, as a stimulant, carminative and antispasmodic and is also used in various local traditional treatments. As the global temperature is increasing it may cause scarcity of available water which will impact survival and functioning of plants. Water stress in plants takes place due to increment in water depletion or insufficient water absorption or scarcity of available water in soil. Salicylic acid (a plant growth regulator) is synthesized in plant to mitigate the detrimental impact of abiotic stress and enhance metabolic efficiency of plant. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to assess the effect of salicylic acid at different concentrations (0 mM, 0.25 mM, 0.50 mM, 0.75 mM and 1 mM) in four different water stress conditions (100% field capacity, 75% FC, 50% FC and 25% FC) at vegetative and flowering stages. During the experiment it was observed that, 0.25 and 0.50 mM concentrations of salicylic acid had positive effect on most of the morphological as well as biochemical traits under study. Under both these concentrations an increase in the number of leaves, shoot length, shoot and root dry matter, protein, proline, phenol and chlorophyll content at vegetative and flowering stages was observed in comparison to control and other treatments with increasing water stress conditions. Therefore, it can be concluded that the lower concentration of salicylic acid had a beneficial effect under drought stress conditions.

Research Article | Published online : 06-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 739–744
A. Prabhakaran*1 and G. Singaravelu2
1-2 Nano-Science Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore - 632 115, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In the present study, “Cconcentration of Biogenic Selenium Nanoparticles (SeNPs) on Haemolymph physiology among mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L.” has been started from Nano Science Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore-India, since october-2019. Sericulture, the technique of silk production is an agro-based cottage industry, playing an eminent role in the rural economy of India. It has been identified as a booming multi-faced cottage industry, which aims in uplifting the socio-economic standards of the cultivators. Synthesis of Biogenic selenium nanoparticles on green technique, plant extract of Prosopis cineraria leaf was used and characterized by UV, FTIR, XRD and TEM. Let us Supplementation of Biogenic selenium nanoparticles dissolved in double-distilled water and diluted into 500ppm, 1000ppm and 1500ppm concentrations are fortified into morus alba. Analysis about concentration of Biogenic selenium nanoparticles on Haemolymph physiology among selected nutritional biomolecules such as total proteins, total protease, total carbohydrates and Total lipids contents in 5th day of 5th instar larval stage. Analysis about the concentration of supplemented biogenic selenium nanoparticles are significantly increased at different level has been enhanced the digestion of ingested nutritional supplementation which in turn reflects on Haemolymph physiology of mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

Research Article | Published online : 07-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 745–748
Diksha Nautiyal*1, Manisha2, Hema Adhikari3 and Ashwani Rawat4
1-3 Department of Agriculture, Dev Bhoomi Group of Institutions, Dehradun - 248 007, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2020-21at research farm, Department of Agriculture Dev Bhoomi Group of Institutions, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. In order to investigate the effect of solid organic manures with combination of liquid organic manure on growth and yield of mustard crop. The layout of experimental field was laid randomized block design (RBD) with 8 treatments and 3 replications. Consisting of T1 (Control), T2 (Vermiwash @50%), T3 (Cow urine @50%), T4 (Vermicompost @100%), T5 (FYM @100%), T6 (Poultry Manure @ 100%), T7 (FYM@50% + Cow urine @50%), T8 (Vermicompost @50% + Vermiwash @50%). The results indicated that among all the treatments, T8 (Vermicompost @50% + Vermiwash @50%), overall was found best for farmer point of view with respect to plant height (116.03), number of leaves per plant (52.96), Seed yield (1533.36 kg/ha), stover yield (1876.08 kg/ha), biological yield (3420.33 kg/ha). Based on present investigation, it can be concluded that the combination of both solid organic manure with liquid organic manure are applied that improved growth of mustard crop under present agro-climatic conditions.

Research Article | Published online : 07-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 749–752
T. Uma Maheswari*1 and N. Suganth2
1-2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar -608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation on the development of banana flour was carried out at Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar during 2018-2020. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with four formulations and five replications. Banana flour was prepared with different varieties viz., T1 – Poovan (AAB), T2 – Nendran (AAB), T3 – Karpuravalli (ABB), T4 – Monthan (ABB). Among the formulations, flour prepared from Nendran (T2) was evaluated as the best treatment when compared to the others with a flour yield of 45% and vitamin C content of 14.02 mg/100g. The maximum value of pH (5.74), protein content of 3.42% was recorded in Monthan flour (T4). All the four formulations registered the shelf life of 6 months. The average sensory scores for taste, colour, flavor and overall acceptability of banana flour was highest in T2 (Nendran) in all the three months of sensory analysis. The benefit cost ratio of 1.94 was calculated for production of 1 kg of flour.

Research Article | Published online : 10-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 753–755
Shinde S. R*1 and Bhailume M. V.2
1-2 Department of Microbiology, PDEA’s Annasaheb Magar Mahavidyalaya, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In the present increasing problem of pesticide pollution in soil, water and animal body has been tackled by investigating soil micro biota capable of degrading one type of pesticide ‘dimethoate’ belonged to organophosphorus category. Study recorded that soil harbours bacterial as well as fungal species capable of utilizing pesticide as a substrate and can convert it into metabolites less toxic in the environment. This study put forward that P. fluorescens and Achromobacter pulmonis isolates remained capable of degrading dimethoate effectively and due to their metabolism, formed metabolite found to non-lethal to the environment. In the present increasing problem of pesticide pollution in soil, water and animal body has been tackled by investigating soil micro biota capable of degrading one type of pesticide ‘dimethoate’ belonged to organophosphorus category. Study recorded that soil harbours bacterial as well as fungal species capable of utilizing pesticide as a substrate and can convert it into metabolites less toxic in the environment. During investigation, it has been recorded that not only the bacterial species P. fluorescens AM1 and Achromobacter pulmonis AM 2 able to degrade dimethoate by involving esterase enzyme but also it carries ability to supply plant growth promoting biomolecule like phosphate solubilization. This feature is well documented in plant growth promotion, when co-inoculated bacteria (AM1 or AM2).

Short communication | Published online : 10-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 756–759
Ashwani Rawat*1, Manisha2, Diksha Nautiyal3 and Hema Adhikari4
1-4 Dev Bhoomi Group of Institution, Dehradun - 248 007, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
Chili (Capsicum annum L.) is a most important crop of all chili growing areas and it suffers from lots of field as well as post-harvest diseases out of that chili anthracnose is a serious disease of field as well as storage condition. A test was conducted for evaluation of the efficacy of different concentration of four different fungicides and three different botanical extracts against radial growth of fungus Colletotrichum capsici under in vitro condition. Among all three plant extracts Ocimmum sanctum showed high amount of inhibition on radial growth of Colletotrichum capsici whereas Datura stramonium showed second best extract and inhibit 60.08% inhibition and Azadirachta indica was least effective extract and inhibit 57.25% radial growth of Colletotrichum capsici. Among four tested fungicides Propiconazole showed 100 per cent inhibition of linear growth at 500 and 1000 ppm concentration while at 250 ppm concentration it showed 99.7 per cent inhibition. Second best fungicide was Tebuconazole showed complete inhibition (100%) of mycelial growth at 500 and 1000 ppm concentration, while at 250 ppm concentration it caused 99.4 per cent inhibition over control petri plate. Whereas Bavistin was second least fungicide showed 35.8% (250PPM), 42.2% (500PPM) and 49.2% (1000PPM) respectively and Mancozeb was very least effective fungicide showed 10.3% (250PPM), 27.4 (500PPM) and 40.3% (1000PPM), respectively, inhibit the radial growth of C. capsici.

Research Article | Published online : 11-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 760–763
S. Abithaa*1, T. Aishwarya2, P. Aberna3, R. John Christy4 and L. Muralikrishnan5
1-5 Division of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
There is dearth of studies available in the literature regarding patterns and determinants of cooked Non-Vegetarian food purchase through online mode in semi-urban areas such as Chidambaram. Therefore, the present study was proposed with the objective to know the determinants of cooked Non-Vegetarian food purchase in semi-urban area. In total, 120 non-vegetarian consumers in Chidambaram town who consumed non-vegetarian food online during the year 2020-21 were randomly chosen for the study. Conventional percentage analysis was used to analyze the demographic data, linear regression model was fitted to assess the factors influencing the amount spent on non-vegetarian cooked food items online and Garett's Ranking Technique was used to understand the constraints of online non-vegetarian food purchase. Approximately 80 per cent of the online food ordering consumers completed their college education and around 70 per cent belonging to families had Rs. 10000 - Rs. 25000 monthly income band. R2 value indicated that the model fitted found to be explaining 95.98 per cent of the variations in the dependent variable. Age of the consumer, educational status and average monthly household income were found to have significant positive correlation with the online spending level of consumers. Fear of getting old food, higher price of items compared to conventional mode of purchase, limited availability of varieties through online and missing hotel ambiance were ranked as top constraints for online non-vegetarian food purchase by the respondents.

Research Article | Published online : 11-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 764–768
Shabir Ahmad Dar*1, Manik Sharma1, Parveen Kumar2, Jagrati Tripathi3, Anil Bhushan4 and Rajendra Chauhan5
1 P. G. Department of Zoology, Career College, Bhopal - 462 023, Madhya Pradesh, India 2 Inflammation Pharmacology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu - 180 001, Jammu and Kashmir 3 Department of Botany, Govt. College Khimlasa, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh, India 4 Natural Product Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu - 180 001, Jammu and Kashmir 5 Government Motilal Vigyan Mahavidyalaya, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
Different parts (root, stem, leaves and flower) of Maruubium vulgare were evaluated to investigate variation in antioxidant and total phenolic, flavonoid and terpenoid content and their interrelationship. All MeoH extracts as well as the fractions of root, stem, leaf and flower were assessed for their antioxidant activity through DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Total phenolic content was estimated by using Folin ciocalteu, flavonoid by aluminium chloride colormetric and terpenoid by monoterpene linalool reagent assay. We found a great variation in the concentration of total phenolic and flavonoid content which ranged from 42.83± 2.32 to 314.57± 3.81mg gallic acid equivalent/g DW and 0.067±0.093 to 25.46±1.32 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW among different parts of the herb. Total terpenoid content estimated first time was found highest in flower (692.36±28.36). A significant correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (P˂0.05, R2 = 0.395); however, no correlation was observed with total flavonoid and terpenoid content. This first-time study suggested that M. vulgare root together with flower could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and may find new horizons in the field of pharmacology.

Research Article | Published online : 12-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 769–773
S. Santhakumar*1 and S. Ravichandran2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Economics, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The “king of fruits” in the most commercially and economically supporting for the peasant farming of our country. India is the top most producer in the world and significant contribution is provided by Tamil Nadu. Hence the study was carried out in Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu with a sample size of 80 with the objective of cost of production and profitability of mango orchard. The study found that the average establishment cost of the orchards is Rs. 290937.5 per ha and the cost of cultivation/ha is Rs. 93674.16 per ha. The average yield of the sample respondent was 23.08 tonnes and generates a net income of Rs. 229492.5. It was also found that the BCR at 15% discount rate was 1.98 showed the feasibility of mango orchard cultivation.

Research Article | Published online : 17-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 774–776
Vilas V. Thakare*1 and Sanjay M. Pawar2
1 Department of Biology, Deogiri College, Aurangabad - 431 005, Maharashtra, India 2 UG, PG and Research Centre, Department of Botany, Shivaji Arts, Commerce and Science College, Kannad, District Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
An extensive survey has been carried out in Aurangabad District of Maharashtra during 2018-2020 to study incidence of fungal diseases caused by Deuteromycetean fungi on some vegetable and legume crops. In present investigation total 19 crops has been selected to study Deuteromycetean fungal diseases on various parts like leaves, stem, fruits, pods and flowers of some common and economically important vegetable and legume crops from Aurangabad district of Maharashtra. Among 19 selected crops, 14 belong to vegetable crops and 05 belong to legume crops. The diseased parts from the selected crops has been collected for the laboratory analysis and the results obtained shows that the leaves, stem and fruits of 05 vegetable crops and flowers of 02 vegetable crops found infected with Deuteromycetean fungi while leaves, stem and pods of legume crops found infected with Deuteromycetean fungi. The species of genus Colletotrichum, Cercospora, Alternaria, Fusarium and Septoria infected the leaves, stem, fruits, pods and flowers of selected vegetable and legume crops resulting in heavy yield losses.

Research Article | Published online : 17-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 777–780
D. Venkatakrishnan*1, K. Dhanasekaran1, S. Thirumavalavan1, R. Bhuvaneswari1, P. K. Karthikeyan1 and B. Karthikeyan2
1 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Microbiology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The experimental soil was collected from Meethikudi village representing medium textured soil of Cuddalore district. The incubation experiment was conducted at Annamalai University to study the effect of boron fertilizers on its availability in soil. The four sources and three levels of boron were evaluated at 90 DAI. Addition of 1.5 mg B kg-1 through calcium boro humate with RDF recorded the highest value of water-soluble boron (1.7 mg kg-1) on 90 DAI and minimum under 0.5 mg B kg-1. The pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of tomato to sources of boron. Same set of treatments were followed as per incubation experiment. The higher fruit (1881 g pot-1) and stover (362 g pot-1) yield was received in treatment receiving B through calcium boro humate @ 1.5 mg kg-1 along with RDF. Post-harvest NPK status has not significantly affected by the treatments. Application of boron through polybor @ 1.5 mg kg-1 with RDF showed decreased available N (135.8 mg kg-1), available P (12.1 mg kg-1) and available K (68.4 mg kg-1). Application of 1.5 mg B kg-1 through calcium boro humate with RDF recorded the highest post-harvest available B status of 1.6 mg kg-1.

Research Article | Published online : 17-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 781–788
Gitanjali G. Mane, Govind S. Bhosle and Venkat S. Hamde
1-2 Department of Microbiology, Yogeshwari Mahavidyalaya, Ambajogai, District Beed - 431 517, Maharashtra, India 3 Organic Chemistry Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
In present study exopolysaccharide was produced from Cronobacter muytjensii ATCC 51329 (T) and purified by extraction followed by dialysis. The present exopolysaccharide was characterized as heteropolysaccharide in nature by RP-HPLC. HRMS analysis revealed that the peak at 9.8, 10.1, 13.8, 15.0, 15.9 were corresponds to Glucose, Galactose, Arabinose, Xylose, Rhamnose respectively. The partially purified exopolysaccharide obtained from cronobacter spp. showed 28.40% and 244.905±2.69% of water solubility index and water holding capacity respectively. The emulsifying activity for xylene was higher (63.955±0.45) followed by coconut oil (61.225±0.19). Exopolysaccharide has maximum antioxidant activity (100%) at 5 mg/ml with an EC50 value was 0.1 mg/ml. Exopolysaccharide showed significant antibacterial activity against E. coli, P. auroginosa, S. aureus and B. subtillus with MIC values 11.41 μg/mL, 16.98 μg/mL, 18.11 μg/mL, 13.16 μg/mL respectively. Anticancer activity of exopolysaccharide was studied by MTT assayat the highest tested concentration (1000 μg/mL). The inhibitory effects of exopolysaccharide increased to 91.6±6.5% and 91.5±5.8% against HepG-2 and HeLa cell lines respectively. Hemolytic activity showed that the EPS has negligible toxicity on human RBCs. The present properties specify the potential use of EPS as water holding, emulsifying, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer agent.

Research Article | Published online : 17-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 789–791
K. Marikannan*1 and G. Srinivasan2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Economics, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Little millet (Panicum sumatrense) which is widely cultivated in Tamil Nadu, especially in hilly areas by tribal farmers. But, the cultivated area of little millet has been decreasing for the past thirty years due to various constraints related to production. At this juncture, the study on economic analysis on production of little millet was carried out with the specific objectives of; (i) to estimate costs and returns of little millet cultivation in the study area and (ii) to identify the constraints in production of little millet and offer policy suggestion based on the results of the study. Jamunamarathur block of Tiruvannamalai district was selected for the study and 320 farmers were identified as sample farmers based on probability proportionate method. The CCPC method of cost of cultivation was followed and to analyze constraints, Garrett ranking technique was followed. From the results, it was concluded that average cost of cultivation as well as their returns were low among the sample farmers and most of the farmers were utilizing family labour to minimizing total cost of cultivation. Among the constraints, inadequacy of labour ranked first followed by lack of availability of good quality seed. This study suggested that by providing suitable machineries, irrigation facilities and good quality seed through subsidized credit, the production of little millet in the study area may be enhanced. In the study area, little millet was cultivated as rain fed crop, hence average cost of cultivation as well as their returns were low among the sample farmers. Most of the farmers were utilizing family labour to minimizing total cost of cultivation. But still the result of constraints analysis showed that inadequacy of labour is a major constraint affecting production of little millet in the study area. The major reason behind is most of the farmers want to maintain their social status among their tribal communities. By providing suitable machineries, irrigation facilities and good quality seed through subsidized credit, the production of little millet in the study area may be enhanced. By strengthening institutional support through agricultural department, the production knowledge especially related to plant protection will be improved in the study area.

Short communication | Published online : 18-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 792–797
Rama Thyloor1, Tannavi Kiran2 and Doddamane Manjulakumari*3
1 Department of Biotechnology, Government Science College, Bengaluru - 560 001, Karnataka, India 2-3 Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Bengaluru - 560 056, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Oviposition by the female moths of Helicoverpa armigera began on the third day of emergence; however, mating stimulated earlier oviposition. Hence, we carried out series of experiments to demonstrate the role of male accessory glands-ductus ejaculatoris duplex (MAG-duplex) secretions on female post-mating behaviour in H. armigera moth. Injection of extracts from the MAG-duplex into the abdomen of females accelerated oviposition with a marginal increase in egg production (fecundity). The secretions of MAG-duplex did not affect the longevity of the females much whereas the negative effect on females’ longevity observed in mated females may be because of diversion of more resources for egg development and oviposition, leaving fewer resources for survival. On the other hand, marginal increase in fecundity but accelerated oviposition indicates that MAG-duplex secretions trigger the egg laying but for maintenance of oviposition rate, presence of sperm is necessary. Results of our study not substantiated the hypotheses, mechanical stimulation by male triggers oviposition.

Research Article | Published online : 18-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 798–800
Nedhi Rani Sharma*1, Sheetal Patel2 and Takre Vishal3
1-3 Department of Extension Education, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur - 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
The study was carried out on 120 agriculture graduates including both undergraduate and post graduate students of JNKVV, Jabalpur. The sample was collected by using a well-structured questionnaire method. The study found that majority of the graduates (60.83%) were male, followed by higher percentage of the agricultural graduates (35.83%) from general category. More than half of the agricultural graduates were from rural family background. Majority of the graduates (72.50%) had Hindi as their medium of school and majority were from joint family and nearly half of the respondents were of first in birth order. The final study revealed that majority of the graduates (60.83%) were male, followed by higher percentage of the agricultural graduates (35.83%) from general category. More than half of the agricultural graduates were from rural family background. Majority of the graduates (72.50%) had Hindi as their medium of school and majority were from joint family and nearly half of the respondents were of first in birth order.

Short communication | Published online : 18-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 801–806
Mrigendra Kumar Dwivedi*1, Dhananjay Shukla2 and Atul Tiwari3
1 Government Nagarjuna P.G. College of Science, Raipur - 492 010, Chhattisgarh, India 2 Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur - 495 009, Chhattisgarh, India 3 Government Bhanwar Singh Porte P.G. College Pendra - 495 119, Chhattisgarh, India
Abstract
Increasing numbers of cancer in urban and rural area of Chhattisgarh India since 2011 emphasizes to search possible causes and way to reduce risk factor for Cancer in this region. Objectives of the study to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of surface adsorbed hazardous chemicals on fruits and vegetables. The study was also aimed to find out the best simple washing method to remove maximum amount of carcinogenic substance from vegetables and fruits. Samples were collected from three sites city markets, villages and the fields of the different selected area of Chhattisgarh state. The samples were washed with three different methods and the washed water is used to analyze for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity through AMES test. This study was found that significant amount of the carcinogenic chemicals presents on the samples of different sites. When same sample was washed extensively through method -2 and 3 pesticide come out in the water and shows significant carcinogenicity at P<0.0001 in the experiments.

Research Article | Published online : 18-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 807–813
A. Prabhakaran*1 and G. Singaravelu2
1-2 Nano-science Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore - 632 115, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In the current investigation, “Fortified meal of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on mulberry leaves (Morus alba) and its quantity on the fat body among silkworm, Bombyx mori L (Lepidoptera:Bombycidae)” synthesis of green selenium nanoparticles have been started from Nano-science Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore-India. The treatment of fortification of mulberry leaves were conducted in a private Sericulture form at Vitchanthangal village, Kanchipuram-Dt, Tamil Nadu, India, since 2019. Silkworm rearing technique for the production of silk at sustainable nature of socio-economic developmental process is based on one man army of the duties and responsibilities of cultivators. Green technique of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles made in plant extract of Prosopis cineraria leaf was used and characterized by UV, FTIR, XRD and TEM. Multidimensional aspects of selenium nanoparticles have an innovative role on supplementation techniques. Biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles could be an additional dosage on mulberry leaves (Morus alba) with minimum concentrations such as 500ppm, 1000ppm and 1500ppm for increase the fat body tissue level and demonstrated for the estimation of Quantitative level of biochemical assessment like Protein, Glycogen, Reducing sugar, Alanine amino transferase and Aspartate amino transferase level on fat body tissue at fifth day of fifth instar larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori was carried out and its compared to control.

Research Article | Published online : 19-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 814–816
M. Chandra Shekar Reddy*1, D. Srinivasa Reddy2, P. Radhika3 and D. Srinivasa Chary4
1-5 Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Rajendranagar - 500 030, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Abstract
Present investigation was undertaken in district Siddipet of Telangana to evaluate the comparative analysis of farmer producer organizations enrolled farmers and non-FPO farmers. To cover each FPO, one village was selected located in respective FPO and 15 FPO farmers and 15 non-FPO farmers are selected to compare the marketing costs and margins in FPO channel and non-FPO channel. Thus, in total 45 each FPO and non-FPO farmers were selected from 3 villages spread across three Mandals. From the investigation it was concluded that both marketing of tomato and chilli were experienced better by farmer producer organizations as compared to non-farmer producer organizations. Farmer producer organizations can be beneficial in various ways to farmers, mainly in adopting market-oriented production technologies and accessing lucrative market opportunities. The FPOs should be support in the form of endowments by the government agencies during the early stages of the FPOs makes them stand out and need to be strengthened by the government.

Short communication | Published online : 19-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 817–820
V. D. Wadekar*1, Ajit Pawar2 and Pushapanjali Bhoshale3
1-3 Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Pune, MPKV, Rahuri, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
The present investigation entitled “Evaluation of lawn grasses for turf quality on physiological parameters was carried out at Modibaug Garden of Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Pune. In the experiment, nine lawn grass species viz. Korean grass, Argentine grass, Pensacola grass, American blue grass, Weeping love grass, St. Augustine grass, Bermuda grass, Phosphelone grass and Taiwan grass were evaluated with three replications and was laid out in Randomized Block Design. Among the lawn grasses studied American blue grass and Bermuda grass were recorded highest chlorophyll content. The Pensacola grass showed maximum root to shoot ratio, root fresh weight followed by American blue grass and maximum fresh weight of shoot and dry weight of root was observed in weeping love grass whereas maximum fresh weight of roots was recorded in Argentina grass. Lowest chlorophyll content, root-shoot ratio weight, shoot fresh weight, roots fresh weight, shoot dry weight was recorded in Taiwan grass. American blue grass and Bermuda grass were the quickest lawn grass species to establish however the Taiwan grass was found slowest.

Research Article | Published online : 19-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 821–824
H. K. Sheela*1
1 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agriculture and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga - 577 204, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The success of most crop improvement programs depends upon the genetic variability and heritability of desirable traits. The magnitude and type of genetic variability helps the breeder to determine the selection criteria and breeding schemes to be used for improvement purposes. The genetic variability and heritability have been studied in F2 and F3 segregating generation derived from two crosses of cowpea. The high GCV and PCV were observed for seed yield per plant, number of pods per plant, plant height, number of clusters per plant and test weight in F2 and F3 of both the crosses.Heritability and genetic advance over mean were higher for plant height, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per pod, test weight and seed yield per plant in both generation of both the crosses and these characters could be considered for selection to improve the yield as they had high genotypic coefficient of variation, phenotypic coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance over mean (GAM). This information showed that there is sufficient genetic variability to justify selection for improvement in the cowpea. This result will be of immense practical uses for plant breeders to choose parent of interest to meet different breeding objectives.

Research Article | Published online : 19-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 825–831
N. Amirthalingam*1, K. Sita Devi2, C. Prabakar3 and T. Ponnarasi4
1-4 Department of Agricultural Economics, RVS Padmavathy College of Horticulture, Sempatti, Dindigul - 624707, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Among the various poverty alleviation programmes implemented in the country, MGNREGA has much importance due to its impact in rural community in terms of income generation and poverty alleviation. Most of the families are benefitted only through MGNREGA in the study area and plays a vital role in the upliftment of the women in the rural areas, through its impact on social protection, livelihood security and democratic empowerment. Hence, this study was undertaken to assess the progress of MGNREGA and its impact on the socio-economic profile of the beneficiaries in the study area. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was adopted in the study. Composite index of standard of living was computed using a scoring technique and a multiple linear regression model was employed to identify the factors influencing the level of participation in MGNREGA scheme. The logit model was also used to estimate the determinants for the respondent’s decision to continue employment in MGNREGA scheme. The study concluded that the composite index of standard of living has been more pronounced in post-MGNREGA situation. It is also inferred that, in general, this scheme had succeeded in raising the socio-economic status of the respondents, by generating additional employment to the beneficiaries. The results revealed that the beneficiaries of MGNREGA faced many problems in getting the wages and were not satisfied with the present wages received under the scheme. However, with the limited availability of non-farm employment and the fact that the farm sector cannot provide gainful employment throughout the year, the MGNREGA has the potential for uplifting the conditions of the rural poor to some extent.

Research Article | Published online : 20-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 832–834
Rachna Kapila1 and Tanvi Singh*2
1-2 Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi -110 016
Abstract
Pesticides have been continuously used as the essential tool to control pests and have contributed to refining agriculture, but their imprudent utilization has presented genuine security dangers to people and the environment. Biopesticides have come up as safe alternative to the chemical pesticides. This review intends to sum up the new advancements in biopesticides use and explores the future methodologies to improve their commercialization. Recent potential biopesticides include betaproteobacteria products and entomopathogenic fungi and baculovirus based products. Another biopesticides which are on development are phytochemicals. Also, nanotechnology has come up with solutions of various issues related to advancement of biopesticides. But currently the complete information on factors associated with toxicity and risks due to release of these substances in environment are still lacking. Therefore, future examination should target such methods. Presently the research based on biopesticide is at an initial phase but with the identification of isolates, improvement in formulations and advancement in techniques that lessen expenses and upgrade the product life, the research has been evolving and expanding quickly. However, there is still a great deal of challenges that should be addressed and the significant questions related to cost viability and storage stability still persist.

Short communication | Published online : 20-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 835–842
Rakesh Singh*1, Deepti Prabha2 and J. S. Chauhan3
1-3 Department of Seed Science & Technology, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal - 249 161, Uttarakhand, India
Abstract
A field experiment was undertaken at Department of seed science and Technology, HNB Garhwal university, Srinagar Garhwal (Uttarakhand) during kharif season to study the effect of PGPR on growth, seed yield and biochemical parameters of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.). Three bacterial strains (BS-58, BS-27, and Y-19) were finally selected to assess their effects on the plant growth, yield and biochemical parameters of finger millet under field experiment in randomized block design with three replications. Among the different treatments, T-1(BS-27) exhibited a maximum plant height, shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight (17.80%, 22.47%, 138.39%, 115.51%) respectively and T-2 (BS-58) exhibited a maximum increase in seed yield (35.96%) closely followed by T-5 (BS-58+Y-19; 34.45%). A significant increase was recorded (91.04%, 311.43%, 105.62% and 117.84%) in chlorophyll ‘a’, chlorophyll ‘b’, total chlorophyll and protein content respectively over control. The study revealed that the Biopriming of finger millet seeds with PGPB alone and in combination found as potential agents to enhance the physiological traits of finger millet for obtaining higher yield and quality.

Research Article | Published online : 20-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 843–847
Muhammed Ilyas H*1 and M. Sudheep Elayidom2
1-2 Division of Computer Science, School of Engineering, Cochin, University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala, India
Abstract
In Asian countries like India, there is a huge diversity of farming of different crops and this crop cultivation plays a major contribution in human civilization and the economy of the country. The plant/crop grown by our farmers gets destroyed due to various plant diseases which can mostly be viral, fungal, or bacterial infections, those that appear in the leaf of the plants which highly impact its further growth as well as the quality and quantity of the plants. Hence, early detection and prevention of plant diseases are obligatory to avoid the threat of infection to other plants which are not affected. Usually, by observing the shape and color of the plant leaf, farming people will recognize the disease with regular efforts and it is a time-consuming process for the crop in the larger farmlands. Therefore, various research works on plant disease detection based on machine learning and image processing were proposed by research scholars. In this paper, we provide a survey on various agricultural plant disease detection approaches by the research scholars, which are under consideration. And for this study, we have considered nearly thirty papers related to plant disease detection in order to analyze the disease and to compare various detection techniques.

Research Article | Published online : 20-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 848–853
Riyaz Haider*1 and Joshy Joseph Karakunnel2
1-2 Applied Economics, (CHRIST) Deemed to be University, Bengaluru - 560 029, Karnataka, India
Abstract
The state of Indian agriculture has improved considerably since the beginning of the Green Revolution in the mid-1960s. It has led to the wider use of modern agricultural machinery and equipment. Along with this the supply of various inputs for different agricultural processes has also seen a rising trend for the past decades. As a result, it has increased the production and productivity of agricultural crops to a great extent. This paper attempts to highlight the effect of modern machinery and the use of fertilizers on rice production. By using time series data, the impact of mechanization and use of fertilizers on the production of rice is measured with the help of a regression analysis. The result shows the key role played by farm mechanization and fertilizer consumption in determining the rice yield. The trend analysis captures the pattern of growth in rice production, tractor utilization and fertilizer consumption. Hence, it emphasizes the need of government intervention in ensuring a fair distribution of tractors and fertilizers among the farmers. It is important to address the accessibility issue of these modern agricultural machineries and fertilizers by the poor and marginal farmers. A proper policy framework and strategy for implementation from the government can help to address the issue. Besides, we emphasize the on the role of government initiatives in providing awareness of various dimensions of faster mechanization and scientific cultivation to the farmers.

Research Article | Published online : 21-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 854–859
Om Raj*1 and Pushpa Devi2
1-2 Geography Department, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
This study aims to depict the lifestyle of people living in remote villages of the Bhaderwah where there is huge snowfall in winter and area is prone to landslide. The people of these villages do not have proper interconnectivity of transport and communication. They are deprived of various benefits of governmental schemes like Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, Public Distribution System, National Rural Health Mission etc. The purpose of this research is to portray the hardship faced by the people and how they earn their livelihood and cope with various problem emerging in day-to-day life.

Research Article | Published online : 24-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 860–864
Arif Abad*1 and Rais Ahmad2
1-2 Department of Agricultural Economics and Business Management, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
India is categorized by a vastly delimited and meticulous market where main focus is on food grains and major portion of the agricultural sector is dominated by poor, uninformed and uneducated farmers, therefore belligerent concerns of efficiency and equity as well as those amid efficiency and sustainability affects the growth justifiably. Thus, there is an enormous requirement to assess the efficiency of various marketing channels functioning for agricultural products so that remedial/innovative actions could be taken to attain/sustain marketing channel efficiency. This study is therefore focused on assessing the marketing channel efficiency of agricultural marketing channels. This study purposely selected Delhi as the study area and rice as the studied crop. This study then with the help of a structured questionnaire interviewed 60 farmers, 30 middlemen, and 40 consumers. This study identified six marketing channels and calculated price spread for each of the identified channel. This study uses Acharya’s method to assess the marketing efficiency. The results show that channels having less number of middlemen are more efficient than channels with more middlemen. Moreover, the study indicates that if the numbers of other channel members are same then the channels having cooperative societies are more efficient.

Research Article | Published online : 24-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 865–870
Preet Amol Singh1, Anil Sood2 and Ashish Baldi*3
1-3 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda - 151 001, Punjab, India 2 Agro-ecosystem and Crop Modelling Division, Punjab Remote Sensing Centre, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, Punjab, India
Abstract
The work has been conducted in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda, in the year 2019-2020. Witnessing an increase in the demand for immunity-booster plants especially in the aftermath of COVID-19, it becomes imperative to highlight suitable growing areas for Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha), and Ocimum sanctum L. (Tulsi) in Punjab. The scope of this work is to suggest market-driven immunity-booster plants that can act as a substitute for high water, pesticides, and fertilizers-dependent rice crop to promote sustainable agriculture. The agro-ecological zoning model was devised by highlighting agro-climatic aptitude requirements of the plants and mapping their requirements with the agro-ecological conditions of Punjab with special emphasis on temperature, rainfall, soil texture, and pH to highlight optimally suitable, suitable, and lesser suitable zones for the plants. The suitability maps were prepared using Geographic Information System. Ashwagandha was optimally suitable for zones-II, III; suitable for zones-I IV; and lesser suitable for zone-V. Similarly, Tulsi was optimally suitable for zones-I, II, III and suitable for zones-IV and V. With no policy to regulate the right medicinal plants in the right area, this agro-ecological study is essential to upscale the production of immunity-booster plants.

Research Article | Published online : 24-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 871–876
A. K. Vishwakarma1 and Pradeep Kumar*2
1-2 Department of Zoology, S.G.N. Government P.G. College, Muhammadabad Gohna, Mau - 276 403, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Fascioliasis is a worldwide zoonotic disease, caused by trematodes species of Fasciola among cattle and humans populations. Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are major two species of liver fluke, which causes economic loss of livestock keeper. The fluke species of F. gigantica is very common in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh (India) which completes their life cycle in primary host cattle and intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata. Fascioliasis can be controlled by destroying the larval stages (sporocyst, redia, and cercaria) in intermediate host snail. The present study aims to evaluate in vivo toxicity of different preparation of plant Glycyrrhiza glabra against sporocyst, redia, and cercaria larva of F. gigantica. Each experimental setup contains 10 infected snails were kept in one-liter dechlorinated tap water with 6 replicates for different preparations and the same experimental setup was performed parallel without treatment for the control group. The dried root powder of G. glabra and their organic extracts (ether, chloroform, methanol, acetone, and ethanol) and column purified fractions were exposed in 1 liter dechlorinated water with 10 infected snails for in vivo larvicidal activity against sporocyst, redia, and cercaria within 2h, 4h, 6h, and 8h separately along with control group. The column purified fraction was shown after 2h LC50 58.90, 59.27, and 64.91 mg/l and 8h LC50 52.82, 50.05 and 54.20 mg/l efficacy against sporocyst, redia, and cercaria, respectively. The larvicidal activity of column purified fraction of G. glabra in in vivo exposure was observed redia>sporocyst>cercaria.

Research Article | Published online : 24-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 877–880
Sachin Gahrana1, Rahul Gupta2, Shaik Saiddin3, Earla Naidu Babu4 and Dhiraj Kapila5
1-5 Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara - 144 411, Punjab, India
Abstract
Easy to access and easy to use that is the moto for a successful start-up that could cruise through every hurdle that presents itself along the way. Most of food comes from farms, farmers don’t get the returns they deserved on their produce and hard work because poor sale infrastructure. Whether it is the fast foods or daily goods that one might need, the internet is something that is helping the cause immensely. This affects the sellers who are not able sell their products directly and as a result, decreases the benefits and compensations of products they deliver. The primary motive of this project is to connect farmers and consumers directly on a platform so that customers can get products at lesser prices and our farmers get better benefits. The moto of this project is to bring market closer with the use of internet and the website.

Research Article | Published online : 25-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 881–885
Shashi Prabha*1 and Gurleen Kour2
1-2 Department of Geography, University of Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The importance of agriculture in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir can be gauzed from the fact that it contributes about sixty five percent of the revenue to the economy which also depicts the dependence of the people of Jammu and Kashmir on agriculture. The article is a very generous effort to explore the inequalities in the development of agriculture in Jammu Province. The study analyzed Primary Census Abstract and Regional Digest of Statistics for the year 2016-2017 to calculate main agricultural work participation rate, agricultural intensity and irrigation intensity. Finally Composite Standard Score was computed for the nine indicators to categorize the districts of entire study area into three categories in development of agriculture. Generally, it is found that the high level of agricultural development as per composite index is found in South-Western part; followed by medium level of agricultural development in the middle part and low level of agricultural development in Northern and North-Eastern part of the province of Jammu. The calculated level of agricultural development is in complete correspondence with uneven and rugged topography due to which the major part is quite inaccessible and equally make difficult for the application of modern agricultural techniques and inputs that are required for agricultural development. This study can have important policy implications concerning directing the resources to those districts of the region which falls under low level of agricultural development.

Research Article | Published online : 25-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 886–890
Mary Dorothy Anitha Sebastian*1 and D. Sudarsanam2
1-2 Department of Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology, Loyola College, Nungambakkam, Chennai - 600 034, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
A protease was isolated from Mangifera indica cv. Bangalora, partially purified and characterized. The presence of the protease was confirmed by the zones of clearance that formed when the crude and partially purified enzyme were loaded on casein agar plates. The protease shows broad substrate specificity with a greater affinity for casein as a substrate. The partially purified protease has a specific activity of 16.8 U/ml which corresponds to 134.4 U per gram of the mango seed. The protease was found to be an alkaline protease showing higher enzyme activities at alkaline pH with an optimum pH of 8.0 and showed good activity in the temperature range of 30 – 50°C with an optimum temperature of 40°C. The enzyme is stable when kept for 1 h at an alkaline pH range between pH 7 and 10 and at temperatures between 30 – 50°C. The Km and Vmax values of the protease were determined to be 2.3 mg/ml and 136.99 µmol/min, respectively. The enzyme is activated in the presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ and Mn2+ and it is inhibited in the presence of Zn2+ and Fe2+. The protease was strongly inhibited by PMSF showing that it is a serine protease. This protease may be of therapeutic and industrial value.

Research Article | Published online : 25-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 891–893
S. K. Kulshrestha*1 and Preeti Prasad2
1 Department of Economics, Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota - 324 021, Rajasthan, India 2 Department of Economics, Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati University, Ajmer - 305 009, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
Rajasthan is an agrarian state and primary sector contribution is 24.61 per cent in the year 2017-18. The contributions of secondary and service sectors are 30.32 and 45.07 per cent respectfully in the gross domestic product of the state. This paper is based on the sector-wise data of gross state domestic of the state from the year 1980-81 to 2016-17. This paper is tried to investigate the growth of the primary sector during the period of study. This paper reveals that all components of the primary sector such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries and mining growths are positive and significant in absolute term. This paper elaborates that the contribution of Rajasthan's GDP to various components of the primary sector is increasing year after year, but agriculture contribution from the primary sector has decreased while the contribution of mining has increased significantly. The paper concludes that this government should make efforts to increase the contribution of agriculture.

Research Article | Published online : 25-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 894–898
S. Parthasarathi*1 and K. Jeyaprakash2
1-2 Department of Biochemistry, Rajah Serfoji Govt. College (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Thanjavur - 613 005, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Turbinaria ornata is a species of marine brown seaweed and in the family Sargassaceae. They were freshly collected from Mandapam Coastal Area, Tamil Nadu, India and rinsed in seawater and packed in aseptic bags for further proceedings to laboratory. Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in the marine environment. It has been used as antioxidant and antimutagen. Hence, the present study was carried out to exhibit the preliminary phytochemical screening and invitro antioxidant properties of various extracts of Turbinaria Ornata. Methanol, ethanol, and water extracts were prepared for further analysis. Out of three extracts, ethanolic extract showed the maximum phytoconstituents. The results of the present study revealed the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, phenols, anthroquinone, glycosides and coumarins. Our study also demonstrated the good invitro antioxidant efficacy of ethanolic extract of Turbinaria ornata. Therefore, we concluded that Turbinaria ornata may be used as a rich source of phytoconstituents and natural antioxidants.

Research Article | Published online : 25-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 899–902
Abdur Rashid Ahmed*1 and Amanur Rahman2
1 Assam Don Bosco University, Kamarkuchi, Sonapur, Tepesia - 782 402, Assam, India 2 University of Science and Technology Meghalaya, Meghalaya – 793101, India
Abstract
Economic growth of agriculturally-dominant regions depend on the growth of agriculture sector which, in turn, controlled by the flood. The state of Assam in India is one of the agriculturally-dependent states of the country but Brahmaputra River, the lifeline of the state, brings flood in the state during the each and every monsoon season. The aim of the study is to measure the size and extent of the agricultural loss especially monetary loss caused by flood. Using descriptive statistics and simple graphs, the study reveals that almost 81% of the farmers are either marginal or small farmers and mainly grows potato, paddy, jute, and along with other seasonal vegetables practice fishery. The analysis of the study states that monetary loss in paddy crop is one-quarter of the total financial loss whereas monetary loss of the farmers in jute cultivation is less compared to other main crops of the study area. In contrast, monetary loss in fishery sector is largest amounting to almost half of the total financial loss whereas least loss found to be in livestock sector. Thus, the study demands urgent public policy to cope with the flood problem in Assam and hence, in turn, reduce the agricultural loss.

Research Article | Published online : 26-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 903–906
Satyawan S. Patil*1 and Abhijit B. Ghadage2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Palus Dist. Sangli - 416 310, Maharashtra, India
Abstract
A study of crabs was conducted at eight different localities in two districts of Maharashtra, during January to December, 2019 with a view to assess the availability and to study taxonomic description of freshwater crabs. The study investigated species diversity which includes their taxonomic description, habitat, distribution and ecological role. The specimens were collected in different times covering the major seasons rounded the year by hand picking method and also collected from market. A total 3 species of freshwater crabs under single family were recorded. The identified 3 species of crabs were Barytelphusa cunicularis, Barytelphusa guerini and Oziotelphusa wagrakarowensis all of these were under family Gecarcinucidae. Barytelphusa cunicularis species was the dominant species in Sangli and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra.

Research Article | Published online : 26-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 907–910
Gaggan Kumar*1 and Bushan Kumar2
1 Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir 2 Department of Economics, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
According to the 2011 Census, about 70% population of the country is directly involved in agriculture sector. Thus, keeping in view of the nature of the country, it becomes the need of the hour to develop the agriculture sector. Rural road connectivity plays an important role to develop the agriculture sector as transportation of inputs as well as outputs becomes easier as well as less costly for the rural poor farmers. Further, the use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizer, modern agricultural equipment’s such as tractors, ploughing machines etc., become possible through rural road connectivity. Without road connectivity a considerable amount of agricultural produce is lost between the farm gate and consumer, which adversely influence the income level of the farmers. Improved roads increase not only the income of the farmers but also reduce poverty. This study attempts to analyse the impact of rural road connectivity on the agricultural output, income and the allied activities of the rural dwellers.

Research Article | Published online : 26-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 911–915
D. Venkatakrishnan*1, Kasinam Doruk2, M. V. Sriramachandrasekharan3, D. Elayaraja4, N. Senthilkumar5, V. Sakthivel6 and S. Manimaran7
1-5 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 6 Department of Agricultural Extension, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India 7 Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Maize is one of the most versatile emerging crops having wider adaptability under varied agro-climatic conditions. The experimental soil was collected from Varagurpettai village representing heavy textured soil at Cuddalore district. Pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of soil application of RDF as control, Municipal solid waste compost @ 5 and 10 t ha-1, Vermicompost @ 2.5 and 5 t ha-1, Lignite fly ash @ 5 and 10 t ha-1, Bagasse ash @ 5 and 10 t ha-1 with 75% and 100% RDF. There were nine treatment combinations replicated thrice in CRD. The results in pot trial conducted in Annamalai University showed that application of 75% RDF with vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 significantly increased yield attributes, grain yield, stover yield, post-harvest organic carbon and NPK status. Composting municipal solid waste compost is seen as a low-cost method of diverting organic waste materials from landfills while creating a product for agricultural purposes. The sugar industrial waste, pressmud, cow dung and earthworms composted for vermicompost. Lignite flyash of Neyveli Lignite Corporation serves as a supplementary source of essential plant nutrients. Bagases ash is one of the wastes obtained from sugar industries. It is capable of supplying sufficient amount of plant nutrients.

Research Article | Published online : 27-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 916–919
R. Suganya1, S. M. Suresh Kumar2, G. Baradhan3 and G. Sathiya Narayanan*4
1-3 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu 4 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Field investigation was carried out to study the effect of sulphur application with organic foliar nutrition on growth attributes of irrigated blackgram at Periyanarkunam village, Bhuvanagiri taluk, during March–May, 2018. The experiment was laid out in split plot design and replicate thrice with different nutrient levels viz., M1 - RDF (25:50:0 NPK kg ha-1) + no sulphur application, M2- RDF (25:50:0 NPK kg ha-1) + soil application of sulphur @ 10 kg ha-1, M3- RDF (25:50:0 NPK kg ha-1) + soil application of sulphur @ 20 kg ha-1 as the main plot treatments and foliar spray as the sub plot treatments viz., S1- 2 per cent DAP application, S2- 3 per cent panchagavya application, S3- 3 per cent nitrobenzene application, S4- 3 per cent seaweed extract application and S5- 2 per cent vermiwash application on 30th and 45th DAS were allocated. A popular blackgram variety Cv. ADT 5 was chosen for the study. The result indicated that RDF + soil application of sulphur (20 kg ha-1) coupled with foliar application of three per cent seaweed extract at 30 and 45 DAS (M3S4) excelled all other treatments by recording higher growth components viz., plant height, leaf area index and dry matter production.

Research Article | Published online : 27-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 920–922
Meena D*1 and Mukunda Rao B.2
1 Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural College (ANGRAU), Bapatla - 522 101, Andhra Pradesh, India 2 Professor (Polytechnics), Administrative office, ANGRAU, Lam, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract
A study on Impact of Water Users Associations in Krishna delta of Andhra Pradesh was carried out by selecting 240 respondents from Krishna delta area. The study mainly focused on direct changes that have occurred as impact of water user’s associations in Krishna delta. The study revealed the direct changes that occurred due to functioning of Water Users Associations were availability of sufficient irrigation water, creation of employment, effective implementation of Warabandhi system, rehabilitation of water courses, distribution of irrigation water to tail-end farmers, reduction of conflicts among farmers, maintaining good relations with irrigation and revenue officials etc., Finally the study resulted that there was a positive impact due to Water Users Associations in terms of their direct changes in Krishna delta area.

Research Article | Published online : 27-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 923–925
R. Suganya1, S. M. Suresh Kumar2, G. Baradhan3 and G. Sathiya Narayanan*4
1-3 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu 4 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
Field investigation was carried out to study the effect of Sulphur application with organic foliar nutrition on yield attributes and yield of irrigated black gram at Periyanarkunam village, Bhuvanagiri taluk, during March – May 2018. All the treatments significantly influenced the yield attributes and yield of black gram. The result of the main field showed that recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) (25:50:0 NPK kg ha-1) + soil application of Sulphur @ 20 kg ha-1 (M3) in main plot registered significantly improved yield attributes viz., number of pods plant-1 (24.09), number of grains pod-1 (6.94) and yield viz., grain yield (1223.4 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (2156.34 kg ha-1). Among the foliar nutrition in the sub plot, application of three per cent seaweed extract (S4) significantly increased yield attributes viz., number of pods plant-1 (20.83), number of grains pod-1 (6.08), grain yield (1066.15 kg ha-1) and haulm yield (1942.93 kg ha-1). The result indicated that RDF + soil application of Sulphur (20 kg ha-1) coupled with foliar application of three per cent seaweed extract at 30 and 45 days after sowing (M3S4) excelled all other treatments by recording highest yield attributes and yield of irrigated black gram. Based on the results of field experiment, it might be inferred that application of RDF (25:50:0 NPK kg ha-1) + soil application of Sulphur @ 20 kg ha-1 coupled with foliar spray of 3% seaweed extract @ 30 and 45 DAS (M3S4) recommended to augmenting the productivity and profit of black gram.

Short communication | Published online : 28-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 926–929
Tanusree Datta*1, Asish Kumar Panigrahi2 and Suday Prasad3
1 Eco-toxicology, Fisheries and Aquaculture Extension Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India 2 Pro-VC, University of Burdwan, Burdwan, West Bengal, India 3 Bihar Agricultural University, Bhola Paswan Shastri Agricultural College, Purnea - 854 302, Bihar, India
Abstract
Water is the foundation for origin of life. It is the biosphere on which any life depends on the planet and presently is limited in availability. Water is such resource which is indispensable for the persistence of all life forms. Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Light these five basic elements are constituted the universe. Water bearing its unique property, make it necessary to sustain various life forms and all life have evolved from water. Over two thirds of earth’s surface is covered by water and land, occupying more or less three-fourth of total surface area. The rapid increase of human population, growth of industry and unaccounted use of water is putting an ever –increasing strain on the planet’s water resources though water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's water is found existed in the form of oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps and 0.001% in the air as vapour, clouds. Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is fresh water, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere. In this paper an effort has been made to enumerate the present scenario and demand of water besides urgent need to conserve.

Research Article | Published online : 28-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 930–932
N. Muthukumaran*1, R. Priyadharsan2 and M. Ramanan3
1-3 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to analysis the major insect parasitoids on rice collected in solar powered light trap and influence of meteorological parameters during Kuruvai, Samba and Navarai seasons at Annamalai nagar during the year 2017 – 2019. Major parasitoids of rice were collected and observed on daily basis, in order to study the seasonal incidence, week division was based on Standard Meteorological Week (SMW), observation of weather data viz., maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, sunshine and rainfall were recorded on daily basis from the Meteorological observatory, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University. In Navarai season, the maximum population of Chalcids and Platygasterids adults trapped during 28th and 41st standard weeks respectively. The maximum, minimum temperature and sunshine showed a positive correlation, relative humidity and rainfall showed a negative correlation with Chalcids population. In Kuruvai season, the peak populations of Chalcids, totally 39 adults were collected during 28th standard week. The minimum number of Platygasterids was collected in 11th standard week. The Chalcids population was positively correlated with maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity and negatively correlated with sunshine and rainfall. In samba season, the peaks of Platygasterids in 41st standard week (38 adults) and another peak were recorded in 20nd standard week. The minimum numbers of adults were collected in 11th and 23rd standard weeks and the Chalcids and Platygasterids population was positively correlated with sunshine and negatively correlated with maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

Research Article | Published online : 28-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 933–936
Namrata D. Deshmukh*1 and Sheetal Rathi2
1-2 Department of Computer Engineering, Thakur College of Engineering and Technology, University of Mumbai, India
Abstract
Agriculture plays an exceptional role in the economy of developing countries. Plant diseases and Plant protection are very compelling as they destructively effects quality as well as quantity of crops in agriculture production. The Advance Estimates released by Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, Department of Agriculture says that in year 2019-2020 production of fruits like Pomegranate, Banana, Grapes, Mango, Papaya to be lower by 2.27%. A survey showed that pests and diseases led to 26%-38% loss in yield production. Disease diagnosis is very crucial in early stage in order to control and cure them which will help farmers to increase the production. Contemporarily, most of the primary practices for fruit disease detection in India are performed by naked eye observation by an agriculture domain expert. Hence, there is need of an automatic fruit disease prediction system which can identify disease symptoms in early stages of disease. Proposed system aims to predict the two diseases of Pomegranate fruit (Anthracnose and Bacterial Blight) using fruit images and suggest preventive measures in order to control and cure diseases using Deep Learning Algorithms. The best achieved prediction accuracy using proposed CNN model is 78%.

Research Article | Published online : 28-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 937–941
Sultana Bano*1 and Md. Sultan Ahmad2
1-2 Department of Zoology, Shibli National (PG) College, Azamgarh - 276 001, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Apigenin is regarded as one of the major flavonoids because of its presence and abundance in a variety of natural sources, including fruits and vegetables. It was found that a diet rich in flavones like Apigenin is related to a decreased risk of certain cancers, like cancers of the breast, digestive tract, skin, prostate and certain hematological malignancies. Numerous studies suggested that apigenin may be protective in other diseases that are affected by oxidative process such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders. In these studies, we used five optimum doses Apigenin suspension of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 µg/Kg body weights says AP1, AP2, AP3, AP4 and AP5 respectively for this experiment. The methods adopted were total clastogeny and frequencies of aberrations in the bone marrow cells of albino mice in vivo. The data were collected at three durations of 16, 24, and 32 h for experimental studies. Apigenin significantly reduce number of aberrant cells ranges from 38.34, 50.38 and 46.15 percent for 16, 24 and 32 h respectively, frequency of aberrations per cell was also reduced significantly at p<0.05 level.

Research Article | Published online : 31-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 942–947
Niharika Chauhan*1 and K. S. Nehra2
1-2 Department of Biotechnology, Government College, Hisar - 125 001, Haryana, India
Abstract
Combination of different fruits viz. apples, oranges and black grapes enriched the mixed fruit wine with ample health benefits. In the present work, for fermentation of the fruits, must was inoculated with Saccharomyces cervisiae. Wine must with different brix (20 and 22) were prepared and matured by cold clarification. Clarified wine was evaluated for specific gravity, physiochemical properties, sensory and non-sensory factors. The different blends were having colour ranging from orange to dark red. They were slightly acidic, dry to sweet with alcohol content ranging from 11.5%- 13.25%. Organoleptic analysis indicated that all the blends of mixed fruit wine were acceptable in terms of taste and quality. No major differences in biochemical aspects of the different wines were found. According to sensory evaluation, the blend MF 2.4 had maximum overall acceptability of 8.6, maximum antioxidant activity of 96% and also good alcoholic content of 12.25%. Therefore, MF 2.4 was found to the best among the 8 wine blends. Storage of the wine further enhanced the acceptability of wine.

Research Article | Published online : 31-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 948–954
Silpa P*1, S. Jayasree Sankar2 and P. Sureshkumar3
1 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India 2 Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India 3 Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, School of Agricultural Sciences, Amritha Vishwa Vydiapeedam, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
An investigation was conducted to understand the temporal and spatial variation of available nutrients in acid saline Pokkali soils of Kerala. Soil samples were subjected for characterization with respect to chemical parameters such as pH, EC, organic carbon, total N, available P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and B. An increasing trend of soil pH from June to October (low saline phase) and then decreasing trend towards the month of April (high saline phase) was observed. Electrical conductivity showed opposite trend of variation in soil pH. Total Nitrogen, available P and K were high and all the secondary and micronutrients were reported as sufficient. Spatial and temporal variation of all the nutrients was significantly evident except for organic carbon and total nitrogen.

Research Article | Published online : 31-May-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 955–961
Sandeep Kumar1,2, Teg Bahadur Singh1,3, Rajneesh K. Agnihotri*4 and Purti Chaturvedi5
1-5 Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Khandari Campus, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra - 282 005, Uttar Pradesh, India 2 Department of Botany, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut - 250 004, Uttar Pradesh, India 3 Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh Agra - 282 005, U.P.
Abstract
Abiotic stresses are major constraints for global crop production. A major problem of arid and semi-arid regions is environmental stresses like metal, salinity and drought. Among various abiotic stresses, salinity and drought have become a severe threat to ensure food security by affecting about one-third of the irrigated land on earth. Limited water and hot dry climates frequently cause salinity problem that limit or prevent higher crop production. Drought induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) and salinity induced by sodium chloride (NaCl) were compared to see their effects on growth parameters such as root and shoot length, leaf area, root development and biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, proline and carbohydrate (soluble sugar, reducing sugar and starch) contents of tomato in pot experiment. Three different treatments of PEG (-0.40, -0.50 and -0.75MPa) and NaCl (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3M) were given to tomato plant. Results of this experiment showed significant reduction in all physiological and biochemical parameters (except proline and reducing sugar) with increasing concentration of PEG and NaCl. Proline content was found maximum by treatment of NaCl as compared to PEG but reducing sugar slightly increased by PEG treatment. NaCl treatment was observed to induce high salinity stress. The application of calcium nitrate (5 mM, used as nitrogen source) mitigated the adverse effects of PEG and NaCl. The present experiment suggested that application of calcium nitrate can enhance the growth of tomato plant under salinity and drought stresses.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 962–965
K. Suryakiran*1, D. Srinivasareddy2, P. Radhika3 and K. Supriya4
1-4 Department of Agribusiness Management, Professor Jayashanker Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Abstract
The study on marketing mix and constraints of commercial horticultural nursery owners aimed to bring out a strategy for the policy makers and implementing agencies for the development of entrepreneurial ship in the study area. The present study was carried out in Aswaraopeta and Dammapeta of Bhadradri Kothagudem district. The present study revealed that various variables viz., place, products, price and promotions have provided in detail about entrepreneurial behavior of nursery owners. In the marketing mix nursery owners has adopted various strategies such as selection and growing of unique and demanded sapling and marketing at local, national and international level and also maintaining prices at affordable level to the farmers in competitive with kusumanchi nurseries. To study the marketing mix adopted by nursery owners 3 prominent nurseries (vijayalaxmi, Chandra, balaji nurseries) were selected which are very prominent in producing nursery saplings, and strong market base. Among the constraints faced by nursery growers, high electricity charges and high cost of soil and polythene bags were predominant. Further, price fluctuations and lack of subsidies were the major constraints faced by nursery growers. Among the constraints faced by middlemen finding of new customers was the major constraint. The constraints faced by consumers were higher prices of nursery saplings and availability of saplings at specific sites only. Hence, it is concluded that policy makers and implementers need to take up need-based efforts that help in improving the marketing aspects and eliminating the constraints will make huge profits to the nursery owners.

Research Article | Published online : 03-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 966–968
Dhanasekaran D.*1
1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The value of turfgrass is its inherent aesthetic quality and usability. Aesthetic quality is the beauty and value that turfgrass adds to a managed landscape. Coming to the maintenance aspects, weed management is a herculean task in lawn care. Weeds present in turfgrass decrease the aesthetic quality and usability of turfgrass. Maintaining the weeds through cultural, chemical methods does not have complete solution as like in other countries. Hence, an experiment was conducted to study the weed management in lawn establishment with Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. X Cynodon transvaalensis L.) was carried at the Floriculture Complex, Department of Horticulture during 2016-2017. The effect of pre-planting, post-planting application of herbicides and hand weeding was studied with Glyphosate, Pyrazosulfuron and Halosulfuron alone and in combination with eleven treatments replicated thrice. Observation on weed count, weed biomass and weed control index were recorded and analyzed. Among the weed control measures, T9 (Glyphosate @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1 + Pyrazosulfuron @ 35 g a.i. ha-1 + 2, 4-D @ 1.5 kg a.i. ha-1) controlled most of the broad-leaved weeds, sedges and grasses and excelled others by recording the least weed biomass of 1.96 g m-2 and was found to be superior as indicated by the higher weed control index (90 per cent).

Short communication | Published online : 04-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 969–973
Gana Shruthy M. K.*1
1 Department of Economics, Government First Grade College for Women, Vijayanagara, Mysore - 570 032, Karnataka, India
Abstract
Does land tenures affect coffee productivity? The response from farm level data is affirmative. Taking into account redeemed and unredeemed land tenure systems in Kodagu, the study investigate factors influencing productivity of coffee. The primary data was collected from 50 Arabica and 50 Robusta coffee growers in Kodagu district between March-June 2020 using snow ball sampling method. The estates were classified into four categories viz., redeemed Arabica, unredeemed Arabica, redeemed Robusta and unredeemed Robusta estates. The analysis indicated that productivity was highest in unredeemed Arabica and redeemed Robusta estates. The indigenous shade trees (number) and age of coffee trees (years) significantly influenced productivity of coffee under different land tenures. The White Stem Borer (Xylotrechus quadripes) significantly influenced both redeemed and unredeemed Arabica estates. The exotic silver oaks (Grevillea robusta) and dadap trees (Erythrina spp) positively influenced redeemed Robusta and unredeemed Arabica estates respectively. The elevation of estates and average annual rainfall though positively influenced redeemed Robusta estates, however indicated contrast results in unredeemed Robusta estates. The study recommends cultivation of indigenous shade trees, dadaps in unredeemed Arabica estates, limit cultivation of exotic silver oaks in unredeemed Robusta estates and cultivation of Arabica at higher elevations.

Research Article | Published online : 04-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 974–980
Harpreet Kaur1, J. S. Bal2 and Gurbir Singh*3
1-3 Department of Horticulture, Khalsa College, (Guru Nanak Dev University) Amritsar -143 001, Punjab, India
Abstract
The present investigations were conducted in new orchard of Khalsa College, Amritsar. The experimentation was conducted on peach cv. Florida prince. In case of pruning intensity and nitrogen levels peach cv. Florida prince was treated with 30, 40, 50 per cent of pruning intensity with 260g N, 360g N, 130g N + 8.5kg vermicomposting and 175g N + 11.5kg vermicomposting. The results revealed that the treatment P3N4 (50% and 175g N + 115kg vermicomposting) proved to be best results with maximum trunk girth, total leaf area, fruit colour, fruit weight, size, pulp: stone ratio, organoleptic ratio, TSS and TSS acid ratio. But the yield become maximum in 30% pruning and 175 g N + 11.5kg vermicomposting.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 981–984
Soma Karmakar*¹, A. K. Srivastava2 and T. Pandiaraj3
1-2 Department of Botany, Ranchi University, Ranchi - 834 008, Jharkhand, India 3 Narendra Deva University of Agricultural Technology, Azamgarh - 276 207, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
A field experiment was conducted at Central Tasar Training and Research Institute to study the effect of Integrated Nutrient Management in food plant of Tasar silkworm on biochemical parameters and nutrient content of leaf. There was twenty treatment each with three replications. Results revealed that application of INM treatments have significantly influence the biochemical parameters and nutrient content of leaf. Highest total N was recorded 1.65% in T9 which was applied with 50% RDF+ Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria followed by T19 (1.63%). Highest total P was observed in T4 (0.97%) over the control and total K was recorded highest in T7 (1.8%) followed by T8 (1.74%). The crude protein was recorded highest in T9 (10.3324%) followed by T19 (10.157%) and total carbohydrate recorded highest in T4 (222.5 mg/g) followed by T20 (182.9mg/g). The study indicates that INM practices significantly influenced the different parameters.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 985–989
Subhash Chander*1 and Rashmi Tyagi2
1-2 Department of Sociology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Rice a staple food for more than half of the world population, is commonly grown by transplanting seedlings into puddled soil in Asia. Direct seeding is widely adopted and is spreading to other states of India. Haryana produces 3.5 million tonnes of rice and contributes approximately 3.7% to India’s total rice production with per hectare productivity of 3.03 tonnes. The study was conducted in Kaithal district of Haryana state. From this district, two blocks namely Kaithal and Pundri were selected randomly. On the whole a total of 200 rice growing farmers were selected, who were using direct seeded rice method (100) and conventional transplanted rice method (100). The findings regarding knowledge and adoption level of respondents about various aspects of direct seeded rice method were studied like recommended seed rate used, seed variety, preparation and sowing in evening time, insect-pest control, fungicides, method of sowing, depth of sowing, Seed treatment etc. It was found that main reason for adoption of DSR method was reduced work load like labour, water saving from first to subsequent irrigation and higher net returning. Constraints in adoption were mainly DSR method did not increase the yield at all, lack of knowledge, more complex system and technical assistance required, high prices of herbicides, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides etc. It was also suggested that training should be imparted for weed management, seed treatment, disease, variety etc. to farmers regarding DSR method at cluster level.

Research Article | Published online : 07-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 990–992
Ashaq Hussain Rather, Surendra Singh and Sameer Choudhary
1-3 Algal Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Biological Sciences, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur - 482 001, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
In the present investigation, H. pluvialis and Nostochopsis were grown in the bold basal medium in controlled air-conditioned culture room. Catla catla fish weighing 40 g were randomly distributed in 2 rectangular of 20 L capacity at a density of 6 fish per tank. Tank 1 fish were given normal feed, tank 2 fish were given H. pluvialis and Nostochopsis biomass (100 mg/kg b.w.). After 24 h gut evacuation period, all fish were anaesthetized and weighed. Out of six, three samples were randomly collected and stored at -20°C, until proximate analysis and lipid extraction. In normal feed treated Catla catla group, lipid content was found as 82.2±1.3, in H. pluvialis and Nostochopsis biomass-based feed group, lipid content was observed as 177.6±2.1 However, protein and ash content were reported as 133.6±1.2 and 14.4±2.1 in H. pluvialis and Nostochopsis biomass-based feed group. The present study reveals that H. pluvialis and Nostochopsis biomass can be used for the different aquatic feed formulations.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 993–998
Saugata Ghosh*1
1 Department of Zoology, A. P. C. Roy Govt. College, Matigara, Siliguri – 734 010, Darjeeling, West Bengal
Abstract
Lopper stages of Hyposidra talaca, the major tea-pest infests the tea leaves in large scale in the tea plantations of Darjeeling-Terai region of West Bengal. This geometrid moth has five instars in their larval stage. In this present study the leaf consumption was measured for last three instar stages of this pest for three consecutive days. It was found that the final instar stage infests most vigorously comparing to other looper stages. The leaf consumption of this black inch looper was also calculated under the treatment of two pesticides- the most widely used chemical pesticide, Emamectin Benzoate and the potential biopesticide for this lepidopteran pest, Bacillus thuringiensis at their field concentrations. Though both the pesticides effectively decrease the pest infestation, however, the chemical pesticide showed better effect on the leaf consumption. But considering the adverse effect of the chemical pesticides on the ecosystem, the equally effective and ecologically safe biopesticide can be an alternative better choice to control this major defoliating pest in the tea plantations.

Research Article | Published online : 08-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 999–1003
Akhil Kumar S.*1, A. Palavesam2 and M. G. Sanal Kumar3
1-2 Department of Animal Science, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli - 689 012, Tamil Nadu, India 3 N. S. S College, Pandalam - 689 501, Kerala, India
Abstract
Protease enzyme plays an essential role in the growth and survival of all living organisms. Fish processing in India generates over 30,000 tonnes of waste in the form of visceral mass and the enzymes present in this waste needs to be stabilized. The present study focus on the utilization and growth of Catla catla fed with fish visceral protease enzyme along with diversity of bacterial population in the gut. Maximum production of 2.42±1.02 was attained in Catla catla those fed on Experimental (D3). Temperature, pH and Dissolved Oxygen varied between 27±0.14°C to 31±0.14°C, 7.7±0.14 to 8.2±0.12 and 3.1±0.60 mg/l to 3.4.1±0.76 respectively. The Proximate composition (%/ml) of control and FPH samples was also analyzed. The percentage occurrence of protease positive colonies was registered was 55.36%, lipase positive colonies were registered was 23.21% and amylase positive colonies were registered was 21.43% respectively.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1004–1011
Dibakar Panda*1 and Mohan Kumar Biswas2
1-2 Department of Plant Pathology, Institute of Agriculture, Visva Bharati, Sriniketan - 731 236, West Bengal, India
Abstract
Calocybe indica is an edible tropical mushroom which is famous for its good nutritive value and commercial cultivation. The present study is performed to produce C. indica and to obtain a suitable method of sterilization used for casing material and appropriate thickness of layer used while casing. Casing materials like FYM, soil and sand, were used with different sterilization methods like chemically sterilized with formalin and autoclave sterilization with different casing thickness like, 0.5 inch, 1.0 inch, 1.5 inch and 2.0 inch to appraise the yield of C. indica. The days required for pinhead initiation observed from casing material Sand and Soil sterilize in autoclave and thickness 0.5 inch A2B1 i.e., (17.00 days) while length of stalks observed from soil and sand sterilized with formalin and layer of thickness 0.5 inch A1B1 i.e., (14.70 cm) , and pileus diameter were found in sand and soil sterilized with formalin with layer of thickness 1.5 inch A4B3 i.e., (6.00 cm) yield on of first flush recorded from casing material sand and soil chemically sterilized with formalin with casing thickness 1.0 inch i.e., A4B2 (676.70gm) and second flush from sand and soil autoclaved and thickness 1.0 inch A4B2 (426.70 gm) total yield observed from casing material sand and soil autoclaved and thickness 1.0 inch A4B2 (1103.3 gm) yield with biological efficiency A4B2 (110.3%) was highest. Casing materials soil and sand with casing thickness one inch recorded highest biological efficiency during the production of milky mushroom.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1012–1020
Sutanuka Mitra*1, Nabanita Mukherjee2, Sambit Das3, Anurag Sau4, Shinja Chakraborty5, Shibani Dwivedy6, Serene Adak7, Sanchaita Gayen8 and Arunava Goswami9
1-9 Indian Statistical Institute, Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit, 203, B.T. Road, RA Fisher Bhavan, Kolkata - 700 108, West Bengal, India
Abstract
In the present era of rising population and pollution, the demand of commercialized nano formulations in agricultural fields is increasing. Nanoporous silica has emerged as a novel tool for drug delivery and diagnosis. However, very few studies have been conducted to elucidate its effects on plants and animals. It is essential to study the effects of nanoporous silica on consumable plants because they are being absorbed by these primary producers and successively passed along the food chain. Also, food and immunity are two sides of a coin. Gut flora assists in immunity. This age belongs to a diet that has the ability to enhance immunity. Therefore, fertilizers that eventually enter the intestine should be beneficial to the bacteria residing in it. This experiment aims at studying the morphological characters of nanoporous silica, investigating its effects on various biochemical pathways of model crop plants like dicotyledonous Cicer arietinum and monocotyledonous Sorghum bicolor and on the growth and viability of dominant gut flora Bacillus coagulans. The results of this study establish that it can positively regulate certain biochemical pathways in a size dependent and dose dependent manner in plants. It has been found to increase growth of B. coagulans over specific time scale.

Research Article | Published online : 12-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1021–1026
Sarfaraz Asgher*1, Mansoor Ahmad2, Naveen Kumar3 and Manisha Kumari4
1 Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The present study is mainly concerned with the detection of temperature and rainfall trend in Bhaderwah tehsil, located in Middle Himalayas which is highly vulnerable to climate change. This climate change led to changes in land use land cover pattern thereby affecting the livelihood of people. Therefore, examination of the trend of climatic variables like temperature and rainfall is essential. Month wise data of temperature and rainfall have been collected for 37 years (1982-2017) and non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen’s slope estimator test were used to determine the trend with their statistical significance. The study revealed increasing trend of temperature and rainfall in some months and decreasing trend in other months in case of mean monthly rainfall and mean monthly maximum temperature while in case of mean minimum monthly temperature only positive trend was found. Significant trend was found only in two months in case of mean monthly rainfall (March and May) and mean monthly maximum temperature (June and August) while in case of mean minimum monthly temperature except for December all the 11 months showed significant trend.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1027–1029
Jatesh Kathpalia*1 and Rashmi Tyagi2
1 Department of Sociology, College of Basic Science and Humanities, CCSHAU, Hisar - 125 004, Haryana, India
Abstract
Direct seeded rice is a feasible alternative to conventional puddled transplanted rice with good potential to save water, reduce labour requirement and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Though puddled transplanted rice is the most popular system but whether under the emerging scenario of acute shortages of water and labor, it would maintain sustainability in future is highly uncertain in Haryana. The study aimed to highlight the constraints along with socio economic impact on direct seeded rice growers. The sample of 100 farmers (DSR adopters) from rural areas of Karnal district of Haryana was selected through random sampling technique. Data were collected by directly interviewing the farmers through well-structured interview schedule. Cumulative socio-economic impact as perceived by respondents indicated that DSR is a total cost-effective method (Rank I) from planting /sowing to cultivation which includes water saving, labour saving followed by increased expenditure on social ceremonies and on quality and variety of food got rank II & III with WMS 2.23 and 2.21 respectively. Some of the constraints faced by respondents in Direct Seeded rice growing like weed infestation (Rank I) which was observed by overwhelming majority of the farmers (86%), followed by first to second month is crucial (Rank II) as growth of DSR in the beginning is very slow/not so good.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1030–1032
P. Ramesh*1, P. Vaishnavi2 and V. Sakthivel3
1-3 Department of Agricultural Extension, Faulty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
Women empowerment alludes to the formation of a natural for women where they can settle on choices of their own for their own advantages just as for their general public. Women empowerment implies extending and improving the social, financial, political and legal nature of the women to ensure equal right to women and to make them adequately sure to ensure their benefits. The present study was conducted in Cuddalore Block of Cuddalore District. Proportionate random sampling procedure was applied to select 120 respondents. They were the members of women Self Help Groups of Mahalir Thittam project under the organizational efforts taken by Tamil Nadu Corporation for Development of Women (TNCDW). They were selected from six villages namely Gunduuppalavadi, Kondur, Thiruvandipuram, Kudikadu, Pathirikuppam, Pachayankuppam. The Overall sociological empowerment of women SHG members results that, three-fifth of the respondents (60.00 per cent) were in medium level followed by 28.33 per cent of respondents were in high level and 11.67 per cent of respondents were in low level of sociological empowerment. Result of the study reveal that 97.50 per cent of the respondents were Better understanding about group co-operation followed by Joint decision making at all levels (95.00 per cent), Improvement in educational status (85.83 per cent), Members are highly informative (83.33 per cent) and Improvement in social status (82.50 per cent). The findings of the study on the profile of Mahalir Thittam women members indicated a differential pattern in respect of their sociological characteristics. This has been much emphasized on sociological empowerment of women Self Help Group members.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1033–1036
G. Samlind Sujin*1, S. Elakkuvan2, Ajish Muraleedharan3 and B. Vedhanayaki4
1-4 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
An experiment entitled “Effect of bio formulations on germination and growth of mango (Mangifera indica L.) var. Neelum” was conducted at the Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamilnadu during 2019. Mango stones were soaked in different bio formulations of Panchagavya (3, 5 and 8%), Beejamrutha (3, 5 and 8%), Vermiwash (3, 5 and 8%) and Tender coconut water for 24 hours. The result revealed that effect of pre-soaking treatment with Panchakavya 5% was statistically significant on following parameters viz., minimum days taken for germination, maximum germination percentage, maximum height of the rootstock, maximum intermodal length, maximum stem and root girth, maximum number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weight.

Research Article | Published online : 14-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1037–1040
K. A. Supriya*1 and Lali Growther2
1-2 Department of Microbiology, Hindusthan College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore - 641028, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of various root extracts (petroleum ether and ethanol) of Anisomeles malabarica. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be high in ethanol extract for DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical in a concentration dependent manner. Ethanol extract of root possessed antioxidant activity near the range of BHT which could be an essential rich source of natural antioxidant. Similarly in antibacterial screening, ethanol extract of root show notable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms.

Research Article | Published online : 15-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1041–1045
Shilpy Shakya*1
1 Department of Zoology, Government (P.G.) College Fatehabad - 283 111, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes are minute worms that cause serious harm to crops and incite major agrarian misfortunes around the world. These parasitic worms enter the roots of host and then induce the formation of specialized feeding structures, which supply the necessary resources for the development of nematodes. These life forms cause sensational changes in the physiology and morphology of the plant. This paper sums up the latest advancements in plant-nematode cooperation and the different methodologies used to enhance host opposition in contrast to root-knot nematode (RKN). The current progress in genome sequencing innovations are explained including focus on genome altering which are adding to the critical advancement in understanding the plant-nematode cooperation systems. In like manner, molecular approaches to manage improvement in plant resistance in contradiction to nematodes which are considered.

Case Study | Published online : 15-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1046–1049
Ruyida Mushtaq*1, Rajesh Kumar Yadav2, Harmeet Singh3 and Amarjeet Singh4
1,3,4 Geography and Regional Development, University of Kashmir, Hazaratbal - 190 006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 2 Department of Geography, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
In temperate regions of Kashmir valley, Peach is the important stone fruit crop and is considered as economically profitable crop due to its value-added products and financially viable which has a tremendous potential for processing of primary products and creates livelihood opportunities which ensures sustainability in the study area. The present study aims to examine the growth in area, production and yield of peach in Kashmir valley since 2007-008 to 2016-17 and forecast area, production and yield of peach for year 2018-25 in Kashmir valley. For this study regression model was used to examine the best fitted model. From the result which shows that Peach area and production has been increasing and productivity reflects decreasing trend from 2007-2017 due to unfavourable climate fluctuations from last one decade. It has been observed that for cubic trend R-square (0.989) which can be used for prediction purpose. Therefore, effective interventions by the Government along with supply chain collaborations and induce preharvest and postharvest technologies to improve productivity of peach crop.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1050–1054
Arvind Gaur*1, Apexa Pareek2 and Payal Lodha3
1-3 Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The hymenoptera insect Leptocybe invasa causes elliptical or irregular shape galls on leaf midrib, petiole and stem of Eucalyptus tereticornis. The pathogen injects some elicitors into plant tissue, which alter plant metabolism and results into a tumorous outgrowth known as plant gall. In gall mainly vascular tissues are damaged which results in the formation of gall cavity due to processes of hypertrophy and hyperplasia on the outer surface of midrib and petiole. The Insect escapes through an opening on lower side of leaf, called ostiole, from which the female comes outside and starts laying eggs. Galls are elliptical or irregular in shape and pale green in colour when young but become brownish at maturity. Infestation of Leptocybe invasa on Eucalyptus tereticornis alters the anatomy of leaf midrib and petiole by disrupting the mesophyll and vascular tissues. In the present investigation studies on histopathology were carried out at young, mature and old stages of gall development on leaf midrib and petiole.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1055–1066
N. Muthukkannan*1 and T. Balasaravanan2
1 Rural Women Technology Park, Dr. Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi - 642 120, Tamil Nadu, India 2 Department of Botany, LRG Government Arts College for Women, Tirupur - 641 604, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
In this study, Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) was produced from West Coast Tall (WCT) and Deejay Coconuts (DJ) under induced fermentative methodology by employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum (9511) strains. This production methodology was optimized with temperature, PH, Inoculum concentration and Fermentation end time. The VCO yielding efficiencies were compared from two strains. Among the four parameters in the study, the maximum yielding efficiencies were obtained from WCT coconuts employing L. plantarum (9511) at 40±1ºC temperature, 5.5±0.1 PH, 7% (w/v) Inoculum concentration and 60hrs of fermentation end time. In conclusion, it has been observed that proximate analysis of VCO showed within the standard limits and also WCT Coconuts in combination with L. plantarum offered higher yield and better fatty acid proportion than the DJ Coconuts.

Research Article | Published online : 16-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1067–1070
Puja Kumari*1, Sunil Kumar Choudhary2 and Prabhat Kumar3
1-2 P. G. Department of Biotechnology, T. M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur - 812 007, Bihar, India 3 Department of Plant Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour - 813 210, Bihar, India
Abstract
Leaf blight of wheat caused by Alternaria triticina is a major constraint in production of wheat. Management of diseases using fungicides is a common and economical practice. Different types of chemical fungicides are available to control leaf blight disease. But there is a lack of awareness regarding the use of suitable fungicides on wheat plants affected with Alternaria triticina. The experiment was conducted under in vitro conditions to observe the effect of fungicides like Propiconazole (25%EC), Mancozeb (75WP) and Carbendazim (50% WP) against Alternaria triticina by Poisoned Food Technique. Propiconazole showed the highest range of (94.93%) inhibition followed by Carbendazim (90.85%) and Mancozeb (90.65%). The research findings in the present study suggest Propiconazole (25EC) as most effective fungicide for the treatment of leaf blight disease of wheat. Propiconozole 25% EC was found to be the best among all treatments for inhibiting the growth of mycelium of Alternaria triticina under in vitro condition. Propiconozole 25EC @ 0.1% was the superior spray solution in comparison to all fungicide for controlling leaf blight disease of wheat.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1071–1078
Rajni Kapoor*1 and Nimai Das2
1 Research Scholar at MRIIRS (Deemed University) and Assistant Professor of Economics at Shaheed Bhagat Singh College (University of Delhi), New Delhi - 110 017 2 Indian Institute of Forest Management, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal - 462 003, Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract
This paper reviews on plausible nexus between economic freedom and efficiency of agricultural farms. It appraises the determinants of economic freedom to facilitate resource-availability for building up capabilities among economic agents by enabling them in economic decision- efficient way. Economic freedom leads to optimum allocation of resources by empowering farmers to access the resources. Agricultural sector requires more freedom of choice and opportunities so that farmers can be able to make efficient production decisions. The production decisions and incentives of farming exaggerated by property rights, land reforms and marketing problems formulated under authorities as these rights are the major institutional factors of development. Since the farmers are less efficient to take rational and cost-effective decisions, economic freedom enables cost estimation ability among the farmers provided through research on several management practices required for the adequate production decisions, prosperity and growth of agricultural sector. While evaluating the determinants of economic freedom towards efficiency issues in agricultural sector, the study observed that economic freedom will enhance incentives and promote high returns on productive efforts such as lowering financial burden, technological development institutions, effective legal system and property rights and deployments of the resources from one use to another to obtain optimum value of output.

Research Article | Published online : 17-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1079–1084
Pooja A.*1, Laly J. C.2 and Ajithkumar B.3
1-3 Department of Agricultural Statistics, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur - 680 656, Kerala, India
Abstract
The dominant monsoon spells in Kerala are southwest and northeast monsoons during June to September and October to December, respectively. The crop planning in the state varies in accordance with the pattern of these monsoons and their duration. Hence, it is beneficial to assess the influence of monthly rainfall on the rainfall during southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon seasons in order to help better crop and irrigation management. The method of conditional probability was employed in the present study to determine the critical months in corresponding monsoon seasons. Since the cropping pattern varied spatially across Kerala, the study was concentrated in stations representing the five agroclimatic zones of Kerala viz., Pilicode (northern zone), Vellanikkara (central zone), Vellayani (southern zone), Ambalavayal (high range zone) and Kumarakom (problem area zone). Using the seasonal and monthly rainfall data of 37 years from 1983 to 2019 collected from former stations, the probabilities of excess, normal and deficit rainfall was estimated in terms of quartiles, for each season and month in different stations. An attempt was made to estimate the conditional probabilities to decide whether the seasonal rainfall was excess, normal or deficient when monthly rainfall was excess, normal and deficient, respectively. At Vellayani, the exceedance probability is more than 50 per cent for southwest monsoon when rainfall in June was excess. When July or September has excess rainfall at Kumarakom, the season expects excess rainfall with 60 per cent probability. Similarly, excess rainfall in June or July determines excess rainfall in the season at Vellanikkara. When August or September receives excess rainfall, the probability is more for excess rainfall during southwest monsoon, at Pilicode. Ambalavayal experiences excess rainfall with 80 per cent possibility when July has excess rainfall. Similarly, the effect of rainfall in October and November varies over northeast season. Such information from probability analysis can be manipulated to decide when to take prior measures to anticipate the threat of extreme conditions of rainfall.

Research Article | Published online : 18-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1085–1088
Akhilesh Singh1, Abhishek Singh*2 and Ashutosh Singh3
1 Department of Chemistry, K. S. Saket P.G., College, Ayodhya - 224 001, Uttar Pradesh, India 2-3 Department of Chemistry, U. P. College, Varanasi - 221 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Some new fused heterocyclic systems like 4-(4-Substitutedphenyl)-2-imino-1,2-dihydroindino-[1,2-d]-[1,3] thiazin-5(4H)-ones (2) have been synthesized from key intermediate 4-Substituted-2-arylidenindan -1, 3-diones (1). The key intermediate (1) afforded fused system (2) via cycloaddition reaction with thiourea in ethanol and potassium hydroxide. The structures of these compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. The molluscicidal activity of few the synthesized compounds has been screened on the snail Lymnaea acuminate. The LC50 slope, t-ratio heterogeneity and g-values have been determined and discussed.

Short communication | Published online : 19-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1089–1092
Pradeep Kumar*1 and R. P. Singh2
1-2 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture Science, Bhagwant University, Ajmer - 305 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
A field experiment on seasonal incidence of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) of chilli, Capsicum annum (L.) crop in correlation to weather parameters was laid out at Agriculture farm, Karguwa ji, Jhansi (U.P.) during Kharif season of 2019 and 2020. Adult population (0.85 adults/trap) appeared second week in 16th to 22ndAugust (34thstandard week) with the maximum and minimum temperature 32.0oC and 24.70°C respectively, average relative humidity 86.0 per cent was recorded. Adult population increased recorded maximum i.e., 8.93 adults per trap during 39thstandard weeks (20th to 26th September) when the maximum and minimum temperature 30.60oC and 23.50°C respectively, average relative humidity 87.50 per cent during Kharif 2019. During the year in (2020), adult population (0.26 adults / trap) appeared with the maximum and minimum temperature 31.10oC and 25°C respectively, average relative humidity 89.50 per cent was recorded. Adult population increased and recorded maximum i.e., 7.25 adults per trap during 39thstandard weeks (20th to 26th September) when the maximum and minimum temperature 34.20oC and 23.30°C respectively, average relative humidity 77.0 per cent. Adult population on the basis of pheromone trap during both the years.

Research Article | Published online : 21-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1093–1098
Om Raj*1, Rashid Latief Bhatt2 and Inzamam Ul Haq3
1-3 Department of Geography, University of Jammu, Jammu - 180 006, Jammu and Kashmir
Abstract
The main significance behind this research is that, its findings will show that climate change combined with urbanization increases the vulnerability of urban areas to flooding and economic damage. Srinagar has long history of occurrence of floods. The 2014 flood was very devastating killing hundreds of people and causing colossal loss to the infrastructure to the tune of INR 1 trillion. The government of Jammu and Kashmir on 29 September 2014 termed Kashmir floods as an international disaster. The Jhelum waters, that used to be the provider of life and sustenance, suddenly became a monstrously destructive force against the human life and the infrastructure that cohabit its backyards since millennia. Due to occurrence of such hazards various states has adopted mitigation and prevention as the essential component of their development strategies to cope with such natural disaster.

Research Article | Published online : 24-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1099–1101
Purti Chaturvedi*1, C. K. Dixit2 and Rajneesh K. Agnihotri3
1-3 Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Khandari Campus, Agra -282 005 Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract
Sesame seeds were found to have positive effects on the germinability in contrast to seedling growth and biomass production. Seeds fumigated with Sulphur dioxide dose І (10 ppm for 1 h), dose II (20 ppm for 1 h) and dose III (50 ppm for 1 h) showed increased level of percentage seed germination and germination index while on the other hand the seedling growth and biomass revealed detrimental effects particularly on radicle growth. The plumule and radicle growth was decreased upto 66 and 68 percent, respectively in contrast to control. Shoot and root dry weight was inhibited upto 48 and 70 percent, respectively. The present study shows that the seed germinability may increase under low doses of SO2 pollutant but the productivity is greatly affected under pollution stress.

Research Article | Published online : 26-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1102–1104
B. Vaishali*1 and V. Jaiganesh2
1-3 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu
Abstract
The pot culture studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of integrated disease management of Brown spot in Rice Var. ADT 36 caused by Bipolaris oryzae. The strategy for the management of brown spot disease consisting of seed treatment with fluorescent Pseudomonads, Resistance inducing chemical salicylic acid and an organic immunity booster Navagavya were evaluated. In terms of biological control, the seed treatment with fluorescent Pseudomonads to the sprouted rice seeds at the rate of 10 g/kg of seeds was used. In terms of chemical control foliar spray of resistance inducing chemical Salicylic acid (50 ppm) was sprayed at different time intervals. In addition to that foliar application of organic product Navagavya (5%) also sprayed at different time intervals. Among the combinations of the above three management practices treatment-8 was recorded the minimum disease incidence, maximum biometrics and yield parameters of ADT 36 in pot trials.

Research Article | Published online : 28-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1105–1107
Thamarai Selvi M.*1, Ramalakshmi G.2, Darwin Christdhas Henry L.3, Sutha Raja Kumar R.4, Kannan C.5 and Jaiganesh V.6
1-6 Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Cuddalore DT, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of fungal antagonistic isolates against tomato Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol). The five isolates of Trichoderma harzianum was isolated from rhizosphere soil of different tomato growing areas in Krishnagiri district, Tamil Nadu. The Trichoderma harzianum isolated showed different morphological characters. The highest inhibition of tomato Fusarium wilt pathogen was recorded by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate Th3, followed by isolate Th5 and Th2. The least inhibition was recorded in isolate Th4. Cultural filtrate Th3 @ 50% concentration showed complete inhibition of Fol mycelial growth and percent inhibition of mycelia growth over control recorded 100%, which was on par with the comparison fungicide carbendazim 50% WP @ 0.1%.

Short communication | Published online : 28-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1108–1110
Anuj Kumar1, Sunil Kumar*2 and Poonam Tomar3
1 Department of Economics, Government P.G. College, Dholpur - 328 001, Rajasthan, India 2-3 Department of Economics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, Rajasthan, India
Abstract
The major productions of oilseed crops in Rajasthan are groundnut, rape/mustard, caster seed, sesame, linseed, Taramira, and soybean. Different crops of oilseeds are used to produce vegetable oils and the byproducts are used for consumption of human and animal feed. Thus, oilseed crops are a part of major portion source of total production of oilseeds in the state. Climate condition is appropriate for the production of oilseed crops in the state (DES, Jaipur Agriculture report 2015-16). The present study is related to correlation between Production of major oilseed crops, Area and Rainfall. This study was based on secondary data (1985-86 to 2014-15). The data on Area, Production of oilseed and Rainfall were collected from Various Agriculture statistics report (1990-91 to 2015-16), DES, Jaipur (Rajasthan). The study revealed positive correlation between Area and Rainfall (r=0.38), Production and Rainfall (r=0.56) for selected oilseed crops in the state. This shows that in most of cases the amount of rainfall is not much related with the overall complicated sown area of oilseed and production in Rajasthan. Moreover, the relationship between Rainfall and total cropped area, production is not much significant and both the factors are dependent on some other factors of irrigation facility, fertilizers consumption, policies of govt., etc.

Research Article | Published online : 29-Jun-2021

Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences
Vol : 12 - Issue : 3 ; 1111–1112
Madhavan S.*1, S. Kamalakannan2, R. Sudhagar3 and S. Sivasankar4
1-4 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Abstract
The present investigation was conducted at Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design comprising two types of growth regulators like IBA and NAA concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm). The results revealed that gymnema cuttings treated with IBA @ 500 ppm recorded maximum rooting percentage (67.56%) and minimum days taken for rooting (39.84 days), maximum no. of shoots/ cutting (4.82), shoot length (53.34cm), No. of leaves/ cutting (24.63).

Short communication | Published online : 29-Jun-2021